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Sample records for apulia southern italy

  1. Population data for 17 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Apulia (Southern Italy).

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    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-01-01

    The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. PMID:22960096

  2. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy).

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    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-04-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  3. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)

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    Mang, Stefania M.; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-01-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  4. Prediction of Climatic Change for the Next 100 Years in the Apulia Region, Southern Italy

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    Mladen Todorovic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on water resources and use for agricultural production has become a critical question for sustainability. Our objective was investigate the impact of the expected climate changes for the next 100 years on the water balance variations, climatic classifications, and crop water requirements in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. The results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2,5 °C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation will not change significantly on yearly basis although a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification, the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decreasing of humid areas and increasing of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR, calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%, wheat (61%, grapevine (49%, and citrus (48% and it is slightly lower for maize (35%, sorghum (34%, sunflower (33%, tomato (31%, and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%.

  5. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).

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    Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

    2013-03-01

    The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

  6. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy

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    A. Marsico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy. The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  7. Negative effects of land-use changes in the karst setting of Apulia, southern Italy

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    Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Apulia is an almost entirely carbonate region in south-eastern Italy, representing the heel of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Due to its location in the heart of the Mediterranean basin, and its geographical configuration, which in some way connects the Italian territory to the eastward lands, it had a long history of human settlements, as shown by the many remarkable prehistoric findings that have been recorded in this area during the last century. The flatness of the region, derived from the geologic origin of Apulia as the undeformed foreland of the Southern Apenninic Chain of Italy, together with its NW-SE oriented peninsula configuration and the long coastlines, are at the origin of the good-continuity occupation by man during the different phases of human history. The original karst landscape, characterized by absence of surface runoff, due to rapid infiltration of surface water into the network of karst conduits and fissures within the carbonate rock mass, was with time modified by man. Agriculture initially developed in the narrow strips of land where the presence of residual deposits (terre rosse) allowed the establishment of thin soil layers, and/or in small depressions where water was able to be kept for a longer time within the epikarst. Outside of these sites, the karst landscape typically consisted of stony plateaus and subdued rounding hills. To gain further space to agricultural practices, part of the surrounding stony areas was cleared of rocks: the latter were extracted by hand, and used to build dry stone walls to delimitate the properties, and/or to act as a barrier to soil erosion or to work as terrace walls in the sectors with higher gradients. At the same time, extraction and re-use of carbonate rocks originated some of the typical rural architecture common in Apulia, from "trulli" to "pagliare" and, later on, to "masserie" (the old countryside mansions). In the last decades of XX century, thanks to the use of modern technologies and

  8. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia characterised by moderate seismicity rates

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    V. Del Gaudio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  9. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

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    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  10. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

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    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  11. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

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    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas. PMID:22083403

  12. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy

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    Patti Annamaria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV. On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy, which may be considered a border region due to its position. Methods 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0–15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Results Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre ≥ 8 for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. Conclusion These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  13. CARBONATE FACIES ZONATION OF THE UPPER JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS APULIA PLATFORM MARGIN (GARGANO PROMONTORY, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    MICHELE MORSILLI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Apulia platform margin and the transition to adjacent basinal deposits (inner platform to basin are well exposed in the Gargano Promontory. Detailed field work has allowed to recognize eight main facies associations which reflect various depositional environments, and which document a differentiated zonation, from the inner platform to the basin. A shallow lagoon existed in the internal part of the Gargano Promontory with a transition to tidal flat areas (F1. Oolitic shoals (F2 bordered this internal peritidal area passing seaward to a reef-flat with abundant corals (F3. A reef-front, associated with a coral rubble zone, has been found in some areas (F4. In the external margin zone, massive wackestones with Ellipsactinia occur (F5 and pass gradually to a rudstone facies on the proximal slope (F6. The base-of-slope facies association consists of pelagic sediments interbedded with gravity-displaced deposits (F7 and F8. The depositional profile of the Apulia Platform is typical of the Tethyan Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platforms, with slope declivities in the order of 25°-28°. The remarkable progradation of the platform in the northern tract of the Gargano (Lesina and Varano lakes area and its substantial stability east- and southwards (Mattinata area suggest a possible windward position of the margin in this latter portion and, in contrast, a leeward position of the northern portion.   

  14. Calanoida (Crustacea Copepoda from the inland waters of Apulia (south-eastern Italy

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    Giuseppe ALFONSO

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The currently available knowledge on biodiversity and species distribution of Italian fauna still presents some gaps to be filled, in particular in the southern part of the country. This study represents the first survey aimed at assessing the presence and distribution of Calanoida in inland waters of Apulia (south-eastern Italy. The research lasted five years and led to the mapping of 121 inland water bodies, most of which are characterized by temporary hydroperiods. Fifty-five of the sampled sites hosted at least one calanoid species, and 48 sites (among the 55 sites hosting Calanoida are temporary water bodies. Thirteen calanoid species were detected in total; several of these are first records for Apulia and three species are new records for mainland Italy. The efficiency of the sampling effort was tested for both the entire Apulian territory and its main subareas, namely Gargano (in northern Apulia, and Salento (southern Apulia. Central Apulia showed the lowest species richness among the three sampled subareas. This is probably due to the scarcity of inland water bodies. Species composition of Apulian calanoid fauna was compared to the ones of the geographically close areas for which data are available: the other Italian faunal provinces (Alpine, Apennine, Padanian, Sardinian and Sicilian provinces and the Balkans (Albania, Corfu, Croatia, Greece and Turkish Trace, Macedonia, Slovenia. Gargano and Salento showed a different assemblage of vicariant species but both the areas showed a remarkable presence of Mediterranean elements that, in fact, characterize the whole Apulian faunal province. The highest similarities for inland water calanoid fauna, which were observed between Gargano and the Apennine province, and between Salento and Sicily, are discussed, along with the total assessment of the whole Apulian calanoid fauna.

  15. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in animals of Apulia and Basilicata, Italy.

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    Muscarella, Marilena; Armentano, Antonio; Iammarino, Marco; Palermo, Carmen; Amorena, Michele

    2016-06-30

    This study evaluates the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides in animals with a diagnosis of suspected poisoning and in bait samples. The survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012, in 2 regions of South Italy (Puglia and Basilicata) on 300 organs of animals and 90 suspected bait samples. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted using an analytical method based on high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection (FLD) for the simultaneous determination of 8 anticoagulant rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, flocoumafen, and warfarin). The presence of anticoagulant rodenticides was detected in 33 organs of animals (11% of the total) and 6 bait samples (7% of the total). The most commonly detected compound was coumachlor (47% of 39 positive samples) followed by bromadiolone (24%), and brodifacoum (11%). The species mostly involved in anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning were dogs and cats. This study emphasizes the relevance of the determinations of anticoagulant rodenticides in cases of suspected poisoning in veterinary practice. PMID:27393877

  16. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

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    Clara Albano; Carmine Negro; Noemi Tommasi; Carmela Gerardi; Giovanni Mita; Antonio Miceli; Luigi De Bellis; Federica Blando

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence...

  17. Assessing hydrological drought risk for the irrigation sector in future climate scenarios: lessons learned from the Apulia case study (Italy)

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    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Ronco, Paolo; Zennaro, Federica; Santini, Monia; Trabucco, Antonio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is already affecting the frequency of drought events which may threaten the current stocks of water resources and thus the availability of freshwater for the irrigation. The achievement of a sustainable equilibrium between the availability of water resources and the irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. In this sense, the improvement (of existing) and the development of (new) appropriate risk assessment methods and tools to evaluate the impact of drought events on irrigated crops is fundamental in order to assure that the agricultural yields are appropriate to meet the current and future food and market demand. This study evaluates the risk of hydrological drought on the irrigated agronomic compartment of Apulia, a semi-arid region in Southern Italy. We applied a stepwise Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) procedure, based on the consecutive analysis of hazards, exposure, vulnerability and risks, integrating the qualitative and quantitative available information. Future climate projections for the timeframes 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 were provided by COSMO-CLM under the radiative forcing RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The run-off feeding the water stocks of the most important irrigation reservoirs in Apulia was then modeled with Arc-SWAT. Hence, the hazard analysis was carried out in order to estimate the degree of fulfillment of actual irrigation demand satisfied by water supply of different reservoirs in future scenarios. Vulnerability of exposed irrigated crops was evaluated depending on three factors accounting for crop yield variation vs water stress, water losses along the irrigation network, diversification of water supply. Resulting risk and vulnerability maps allowed: the identification of Reclamation Consortia at higher risk of not fulfilling their future irrigation demand (e.g. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia in RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario); the ranking of most

  18. Human papilloma virus (HPV genotypes prevalence in a region of South Italy (Apulia

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    Maria Franca Coscia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since human papillomavirus (HPV is the central casual factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology and geographical area distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes constitutes an important step towards development of strategies of prevention. AIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection and to determine HPV types distribution among 822 HPV positive women and some sexual male partners in Apulia (Italy. METHODS. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed by nested-PCR for the L1 region and reverse line blot hybridization allowing the specific detection of 24 HPV genotyping both high risk (HR and low risk (LR. RESULTS. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (35%, HPV 31 (16% HPV 6 (9%, HPV 58 and 66 (7%, followed by HPV 33 (6%, HPV 18 and 56 (4%, HPV 70 and 45 (3%, HPV 53 and 11 (2%. Currently 1.5% of tested specimens remained unclassified. Multiple infections with at last two different high-risk HPV genotypes were observed in 10% of specimens. CONCLUSIONS. This finding adds knowledge to HPV epidemiological investigation, and addresses further studies aimed to consider public health for identifying groups at risk for cervical cancer.

  19. Monitoring of Soil Copper Concentrations in Different Organic Farms over a Three-Year Period in Apulia, South-Eastern Italy

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    Maria Rosaria Provenzano; Hamid El Bilali; Vito Simeone; Donato Mondelli; Nuray Baser

    2011-01-01

    Copper is considered as a cornerstone of grapevine downy mildew and olive fly management in Apulian organic farms in particular and in the Mediterranean area in general. In this work we studied the influence of soil properties, cultural practices, and pest management strategies on copper concentrations and accumulation in organic vineyards and olive groves of Apulia (south-eastern Italy). In 2005, 2006, and 2007 about 70 soil samples were collected from 13 organic olive groves and vineyards a...

  20. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

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    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  1. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

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    Clara Albano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  2. Spaceborne InSAR monitoring of terrain instabilities in Apulia, Italy: outcomes of a National project

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    Refice, Alberto; Bovenga, Fabio; Pasquariello, Guido; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We report on the InSAR-related results of the National Research Project (PRIN) entitled "Advanced technologies in the assessment and mitigation of the landslide risk: precursors detection, previsional models and thematic mapping", funded by the Italian Ministry for Scientific Research. In the framework of the project, multi-temporal interferometric techniques were applied to time series of SAR data, from legacy ERS and ENVISAT, as well as high-resolution TerraSAR-X sensors. We report on the final outcomes of the project, which concentrate on two sites of the Apulia Region, representative of terrain instability problems widespread in the area. The fist one is the coastal area near the Lesina Marina tourist village, at the north of the Region, close to the Gargano promontory, where the excavation of a canal exposed grey micro- and meso-crystalline gypsum which is now showing a high density of cavities and sinkholes due to gravitational collapse processes. A slow but steady uplift phenomenon has been detected by processing through persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI) methodologies ERS and ENVISAT data, acquired in both ascending and descending geometries, and spanning a total time interval from 1995 to 2010. The displacement data were validated by comparison with leveling measurements performed in 2000 and 2010. Derived vertical displacement rates exceed 3-4 mm/y on locations adjacent to the canal, gently decreasing towards the western end of the built up area. These observations, supported by ancillary data and in situ investigations performed in the past, seem compatible with processes such as diapirism or the hydration of the residual anhydrite in the core of the gypsum mass. The second site is an inland landslide area close to the municipality of Carlantino, in the Daunia mountains. Here, a relatively large landslide affects the slopes spreading from the town outskirts to the banks of the Occhito lake, an artificial basin formed by a dam on the Fortore river

  3. REINTERPRETATION OF THE LATE PLEISTOCENE INGARANO CAVE DEPOSIT BASED ON THE FOSSIL BIRD ASSOCIATION (APULIA, SOUTH-EASTERN ITALY

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    CLAUDIA BEDETTI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Late Pleistocene fossil bird remains from Ingarano (Apulia, SE Italy, based on the revision of previously published material and the study of unpublished fossils bones. New field observations make it possible to simplify the stratigraphy of the deposit compared to previous work. The systematic study of the fossil bird bones revealed the presence of 15 taxa, including two hypothetical ones: Circus aeruginosus, Buteo rufinus, Aquila chrysaëtos, Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Otus scops, Nyctea scandiaca, Nyctea scandiaca vel Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone vel Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax. Our detailed study also helps improve the taphonomical interpretation of the deposit: the remains from the lower layers were accumulated after mammalian predator activity and were transported over short distances, while the ones from the upper layers show sings of intense transport, such as fractures and surface abrasion. Two different bird assemblages were recognized, respectively from the lowermost and the upper layers of the clastic succession exposed in the Ingarano deposit; this difference is also confirmed by the fossil mammal remains. The systematic study makes it possible to make palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions: both assemblages indicate open environments, and the taxa of the lower layers indicate the presence of woods and wetlands with colder characteristics, while birds of the upper layers indicate drier and warmer conditions. This analysis, and the dating established through geochemical analyses and study of lithic artefacts, lead us to date the formation of the Ingarano deposit to the Late Pleistocene, in particular to the MIS 3. The presence of a layer dated to the MIS 2 at the base of the succession indicated in previous works cannot be confirmed. 

  4. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

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    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  5. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; De Giglio, Osvalda; Iatta, Roberta; Barbuti, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking. PMID:19330096

  6. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  7. Surfactant damages on coastal vegetation in southern Italy

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal vegetation decline caused by seaspray has been reported to affect a variety of species in several countries: Australia, South of France, along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast, Spain and Tunisia. The most serious injury is due to the interaction between sea salt and surfactants, even if surfactants may cause direct damage on cell membranes. The salt uptake is enhanced by the durfactant-induced erosion of the epicuticular wax, which reduces the water surface tension. The symptoms are non-specific and consist in leaf discoloration and necrosis. In needles, necrosis begins from the apex; in leaves, from the edges. Directionality of crown damage is the main symptom for diagnosing the involvement of polluted seaspray. If an obstacle is placed between trees and sea wind, the trees do not show appreciable damage. In Italy, the tree decline caused by seaspray and surfactants has been investigated with special reference to the pinewoods of the San Rossore (Tuscany, Central Italy, or on the Tyrrhenian coastlands of Central Italy, such as the area around Castelporziano in Lazio. This research is aimed at a preliminary assessment of the extent of surfactant damage to the coastal vegetation in four regions in Southern Italy by: i field surveys and mapping of damage caused by surfactants; ii detecting the presence of surfactants on the tree crowns. The damages have been observed in a lot of zones in Apulia, Basilicata, Campania and Calabria, within 500 m inland from the sea, for a maximum length of 5500 m coastline, near the mouth of a river or stream, near the outlet of sewage canals and in any other coastal areas where the surface currents carry a surfactant load.

  8. Detection and molecular characterization of a Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus (GRLDaV) variant in an autochthonous grape from Apulia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, Michela; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Savino, Vito Nicola; Martelli, Giovanni Paolo; La Notte, Pierfederico; Palmisano, Francesco; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2016-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new Badnavirus isolated from the autochthonous grapevine variety "Bombino nero" from Apulia (Italy) was determined. The genome of this virus consists of 7097 nt and has four open reading frames (ORFs). Analysis of putative proteins encoded by each ORF revealed greatest sequence similarity to Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus w4 (GRLDaV; NC_027131). In a pairwise alignment with GLRDaV w4 genome sequence, the "Bombino Nero" sequence was 109 nt longer with a major 57 nt insertion between positions 2405 and 2413. Furthermore, its putative ORF4 is located after the ORF3, while in the GLRDaV w4 sequence, the putative ORF4 completely overlapped ORF3. Nucleotide analysis classifies this new Badnavirus as a GLRDaV strain, which was named GRLDaV-BN. Multi-year field observations showed that the GLRDaV-BN-infected vine was symptomless. PMID:26924587

  9. Biological and Morphological Aspects of Anoxia (Mesanoxia) matutinalis ssp. matutinalis Castelnau, 1832 (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae), a Pest of Apulian Pinewoods in Southern Italy

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    Eustachio Tarasco; Oreste Triggiani

    2011-01-01

    Huge defoliations by Anoxia (Mesanoxia) matutinalis spp. matutinalis Castelnau, 1832 (Coleoptera, Scarabeidae) have been observed in recent years in the coastal pinewoods (Pinus halepensis, P. pinea) of the southern Apulia Region of Italy. Starting from adults collected in the field, insect breeding was conducted in the laboratory, following the life-cycle from ovideposition to larval development and emergence. Observations were performed in the laboratory and the field to study the different...

  10. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasco, M.; Giocoli, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Romano, G.; Siniscalchi, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Tripaldi, S.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present the result of a magnetotelluric (MT) investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV), southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer associated with the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units; and a deeper high resistivity layer related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  11. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy

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    M. Balasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the result of a Magnetotelluric (MT investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV, southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer, associated to the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units, and a deeper high resistivity layer, related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  12. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

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    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  13. Integrating geophysical and archaeological data for knowledge and management of the Historical Heritage. The case of the medieval church at Vereto (Apulia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, F.; Pepe, P.; Sammarco, M.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The native settlement of Vereto lies at the top of a small calcareous hill near the Adriatic coast, in the southernmost part of the Salento Peninsula of Apulia region (southern Italy). Recent topographical and aero-topographical surveys carried out in the ‘urban' area and in a wide sector of the surrounding territory, integrated by a thorough research of the literary and archival sources, allowed to define the long human occupation of the site between Bronze Age and the late Middle Age, and to focus the important role it played for many centuries, due to both vicinity to a commercial port and a coastal sanctuary, and its connection with the ancient road network. Within the framework of a research project by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the Salento University, the regional Archaeological Superintendence and the local Administration, detailed analyses of the ancient settlement and of its most significant structures (city-walls, cisterns, private buildings) have been started. The attention was focused particularly on the 500th century religious building located at the hilltop and dedicated to the eponymous Holy Virgin. Here two different methods of investigation have been used. The first level of knowledge consists in geophysical surveys, that included georadar (GPR) and geoelectrical prospections. Georadar data were acquired using GSSI SIR 20 with 2 antenna simultaneously mounted on the same cart. The choice of array was determined to get a very good resolution (up to 1 meter) using an high frequency antenna (900Mhz) and to increase the investigation depth (up to 3 meters) with the medium frequency antenna (400Mhz). Data were acquired both inside and outside the religious building along two orthogonal direction (lines spaced 0.5 m), processed using Radan 6.5 software, and eventually were represented as georadar profiles and 3D time-slices and 3D volumes in order to show the distribution of anomalies with depth. To get information at higher depth, to

  14. Occurrence of mislabelling in prepared fishery products in Southern Italy

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    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, and hake (Merluccius merluccius fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8% fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4% fillets of sole (Solea solea were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4% plaice (Pleuronectes platessa samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6% hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  15. Monitoring of Soil Copper Concentrations in Different Organic Farms over a Three-Year Period in Apulia, South-Eastern Italy

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    Maria Rosaria Provenzano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Copper is considered as a cornerstone of grapevine downy mildew and olive fly management in Apulian organic farms in particular and in the Mediterranean area in general. In this work we studied the influence of soil properties, cultural practices, and pest management strategies on copper concentrations and accumulation in organic vineyards and olive groves of Apulia (south-eastern Italy. In 2005, 2006, and 2007 about 70 soil samples were collected from 13 organic olive groves and vineyards at 0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m depths in five Apulian organic farms representing a wide range of soils physicochemical properties. Results of physical and chemical analyses, carried out in 2005 and 2007, highlighted notable differences between soil samples in terms of total carbonate, clay, and organic matter contents, while pH values were very similar. Copper input in 2004, 2005, and 2006 ranged from 7.6 to 46.8 kg/ha. Total copper concentrations, determined in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with ICP-OES, showed a moderate Cu accumulation, higher in the shallow layer than in the subsoil and in vineyards than in olive groves in all the sampled farms and for both sampling layers. Cu accumulation increased with increasing copper-based treatments number and application rates, and also with increasing pHH2O, clay, and organic matter. Copper availability was higher in the shallow layer than in the subsoil and in vineyards than in olive groves especially in 0-0.2 m layer. Results showed that copper has a medium accumulation in Apulian soils, therefore regulations limiting its use (i.e. CR 473/2002 should be rigorously applied and its alternatives use should be encouraged in order to minimize possible long term effects on soils.

  16. Monitoring of Soil Copper Concentrations in Different Organic Farms over a Three-Year Period in Apulia, South-Eastern Italy

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    Nuray Baser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper is considered as a cornerstone of grapevine downy mildew and olive fly management in Apulian organic farms in particular and in the Mediterranean area in general. In this work we studied the influence of soil properties, cultural practices, and pest management strategies on copper concentrations and accumulation in organic vineyards and olive groves of Apulia (south-eastern Italy. In 2005, 2006, and 2007 about 70 soil samples were collected from 13 organic olive groves and vineyards at 0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m depths in five Apulian organic farms representing a wide range of soils physicochemical properties. Results of physical and chemical analyses, carried out in 2005 and 2007, highlighted notable differences between soil samples in terms of total carbonate, clay, and organic matter contents, while pH values were very similar. Copper input in 2004, 2005, and 2006 ranged from 7.6 to 46.8 kg/ha. Total copper concentrations, determined in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with ICP-OES, showed a moderate Cu accumulation, higher in the shallow layer than in the subsoil and in vineyards than in olive groves in all the sampled farms and for both sampling layers. Cu accumulation increased with increasing copper-based treatments number and application rates, and also with increasing pHH2O, clay, and organic matter. Copper availability was higher in the shallow layer than in the subsoil and in vineyards than in olive groves especially in 0-0.2 m layer. Results showed that copper has a medium accumulation in Apulian soils, therefore regulations limiting its use (i.e. CR 473/2002 should be rigorously applied and its alternatives use should be encouraged in order to minimize possible long term effects on soils.

  17. Virulence-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from laying hens in Apulia, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, E; Pennelli, D; Tagliabue, S; Camarda, A

    2012-01-01

    1. Escherichia coli isolated from lesions (Avian Pathogenic E. coli - APEC) of layer hens affected by colibacillosis and from intestinal contents of clinically-healthy birds (Avian Faecal E. coli - AFEC) were serotyped. All the isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence genes to determine which genes were more closely related to those from lesions. 2. A number of different serogroups were detected, O78 being predominant among the isolates from colibacillosis. 3. E. coli isolated from lesions were not linked to a specific pathotype (set of common virulence genes). 4. The presence of the virulence genes, with the exception of astA, was associated more generally with APEC strains. 5. Statistically, genes such as cva/cvi, tsh, iss, irp2 and iucD were more related to isolates from colibacillosis. 6. It is suggested that the detection of these genes in a rapid and inexpensive test for field practitioners could provide useful information about the potential virulence of E. coli isolated in commercial layer flocks. PMID:23130581

  18. Flood history in the karst environment of Castellana-Grotte (Apulia, southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parise

    2003-01-01

    Karst environments are characterized by peculiar hydrologic features, and in particular by a very limited, if not absent, surface hydrography. Water tends to infiltrate rapidly underground through the complex network of fractures and karstic conduits in the rock mass. However, on the occasion of concentrated rainfall, as well as in case of prolonged precipitation, such network might not be able to allow flowing of large amounts of water, ...

  19. The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, G. F.; Walsh, N.; Pagliarulo, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

  20. The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy

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    G. F. Andriani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea, also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

  1. A P-wave velocity model of the upper crust of the Sannio region (Southern Apennines, Italy

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    M. Cocco

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a seismic refraction profile conducted in October 1992 in the Sannio region, Southern Italy, to obtain a detailed P-wave velocity model of the upper crust. The profile, 75 km long, extended parallel to the Apenninic chain in a region frequently damaged in historical time by strong earthquakes. Six shots were fired at five sites and recorded by a number of seismic stations ranging from 41 to 71 with a spacing of 1-2 km along the recording line. We used a two-dimensional raytracing technique to model travel times and amplitudes of first and second arrivals. The obtained P-wave velocity model has a shallow structure with strong lateral variations in the southern portion of the profile. Near surface sediments of the Tertiary age are characterized by seismic velocities in the 3.0-4.1 km/s range. In the northern part of the profile these deposits overlie a layer with a velocity of 4.8 km/s that has been interpreted as a Mesozoic sedimentary succession. A high velocity body, corresponding to the limestones of the Western Carbonate Platform with a velocity of 6 km/s, characterizes the southernmost part of the profile at shallow depths. At a depth of about 4 km the model becomes laterally homogeneous showing a continuous layer with a thickness in the 3-4 km range and a velocity of 6 km/s corresponding to the Meso-Cenozoic limestone succession of the Apulia Carbonate Platform. This platform appears to be layered, as indicated by an increase in seismic velocity from 6 to 6.7 km/s at depths in the 6-8 km range, that has been interpreted as a lithological transition from limestones to Triassic dolomites and anhydrites of the Burano formation. A lower P-wave velocity of about 5.0-5.5 km/s is hypothesized at the bottom of the Apulia Platform at depths ranging from 10 km down to 12.5 km; these low velocities could be related to Permo-Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Verrucano sequence drilled at the bottom of the Apulia

  2. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

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    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  3. Biological and Morphological Aspects of Anoxia (Mesanoxia) matutinalis ssp. matutinalis Castelnau, 1832 (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae), a Pest of Apulian Pinewoods in Southern Italy Aspetos da Biologia e Morfologia da Anoxia (Mesanoxia) matutinalis ssp. matutinalis Castelnau, 1832 (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae), Praga nos Pinhais da Apúlia, Sul de Itália

    OpenAIRE

    Eustachio Tarasco; Oreste Triggiani

    2011-01-01

    Huge defoliations by Anoxia (Mesanoxia) matutinalis spp. matutinalis Castelnau, 1832 (Coleoptera, Scarabeidae) have been observed in recent years in the coastal pinewoods (Pinus halepensis, P. pinea) of the southern Apulia Region of Italy. Starting from adults collected in the field, insect breeding was conducted in the laboratory, following the life-cycle from ovideposition to larval development and emergence. Observations were performed in the laboratory and the field to study the different...

  4. I-AMICA: infrastructure of high technology for environmental and climate monitoring in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    I-AMICA (Infrastruttura di Alta tecnologia per il Monitoraggio Climatico Ambientale - Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring -) is a three years Italian National Operative Program (PON) project co-founded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is devoted to strengthen the environmental monitoring in Southern Italy with the aim to support the integration among research, high training, and innovation also providing synergies among public and private research organizations. The activities are focused on actions addressed to strengthen the observational infrastructures for atmosphere, forest and coastal areas in the regions of Southern Italy, whose economic growth and social well-being are strongly related to the environment quality. In such Convergence Regions (Campania, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), instrumental networks (e.g. advanced sensors, software tools, integrated platforms and mobile laboratory and stations) dedicated to the environmental and climatic monitoring in the Mediterranean area, in terms of air quality, forest and agriculture, coastal marine ecosystems are promoted and developed. In order to increase the competitive capacity at national and international level, four "pillar" activities are aimed to (1) strengthen observing infrastructures for climate and environment and data processing systems, (2) promote innovation, technological development and industrial transfer, (3) integrate these observational activities into international programs (i.e. GAW-WMO, ACTRIS, EARLINET, GMOS, ICOS, FLUXNET, SHARE, NEXT DATA) that will allow I-AMICA to effectively be integrated with important networks. Finally, (4) through the implementation of observations, networking, technological applications and territorial services in the Convergence Regions, I-AMICA provides an important support to the local and regional communities.

  5. Ager Falernus (southern Italy: interventions for preserving the Falciano lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirillo C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some interventions are described for the restoration of Falciano lake, Agro Falerno, Southern Italy, which is a site of interest for its naturalistic value and the persistence of important traces from Roman times.

  6. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  7. Application of Carbon Footprint to an agro-biogas supply chain in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We used the methodological approach established by UNI EN ISO 14067 (2013). • We studied in detail an LCI of an agro-biogas supply chain located in Southern Italy. • Carbon sequestration was enabled by no-tillage practice in the investigated farm. • Low impacts were observed for transportation due to the short supply chain. • Environmental improvement was shown by reduction of the ammonium nitrate use. - Abstract: Over the last few years, agro-biogas has been receiving great attention since it enables replacement of natural gas, thereby representing a tool which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. In this context, this paper is aimed at the application of the Carbon Footprint (CF) to an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy, according to ISO/TS 14067:2013, so as to calculate the related 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100). The topic was addressed because agro-biogas SCs, though being acknowledged worldwide as sustainable ways to produce both electricity and heat, can be source of GHG emissions and therefore environmental assessments and improvements are needed. Additionally, the performed literature review highlighted deficiencies in PCF assessments, so this study could contribute to enriching the international knowledge on the environmental burdens associated with agro-biogas SCs. The analysis was conducted using a life-cycle approach, thus including in the assessment: functional unit choice, system border definition and inventory analysis development. The primary data needed was provided by a farm located in the province of Foggia (Apulia region in Southern Italy), already equipped with anaerobic digestion and cogeneration plant for biogas production and utilisation. Results from this study are in agreement with those found by some of the most relevant studies in the sector. Indeed, it was possible to observe that GWP100 was almost entirely due to cropland farming and, in particular, to the

  8. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Vennari; S. L. Gariano; L. Antronico; M. T. Brunetti; Iovine, G.; S. Peruccacci; Terranova, O; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to saving lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslid...

  9. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Tagarelli Antonio; Tagarelli Giuseppe; Piro Anna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used ...

  10. BODY SIZE REDUCTION AND TOOTH AGENESIS IN LATE PLEISTOCENE MELES MELES (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM INGARANO (SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAWID ADAM IURINO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals combined factors such as body size reduction and loss of peripheral teeth are often associated with endemism phenomena. This condition is particularly evident in insular contexts where is a complete geographic isolation. During the Pleistocene there have been several glacial stages, which changed the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula strongly influencing the distribution and morphology of mammalian faunas. Several genetic studies have shown that some Southern Italian areas have particular endemic species of small and medium size mammals. During Pleistocene these areas have been characterized by particular climatic/environmental conditions, and are generally called "glacial refugia". They represent geographically isolated areas over time, where the origin of faunas with peculiar features is favoured. In this study, the occurrence of Meles meles from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Apulia, Southern Italy is documented for the first time. This taxon is represented only by a partial skull (splancnocranum that, despite the relative completeness, includes peculiar and well-preserved dental features that could be related to a partial endemic condition. The fossil shows a reduced body size and the agenesis of peripheral teeth, both conditions that are typical of the extant badgers from Crete, Rhodes and Japan. To test this hypothesis, tomographic analysis have been provided to establish the dental agenesis, and, in order to understand the magnitude of the body size reduction, biometric analyses have been carried on. The obtained data have been compared to measures of the extant Eurasian badgers.SHORT NOTE

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  12. Molecular and Technological Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Natural Fermentation of Susumaniello Grape Must in Apulia, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tristezza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is an important step towards the conservation and employment of microbial biodiversity. The utilization of selected autochthonous yeast strains would be a powerful tool to enhance the organoleptic and sensory properties of typical regional wines. In fact, indigenous yeasts are better tailored to a particular must and because of this they are able to praise the peculiarities of the derived wine. The present study described the biodiversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated from natural must fermentations of an ancient and recently rediscovered Apulian grape cultivar, denoted as “Susumaniello.” The yeast strains denoted by the best oenological and technological features were identified and their fermentative performances were tested by either laboratory assay. Five yeast strains showed that they could be excellent candidates for the production of industrial starter cultures, since they dominated the fermentation process and produced wines characterized by peculiar oenological and organoleptic features.

  13. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Leporatti; Guarrera Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture ...

  14. OLIVE RESIDUES TO ENERGY CHAINS IN THE APULIA REGION PART I: BIOMASS POTENTIALS AND COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pantaleo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed research is to estimate the energy potentials of the olive trees pruning residues and olive husk residues in the Apulia region (Southern Italy and to compare the possible bioenergy conversion routes for heat and power generation. 46 006_Pantaleo(537_37 27-07-2009 11:20 Pagina 46 The part I of the research proposes a preliminary review of the olive oil chain residues in the Apulia region and an assessment of technical potentials and biomass supply costs. The investigation is carried out through a review of existing literature, structured interviews with operators, elaboration of available statistical data, assessment of the typology and current use of the by-products, analysis of olive trees pruning techniques and olive milling processes. The results show a high potential of pruning residues (about 177 kt/year at 15% moisture content and crude olive husk (about 915 kt/year at 50% average moisture content. The supply costs are, in most cases, compatible with the energy conversion routes, and in particular they result in the range of 45-55 €/t (35% moisture content for rotobales and chips from PR.

  15. Influence of forest fires on insect diversity: a case study in Apulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the relationship between forest fires and insect diversity in the Mediterranean environment. Using “distance from the ignition point” as explanatory variable, we developed a number of regression models predicting insect abundance and family richness, as well as some of the most common measures of biodiversity (e.g., Shannon index, Simpson index, Margalef index. We report a case study in a forest area (Bosco “Il Quarto” - 600 ha located in the National Park of Alta Murgia, Apulia Region (southern Italy. Results show a significant influence of forest fire on insect abundance and family richness and a positive linear relationship between biodiversity and distance from the point of ignition for Coleoptera. Simpson’s index, in particular, appears the most suitable indicator for measuring the effects of fires on insect biodiversity in the short term.

  16. The Cenozoic Tectonic History of the Calabrian Orogen, Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Shimabukuro, David Haruo

    2011-01-01

    The Cenozoic accretionary wedge of Calabria, Southern Italy, consists of several units of continental and oceanic affinity accreted beneath the former continental margin of the Sardinia-Corsica block. Each of these units bears the imprint of blueschist-facies metamorphism, indicating that it has been subducted to high-pressure/low-temperature conditions during the Alpine Orogeny. Structurally higher units, having been accreted first, record the early metamorphic history of the orogen; lower...

  17. Antioxidants in Varieties of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and Wild Poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) of Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Montefusco; Giuliana Semitaio; Pier Paolo Marrese; Andrea Iurlaro; Monica De Caroli; Gabriella Piro; Giuseppe Dalessandro; Marcello Salvatore Lenucci

    2015-01-01

    We report the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities, as well as the total phenol, flavonoid, tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol), and carotenoid contents in the edible portion of wild and cultivated varieties of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and in the basal rosette leaves of the wild species of poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.), known by natives as “paparina,” collected in the countryside of Salento (South Apulia, Italy). We analyzed (1) two cultivars of chicory, the “Catalogna” ...

  18. ENEA initiatives in Southern Italy: Progress report, analysis, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, technological development in Italy was concentrated in the country's heavily industrialized northern regions. The motive for this choice was the conception that to be successful in a highly competitive market, research investment had necessarily to favour those developed areas with an already proven capacity for guaranteed fast and high returns. Unfortunately this policy has created a technologically and economically depressed area, known as Mezzogiorno, in southern Italy. Within the framework of new national energy and economic policies calling for balanced economic and technological development, ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) has been entrusted with the planning and managing of research, commercialization and technology transfer programs designed to stimulate high-technology industrial activity in Italy's southern regions so as to allow them to become more competitive in the upcoming European free trade market. Small business concerns shall be favoured in this new development scheme which shall respect the existing local social-economic framework. Emphasis shall be placed on privileging such elements as quality, flexibility and versatility, as opposed to lost cost mass production. Priority is to be given to the development of renewable energy sources, energy conservation techniques and environmentally compatible technologies

  19. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagarelli Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy. The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  20. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Lovelli; Teodoro Di Tommaso; Mariana Amato; Maria Valerio; Michele Perniola

    2010-01-01

    In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed) and a C3 weed (bindweed) towards a C3 crop (pepper) in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field whe...

  1. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  2. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vennari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning

  3. Improved attractants for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae(Gmelin): Two years data evaluating the responses of wild fly populations in 3 Southern Italy locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted during 2003 and 2004 on wild Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly), Ceratitis capiata (Wiedemann) and on olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in three locations in southern Italy. The tests with medfly were carried out in a citrus orchard in Sicily during 2003, from the end of September until the end of November, and in a peach orchard in Basilicata during the summer of 2004; while tests on olive fruit fly have been carried out both years in the same location in Apulia, starting in late August and finishing at the end of November. Among the 5 different baits used for the control of medfly in Sicily, the first records on the captures started during the 3rd week (mid October). Treatments B and C (AA+PT+TMA and AA+TMA, respectively) showed the best scores compared to the others and to the control (NuLure). Evaluating the captures among the 6 different baits utilized for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, first records started during the 3rd week (begin of September), and the best scores were detected on the traps with NuLure, showing a sex ratio in the captures of 1:1. Interesting data were recorded both years with the pheromone treatment (side experiment), showing a performance extremely high compared even with NuLure. (author)

  4. Trace element and isotopic variations from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes: constraints for slab detachment and mantle inflow beneath southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Astis, G.; Kempton, P. D.; Peccerillo, A.; Wu, T. W.

    2006-03-01

    New Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios and trace element data for volcanic mafic rocks outcropping along a E-W transect in southern Italy, from Mt. Vulture to Neapolitan volcanoes, are reported. The variation of LILE/HFSE, HFSE/HFSE and radiogenic isotopes along this transect indicates that all of these volcanoes contain both intra-plate and subduction-related signatures, with the former decreasing from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes. New data are also reported for the Paleocene alkaline rocks from Pietre Nere (Apulia foreland), which show isotopic ratios mostly overlapping the values for Mediterranean intra-plate volcanoes as well as the Eocene-Oligocene alkaline mafic lavas from the northern Adria plate. Pietre Nere provides evidence for an OIB mantle composition of FOZO-type, free of subduction influences, that is present beneath the Adria plate (Africa) before its collision with Europe. After this collision, and formation of the southern Apennines, westward inflow of mantle from the Adria plate to the Campanian area occurred, as a consequence of slab break off. Interaction of subduction components with inflowing Adria mantle generated hybrid sources beneath the Vulture-Campania area, which can explain the compositional features of both Mt. Vulture and the Campanian mafic rocks. Therefore, mafic magmas from these volcanoes represent variable degrees of mixing between different mantle components.

  5. A first look at the Gargano (southern Italy seismicity as seen by the local scale OTRIONS seismic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore de Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available On April 2013, a local scale seismic network, named OTRIONS, composed of twelve short period (1 Hz three component seismometers, has been located in the northern part of the Apulia (southern Italy. In the first two months of data acquisition, the network recorded about one hundred very small (ML<2 magnitude earthquakes. A three-layer 1D VP velocity model was preliminarily computed, using the recordings of earthquakes occurred in the area in the period 2006-2012 and recorded by the national seismic network of INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. This model was calibrated by means of a multi-scale approach, based on a global search of the minimum misfit between observed and theoretical travel times. At each step of the inversion, a grid-search technique was implemented to infer the elastic properties of the layers, by using HYPO71 to compute the forward models. In a further step, we used P and S travel times of both INGV and OTRIONS events to infer a minimum 1D VP velocity model, using a classical linearized inversion approach. Owing to the relatively small number of data and poor coverage of the area, in the inversion procedure, the VP/VS ratio was fixed to 1.82, as inferred from a modified Wadati diagram. The final 1D velocity model was obtained by averaging the inversion results arising from nine different initial velocity models. The inferred VP velocity model shows a gradual increase of P wave velocity with increasing the depth. The model is well constrained by data until to a depth of about 25-30 km.

  6. The 11−12 December 2003 storm in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We review an intense and heavy impact storm that occurred over Calabria, southern Italy, during the 11 and 12 December 2003. The event is traced back, at synoptic and planetary scales, up to 5 December 2003 by National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis fields and backtrajectories. The role of tropical storm Odette is clearly shown as well as that of the Azores high. Even if non negligible water vapour sources are expected from the Mediterranean sea, unusually large precipitable water was present over the Atlantic mid-latitudes. It is shown that tropical storm Odette determined large evaporation from Atlantic Tropics and the cooperative action of synoptic scale and planetary scale pressure centres focused this humidity into a plume and conveyed it into the Mediterranean area.

  7. Native cattle breeds of Southern Italy: karyological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Peretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian typical products of animal origin are strictly linked to native breeds. Their protection requires control of their reproductive and productive abilities. Hence the need for karyological studies to identify subjects with chromosome abnormalities linked to hypofertility or sterility. We report the results of karyological analyses carried out from January 2008 to December 2008 on 145 cattle of native breeds (Agerolese, Cinisara, Modicana and Podolica reared in Southern Italy so as to evaluate and characterize the presence of chromosome abnormalities in subjects with normal phenotypes. Besides the 128 karyologically normal subjects (2n=60, XY and 2n=60, XX, 17 were carriers of rob (1;29 and one male was a carrier of cellular chimerism 2n=60, XX/XY. According to our data there is a high frequency of rob (1;29 in Cinisara and Podolica breeds while in Agerolese there was only one case of rob (1;29 and none in Modicana.

  8. Waste management system optimisation for Southern Italy with MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvia, M.; Cosmi, C. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, C. da S. Loja, 85050 (PZ) Tito Scalo (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, C. da Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    The MARKAL models generator was utilised to build up a comprehensive model of the anthropogenic activities system which points out the linkages between productive processes and waste disposal technologies. The aim of such a study is to determine the optimal configuration of the waste management system for the Basilicata region (Southern Italy), in order to support the definition of the regional waste management plan in compliance with the Italian laws. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of landfilling fees on the choice of waste processing technologies, in order to foster waste management strategies which are environmentally sustainable, economically affordable and highly efficient. The results show the key role of separate collection and mechanical pre-treatments in the achievement of the legislative targets.

  9. Occurrence of mycotoxin in Farro samples from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoria, Raffaello; Lima, Giuseppe; Ferracane, Rosalia; Ritieni, Alberto

    2005-02-01

    The occurrence of nine mycotoxins and of contamination by pre- and postharvest fungal pathogens of cereals was investigated in samples of stored Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccon Schrank (emmer), and Triticum spelta L. (spelt). In Italy, all three species are collectively referred to as farro. The samples examined were harvested in summer 2000 from eight different sites in southern Italy. Conventional fluorimetric and diode array-based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and HPLC-mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify fumonisin B1 in five samples (up to 70.00 microg/ kg), ochratoxin A in seven samples (up to 4.07 microg/kg), and beauvericin in three samples (up to 4.44 mg/kg). Enniatin B was detected in one sample (30.00 microg/kg), but no zearalenone or fusaproliferin was found. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were not evaluated. The potentially mycotoxigenic fungal species detected were Alternaria alternata, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium tricinctum, Penicillium verrucosum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in farro samples. PMID:15726990

  10. Wildfire cause analysis: four case-studies in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovreglio R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Italy are mainly caused by humans, and directly depend on social behavior, whether voluntary (arson or involuntary (negligence. Despite the progress in knowledge made with studying the physical facets of the phenomenon, causes and motives of human-related fire remain mostly unknown. This paper proposes the implementation of the Delphi method (an interactive expert-questionnaire process in order to assess why fires are ignited. In four study cases, within a high fire incidence area (southern Italy, the Delphi technique identified as major cause of negligence the use of fire in agriculture and, as major causes of voluntary fires, motives related to seasonal labor. The main results in terms of frequency are: (i for involuntary events (negligence, experts unanimously identified the relevant importance of negligent use of agricultural fires, particularly stubble burning (13.99% of responses. For (ii voluntary fires (arson, results highlight the relative importance of fires ignited by seasonal workers as an instrument to force or maintain employment (8.41% of responses.

  11. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  12. Low VS crustal zones in the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziata, Concettina; Costanzo, Maria Rosaria

    2010-11-01

    Shear wave velocities of the lithospheric structure to 73 km depth have been defined along three profiles crossing the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) from the simultaneous non linear inversion of the local and regional dispersion data. The former consist of group velocity dispersion data obtained from some seismic events which occurred at the borders of the Campanian Plain and recorded at Napoli, and the latter of group and phase dispersion data obtained in previous studies. The main features of the representative VS models are a carbonate basement deepening to ˜5 km in the central part of the Plain and a low velocity zone at a depth of ˜15 km, rising to 7 km in the southern part, close to Somma-Vesuvio. The low velocity layer can be correlated with that found at ˜10 km of depth below Campi Flegrei and the Neapolitan area, and at 5 km below the Somma-Vesuvio caldera area. Such regional velocity reduction can be associated to the presence of a zone with less than 5% partial melting that can be interpreted as magmatic reservoir of the Campanian volcanism.

  13. Numerical analysis of an intense rainstorm occurred in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we conduct a numerical analysis of an intense and destructive storm that occurred over Calabria, southern Italy, on 10–12 December 2003. More than 250 mm of precipitation was recorded over a large area in southern Calabria and one station reported about 660 mm in two days (more than half of the yearly climatological value. Precipitation fell mainly during 11 and 12 December. The storm was characterized by the entrance of an Atlantic upper-level trough associated with a deep surface low that advected humid marine air toward steep Calabrian orography. The steep mountain ridges favoured landslides, which were reported in several villages. Property damage was extensive.

    We study the storm at the mesoscale by means of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The model was successful at representing the observed accumulated rainfall patterns. This justifies our use of RAMS for further analysis of the physical and dynamic factors involved in the storm event. In particular, we use RAMS to evaluate the roles of Calabrian orography, surface latent heat flux, and upper level forcing.

    The key role of a potential vorticity (PV streamer, which forced the entire meteorological system from the upper levels is assessed by the PV inversion technique in a Limited Area Model Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS framework.

    Results show that the roles of Calabrian orography and surface latent heat flux are important in our simulations. Indeed, humid marine air masses were advected by the synoptic flow toward Calabrian steep coastal mountain ranges determining intense and abundant rainfall.

  14. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Federico, Stefano; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Drofa, Oxana; Landi, Tony Christian; Malguzzi, Piero; Buzzi, Andrea; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013) three-model ensemble (TME) experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council - Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System), BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model), and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates). The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  15. Geodetic surveys across the Messina Straits (southern Italy) seismogenetic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Bonini, C.; Casula, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Messina Straits, southern Italy, unfortunately became famous after the occurrence of the great earthquake of December 28, 1908, Ms = 7.5, that caused thousands of deaths and severe destruction over a wide area along the Sicilian and Calabrian coasts. After that time many geophysical and geological studies were performed to evaluate the seismic characteristics of the 1908 earthquake, the seismic risk and the geological evolution of this region in the framework of Mediterranean geodynamics. In 1970, a geodetic network was set up across the Straits and was repeatedly measured with terrestrial techniques until 1980, showing a northward displacement of the Sicilian sites with respect to the Calabrian ones, between 1970 and 1971. In 1987, the old terrestrial network was surveyed again for the first time by the GPS technique, improving the accuracy of the coordinate determinations. Finally, in 1994, a wider network was established and surveyed again to collect additional GPS observations from a larger area across the Straits. In this paper, an analysis of the results obtained from the two GPS surveys with respect to those achieved by the terrestrial surveys (from 1970 to 1980) is given. This analysis shows there has not been significant crustal horizontal deformation across the Straits in the last 15 years. Although this crustal tectonic 'quiescence' corresponds to a low seismic activity level in the Straits area, terrestrial and GPS geodetic results would agree with Straits geophysical models excluding any aseismic deformations acting perpendicular to the Straits axis.

  16. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  17. Sea water contamination in underground waters of Salento (Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccolieri, G.; Dell' Atti, A.; Genga, A.; Strisciullo, G. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali; Cardellicchio, N. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico, Taranto (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In the present work, a study of a physico-chemical characterisation of underground waters, utilized for agriculture and human use in the Lecce district (Southern Italy) has been reported. The aim of the work has been to define the quality of underground waters in the different areas and to value salt contamination due to seawater intrusion. Statistical techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), have been utilized to examine the correlations among the different parameters and to define contamination areas. The results have shown a high salt contamination in artesian wells of the Ionian sea coast. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati di uno studio volto alla caratterizzazione chimico-fisica delle acque di falda utilizzate per scopi agricoli e consumo umano nella provincia di Lecce. Lo scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di definire la qualita' dell'acqua di falda in differenti aree e valutare la contaminazione salina prodotta da intrusione in falda di acqua di mare. Tecniche statistiche, quali l'analisi delle componenti principali e l'analisi di cluster, sono state utilizzate al fine di esaminare le relazioni esistenti fra i diversi parametri e definire le aree di contaminazione. I risultati ottenuti hanno mostrato un'alta contaminazione salina nei pozzi limitrofi alla costa ionica.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena affecting the historical landslide trend in the Subappennino Dauno (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    occurrence in Apulia (southern Italy)". In: C. Margottini et al. (eds.), Landslide Science and Practice, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 4: 37-41.

  19. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed and a C3 weed (bindweed towards a C3 crop (pepper in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field where a rainfed treatment (V0 was compared to a full irrigated one (V100, the latter corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration, (ETc. Soil water content was measured periodically; leaf water potential, net assimilation rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (T, Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration and A/Ci curves were also determined on pigweed, bindweed and pepper leaves. All gas exchange parameters differed between irrigated and rainfed treatments and between the three species.Water use efficiency was higher in pigweed than in pepper and bindweed. Between the considered weeds, pigweed competed for water with pepper significantly since, unlike bindweed, pigweed began to reduce stomatal conductance only when its leaf water potential achieved very negative values, lower than -2.00 MPa. Unlike C4 crops already saturated for CO2, pigweed photosynthesis is not completely saturated for CO2. Consequently, since atmospheric CO2 is increasing, when pigweed is grown in mixed stands where competition occurs, it can further limit other slow-growing species, both crops and weeds.

  20. Active transpression in the northern Calabria Apennines, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, L.; Santoro, E.; Mazzella, M. E.; Monaco, C.; Morelli, D.

    2009-10-01

    the Amendolara ridge and northern Sila, where partitioning between thrust and left strike-slip motion occurs in response to ˜ E to ˜ NE directed shortening. A local ˜ NW-SE extension is recorded by fault-kinematic analysis on NE-SW striking fault segments parallel to the coast on the eastern flank of Pollino. These small-length normal faults do not form a through-going lineament, rather they accommodate the seaward collapse of the uppermost crust above the deeper shortening compartment. Conversely, the active transpression testified by geomorphic, structural and seismicity data is accommodated along deep-seated oblique back-thrusts that involve the Apulian foreland plate underlying the now inactive thin-skinned accretionary wedge down to near-Moho depths. In light of the tight interlacing between regional and local components of deformation affecting the marine terraces, we suggest that the large-scale uplift in this sector of Calabria may reflect whole crustal-scale folding. The novel seismotectonic frame reconstructed for this region is consistent with GPS velocities suggesting that large part of geodetic shortening detected between the Apennines and the Apulian block on the eastern side of southern Italy might be accommodated in northern Calabria.

  1. The impact of education on wage determination between workers in southern and central-northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agovino Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the earnings dynamic in Italy, in order to explain earnings differences between southern Italy and centralnorthern Italy. In our analysis we use different techniques: ordinary least squares (OLS, quantile regression models and the algorithm developed by Machado and Mata (2005. In particular, the Machado and Mata (2005 algorithm allows us to examine the relative importance of both differences in workers’ characteristics and in their returns in explaining southern, central and northern Italy earnings differences at a point in time, as well as across time within each macro-area. We focus on the role of differences in educational endowment and returns to education, one of the most important components of human capital in the stylised literature. The level of education determines the substantial disparities in terms of wage returns. However, this holds only for levels of education related to compulsory education.

  2. Two-year data on the field evaluation of attractants for Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae in three localities in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the years 2003 and 2004, our organisations joined the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes'. Objective of the work was the evaluation of fruit fly attractants on two species of economic importance in Italy: Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, following the experimental protocol agreed at previous Research Coordination Meetings. In the 2003 season we selected two locations of southern Italy, one for each tephritid target species: C. capitata experiments have been performed in Eastern Sicily, in one of the most typical areas for citrus orchards; the work on B. oleae has been conducted in the vicinity of Foggia, Apulia, in the Italian southeastern plains, one of the largest and most productive areas for olives. Late summer and early autumn of 2003 were very hot and dry in Italy. For this reason both fly species, after a first detection during June, disappeared in July and August, returning in September with extremely low infestation rates. Nevertheless, experiments gave clear information on insects' preference for the proposed baits. Among the 5 different baits used in Sicily, treatments using the 3 Biolure components (Putrescine, Ammonium Acetate, Trimethylamine) elicited better results than the NuLure control. All baits showed marked selectivity for females. First captures among the 6 different baits utilised for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, were recorded during the first week of September; best scores were detected on the traps baited with NuLure, showing a capture sex ratio of 1:1; and, in a side experiment, on traps baited with the female pheromone, showing 100% male captures. For both insects, the relatively low numbers of captures can be correlated with the low infestation rate: this data was confirmed by the high yield in qualitative and quantitative terms. The tests with the medfly have been repeated in 2004 in an organic

  3. Hydrological anomalies connected to earthquakes in southern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Esposito

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrological variations in the watersheds of seismic areas can be useful in order to acquire a new knowledge of the mechanisms by which earthquakes can produce hydrological anomalies. Italy has the availability of many long historical series both of hydrological parameters and of seismological data, and is an ideal laboratory to verify the validity of theoretical models proposed by various authors. In this work we analyse the hydrological anomalies associated with some of the big earthquakes that occurred in the last century in the southern Apennines: 1930, 1980 and 1984. For these earthquakes we analysed hydrometric and pluviometric data looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. The influence of rainfalls on the normal flows of rivers, springs and wells has been ascertained. Also, the earthquake of 1805, for which a lot of hydrological perturbations have been reported, is considered in order to point out effects imputable to this earthquake that can be similar to the effects of the other big earthquakes. The considered seismic events exhibit different modes of energy release, different focal mechanisms and different propagation of effects on the invested areas. Furthermore, even if their epicentres were not localised in contiguous seismogenetic areas, it seems that the hydrological effects imputable to them took place in the same areas. Such phenomena have been compared with macroseismic fields and transformed in parameters, in order to derive empirical relationships between the dimensions of the event and the characteristics of the hydrological variations. The results of this work point to a close dependence among hydrological anomalies, regional structures and fault mechanisms, and indicate that many clear anomalies have been forerunners of earthquakes. In 1993, the Naples Bureau of the Hydrographic National Service started the continuous monitoring of hydrologic parameters by a network of

  4. Vertical dipoles to detect self potential signals in a seismic area of southern Italy: Tito station

    OpenAIRE

    G. Colangelo; V. Lapenna; L. Telesca

    2005-01-01

    Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy) installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with lo...

  5. Vertical dipoles to detect self potential signals in a seismic area of southern Italy: Tito station

    OpenAIRE

    G. Colangelo; Lapenna, V.; Telesca, L.

    2005-01-01

    Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy) installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with local seismicity. To...

  6. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Ventrella; Enza Di Giacomo; Costanza Fiorentino; Luisa Giglio; Raffaele Lopez; Francesca Guastaferro; Annamaria Castrignanò

    2010-01-01

    An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the ...

  7. Relationships between young people and labour market: a difficult condition in the Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying individual and family features that represent advantage or disadvantage factors in the participation of young people to labour market. In particular, the difficult condition of the Southern Italy is analysed. First, we will compare the participation of young people to labour market in Italy to the one of the main European countries. The European Union and its main countries represent a natural benchmark for the conditions of labour market in our country. Subsequ...

  8. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  9. Interactions between soil consumption and archaeological heritage: spatial analysis for hydrogeological risk evaluation and urban sprawl in the Tavoliere di Puglia (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The soil consumption is a complex phenomenon because it is due to different causes and it also produces many consequences on landscape and related human activities. In low-relief areas of the Mediterranean regions such as the foredeep of the southern Italian chain, alluvional processes and flooding can play an important role on the amount of available soil, especially if one consider the recent climate changes and the recurrence of extreme events. Moreover the uncontrolled growth of the cities is a cause of soil consumption too. Consequently occurrence of flood events in low-relief areas, erosion processes and urban sprawl have a strong impact on agricultural activities and real estate market, but also in research activities about archaeological heritage, with the risk to loose signs of the past. To consider this phenomenon from a spatial point of view is essential to determine protection policies, but it is nowadays still a problem. In this contribution, we performed a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological features of the drainage network of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain in order to investigate erosional and depositional processes. GIS-supported statistical analysis of the drainage network features allow us to compile a map of the hydrogeological hazard [1]. The map has been used as a basic tool useful to consider areal distribution in soil consumption coming from alluvional processes, erosional phenomena and the urban sprawl of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain (Southern Italy). Moreover, we investigated the relationships between sectors of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain featured by higher hydrogeological risk and archaeological sensibility areas, such as places with existing or with not yet discovered archaeological sites or areas characterized by crop marks [2]. [1] Danese M., Gioia D., Biscione M., Masini N. 2014. Spatial Methods for Archaeological Flood Risk: The Case Study of the Neolithic Sites in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Computational

  10. Genome Sequences of Five Oenococcus oeni Strains Isolated from Nero Di Troia Wine from the Same Terroir in Apulia, Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Lamontanara, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is the principal lactic acid bacterium responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine. Here, we announce the genome sequences of five O. oeni strains isolated from Nero di Troia wine undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation, and we report, for the first time, several genome sequences of strains isolated from the same terroir.

  11. Genome Sequences of Five Oenococcus oeni Strains Isolated from Nero Di Troia Wine from the Same Terroir in Apulia, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Lamontanara, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is the principal lactic acid bacterium responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine. Here, we announce the genome sequences of five O. oeni strains isolated from Nero di Troia wine undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation, and we report, for the first time, several genome sequences of strains isolated from the same terroir. PMID:25342687

  12. The evolution of the Monte Vulture volcano (Southern Italy): Inferences from volcanological, geological and deep dipole electrical soundings data

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Volpe, L.; Patella, D.; Rapisardi, L.; Tramacere, A.

    1984-10-01

    The activity of Monte Vulture started in the Middle Pleistocene; stratigraphic evidence suggests that the volcanic events may have occurred in the following succession: (1) formation of widespread pyroclastic pumice deposits; (2) sporadic and localized explosive and minor extrusive eruptions; (3) highly explosive eruptions with the formation of some tuff cones and of the oldest part of the Monte Vulture central volcano; and (4) activity at the central volcano, initially mainly explosive and successively increasingly effusive. The western part of the composite volcano, and probably also its summit part were affected by caldera collapses. The volcanic activity ended with hydromagmatic explosion, which formed two explosion craters. Monte Vulture was built up on the external units of the Southern Apennines at the western border of the foretrough. The upper part of the sedimentary substratum consists mainly of clayey formations of the Lagonegro and Sannitic units. Beneath these terrains radiolarites and cherty-limestones of the Lagonegro units outcrop west of Monte Vulture. Rocks of the Apulia carbonate platform were drilled east of the volcano. Deep dipole electrical soundings showed a resistant basement at a depth ranging from 0.2 km down to 4.3 km beneath Monte Vulture. Volcanological, geological and geoelectrical data allow us to hypothesize that: (a) the magma chamber could be located at the boundary between the rigid resistant basement and the overlying conductive plastic terrains; (b) the Apulia carbonate platform forms a structural high beneath the Monte Vulture; and (c) the overthrusting of the Lagonegro units on the Apulia platform may be located beneath the floors of the calderas of Monte Vulture.

  13. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  14. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.

    2012-04-01

    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  15. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  16. [Internal migration and rural society in southern Italy (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisi, A

    1993-01-01

    The author examines migration in rural populations in southern Italy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Migrations specific to rural populations, such as transhumance and seasonal migration are examined, as well as labor migration and rural-urban migration. Particular attention is given to migration trends in the nineteenth century. PMID:12319597

  17. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy.…

  18. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the River Avena (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milazzo, C.; Di Bella, C.; Casanova, J. C.; Ribas, Alexis; Cagnin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-176. ISSN 0394-1914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : endoparasites * rodents * fiumara * Southern Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2010

  19. Preliminary results of a 30-year daily rainfall data base in southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Stefano; Avolio, Elenio; Pasqualoni, Loredana;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents first exploratory results and analyses performed on a 30-year (1978–2007) homogeneous precipitation database that has been created for the Calabria peninsula, southern Italy. The database consists of complete time series of daily values of precipitation from 88 stations distri...

  20. Molecular detection of Cyclospora in water, soil, vegetables and humans in southern Italy signals a need for improved monitoring by health authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Koehler, Anson V; Papini, R; Normanno, G; Lacasella, V; Lonigro, A; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-10-15

    To date, in Europe, there is scant information on the occurrence of Cyclospora in water from treatment plants and in humans, and no data are available on soil or fresh plant products. Here, we undertook the first molecular survey of Cyclospora in multiple biological matrices collected from the Apulia region of southern Italy. Samples of irrigation water from four municipal treatment plants, eight different types of vegetables or fruit (cucumber, lettuce, fennel, celery, tomato, melon, endive and chicory) and soil from the same farms on which these plants were grown, as well as faecal samples from humans living in the same region were tested by qPCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Cyclospora was detected in 15.5% of all 213 samples tested. Specifically, this protist was detected in (i) treated water (21.3% of 94 samples), well water (6.2% of 16), but not drinking water (0% of 3); (ii) soil (11.8% of 51 samples) and vegetables (12.2% of 49), with the highest prevalence (18.7%) on fennel; and (iii) human stools (27.5% of 40 samples). In environmental and food samples, Cyclospora was detected mainly in autumn and was significantly more prevalent in the faeces from humans of 40-50 years of age. This is the first comprehensive molecular survey of Cyclospora in environmental, food and human faecal samples in Europe. These data suggest that irrigation water, soil and vegetables might be contaminated by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which might represent a source of infection to humans in the study area and calls for monitoring by health authorities. PMID:26188495

  1. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Vennari; S. L. Gariano; L. Antronico; M. T. Brunetti; Iovine, G.; S. Peruccacci; Terranova, O; Guzzetti, F.

    2013-01-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have res...

  2. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Isolated from an Anthrax Burial Site in Pollino National Park, Basilicata Region (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Fasanella, Antonio; Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Leonzio, Giuseppe; Tolve, Francesco; Georgi, Enrico; Antwerpen, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A Bacillus anthracis strain was isolated from a burial-site in Pollino National Park where a bovine died of anthrax and was buried in 2004. We report the first genome sequence of B. anthracis isolated in the Basilicata region (southern Italy), which is the highest risk area of anthrax infection in Italy.

  3. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  4. Characterization of plant diversity of pastures and volatile organic compound analysis in ewe’s milk from a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia national park (southern Italy: opportunities for a sustainable land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest of consumers in traditional dairy products whose origin from defined geographical areas is guaranteed. These products are appreciated for the distinctive sensorial characteristics, derived by extensive grazing system on natural and artificial pastures and traditional cheese-making techniques. Moreover, a considerable public interest is also attributed to typical dairy products for their role in stimulating the economy of rural areas and in preserving environment and biodiversity. Here we present the results of a survey on the botanical composition of Alta Murgia pastures, together with the analysis of VOCs (volatile organic compounds in milk from ewes reared under a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia National Park (Apulia region, southern Italy. Data from two less ordinary farm systems are also reported as external reference. The botanical composition of pastures was estimated by three modified Whittaker plots placed in the prevailing habitat types. Milk samples were analyzed for VOC compounds by head-space SPME/GC-MS. Consumer acceptance of cheese, made from each milk sample using homogeneous traditional cheese-making techniques, was evaluated. The study provides interesting insights on the floral composition of Alta Murgia pastures and the first characterization of VOC profiles in ewe’s raw milk from Alta Murgia.

  5. PRESTo, the earthquake early warning system for Southern Italy: Concepts, capabilities and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Satriano, C.; RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl; Elia, L.; RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl, Naples, Italy; Martino, C.; RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl, Naples, Italy; Lancieri, M.; Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris,France; Zollo, A.; Department of Physics, University of Naples FedericoII, Naples, Italy; Iannaccone, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia

    2011-01-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a software platform for regional earthquake early warning that integrates recently developed algorithms for real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation in Southern Italy on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), which is deployed in a seismogenic area that is expected to produce a large earthquake within the next 20 years. ...

  6. Time-clustering analysis of forest-fire sequences in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the dynamics of forest-fires is becoming one of the most important scientific challenges in the field of the environmental studies. Time-fractal approaches have been used to characterize the temporal distribution of forest-fire sequences detected in southern Italy. Our findings reveal that the point process modelling the fire sequence can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of clusterization of the events

  7. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Bradley C; Pieroni Andrea; Quave Cassandra L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. I...

  8. Delta beta-thalassaemia in southern Italy: evidence for a single mutational event.

    OpenAIRE

    Carè, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Improta, T; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Marinucci, M.; Tagarelli, A; Brancati, C

    1984-01-01

    Haematological and molecular studies on 32 heterozygotes for G gamma A gamma delta beta(0)-thalassaemia from 15 unrelated families from southern Italy are reported. The haematological features of G gamma A gamma delta beta(0)-thalassaemia carriers are compared with those of beta-thalassaemia and Hb Lepore heterozygotes. Striking similarity exists between the phenotypic expression of beta-thalassaemia and Lepore mutations. Globin gene mapping studies indicated that the molecular lesion underly...

  9. Reforestation and land use change in a drainage basin of southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    D’Ippolito A; Ferrari E; Iovino F; Nicolaci A; Veltri A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the land use change in a large basin of Calabria region (southern Italy) subjected to extensive reforestation at the end of the ’50 has been carefully reconstructed and compared with the current situation. The runoff capacity of the basin was estimated using data available for the temporal periods before and after the reforestation interventions. The results show that the surface of the basin interested by former reforestation activities did not affect the runoff, probably due ...

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for a Dam Site in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmaro, Paolo; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) are performed for routine applications using source models and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) recommended by a government agency (e.g., US Geological Survey) or an expert panel (e.g., SHARE project). For important projects, site-specific PSHA involves critical analysis of GMPEs and sources for the application region. We adopt the latter approach for a dam site in Calabria (southern Italy), a high seismic hazard region. Following SHARE c...

  11. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchese Fernando; Guarrera Paolo; Medori Simone

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Fiel...

  12. Geoelectrical Surveys for Characterization of the Coastal Saltwater Intrusion in Metapontum Forest Reserve (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Satriani; Antonio Loperte; Vito Imbrenda; Vincenzo Lapenna

    2012-01-01

    A geoelectrical survey was carried out in the Metapontum Forest Reserve located along the Ionian coast of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy). In this work we used the method of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for obtaining high-resolution electrical images in the investigated site. In particular, three electrical resistivity tomography, all orthogonal to the coastline, in the investigated area were carried out. To complete and integrate the geophysical data, soil and gro...

  13. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Salvatore Faugno; Stefania Pindozzi; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2010-01-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European D...

  14. How healthy is community-dwelling elderly population? Results from Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Guerriero, Francesca; Orlando, Valentina; Tari, Daniele Ugo; Di Giorgio, Annalisa; Cittadini, Antonio; Trifirò, Gianluca; Menditto, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore the frequency of polypharmacy, functional and cognitive capacity among the elderly in Southern Italy. METHODS Population-based retrospective cross-sectional study. Information were retrieved from electronic-geriatric-forms matched by record-linkage to outpatient pharmacy-records. The following domains were collected from geriatric forms: BMI, cognitive capacity (SPMSQ), functional status (Barthel-index), mobility, living condition. Polypharmacy status was categorized as non...

  15. Occurrence and genetic variability of Phlebotomus papatasi in an urban area of southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phlebotomine sand fly was noticed in the second floor of an old building in a highly urbanized area of southern Italy. A short-term entomological survey was carried out in the subsequent weeks to this event, allowing the collection of additional phlebotomine sand flies that were later identified as Phlebotomus papatasi. We assessed the genetic variability among P. papatasi sequences obtained in this study and those available from Italy using a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA fragment (from cytochrome b gene to NADH1 and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 as genetic markers. Results From 9 June to 19 July, eight males and seven females (two blood-fed of P. papatasi were collected in the old town of Bari (southern Italy. The insects were found near the bed and in the bathroom and potential blood sources (e.g., pigeons and dogs for them were common in the neighbourhood. Again, five females of P. papatasi collected in Valenzano, another urban area in the province of Bari, were also identified and included in the genetic study. The mtDNA sequences (945 bp obtained from Bari and Valenzano were identical except for a single transition (T ↔ C at the 793 nucleotide residue. Pairwise comparison of the last 440 bp of the mtDNA fragment analyzed herein with other sequences of P. papatasi from Italy revealed a nucleotide variation ranging from 0.2 to 1.3%. Three ITS2 sequence types were detected within specimens collected in Valenzano, one of them identical to that from Bari. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 sequences of P. papatasi from Italy revealed a nucleotide variation up to 1.8%. Conclusions This study reports the occurrence of P. papatasi in an urban area of southern Italy and shows a low nucleotide difference among ITS2 and mtDNA sequences of this species available from Italy. The presence of P. papatasi in urban areas might represent a risk for human health, particularly for the potential transmission of sandfly fever viruses.

  16. Temporal properties of rainfall events in Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Terranova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal properties of 152 575 rainfall events, recorded at time steps of 5 min, having different durations and occurring between 1989 and 2008 at 155 localities of Calabria (Italy, have been analysed in this paper. Samples from 45 533 storms have been selected to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes. The samples are representative of a wide variety of situations in terms of duration, total rainfall, intensity, etc.

    The use of standardized rainfall profiles (SRP is proposed to describe the within-storm temporal pattern. The main attraction of this method lies in the fact that it is based on actual data of regional precipitation. Its weak point is that large samples of data are required to obtain regional profiles. The research necessities for improving the use of Huff curves for storm disaggregation and its the potential use are summarized in this paper on the basis of the specific literature.

    A new criterion – based on the comparison of the areas A1, A2, A3 and A4 that underlie the four 25% of durations of a given SRP, and the corresponding four values of the "uniform" SRP (USRP, is suggested here with the aim of improving the use of the information content of SRP. Some interesting results concerning the sample frequency and the characterization of parameters for hydrological applications are commented on.

    The study conducted so far has produced important, albeit preliminary, results for different contexts of Calabria concerning the use of SRP among the methods for constructing design storm hyetographs.

  17. Human responses to the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    , for instance, insisted in taking refuge in a church and this led to over 100 fatalities when the roof collapsed. Intervention by the State included: the effective deployment of troops to handle evacuation, to re-open lines of communication and to distribute food and other relief. Management of the disaster was enhanced when prefectural commissioners were given executive powers. We argue that increased State intervention appears to have reduced self-reliance. In the short-term recovery was supported by regional/state aid and by charitable donations particularly from other governments and members of Neapolitan diaspora in other parts of Italy and abroad. This enabled land clearance, agriculture was re-established and roads/rail links were restored. Long-term recovery was slow with affected local-authorities (i.e., comuni) showing low rates of population growth for more than 15 years.

  18. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  19. Stable isotope ratios in meteoric recharge and groundwater at Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.

  20. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Marchetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

  1. Investigating seismogenic faults in Central and Southern Apennines (Italy: modeling of fault-related landscape features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Burrato

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The direct identification of seismogenic structures in Southern Italy is often a difficult task, since finding seismogenic faults with clear surface expression associated is unlikely, even if they are the source of large magnitude earthquakes. A possible way to solve this problem is the investigation of a series of features of the surface landscape that could be attributed to repeated movements along a fault. In this paper we investigated the drainage, ancient coastlines, marine terraces and recent deposits of three different active tectonic basins in central and Southern Italy. The combination of the modeling of these fault-related landscape features with historical and seismological data better constrained the geometry of the seismogenic faults responsible for three large magnitude historical events in the studied areas. The results show that in this section of the peninsula seismogenesis is often connected with blind almost pure dip-slip normal faults; the long-term activity of these faults produces intermontane basins or coastal plains that are sinking relative to the surrounding areas; the application of this methodology emphasises the importance of geological and geomorphological studies for the recognition of seismogenic faults and for a complete assessment of the seismic hazard in Italy.

  2. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  3. 3He/4He Ratio in Olivines from Linosa, Ustica, and Pantelleria Islands (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Fourré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report helium isotope data for 0.03–1 Ma olivine-bearing basaltic hawaiites from three volcanoes of the southern Italy magmatic province (Ustica, Pantelleria, and Linosa Islands. Homogenous 3He/4He ratios (range: 7.3–7.6 Ra for the three islands, and their similarity with the ratio of modern volcanic gases on Pantelleria, indicate a common magmatic end-member. In particular, Ustica (7.6±0.2 Ra clearly differs from the nearby Aeolian Islands Arc volcanism, despite its location on the Tyrrhenian side of the plate boundary. Although limited in size, our data set complements the large existing database for helium isotope in southern Italy and adds further constraints upon the spatial extent of intraplate alkaline volcanism in southern Mediterranea. As already discussed by others, the He-Pb isotopic signature of this magmatic province indicates a derivation from a mantle diapir of a OIB-type that is partially diluted by the depleted upper mantle (MORB mantle at its periphery.

  4. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Bradley C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI. Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian

  5. Earthquake focal mechanisms and stress inversion in the Irpinia Region (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale, Giuseppe; De Matteis, Raffaella; Romeo, Annalisa; Maresca, Rosalba

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to estimate the stress field acting in the Irpinia Region, an area of southern Italy that has been struck in the past by destructive earthquakes and that is now characterized by low to moderate seismicity. The dataset are records of 2,352 aftershocks following the last strong event: the 23 November 1980 earthquake (M 6.9). The earthquakes were recorded at seven seismic stations, on average, and have been located using a three-dimensi...

  6. Significance of earthquake-related anomalies in fluids of Val D'Agri (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    ltaliano, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Martelli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Martinelli, G.; ARPA Emilia Romagna, Via Amendola 2, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy; Nuccio, P. M.; Univ.Palermo; Paternoster, M.; Univ. Basilicata

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical investigations carried out at the Campano-Lucano Apennine (Southern Italy) revealed the presence of fluids composed of a mixing between components of shallow and deep origin, where mantle-derived helium is also detectable. For the gas phase, the deep component is represented by both CH4 and CO2-rich gases, while the shallow one is N2-dominated. Coinciding with the 3 April 1996 ML = 4.9 earthquake, the CH4- rich component mixed with the shallow, NZ-dominated on...

  7. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN CHEESES PRODUCED IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  8. Gas hazard assessment at the Monticchio Mt. Vulture, a volcano in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nuccio, P. M.; Dipartimento Chimica e Fisica della Terra e Applicazioni, Universita` di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90100, Palermo, Italy; Favara, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nicolosi, M.; Dipartimento Chimica e Fisica della Terra e Applicazioni, Universita` di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90100, Palermo, Italy; Paternoster, M.; Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Università della Basilicata.

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical investigations have shown that there is a considerable inflow of gas into both crater lakes of Monticchio, Southern Italy. These lakes are located in two maars that formed 140 000 years ago during Mt. Vulture volcano s last eruptive activity. Isotopic analyses suggest that CO2 and helium are of magmatic origin; the latter displays 3He ⁄ 4He isotope ratios similar to those measured in olivines of the maar ejecta. In spite of the fact that the amount of dissolved gases in the wat...

  9. Gas hazard assessment at the Monticchio crater lakes of Mt. Vulture, a volcano in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nuccio, P. M.; Dipartimento CFTA, Universita` di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.; R. Favara; Nicolosi, M.; Dipartimento CFTA, Universita` di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.; Paternoster, M.; Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Università della Basilicata.

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical investigations have shown that there is a considerable inflow of gas into both crater lakes of Monticchio, Southern Italy. These lakes are located in two maars that formed 140,000 years ago during Mt. Vulture volcano’s last eruptive activity. Isotopic analyses suggest that CO2 and helium are of magmatic origin; the latter displays 3He/4He isotope ratios similar to those measured in olivines of the maar ejecta. In spite of the fact that the amount of dissolved gases in the water is...

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the folk plant medicine in Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, N G; Guarrera, P M; De Fine, G

    2007-01-01

    A series of research on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the folk plant medicine was carried out in the last twenty years. The use of 104 taxa distributed into 42 families are described. Among the major findings: Ceterach officinarum as hypotensive; Heliotropium europaeum in the case of urinary inflammations; Silybum marianum for haemorrhoids; Arundo donax for pertussis and cystitis; Allium cepa for sties and flu; Laurus nobilis as galactagogue; Passiflora incarnata for burns, haemorrhoids and skin inflammations; Scrophularia canina for rhagas and wounds; Urtica membranacea for tussis and tonsillitis. PMID:17084993

  11. Gift Economy-Civil Economy-non Profit. Perspectives to Relaunch the Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Santillo M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is divided into four sections. In the first part the key points ofthe system of the «gift economy» are outlined, as opposed to market economyin the strict sense, since it bases its «status» on the usage value, rather than onthe trade (or commercial) value of goods; in the second part current aspects ofthis system are emphasized, also in reference to the new issues of «degrowth»and «economy without money». In the third and fourth sections, referring specificallyto Southern Italy, it...

  12. The history of the "Virgin with Child" sculpture (Ottaviano, Naples, southern Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Toscano, Maria; Cavazzini, Giancarlo;

    2014-01-01

    A life-size whitish marble statue of a "Virgin with Child" has been recently rediscovered in the St.Rosario church located in Ottaviano, a small town near Naples (southern Italy). This artwork shows stylistic features of the Tuscan-Roman school of the 16th century, and is framed in an intriguing ...... mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical data, the source rock can be possibly limited to the main classical white marbles of the Mediterranean district, as the classical marble of Aphrodisias. A reuse practice of a former artwork can be also hypothesized. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS....

  13. Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

    2014-05-01

    Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable

  14. Antioxidants in Varieties of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Wild Poppy (Papaver rhoeas L. of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Montefusco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities, as well as the total phenol, flavonoid, tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, and carotenoid contents in the edible portion of wild and cultivated varieties of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and in the basal rosette leaves of the wild species of poppy (Papaver rhoeas L., known by natives as “paparina,” collected in the countryside of Salento (South Apulia, Italy. We analyzed (1 two cultivars of chicory, the “Catalogna” harvested in the area between S. Pietro Vernotico and Tuturano (Brindisi and the “Otrantina” harvested in Otranto (Lecce; (2 two wild chicory ecotypes harvested in S. Pietro Vernotico (Brindisi and Statte (Taranto, respectively; (3 the basal leaves of wild poppy harvested in Sternatia (Lecce. In all samples, our results showed that the hydrophilic antioxidant activity is, generally, higher than the lipophilic activity. Poppy leaves exhibited the highest hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities and the highest concentration of total phenols and flavonoids. Tocopherols were detected only as traces. Among the extracted carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene were the most abundant in all analyzed samples. Total carotenoid content was greater in wild than in cultivated plants.

  15. Fault plane solutions of crustal earthquakes in Southern Italy (1988-1995). Seismotectonic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frepoli, A.; Amato, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Southern Apennines and the Sicilian-Calabrian regions (Italy) belong to the complex geodynamic Central Mediterranean area, which is dominated by the NNWW-SSE convergence of the European and African plates and is strongly affected by the presence of Neogene-Quaternary subduction-collision arcs and related back-arc basins. In order to obtain a more detailed picture of the processes active in these two regions, the paper shows the calculation of 173 new fault plane solutions of crustal events with 2.5 (<)M(<)4.4 recorded by the national seismic network of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in the period 1988-1995. Normal and strike-slip solutions are largely prevalent in the Southern Apennines, with tensional (T) axes mostly oriented NE-SW, perpendicular to the belt, in agreement with active stress directions from breakouts. In the Sicilian region the seismicity is concentrated in the eastern portion of the island. Different local mechanism categories are present in the Nebrosi and Etna sector indicating a complex strain release in these two regions. Thrust and strike-slip solutions prevail in the Aeolian Islands associated with {approx} N-S compression, whereas in Western Sicily the prevailing orientation of P-axes is around WNW-ESE. Although not well constrained due to only a few data in the region, there is a hint of active compression at the outer front of the Calabrian arc, in the Ionian Sea. The observed pattern of fault plane solutions suggests that the transition between oceanic subduction beneath Calabria and continental subduction in Sicily and in Southern apennines controls the active tectonics of Southern Italy.

  16. Ancient pottery from archaeological sites in Southern Italy: first evidence of red grape products markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Granafei, Sara; Colivicchi, Fabio; Catald, Tommaso; Buchicchio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The chemical analysis of tartaric acid (TA) and syringic acid (SA), as grape product markers in ancient ceramic vessels from the sites of Manduria and Torre di Satriano (southern Italy), was successfully performed. Firstly, the fragmentation behaviour of TA and SA as deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-), obtained by collision-induced dissociation, was investigated. Then, reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode, using a quadrupole linear ion trap in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was employed. A binary mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid enabled the optimum ESI efficiency of SA, greatly improving its identification when it occurs in trace amounts. Chemical analysis of ancient pottery fragments is a valid method for establishing the existence of preserved organic residues, which is valuable new evidence for the culture and customs of ancient populations, in this case those of southern Italy. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MRM method allowed a systematic investigation of ceramic fragments of both archaeological sites, thus providing positive evidence for the presence of TA and SA as grape product markers in storage vessels dating back to the ninth to third centuries BC. PMID:26353991

  17. Wind speed and temperature trends impacts on reference evapotranspiration in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the impacts of both temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration have been assessed using as a case study the Southern Italy, which present a wide variety of combination of such climatic variables trends in terms of direction and magnitude. The existence of statistically significant trends in wind speed and temperature from observational datasets, measured in ten stations over Southern Italy during the period 1968-2004, has been investigated. Time series have been examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric statistical test in order to detect possible evidences of wind speed and temperature trends at different temporal resolution and significance level. Once trends have been examined and quantified, the effects of these trends on seasonal reference evapotranspiration have been evaluated using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation. Results quantified the effects of extrapolated temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration. Where these climatic drivers are on the same direction, reference evapotranspiration generally increases during the growing season due to a nonlinear overlapping of effects. Whereas wind speed decreases and temperature increases, there is a sort of counterbalancing effect between the two considered climatic forcing in determining future reference evapotranspiration.

  18. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  19. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age, a

  20. Geophysical approach for emergency management of landslide: the experience of Basilicata Civil Protection (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, G.; Lapenna, V.; Perrone, A.; Loperte, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Basilicata region (Southern Italy), being dissected by numerous and often significant rivers and characterized by the outcrop of terrains with bad mechanical properties, is one of the more exposed regions of the southern Apennine chain to hydrogeologic hazard and shows a complete panorama of mass movements. During the last years, after strong precipitations, this region has been affected by the reactivation of many quiescent landslides that involved buildings and infrastructures constructed on the slopes. The risk for people and assets needed the intervention of the end users involved in the risk management and, in particular, the inspection of Regional Department of Infrastructure and Civil Protection (RDICP). In many involved areas and for many families evacuation decrees have been issued in order to allow the damage valuation. An important contribution has been provided by the geophysical data and, in particular, by the 2D electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) that have been carried out in the areas some days after the event by IMAA-CNR. In this work we present the results regarding the application of unconventional geoelectrical techniques used for the emergency management of landslide in Basilicata Region (southern Italy). The information obtained by the application of indirect surveys appeared to be particularly useful for the end users involved in the risks management. In particular, taking into account the cycle of landslides emergency, the obtained data could give a valid contribution during the post-event phase which mainly regards the damage valuation. Indeed, only a corrected assessment of the damage and a precise geometric reconstruction of the landslide body, can direct the intervention actions of the end users. The results represent a valid cognitive support to choose the most appropriate technical solution for strengthening of the slopes and an example of best practice for the cooperation between the research activity (IMAA-CNR) and field

  1. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vittorio Vonella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  2. Erosional flux from tectonically active landscapes: Case studies from Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; Allen, Philip; Gheorghiu, Delia; Rodes, Angel

    2016-04-01

    Erosion and sediment supply are fundamentally important controls on landscape evolution, governing the denudation of relief, the stratigraphy deposited in basins, and the ultimate destruction of orogens. However, quantifying the rates, timescales, and predominant processes of erosion remains a major challenge in many tectonically active areas. Here, we use Southern Italy as a case study to demonstrate how these challenges can be overcome. We present 15 new 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates, for systems distributed along 5 active normal faults for which we have excellent constraints on throw rates along strike and uplift history. These footwall catchments have a total relief of up to 1800 m and throw rates up to 1.4 mm/yr. We show that sediment supply estimates based on the 10Be erosion rates agree well with sediment supply predictions based on the fault throw profiles. Our results suggest that about 80% of the material uplifted by the faults is being eroded at a similar magnitude to the fault throw rates, offering new insights into the topographic balance of uplift and erosion in this area. These findings imply that active normal faulting is the primary control on sediment supply in Southern Italy. Our field observations suggest that landslides are an important source of sediment in our study area, and are largely driven by incision in response to fault activity. Using a field-calibrated landslide inventory, we estimate landslide-derived sediment flux for our sampled catchments. These estimates correlate well with total sediment flux estimates, demonstrating quantitatively that landslides must be a major source of sediment. Their erosional signal is adequately captured by the 10Be analyses most likely because of the high frequency of small landslides and their high spatial density in these catchments (typically >10% of the total area), which ensures sufficient sediment mixing. Finally, we use our results to calibrate the BQART model of sediment supply, enabling

  3. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  4. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rinaldi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  5. Coupling of high-resolution meteorological and wave models over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bertotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of RISKMED project, three different high-resolution limited area meteorological models (BOLAM, MOLOCH and WRF have been run over southern Italy for the retrospective analysis of three case studies characterized by strong winds and severe wave conditions in the Ionian, southern Adriatic and southern Tyrrhenian seas. All the models were able to reproduce the main meteorological features of each event.

    The wind fields simulated by the meteorological models and those provided by the ECMWF analysis have been ingested into a wave model (WAM for the hindcast of the main wave parameters. The results have been compared with the observations of three buoys whose measurements were available in the area of interest.

    A remarkable improvement in the representation of the significant wave height came out using the limited area model data with respect to the simulations where the ECMWF analyses were used as forcing. Among the limited area models, the BOLAM-MOLOCH modelling system provided slightly better performances. From the limited set of simulations, the different model predictions came out closer to each other and more skilful in areas where the waves approach the coastline perpendicularly from the open sea.

  6. TESTING SOME PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS (PTFS IN APULIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriano Buccigrossi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of soil water retention vs. soil water matric potential is used to study irrigation and drainage schedules, soil water storage capacity (plant available water, solute movement, plant growth and water stress. The hydraulic soil properties measuring is expensive, laborious and takes too long time, so, frequently, matemathic models, called pedo-transfer functions (PTFs are utilized to estimate hydraulic soil properties through soil chimical and phisical characteristics. Six pedo-transfer functions have been evaluated (Gupta & Larson, 1979; Rawls et al., 1982; De Jong et al., 1983; Rawls & Brakensiek, 1985; Saxton et al., 1986; Vereecken et al., 1989 by comparing estimated with measured soil moisture values at soil water matric potential of –33 and –1500 kPa of 361 soil samples collected from 185 pedons of Apulia Region (South Italy, having various combinations of particle-size distribution, soil organic matter content and bulk density. Accuracy of the soil moisture predictions have been evaluated by statistic indexes such as Weighted stantard error (WSEE, Mean Deviation (MD, Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD and the determination coefficient (R2 between estimated and measured water retention values. The Rawls PTF model demostrated to have the lowest values of WSEE, MD and RMSD indexes (0.044, -0.007 and 0.059 m3 H2O m-3 soil, respectively at –33 Kpa soil water matric potential (Field Capacity, while for estimating soil moisture at the Wilting Point (-1500 kPa Rawls & Brakensiek model is adequate (WSEE, MD and RMSD of 0.034, -0.016 and 0.046 m3 H2O m-3 soil. De Jong, Saxton and Rawls & Brakensiek models, at –33 kPa soil water matric potential and Gupta & Larson and De Jong models at –1500 kPa soil water matric potential, showed the highest statistic errors.

  7. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  9. Tephrochronology of a late quatternary lacustrine record from the monticchio maar (vulture volcano, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria

    With the aim of defining the chronological framework of the 51 m deep sedimentary sequence (core D) from Lago Grande di Monticchio (Mt Vulture volcano), macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical investigations have been carried out on the 14 thickest (at least 3 cm) tephra layers recorded in the core. The results indicate that the tephras are related to the main late Quaternary explosive events from Ischia, Vesuvius and the Phlegrean Fields districts of the Campanian area. Following these results, a usable time scale has been obtained, according to which the sequence spans the last 70 ka. Beyond the chronological information, this investigation has made it possible: (a) to identify widespread time-parallel markers for reliable correlations in the Central Mediterranean; (b) to collect useful data about past powerful eruptions, particularly from Vesuvius, for a better assessment of volcanic hazards in Central and Southern Italy.

  10. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.;

    2000-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined. The...... results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42......% of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at <10(2) cells 100 ml(-1). Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the bacterial indicators (such as fecal...

  11. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.; Pasquale, V.; Baloda, Suraj B.; Figliuolo, G.

    2000-01-01

    coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis......A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined. The...... results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42...

  12. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  13. Trace metal distributions in Posidonia oceanica and sediments from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy

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    A. DI LEO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of metals (Hg, Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd and Zn was determined in sediments and in different tissues of Posidonia oceanica collected from San Pietro Island, Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy. In seagrass, results, compared with metal concentrations in sediments, showed that the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb, Sn and Cu were found in the roots, while in the green leaves were found the highest levels of Cd and Zn. Instead the lowest metal concentrations were found in the basal part of the leaf. Levels of  metals in the leaves were similar to those found by other authors in uncontaminated areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Mercury levels in roots were correlated to levels in sediments. This could demonstrate the plant memorizes sediments contamination . This study reinforces the usefulness and the relevance of Posidonia oceanica as an indicator of spatial metal contamination and an interesting tool for environmental quality evaluation.

  14. Tomographic analysis of self-potential data in a seismic area of Southern Italy

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    S. Piscitelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The time and space anomalous behaviour of the Self-Potential (SP field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, Italy, is discussed. The SP data were collected in the period June 1992-November 1994 along a profile located north of the town of Potenza in the Basilicata region, Italy. The profile is perpendicular to an active fault system, where a W-E directed strike-slip structure has been identified from recent earthquakes. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows us to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.

  15. Living mulch strategy for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. production in central and southern Italy

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    Stefano Canali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable agricultural systems, intercropping using living mulches (LM provides many beneficial ecosystem services. The objective of these two-year field experiments was to study the suitability of different LM options of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. var. anglona for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. cultivation in two sites under Mediterranean conditions. In central Italy (Experiment 1 contemporary and delayed (to crop sowings of LM were compared with a no-cover crop treatment, contrasting two local cauliflower cultivars and a F1 Hybrid. In southern Italy (Experiment 2 the sustainability of systems combining LM (anticipated and contemporary sowing compared with no-cover and organic fertilisation strategies was assessed. The aboveground biomasses dry weights of cauliflower crop (heads and residues, burr medic and weeds were separately determined. Results suggested that in Experiment 1 the LM was not able to smother weeds establishment and growth, as a consequence of early sowing, while cauliflower yield was reduced. Moreover, the genotypes behaviour was greatly influenced by the LM sowing times. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the agronomic practices applied, climatic conditions notably influenced cauliflower cultivation and also reduced the mean yield. Therefore, the recorded differences between the two experimental sites highlighted the need to tailor the LM strategies to the different environmental conditions.

  16. Exploring public engagement with geothermal energy in southern Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of public views on eventual geothermal energy development in Sicily. The research was carried out under a much wider research project, VIGOR, with the aim to explore the feasibility of geothermal energy utilization in southern Italy. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to explore the views and opinions of local communities regarding the potential of geothermal energy applications; (2) to contribute to the growing literature on public engagement with energy issues. In order to explore public views towards geothermal technologies, we conducted a case study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Although Italy has enormous geological potential for geothermal energy production, levels of knowledge of this energy source amongst the public are low. The results indicate that the issue is shrouded in uncertainty and that the Sicilian public expresses a diffused lack of trust in decision-making processes. Taken together, these factors are likely to strongly impact eventual further developments in this sector. The results clearly show the need for further societal dialogue supported by a sound communication action strategy as the first stage in a public participation

  17. Field evaluation of Amaranthus species for seed and biomass yields in southern Italy

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    Salvatore Pizza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a crop with a potentially increasing cultivation area. Little information is available on amaranth cultivation in Mediterranean environments and in southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic traits and assess the grain and biomass yield responses of 11 genotypes belonging to 5 Amaranthus species, provided from the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System. There was wide diversity in agronomic traits among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. The accessions belonging to A. cruentus had the shortest growing cycle followed by A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and, finally, A. hybrid that had the longest growing season. The A. cruentus accessions reached maturity more quickly than the other species. The total above-ground dry matter ranged from 15 to 23 t ha-1 with A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, and A. hybridus being the most productive. The stem plus branches dry matter was well correlated to the plant height (r2 = 0.75**. The tested amaranth genotypes showed appreciable biomass production that can thus be regarded as an interesting secondary product after seed harvesting. Grain yield and components varied among species and accessions. A. hypochondriacus showed the highest yield per plant (55.4 g followed by five accessions belonging to A. cruentus and A. hybridus (26.4 g on average. Considering together their shorter growing season and their higher grain production, the five accessions belonging to A. cruentus species appear to be better adapted to Mediterranean environments and southern Italy as compared to the other species.

  18. Influence of soil on groundwater geochemistry in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy

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    Tiziano Boschetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil compositions in influencing groundwater geochemistry in carbonate aquifers is still little known. Nothing is known regarding the influence of pyroclastic soils (andisol within the carbonate Apennines in central-southern Italy, despite their wide distribution. In this study we analyze some physical and chemical properties of pyroclastic soil at the Acqua dei Faggi experimental site (southern Italy, to assess its influence on groundwater geochemistry. Chemical analyses were carried out on saturated paste extracts and a physical analogue model was developed through two column experiments. Physico-chemical properties of rainwater and spring water, and some microbiological features of the soil medium were also taken into consideration. The studied soil has a great influence in modifying rainwater chemistry during percolation. About the 50% of HCO3- and Ca2+ in spring water is due to interaction between percolation water and soil medium, and equilibrium with calcite is reached at this stage. The Na+/K+ ratio is buffered by clay minerals in the soil by primary silicates in the pyroclastic cover and then buffered. Cl- and SO42- concentrations in spring water are very close to that of soil infiltration water during short-term interaction with soil, but a decline is showed during long-term cause to the anions adsorption effect in the andisol. Chemical and microbiological investigations show the existence of a soil microbial community that allows denitrification and nitrate reduction. Infiltration processes cause anoxic conditions within the soil medium, therefore the absence of NH4+ in spring water throughout the observation period should be due to anammox processes. These findings suggest that hydrochemistry and spring chemographs may be significantly influenced by several factors, such as relationships between soil and rainwater, vegetation, and microbial communities, which are not necessarily correlated with lithological and structural

  19. Fault plane solutions of crustal earthquakes in Southern Italy (1988-1995: seismotectonic implications

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    A. Amato

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Apennines and the Sicilian-Calabrian regions belong to the complex geodynamic Central Mediterranean area, which is dominated by the NNW-SSE convergence of the European and African plates and is strongly affected by the presence of Neogene-Quaternary subduction/collision arcs and related back-arc basins In order to obtain a more detailed picture of the processes active in these two regions, we calculated 173 new fault plane solutions of crustal events with 2.5 < M < 4.4 recorded by the national seismic network of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in the period 1988-1995. Normal and strike-slip solutions are largely prevalent in the Southern Apennines, with tensional (T axes mostly oriented NE-SW, perpendicular to the belt, in agreement with active stress directions from breakouts. In the Sicilian region the seismicity is concentrated in the eastern portion of the island. Different focal mechanism categories are present in the Nebrodi and Etna sector indicating a complex strain release in these two regions. Thrust and strike-slip solutions prevail in the Aeolian Islands associated with ~ N-S compression, whereas in Western Sicily the prevailing orientation of P-axes is around WNW-ESE. Although not well constrained due to only a few data in the region, there is a hint of active compression at the outer front of the Calabrian arc, in the Ionian Sea. The observed pattern of fault plane solutions suggests that the transition between oceanic subduction beneath Calabria and continental subduction in Sicily and in Southern Apennines controls the active tectonics of Southern Italy.

  20. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  1. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  2. The 346 A.D. earthquake( Central-Southern Italy: an archaeoseismological approach

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    P. Galli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 346 A.D. earthquake is known through sparse historical sources. It is mentioned by Hyeronimus as felt in Rome and responsible for damage in the ancient Campania Province. Four epigraphs report the earthquake as the cause for the restorations of buildings at Aesernia-Isernia, Allifae-Alife, Telesia-Telese and Saepinum-Sepino. On this basis, an area possibly struck by the earthquake was already defined in the literature. Another seventeen epigraphs mentioning restoration or re-building of edifices in localities of central-southern Italy (without explicitly referring to the earthquake as the cause of the damage are possibly related to the earthquake effects. We tried to enhance our knowledge on the 346 earthquake through archaeoseismological analyses. The investigation has benefited from specific fieldwork during archaeological excavations and a critical review of the available archaeological literature. However, a correct archaeoseismological interpretation is hindered by the occurrence of two earthquakes (346 and 375 A.D. in a short time span and in adjacent areas (whose effects may be archaeo-chronologically undistinguishable and the not always univocal evidence of the seismic origin of the detected collapses or restoration of structures. For this reason we propose a representation of the 346 A.D. effects through two extreme pictures: 1 the localities for which conclusive data on the earthquake effects are available and 2 the data of point 1 plus the localities for which archaeoseismological data consistent with the earthquake are available. The latter view defines an area of possible damage related to the 346 event larger than that previously known. In particular, the earthquake damage may result from a seismic sequence similar to that, which struck a part of the central and the southern Apennines in 1456, or from an event comparable to that which occurred in 1805, responsible for widespread damage in the northern sector of the southern

  3. Multi-scale electromagnetic imaging of the Monte Aquila Fault (Agri Valley, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata

    2010-05-01

    conclusion, taking into account all the above inferences, we think that suitable multi-scale electromagnetic approach has proved to be affective for MAF detection, giving valuable data to the seismic hazard assessment of the region. References Branno A., E.G.I. Esposito, A. Maturano, S. Porfido and V. Rinaldis (1985): Studio, su base macrosismica, del terremoto della Basilicata del 16 dicembre 1857. Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti di Napoli, 1985, 92, 249-338. Maschio L., L. Ferranti and P. Burrato (2005): Active extension in Val d'Agri area, Southern Apennines, Italy: implications for the geometry of the seismogenic belt. Geophys. J. Int., 162 (2), 591-609, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02597.x. Burrato P., and G. Valensise (2007): Rise and fall of a hypothesized seismic gap: source complexity in the 16 December 1857, Southern Italy earthquake (Mw 7.0). Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98 (1), 139-148, doi: 10.1785/0120070094.

  4. An operational real-time flood forecasting system in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique; Coccia, Gabriele; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system has been operating since year 2012 as a non-structural measure for mitigating the flood risk in Campania Region (Southern Italy), within the Sele river basin (3.240 km2). The Sele Flood Forecasting System (SFFS) has been built within the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by Deltares and it assimilates the numerical weather predictions of the COSMO LAM family: the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I2, the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I7 and the ensemble numerical weather predictions COSMO-LEPS (16 members). Sele FFS is composed by a cascade of three main models. The first model is a fully continuous physically based distributed hydrological model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended (Idrologia&Ambiente s.r.l., Naples, Italy), simulating the dominant processes controlling the soil water dynamics, runoff generation and discharge with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The second module is a set of Neural-Networks (ANN) built for forecasting the river stages at a set of monitored cross-sections. The third component is a Model Conditional Processor (MCP), which provides the predictive uncertainty (i.e., the probability of occurrence of a future flood event) within the framework of a multi-temporal forecast, according to the most recent advancements on this topic (Coccia and Todini, HESS, 2011). The MCP provides information about the probability of exceedance of a maximum river stage within the forecast lead time, by means of a discrete time function representing the variation of cumulative probability of exceeding a river stage during the forecast lead time and the distribution of the time occurrence of the flood peak, starting from one or more model forecasts. This work shows the Sele FFS performance after two years of operation, evidencing the added-values that can provide to a flood early warning and emergency management system.

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

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    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  6. Growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in central and southern Italy

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    Giovanni Mughini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Eucalypt short-rotation woody crop (SRWC is becoming an attractive option for energy biomass in Mediterranean dry environments. The present study is aimed at assessing growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in three Italian sites (Massama, Sardinia; Mirto, Calabria; Rome, Latium compared with Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the most commonly cultivated eucalypt species in Italy. The study identified eucalypt clones with stable and high performance between several alternatives. Results pointed out the declining growth performance observed in the second rotation compared with the first cycle. This is due to the cultivation model, age rotation and harvesting method adopted, which negatively affect the available soil nutrients’ content. The clone/site interaction as for basal area growth at the three investigated sites, suggests a significantly different clones’ performance among sites. Viglio and Velino clones showed the best overall performance and are suggested to be used over the large scale SRWC in central and southern Italy.

  7. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

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    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection. This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district – Basilicata Region - Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and Methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1 the tendency towards instability, 2 the protective action of forest cover and 3 different silvicultural options.Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silvicultural options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations.Research highlights: The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silvicultural options for each forest category, a series of silvicultural treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase.Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy; Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP; management; silvicultural treatment; protective function and soil erosion.

  8. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de; Paletto, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: To support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach -based on simplified index- is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection). This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silviculture treatments. Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district -Basilicata Region- Italy), where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1) the tendency towards instability, 2) the protective action of forest cover and 3) different silviculture options. Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silviculture options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years) has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations. Research highlights The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silviculture options for each forest category, a series of silviculture treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase. Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy); Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP); management; silviculture treatment; protective function e soil erosion. (Author)

  9. Detected foraging strategies and consequent conservation policies of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Southern Italy

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    Marco Gustin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in both the extent and quality of foraging habitats is considered the primary cause of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni population decline. A proper knowledge of Lesser Kestrel's foraging habitat selection at local scale is necessary for its conservation. Using accurate GPS devices, we investigated the patterns of local movements and land-cover type selection of 9 Lesser Kestrels in the main colony in Italy (Alta Murgia National Park, Gravina in Puglia and the surrounding rural areas during the hatching period. The goals of our work were to individuate: 1 the preferred foraging habitats, 2 the potential sexual divergences in foraging movements and in 3 foraging habitat selection, 4 the relationship between foraging movements and the spatial arrangement of land codes. We detected significant sexual divergences in foraging movements and habitat selection. Lesser Kestrels preferred pseudo-steppes and significantly avoided ligneous crops and forested areas. While males selected positively pseudo-steppes, females used both pseudo-steppes and cereals in proportion to their availability. Foraging selection was influenced by the interplay between the spatial arrangement of land codes and the sexual divergences in foraging strategies. On the basis of our results, we have been able to propose suitable local-scale conservation actions to the Alta Murgia National Park and to the local administrations: a the enlargements of the park's boundaries; b the purchasing of land parcels; c the provision of suitable nesting sites near the higher quality areas; d the optimal timing for harvesting. Our study is the first contribution to the assessment of the foraging strategies and the necessary conservation policies of the Lesser Kestrel in Southern Italy.

  10. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

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    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  11. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  12. Estimating annual groundwater recharge coefficient for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; De Vita, P.

    2014-02-01

    To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in the southern Apennines (Italy), the estimation of the mean annual groundwater recharge coefficient (AGRC) was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. Starting from the hydrological budget equation, the coefficient was conceived as the ratio between the net groundwater outflow and the precipitation minus actual evapotranspiration (P - ETR) for a karst aquifer. A large part of the southern Apennines, which is covered by a meteorological network containing 40 principal karst aquifers, was studied. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926-2012, the mean annual P - ETR was estimated, and its distribution was modelled at a regional scale by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennine chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AGRC. The resulting values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst rocks, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A multiple linear regression between the AGRC, lithology and the summit plateau and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model was used to assess the AGRC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The coefficient was calculated as ranging between 50 and 79%, thus being comparable with other similar estimations carried out for karst aquifers of European and Mediterranean countries. The mean annual groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines was assessed by these characterizations and validated by a comparison with available groundwater outflow measurements. These results represent a deeper understanding of an

  13. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Nardelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n=500; BMI > 40 kg/m2 and controls (n=216; BMI 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.

  14. Inferences on the source mechanisms of the 1930 Irpinia (Southern Italy) earthquake from simulations of the kinematic rupture process

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, A.; Zollo, A.; G. Iannaccone; A. Emolo

    2004-01-01

    We examine here a number of parameters that define the source of the earthquake that occurred on 23rd July 1930 in Southern Italy (in the Irpinia region). Starting from the source models proposed in different studies, we have simulated the acceleration field for each hypothesized model, and compared it with the macroseismic data. We then used the hybrid stochastic-deterministic technique proposed by Zollo et al. (1997) for the simulation of the ground motion associated wit...

  15. Evidence of Late Roman collapse at Catania (Sicily, southern Italy): An earthquake in the 4th century AD?

    OpenAIRE

    Bottari, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Coltelli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Monaco, C.; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali, Università di Catania, Italy

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous collapse of ancient historical buildings followed by sudden reconstruction, deduced from archaeological reports, provides indirect evidence for an earthquake in ancient Catania (Sicily, southern Italy). This event in the middle of the 4th century AD is consistent with the 365 AD seismic sequence known from historical sources, which report, wide destruction in Sicily and in the Mediterranean area. This period was characterized by political, economic, and social instabi...

  16. Occurrence and correlates of HIV and hepatitis B/C virus infections among prisoners of Southern Lazio, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe La Torre; Dafne Vezzo; Rosanna Arcese; Claudia Bongiovanni; Giovanni Capelli; Gualtiero Ricciardi

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV among the prisoners of
    the jails of Southern Latium (Italy).
    Methods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting: Clinical charts of 2653 prisoners, of whom 940 were of the jail of Cassino, 1581 of the jail of Frosinone and 132 of that of Latina, since 1995 to 1999, were reviewed. Measurement: number of people tested for ...

  17. Bacterial migration through low-permeability fault zones in compartmentalised aquifer systems: a case study in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bucci; Emma Petrella; Gino Naclerio; Sabrina Gambatese; Fulvio Celico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally verify the significance of microbial transport through low-permeability fault zones in a compartmentalised carbonate aquifer system in Southern Italy. The temporal variability of microbial communities in two springs fed by the same aquifer system, but discharging up- and down-gradient of two low-permeability fault zones, was analysed using a 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)-based approach. At b...

  18. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the river Avena (Calabria, southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Concetta Milazzo; Calogero Di Bella; Juan Carlos Casanova; Alexis Ribas; Mara Cagnin

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy), which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta,...

  19. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy) and relationship with other Campania events

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vingiani; G. Mele; R. De Mascellis; F. Terribile; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy). Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity), mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcani...

  20. A physically-based scale approach to the analysis of the creep process involving mount Granieri (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    BRETSCHNEIDER, Alberto; GENEVOIS, Rinaldo; De Martino, Salvatore; PRESTININZI, Alberto; VERBENA, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In January 1972, a rock slide of more than 2 million m3 moved along the north-eastern slope of Mt. Granieri (900 m above sea level), in the Allaro River basin, close to Salincriti village (Calabria region, southern Italy). Subsequent field investigations (geomechanical surveys and laboratory creep tests on rock samples) validated the initially assumed ongoing 'retrogressive' evolution of the phenomenon, which is mobilising a rock mass volume of about one million m3. Data from a remote monitor...

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Stachys palustris L. (Lamiaceae) Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Piozzi, Franco; Rosselli, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Stachys palustris L. (Lamiaceae) from Southern Italy. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from selected plants and its chemical composition was determined by the GC-MS system on two fused- silica capillary columns of different polarity. The mass fraction of oil was 0.21 % on a dry weight basis. Altogether, 92 compounds were identified accounting for 93.6 % of the total oil, which was ch...

  2. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy) and in Adeane (Southern Senegal)

    OpenAIRE

    Rachele Ellena; Cassandra L. Quave; Andrea Pieroni

    2012-01-01

    A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy) and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal), both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were...

  3. Financing R&D Projects in Southern Italy: The “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” Program

    OpenAIRE

    Gianpaolo Iazzolino

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation and financing of research and innovation projects. The paper analyzes and discusses the “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” program in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy), as a program for financing R&D projects in a geographical area far behind in development. Three real cases of R&D projects are described. The program was effective as regards the stimulus to realizing R&D activities by Calabrian SMEs and furthermore in relation ...

  4. Pattern and severity of early childhood caries in Southern Italy: a preschool-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nobile, Carmelo GA; Fortunato, Leonzio; Bianco, Aida; Pileggi, Claudia; Pavia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background This survey was intended to investigate prevalence and severity of early childhood caries (ECC) in a sample of children in Southern Italy and to identify factors that may be related to this condition. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. The study population (children aged 36–71 months) attending thirteen kindergartens was randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Parents/guardians of all eligible children were invited to participate f...

  5. Geometry and modeling of an active offshore thrust-related fold system: the Amendolara Ridge, Ionian Sea, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ferranti; Pepe, F.; P. Burrato; Santoro, E.; Mazzella, ME; Morelli, D; Passaro S; G. Vannucci

    2012-01-01

    On the Ionian Sea coast of southern Italy, spanning the transition from the Calabrian Arc to the Apennines, NE-directed motion of the thin-skinned frontal thrust belt of the Apennines toward the Apulian foreland reportedly ceased during the Early-Middle Pleistocene. The submarine extension of the frontal thrust belt is represented by the Amendolara ridge, which stretches for over 80 km to the SE beneath the Taranto Gulf. High-resolution marine geophysical data collected on the Amendolara ridg...

  6. The role of surface fluxes in the development of a tropical-like cyclone in southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Miglietta, M. M.; S. Davolio; A. Moscatello; F. Pacifico; Rotunno, R.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a tropical-like cyclone in southern Italy have been performed with two different modelling systems (BOLAM-MOLOCH and WRF) with the aim of discussing the role of the surface fluxes in the development of the vortex and evaluating their intensity during the mature stage of the cyclone. Although significant differences emerge in their intensity, both the modelling systems agree in showing that the surface fluxes are more important than the latent heat release associated w...

  7. The role of surface fluxes in the development of a tropical-like cyclone in southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Miglietta, M. M.; S. Davolio; A. Moscatello; F. Pacifico; Rotunno, R.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a tropical-like cyclone in southern Italy have been performed with two different modelling systems (BOLAM-MOLOCH and WRF) with the aim of discussing the role of the surface fluxes in the development of the vortex and evaluating their intensity during the mature stage of the cyclone. Although significant differences emerge in their intensity, both the modelling systems agree in showing that the surface fluxes are more important than the latent heat re...

  8. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Lavini; Maria Riccardi; Cataldo Pulvento; Sergio De Luca; Michela Scamosci; Riccardo d’Andria

    2008-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work wa...

  9. A model optimizing the port-hinterland logistics of containers: The case of the Campania region in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele Iannone

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model for the economic analysis and strategic planning of port-hinterland container logistics systems. The model was employed to investigate the inland multimodal distribution of import/export containers handled at the seaports located in the Campania region of Southern Italy. The loading units can transit through the regional off-dock intermodal and logistic facilities called ‘interports’, as well as through extra-regional locations which have a railway ...

  10. Tree-ring growth and climate response of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in Basilicata (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dendroclimatic study on silver fir (Abies alba Mill. was carried out in the Abetina of Ruoti (PZ, Basilicata - southern Italy, a nearly natural mixed Quercus cerris - Silver fir forest. Observations were made on twenty-three large size dominant silver fir trees and dendroecological analyses performed for the period 1866-2007. Results show that late spring/summer precipitations, rather than temperatures, are the most critical factor affecting silver fir growth in this area.

  11. Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia; Doglioni, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    We report here, for the first time, on the new finding of extrusive calciocarbonatite (alvikite) rocks from the Pleistocene Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). These volcanic rocks, which represent an outstanding occurrence in the wider scenario of the Italian potassic magmatism, form lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and feeder dikes exposed on the northern slope of the volcano. The petrography, mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry attest the genuine carbonatitic nature of these rocks, that are characterized by high to very high contents of Sr, Ba, U, LREE, Nb, P, F, Th, high Nb/Ta and LREE/HREE ratios, and low contents of Ti, Zr, K, Rb, Na and Cs. The O-C isotope compositions are close to the "primary igneous carbonatite" field and, thus, are compatible with an ultimate mantle origin for these rocks. The Sr-Nd-Pb-B isotope compositions, measured both in the alvikites and in the silicate volcanic rocks, indicate a close genetic relationship between the alvikites and the associated melilitite/nephelinite rocks. Furthermore, these latter products are geochemically distinct from the main foiditic-phonolitic association of Mt. Vulture. We propose a petrogenetic/geodynamic interpretation which has important implications for understanding the relationships between carbonatites and orogenic activity. In particular, we propose that the studied alvikites are generated through liquid unmixing at crustal levels, starting from nephelinitic or melilititic parent liquids. These latter were produced in a hybrid mantle resulting from the interaction through a vertical slab window, between a metasomatized mantle wedge, moving eastward from the Tyrrhenian/Campanian region, and the local Adriatic mantle. The occurrence of carbonatite rocks at Mt. Vulture, that lies on the leading edge of the Southern Apennines accretionary prism, is taken as an evidence for the carbonatation of the mantle sources of this volcano. We speculate that mantle carbonatation is related to the introduction of

  12. Relationship between rainfall and shallow landslides in the southern Apuan Alps (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giannecchini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Apuan Alps region is one of the rainiest areas in Italy (more than 3000 mm/year, in which frequently heavy and concentrated rainfall occurs. This is particularly due to its geographical position and conformation: the Apuan chain is located along the northern Tuscan coast, close to the Ligurian Sea, and the main peaks reach almost 2000 m. In several cases, the storms that hit the area have triggered many shallow landslides (soil slip-debris flows, which exposed the population to serious risks (during the 19 June 1996 rainstorm about 1000 landslides were triggered and 14 people died. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds is very important in order to prepare efficient alarm systems in a region particularly dedicated to tourism and marble activities. With the aim of contributing to the landslide hazard evaluation of the southern Apuan Alps territory (upper Versilia area, a detailed analysis of the main pluviometric events was carried out. The data recorded at the main rain gauge of the area from 1975 to 2002 were analysed and compared with the occurrence of soil slips, in order to examine the relationship between soil slip initiation and rainfall. The most important rainstorms which triggered shallow landslides occurred in 1984, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. Many attempts were made to obtain a possible correlation between rainfall parameters and the occurrence of soil slip phenomena and to identify the local rainfall threshold for triggering shallow landslides. A threshold for soil slip activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (MAP was defined for the study area. The thresholds obtained for the southern Apuan Alps were also compared with those proposed by other authors for several regions in the world. This emphasized the high value of the rain threshold for shallow landslide activity in the Apuan area. The high threshold is probably also linked to the high mean annual precipitation and to the high

  13. Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a strong development of coastal areas with a high concentration of water-demanding human activities, resulting in weakly controlled withdrawals of groundwater which accentuate the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. The worsening of groundwater quality is a huge problem especially for those regions, like Salento (southern Italy), where a karst aquifer system represents the most important water resource because of the deficiency of a well developed superficial water supply. In this frame, the first 2D numerical model describing the groundwater flow in the karst aquifer of Salento peninsula was developed by Giudici et al. [1] at the regional scale and then improved by De Filippis et al. [2]. In particular, the estimate of the saturated thickness of the deep aquifer highlighted that the Taranto area is particularly sensitive to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, both for the specific hydrostratigraphic configuration and for the presence of highly water-demanding industrial activities. These remarks motivate a research project which is part of the research program RITMARE (The Italian Research for the Sea), within which a subprogram is specifically dedicated to the problem of the protection and preservation of groundwater quality in Italian coastal aquifers and in particular, among the others, in the Taranto area. In this context, the CINFAI operative unit aims at providing a contribution to the characterization of groundwater in the study area. The specific objectives are: a. the reconstruction of the groundwater dynamic (i.e., the preliminary identification of a conceptual model for the aquifer system and the subsequent modeling of groundwater flow in a multilayered system which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphical point of view); b. the characterization of groundwater outflows through submarine and subaerial springs and the water exchanges with the shallow coastal water bodies (e.g. Mar Piccolo) and the off

  14. Parametric time series analysis of geoelectrical signals: an application to earthquake forecasting in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available An autoregressive model was selected to describe geoelectrical time series. An objective technique was subsequently applied to analyze and discriminate values above (below an a priorifixed threshold possibly related to seismic events. A complete check of the model and the main guidelines to estimate the occurrence probability of extreme events are reported. A first application of the proposed technique is discussed through the analysis of the experimental data recorded by an automatic station located in Tito, a small town on the Apennine chain in Southern Italy. This region was hit by the November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake and it is one of most active areas of the Mediterranean region. After a preliminary filtering procedure to reduce the influence of external parameters (i.e. the meteo-climatic effects, it was demonstrated that the geoelectrical residual time series are well described by means of a second order autoregressive model. Our findings outline a statistical methodology to evaluate the efficiency of electrical seismic precursors.

  15. Upper crustal structure in the Potenza area (Southern Apennines, Italy using Sp converted wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jongmans

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the records of the two Potenza seismic sequences (Southern Apennines, Italy which occurred in 1990 and 1991, in order to obtain information on the upper crustal structure in this area. The hypocentral depths are mainly concentrated below 10 km which is the supposed upper limit of the crystalline basement. The seismograms recorded at temporary arrays deployed during the two sequences clearly show on the vertical component, an intermediary phase between the P and S waves. For the investigated epicentral distances (less than 30 km the delay between this secondary phase and the direct S wave arrival is almost constant at each station, suggesting that the observed intermediary phase might be an S to P conversion at a discontinuity shallower than the hypocentral depth. This interpretation has been supported by polarisation analysis and numerical modelling results. Considering the regional geological structure, these latter have also shown that the interface generating strong converted waves could be the top of the Apulian carbonate platform overlaid with recent clay deposits and flysch sediments. 1D inversion of the travel-time data was performed in order to evaluate a local vertical upper crustal profile.

  16. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  17. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

  18. Geological and geophysical characterization of the southeastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results obtained by the joint analysis of in situ geophysical surveys, aerial photos interpretation, morphotectonic investigation, geological field survey and borehole data. The joint analysis of different data allowed us (1) to show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) to detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) to image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) to characterize the geometry of an active landslide affecting the study area.

  19. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-11-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet among adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents' adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03-2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). The adolescents' KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents' intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

  1. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

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    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  2. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Roberto; Musella, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy) and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat) was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (Pflock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution. PMID:27245805

  3. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. PMID:16881413

  4. STRATIGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE EOCENE ALBIDONA FORMATION IN THE TYPE LOCALITY (CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    LUCA BARUFFINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  5. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

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    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26 and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97 and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94. The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.

  6. Environmental monitoring in the Mar Grande basin (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Hydrodynamic and water quality data has been recorded since February 2014 by a meteo-oceanographic station installed in the inner part of the Gulf of Taranto, in the northeastern part of the Ionian Sea (Southern Italy). This monitoring action, managed by the research unit of the Technical University of Bari, DICATECh Department, could play a pivotal role in a vulnerable and sensitive area, affected by massive chemical and biological pollutant discharges due to the presence of heavy industry and intense maritime traffic. Monthly trends of winds, waves, currents, and biochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and turbidity, are analyzed and discussed. The analysis exhibits that the wave regime is slightly controlled by wind forcing; rather, topography strongly affects the wave propagation direction. Surface currents appear wind induced in the measuring station, while near the bottom a quasi-steady current directed towards southwest is formed. The selected water quality indicators show monthly trends consistent with the typical seasonal convective fluxes and mixing. PMID:26077314

  7. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  8. Engineering Geological and Petrographic Characterization of Migmatites Belonging to the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, G.; Punturo, R.; Mineo, S.; Ortolano, G.; Castelli, F.

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory characterization of migmatite rocks, affected by tunneling works in southern Calabria (Italy), has been carried out with the purpose of investigating the relationship between some potentially interdependent petrographic and petrophysical features with the mechanical behavior of the excavated rocks. Mineralogical and petrographic investigation allowed estimating the modal composition of the rock and the grain size of the constituting minerals, as well as examining the intergranular contacts and associated microfractures. The velocity of seismic waves within the specimens has been measured and calculated, along with the elastic properties of the rock. Specimens were also characterized from the physical-mechanical point of view and their mode of failure was considered. Results show that the mechanical behavior of migmatites varies within the sample population, although the specimens belong to the same sampling area. It is controlled by both porosity and modal composition of the rock. Thus, primary minerals were grouped with respect to their elastic properties; their abundance/deficiency within the specimen controls its mechanical strength. This is also reflected in the modes of failure associated to different strength values. This is a new consideration in the laboratory characterization of this rock type, largely cropping out in several contexts worldwide. Results should be taken into account before starting engineering works, in order to avoid errors resulting from considering this rock as a homogeneous material from the mechanical and petrographic points of view.

  9. Geoelectrical Surveys for Characterization of the Coastal Saltwater Intrusion in Metapontum Forest Reserve (Southern Italy

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    Antonio Satriani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was carried out in the Metapontum Forest Reserve located along the Ionian coast of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy. In this work we used the method of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for obtaining high-resolution electrical images in the investigated site. In particular, three electrical resistivity tomography, all orthogonal to the coastline, in the investigated area were carried out. To complete and integrate the geophysical data, soil and groundwater samplings, seventeen and five, respectively, were analyzed using chemical physical techniques. Geoelectrical survey, supported by laboratory analysis of soil and water samples have revealed the presence of a process of saltwater in coastal Forest Reserve of Metapontum, which have caused the decline of the existing pine forest with the consequent erosion and desertification problems. The results have disclosed the way to identify and discriminate large areas affected by intensive soil salinization and high resolution electrical images of the subsurface electrical resistivity plays a key role in delineating the saltwater intrusion front in coastal areas. Furthermore, our integrated study represents a contribution to the future programs for the protection, planning, and management of the terrestrial and marine resources in this coastal area.

  10. In vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, A; Janiak, V; Dürr, C M; Lüdeke, S; Trachsel, E; Heinrich, M

    2002-08-01

    A total of 27 extracts from non-cultivated and weedy vegetables traditionally consumed by ethnic Albanians (Arbëreshë) in the Vulture area (southern Italy) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay, for their in vitro non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation and for their inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). In both antioxidant assays strong activity was shown for Leopoldia comosa (bulbs, syn.: Muscari comosum) and Centaurea calcitrapa (young whorls). In the lipid peroxidation assay, extracts from leaves of Origanum heracleoticum, Urtica dioica and Tordylium apulum showed a remarkable inhibitory activity (> 50%), too. In the case of Leopoldia comosa and Origanum heracleoticum this activity was comparable to quercetin (at a concentration of 50 microM) and Rhodiola rosea extract. Extracts from non-cultivated Cichorium intybus, Chondrilla juncea and Stellaria media showed strong in vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase, with an activity higher than that of a reference extract from Ledum groenlandicum. These findings suggest that weedy vegetables may be useful antioxidants of interest in the prevention of ageing related diseases, CNS disorders and as potential sources of phytomedicines against hyperuricaemia and gout. PMID:12203269

  11. Late Quaternary activity along the Scorciabuoi Fault (Southern Italy as inferred from electrical resistivity tomographies

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    A. Loperte

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scorciabuoi Fault is one of the major tectonic structures affecting the Southern Apennines, Italy. Across its central sector, we performed several electrical resistivity tomographies with different electrode spacing (5 and 10 m and using a multielectrode system with 32 electrodes. All tomographies were acquired with two different arrays, the dipole-dipole and the Wenner-Schlumberger. We also tested the different sensitivity of the two arrays with respect to the specific geological conditions and research goals. Detailed geological mapping and two boreholes were used to calibrate the electrical stratigraphy. In all but one tomography (purposely performed off the fault trace, we could recognise an abrupt subvertical lateral variation of the main sedimentary bodies showing the displacement and sharp thickening of the two youngest alluvial bodies in the hanging-wall block. These features are interpreted as evidence of synsedimentary activity of the Scorciabuoi Fault during Late Pleistocene and possibly as recently as Holocene and allow accurate location of the fault trace within the Sauro alluvial plain.

  12. Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Maurizio Polemio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy, with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation.

  13. Depth-weighted Inverse and Imaging methods to study the Earth's Crust in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Inversion means solving a set of geophysical equations for a spatial distribution of parameters (or functions) which could have produced an observed set of measurements. Imaging is instead a transformation of magnetometric data into a scaled 3D model resembling the true geometry of subsurface geologic features. While inversion theory allows many additional constraints, such as depth weighting, positivity, physical property bounds, smoothness, focusing, imaging methods of magnetic data derived under different theories are all found to reduce to either simple upward continuation or a depth-weighted upward continuation, with weights expressed in the general form of a power law of the altitude, with the half of the structural index as exponent. Note however that specifying the appropriate level of depth weighting is not just a problem in these imaging techniques but should also be considered in standard inversion methods. We will also investigate the relationship between imaging methods and multiscale methods. A multiscale analysis is well suitable to study potential fields because the way potential fields convey source information is strictly related to the scale of analysis. The stability of multiscale methods results from mixing, in a single operator, the wavenumber low-pass behaviour of the upward continuation transformation of the field with the enhancement high-pass properties of n-order derivative transformations. So, the complex reciprocal interference of several field components may be efficiently faced at several scales of the analysis and the depth to the sources may be estimated together with the homogeneity degrees of the field. We will describe the main aspects of both the kinds of interpretation under the study of multi-source models and apply either inversion or imaging techniques to the magnetic data of complex crustal areas of Southern Italy, such as the Campanian volcanic district and the Southern Apennines. The studied area includes a Pleistocene

  14. A specimen of Sorex cfr. samniticus in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un Sorex cfr. samniticus (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di Tyto alba delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

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    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of Sorex sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to Sorex samniticus Altobello, 1926. The genus Sorex was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of Sorex in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di Sorex cfr. samniticus da borre di Tyto alba delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  15. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  16. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

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    Domenico Ventrella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  17. Novel monitoring protocol for the Monte Cotugno Dam (Southern Italy) healthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Loperte, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    to evaluate the water level in the inner part of dam on dependence of the minimum and maximum water level in the basin. These surveys have allowed to identify areas of the side facing upstream, at which sampling coring were carried out, and the samples were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory with the aim to evaluate the state of conservation and permeability. ERT images also permitted to identify areas affected by water infiltration below the basin level, which underwent to a visual inspection through an underwater drone. This underwater survey confirmed the presence of deteriorated areas and submerged fractured bituminous zone. This, the flaring of the reservoir was carried out as far as the managing body saw fit. After, in correspondence of the minimum basin level, a visual inspection of all the bituminous face was performed, thus identifying fractured zones on which to intervene immediately. As conclusion, we can state that the integrated approach here presented was crucial in order to identify, areas of the facing bituminous needing urgent interventions. [1] A. Loperte, M Bavusi, G. Cerverizzo, V Lapenna, and F Soldovieri, "Integrated geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy)", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-9972, 2012

  18. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  19. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  20. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  1. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  2. DDF-curves updating in climate change scenarios for Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzoa, L.; Freni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently trends in extreme rainfall were investigated on the global, regional and local scales. On the global scale, there is robust observational evidence that the frequency and intensity of extreme events significantly changed over the last decades. For this reason, climate change effects on extreme rainfall should be accounted in the design of hydraulics infrastructures, in particular in the definition of rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves. The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of the effects of statistically significant trends in extreme rainfall on the rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves for the return periods typically used in the design of urban drainage systems. The methodology proposed in this study was applied in Southern Italy, specifically in Sicily. Firstly, the detection and quantification of trends in the annual maximum rainfall series of different durations, recorded in 65 rain gauges over the 1950-2008 period, were carried out. For each duration, the moving averages were computed and then the Mann-Kendall test was applied. Results showed that, for all the durations, increasing and decreasing trends occurred over the examined period. The generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) has been employed to compute extreme rainfall with return periods equal to 5, 10 and 20 years. The magnitude of statistically significant trends were used in order to modify the GEV parameters and define the DDF curves in some climate scenarios. The study highlighted the need to revise and update design criteria to account for potential future variations of extreme rainfall due to climate change.

  3. Understanding the structural setting in the Southern Apennines (Italy): insight from Gravity Gradient Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Maurizio; Ferranti, Luigi; Florio, Giovanni; Giori, Italiano; Italiano, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    The Lucania Apennines form the frontal part of the Apennines in Southern Italy. This orogenic belt was formed in response to late Miocene-Early Pleistocene shortening and allochthon emplacement toward the northeast, and was subsequently affected by extensional faulting which migrated to northeast ahead of the thrust system. As a result, contraction structures are found associated to Pliocene-Early Pleistocene thrust-top basins in the NE part of the area, whereas extensional faults shape Middle Pleistocene-Holocene basin on the SW sector. The main structural grain of the belt is NW-SE, but E-W structures are widespread in the area as a result of phases of non-coaxial thrusting and strike-slip faulting. The analysis, one by one, of the components of the Gravity Gradient Tensor (GGT) has proved to yield a fine image of the structural setting of the investigated area. GGT is a second rank tensor containing the second spatial derivatives of the gravity potential and in this paper is used instead than the more traditional gravity data. The Tzz component allows an accurate description of the location and of the shape of basins and other structures, but different components of the GGT provide even more detailed insights for such structures. In particular, we found that the Tzy and Tyy locate well those structures trending closer to the E-W direction for both thrust-top and extensional basins, and their termination against the main NW-SE structures. The combined use of components of GGT provides a finer definition of the anomaly sources particularly if a good knowledge of their strike and depth is independently estimated with other geological and geophysical investigations.

  4. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  5. Productivity and modifications of ecosystem processes in gaps of a low Macchia in southern Italy

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    A. De Marco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance in Mediterranean shrub lands creates gaps that break up the shrub cover and potentially restrict productivity and other ecosystem processes. Gaps make up to about 20% of the low Macchia area at the Castel Volturno nature reserve (southern Italy. The plant community consists mainly of small annual species (legumes, grasses and forbs that germinate in November and die out before the onset of summer drought. The inter-annual variability in productivity and the relative abundance of legumes, grasses and forbs were assessed over 4 yr (2004–2007 to evaluate main potential modifications of ecosystem processes determined by the occurrence of gaps in the shrub cover.

    In the study years, at the peak production, plant mass varied from about 250 to 700 g m−2; biomass belowground allocation varied from 23% in the wettest to 44% in the driest year. Belowground/aboveground biomass ratios were negatively related to rainfall and positively related to the length of the dry period, showing that water availability controls biomass allocation patterns. Legumes were the most abundant fraction (about 60% of the aboveground mass in the wettest year. In the drier years legumes exhibited a shorter life cycle and senesced by mid-spring. Among the three functional groups monitored, legumes were the most sensitive to water shortage and their biomass was positively related to the amount of rainfall and negatively related to the length of the dry period. The higher fraction of legume mass was associated with higher nitrogen content in plant tissues and in the soil. Senesced annual species decomposed more than senescent Phillyrea sp. leaves. The stability of organic carbon pool, evaluated through the endogenous mineralization coefficient (CEM, was lower in gaps than in understorey soils.

  6. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

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    Roberta Infascelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha, livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00, nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year. The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should

  7. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

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    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  8. Sedimentological and palaeoecological integrated analysis of a Miocene channelized carbonate margin, Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Davide; Carannante, Gabriele; Checconi, Alessio; Simone, Lucia; Vigorito, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Lower-Middle Miocene temperate marine carbonates occur in the Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines (Italy). These carbonates formed in an open-shelf depositional system with an uneven margin, 10 km long and up to 6 km wide. Shelf margin morphology shows multiple submarine channelized carbonate deposits which are dominated by coralline red algae and subordinate bryozoans. Two main channel networks (Pietraroia and Regia Piana channels) with their sedimentary bodies were analysed. The studied submarine channels grew by sediment accumulation as prograding bodies on a tectonic modelled substrate. Shallow-water rhodalgal skeletal debris, from moderately re-mobilized up to significantly re-worked, built up the complex channel-system fills in which sedimentary lenses overlapped and partially amalgamated one another when they were still unlithified. The early channelized succession is characterized by parautochthonous bryozoan floatstone and rhodolith/bryozoan floatstone representing soft muddy substrates in a low water turbulence and high turbidity setting. The rhodoliths, dominated by melobesioid coralline algae, are sub-discoidal and sub-spheroidal in shape with a characteristic loosely-packed inner arrangement. These sediments, whose latter portion underwent submarine diagenetic processes (incipient to evoluted hard-grounds), were eroded and successively covered by shallower water gravitative deposits constituted by rhodolith floatstone/rudstone. Their rhodoliths, constituted by melobesioids, mastophoroids and subordinate lithophylloids and sporolithaceans, are mainly spheroidal/sub-spheroidal in shape with subordinate sub-discoidal specimens, with massive and laminar inner arrangements. The lack in early lithification can be drawn back to the physiography of the channelized shelf margin, to the active tectonic as well as to the temperate-type carbonate dominant biogenic components. The depositional surface profile and local hydrodynamic conditions were the major

  9. Antibiotic prescribing for dental conditions: a community-based study in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaglia, G; Arcoraci, V; Blandino, G; Miragliotta, G; Schito, A M; Pasquantonio, G; Nicoletti, G; Caputi, A P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for which conditions antibiotics are being used in community dental practice, and which clinical features represent the most common reason for an antibacterial approach to the treatment of dental conditions. The study was carried out from November 1998 to June 1999. Dentists were selected according to the different areas of southern Italy, from a list provided by the Italian Society of Dentists. Out of 87 selected dentists, 33 agreed to participate and filled in 1615 questionnaires for each therapeutic intervention ending with antibiotic treatment. Analysis of data indicated that alveolar-gingival abscesses were the most commonly treated infection, accounting for 23.6% of total treatments, followed by acute periodontitis (20.6%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (18.5%). Parenteral antibiotics were chosen in 7.8% of cases. Penicillins were the most commonly used group, 40.1% of total treatments, followed by macrolides (30.2%) and cephalosporins (13.4%). Moreover, penicillins were widely used for post-surgery therapy (52.1%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (50.8%), while macrolides were the most commonly used group for gingivitis (44.1%) and parodontal diseases (55.0%). The choice of parenteral antibiotics was related to severe general symptoms (odds ratios [OR], 4.4; 95% CI: 2.2-9.0), pain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.1) and lymphonodal involvement (OR, 6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that antibiotic treatment is often based on the eradication of as many microorganisms as possible, and on the clinical assessment of the patients, rather than on any knowledge of the pathogens involved. PMID:11892902

  10. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

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    Franco Tassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  11. Coastline shifts and probable ship landing site submerged off ancient Locri-Epizefiri, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennent, J.M.; Stanley, J.-D.; Hart, P.E.; Bernasconi, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A geophysical survey provides new information on marine features located seaward of Locri-Epizefiri (Locri), an ancient Greek settlement on the Ionian coastal margin in southern Italy. The study supplements previous work by archaeologists who long searched for the site's harbor and recently identified what was once a marine basin that is now on land next to the city walls of Locri. Profiles obtained offshore, between the present coast and outer shelf, made with a high-resolution, seismic subbottom-profiling system, record spatial and temporal variations of buried Holocene deposits. Two of these submerged features are part of a probable now-submerged ship landing facility. The offshore features can be linked to coastline displacements that occurred off Locri: a sea-to-land shift before Greek settlement, followed by a shoreline reversal from the archaeological site back to sea, and more recently, a return landward. The seaward directed coastal shift that occurred after Locri's occupation by Greeks was likely caused by land uplift near the coastal margin and tectonic seaward shift of the coast, as documented along this geologically active sector of the Calabrian Arc. The seismic survey records an angular, hook-shaped, low rise that extends from the present shore and is now buried on the inner shelf. The rise, enclosing a core lens of poorly stratified to transparent acoustic layers, bounds a broad, low-elevation zone positioned immediately seaward of the shoreline. Close proximity of the raised feature to the low-elevation area suggests it may have been a fabricated structure that functioned as a wave-break for a ship-landing site. The study indicates that the basin extended offshore as a function of the coastline's seaward migration during and/or after Greek occupation of Locri.

  12. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  13. SEISMIC CODA-Q AND SCALING LAW OF THE SOURCE SPECTRA AT THE AEOLIAN ISLANDS, SOUTHERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pezzo, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Ferulano, F.; ENI E&P Division; Giarrusso, A.; University of Naples; Martini, M.

    1983-01-01

    The model developed by Aki and Chouet for the coda wave generation and propagation has been used to calculate the quality factor Q for the zone of the Aeolian Islands, southern Italy, in the frequency range of 1 to 12 Hz, and the scaling properties of the seismic spectrum in the magnitude range of 0.4 to 4.7. The Q found for the Aeolian area has a frequency dependence of the form Q = qf v. The absolute values of Q seem to be dependent on the station and location of the seismic events, conf...

  14. Active degassing of mantle-derived fluid: A geochemical study along the Vulture line, southern Apennines (Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Martelli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nuccio, P. M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Paternoster, M.; Università della Basilicata; Fin, S.; Isotope Geosciences Unit, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre,

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions along a NE–SW transect in southern Italy in order to test the hypothesis that the region around Monte Vulture is affected by degassing of mantle-derived fluids through a lithospheric discontinuity. We also investigated lavas from the Monte Vulture volcano displaying 3He/4He (up to ~6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin inmantle that has hadminimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. Similar 3He/...

  15. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Pasanisi; Lucia Sacchetti; Pasqualina Buono; Eduardo Farinaro; Franco Contaldo; Massimo Pezzuti; Giuseppe Castaldo; Valentina Capobianco; Maddalena Ferrigno; Giuseppe Labruna; Rosario Liguori; Cristina Mazzaccara; Carmela Nardelli

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n = 500; BMI > 40 kg/m2) and controls (n = 216; BMI < 25 kg/m2) was sequenced to determine the mtDN...

  16. Ar-Ar investigations on Quarternary volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, A.; Principe, C.; Villa, I. M.

    2003-04-01

    Volcanic sanidines and phlogopites from feldspathoid- or sanidine-bearing volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy) were analysed using Ar-Ar stepwise heating. In all samples phlogopite and sanidine are internally inhomogeneous as observed in a plot of Cl/K ratio vs step-age. At least two phases that are degassed during different temperature steps can be distinguished, resulting in internal discordance. Hence, all samples are affected by impurities and have to be treated as heterochemical mixtures. These effects are strongest in phlogopite. The high uncertainty of the calculated ages mirrors the statistically significant age discordance. The calculation of average ages was focused on isochemical steps. Isochron calculations necessarily give less precise ages because of the excessive scatter of datapoints. Moreover, most coarse grained phlogopites could contain excess 40Ar (as suggested by non-atmospheric intercepts in isochron plots) which could be of mantle origin. The analysed phlogopites from carbonatitic and melilite-foiditolite rocks of the upper stratigraphical sequence of Monte Vulture are Mg-rich, which indicates a mantle provenance (Stoppa and Woolley, 1997). All calculated phlogopite ages have, therefore, to be considered with caution. One sample, PG5, contains both sanidine and matrix phlogopite. This offers the possibility to directly compare the analytical results and further decipher possible inconsistencies. Ages were calculated as the average of isochemical steps, and errors are indicated at the 95% confidence level. Sanidine gives a weighted average age of 752±13 ka in agreement with the phlogopite age of 801±88 ka. In comparison to these average step ages, an isochron over five sanidine-steps yields an age of 737±35 ka (MSWD=1.5) and an atmospheric intercept of 295±49. The eruptive time-span covered by the analysed samples is 75±20 ka, confirming that the eruption history of Monte Vulture has been organised in clusters of activity

  17. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  18. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the older (> 40 ka) ignimbrites in the Campanian Plain, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Raia, Federica; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Jackson, John C.; de Vivo, Benedetto

    2010-05-01

    The Campanian Plain in southern Italy has been volcanically active during the last 600 ka. The largest and best known eruption at 39 ka formed the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), which has the largest volume (~310 km3) and the greatest areal extent. However, significant, but scattered deposits of older ignimbrites underlie the CI and document a long history of trachytic eruptions. We examined the geochemistry and mineralogy of 11 older ignimbrite strata by optical petrography, electron microprobe, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and various whole-rock geochemical techniques. Strata at Durazzano (116.1 ka), Moschiano (184.7 ka), Seiano Valley A (245.9 ka), Seiano Valley B (289.6 ka), Taurano 7 (205.6 and 210.4 ka), Taurano 9 (183.8 ka), and Taurano 14 (157.4 ka) have been previously dated by the 40Ar/39Ar technique (Rolandi et al., 2003, Min. & Pet., 79) on hand-picked sanidine. The older ignimbrites are trachytic, but are highly altered with LOI from 8 to 17 wt%. Whole-rock compositions reflect variable element mobility during weathering; TiO2, Al2O3, Fe-oxide, and CaO tend to be enriched relative to average CI composition, whereas Na2O and K2O are depleted. X-ray diffraction identified major chabazite, kaolinite, and illite-smectite alteration products in some samples. The phenocryst mineralogy in all of the strata is typical for trachyte magma and consists of plagioclase (~An80 to ~An40), potassium feldspar (~Or50 to ~Or80), biotite (TiO2 = ~4.6 wt%, BaO = ~0.70 wt%, F = ~0.65 wt%), diopside (~Ca47Mg48Fe5 to ~Ca48Mg34Fe18), titanomagnetite, and uncommon Ca-amphibole. Relatively immobile trace elements Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th display similar abundance, linear trends, and ratios as those measured in the Campanian Ignimbrite: Th/Hf = ~4, Zr/Hf = ~50, and Zr/Nb = ~6. The similarity of trace element systematics and phenocryst mineralogy among the Campanian Ignimbrite and the older ignimbrites suggests that the magmagenesis processes and parental source have

  19. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy for predicting texture in forest soil: an application in southern Italy

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    Conforti M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Texture is a primary variable affecting the total amount of carbon stock in the soil. The standard methods for determining soil texture, however, are still conducted manually and are largely time-consuming. Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible, near infrared (Vis-NIR, 350-2500 nm spectral region could be an alternative to standard laboratory methods. The aim of this paper was to develop calibration models based on laboratory Vis-NIR spectroscopy and PLSR analysis to estimate the texture (sand: 2-0.05 mm; silt: 0.05-0.002 mm; clay: <0.002 mm in a forest area of southern Italy. An additional objective was to produce continuous maps of sand, silt and clay through a geostatistical approach. Soil samples were collected at 235 locations in the study area, and then dried, sieved at 2 mm and analyzed in laboratory for soil texture and Vis-NIR spectroscopic measurements. Spectra showed that soil samples could be spectrally separable on the basis of classes of texture. To establish the relationships between spectral reflectance and soil texture (sand, silt and clay partial least squared regression (PLSR analysis was applied to 175 soil samples, while the remaining 60 samples were used to validate the models. The optimum number of factors to be retained in the calibration models was determined by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results of cross validation of calibration models indicated that the models fitted quite well and the values of R2 ranged between a minimum value of 0.74% for silt and a maximum value of 0.84 for sand content. Results for validation were satisfactory for sand content (R2=0.81 and clay content (R2=0.80 and less satisfactory for silt content (R2=0.70. Geostatistics coupled with Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy allowed us to produce continuous maps of sand, silt and clay, which are of critical importance for understanding and managing forest soils.

  20. Contemporary ground-based and satellite precipitating system characterization for desertification studies in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casazza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During the research project RIADE (Ricerca Integrata per l'Applicazione di tecnologie e processi innovativi per la lotta alla DEsertificazione, devoted to the study on the potential risk of desertification in Southern Italy, a particular attention has been paid also to the analysis of precipitations from three surface stations (Licata, Sicily; Rotondella, Basilicata; Surigheddu, Sardinia in order to improve the knowledge derived from the most modern climatological studies related to this subject. The point of view adopted is to better define the precipitation microphysical properties (in particular, the Drop Size Distribution, DSD, and its moments, which are deeply related to the cloud system that generates the precipitation events. In particular we have used a newly introduced Convective Stratiform discrimination technique, that allowed us to observe a prevalence of events, concentrated along Winter (Wi season, of different microphysical nature. In fact the prevailing Stratiform nature is related to Licata station, while for Surigheddu and for Rotondella the nature is mainly Convective. This distinction is related to the presence of drops of bigger dimensions and more intense precipitations in the latter case, while, in the former case, a prevalence of smaller drops and a less intense precipitation is recorded. This confirms the distinctive belonging to three different climatic regions, as indicated in the study by Brunetti et al. (2006. Our findings are important in the framework of desertification studies, because the cause of desertification can be related either to fertile soils removal (in the case of Convective events or to lack of precipitated water (in the case of Stratiform events. We have also analysed a sub-set of ten events, with contemporary presence of data from VIS/IR channels of METEOSAT-7, SSM/I data from F13 and MODIS data from Terra platform. This has been done both to confirm the findings of PLUDIX data analysis (which

  1. Wind shear coefficients, roughness length and energy yield over coastal locations in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Giovanni [Research National Council-Institute for Biometeorology (CNR-IBIMET), Via Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Secci, Sauro [Fedi Impianti Srl, Via Caduti di Cefalonia, 31, 50127 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    In the present work a computation of wind shear coefficients (WSCs) based on 1-h measured wind data has been performed by three stations located over coastal sites in Southern Italy, i.e., Brindisi (BR), Portoscuso (PS) and Termini Imerese (TI). Wind observations have been collected through a 6-year period (January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2002) by wind mast recording at the same two sensor heights (i.e., 10 and 50 m AGL), thus enabling a proper wind profile analysis. WSC overall mean values were found to be 0.271 at BR, 0.232 at PS, and 0.150 at TI. In addition, a detailed analysis has been carried out to describe the WSC yearly, monthly and diurnal variation, as well as by wind direction. The characteristics of z{sub 0} surface roughness length have been also investigated as an estimate for neutral stability conditions only, resulting in overall mean values of 0.526 m at BR, 0.287 m at PS, and 0.027 m at TI. The z{sub 0} variation by year, month and hour of the day, as well as by wind direction, has been analysed, too. The European ''Corine Land Cover 2000'' classification of the study areas has been employed to deeply investigate the land use influence on both WSC and z{sub 0} characteristics as a function of wind direction. Based on temperature and pressure surface measurements, the computation of site-specific mean air density as well as monthly variation has been also performed. Site-related 50-m wind resource has been assessed by means of wind roses and wind speed frequency distributions, as well as Weibull's parameters. The potential turbine-converted wind energy yield has been also investigated, enabling to detect, for each site, the most suitable 50-m hub height turbine model regardless of its rated power. Furthermore, a number of comparisons have been made to assess the discrepancy in 50-m energy yield resulting if using data extrapolated from 10 m, both with 0.143 default and overall mean WSC value, instead of actually 50-m

  2. The flood event of November 2013 in Calabria (southern Italy): damage and hydrogeological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela

    2014-05-01

    On November 19th, 2013, Calabria region (southern Italy) has been affected by a flood event which caused numerous damages in particular in the Ionian side of the region. In this work, the event is analyzed in terms of damage and hydrologic features. Beside rainfall, the event has been characterized by intense sea storms which, increased by Sirocco gusts, obstructed the outlet of the floods toward the sea. As a result, river overflowing was amplified and caused the breaking of either natural or artificial embankments. Damage affected 49 municipalities located in the mid-east sector, on a surface of 1898 km2 (12.6% of the Calabrian area). Roads (damaged in 86% of the affected municipalities) and private buildings (39%) were the most heavily damaged elements: in many cases the water level reached 1m. People were directly involved in risky situations but they managed to save their lives: only two people were injured. Return periods of daily rain can be classified as ordinary (between 2 and 13 years) with the only exception of a gauge located in the northern east sector, which showed a return period of more than 100 years. On the contrary, 3-hour rain shows peak values of 160 mm and return period higher than 200 years. As a result, the event can be considered an "impulsive" one, powered by intense hourly rain, and its dangerousness was mainly related to the "flash" character of the triggered floods. The analysis of circumstances in which people were directly threatened confirms floods as the main source of risk, both indoors (65% of cases) and outdoors (35%); in the latter case, the majority of people involved were on board of vehicles (26%). Differently from the past Calabrian damaging hydrogeological events, people did not adopt unnecessary risky behaviors, and in 26% of cases they managed to save their life without any help. Probably this is the factor that lead to low damage to people, since only two people were slightly injured. These results could be proficiently

  3. Numerical model to support the management of groundwater resources of a coastal karstic aquifer (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of the research is to define management apporouches for a coastal karstic aquifer. The core of the tools uses numerical modelling, applied to groundwater resource of Salento (southern Italy) and criteria to reduce the quantitative and qualitative degradation risks. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. The approach chosen was based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium by which it is assumed that the real heterogeneous aquifer can be simulated as homogeneous porous media within cells or elements. The modelled aquifer portion extends for 2230 km2, and it was uniformly discretized into 97,200 cells, each one of 0.6 km2. Vertically, to allow a good lithological and hydrogeological discretization, the area was divided into 12 layers, from 214 to -350 m asl. Thickness and geometry of layers was defined on the basis of the aquifer conceptualisation based on the 3d knowledge of hydrogeological complexes. For the boundary conditions, inactive cells were used along the boundary with the rest of Murgia-Salento aquifer, as conceptual underground watershed due to the absence of flow. About the sea boundary was used CHD boundary cells (Constant Head Boundary). Additional boundary conditions were used for SEAWAT modelling, as initial concentration and constant concentration, in the latter case for cells shaping the coastline. A mean annual net rainfall (recharge) was calculated in each cell with a GIS elaboration, ranged from 68 to 343 mm, 173 mm an average. The recharge or infiltration was calculated using an infiltration coefficient (IC) (defined as infiltration/net rainfall ratio) for each hydrogeological complex, assuming values equal to 1 inside endorheic areas. The mean annual recharge was equal to 150 mm. The model was implemented using MODFLOW and SEAWAT codes in steady-state conditions to obtain a starting point for following transient scenarios, using piezometric data of thirties as

  4. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

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    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  5. Geoethics and hazard education. A comparison between Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Zumbo, Rosarianna

    2015-04-01

    reactions. The design, the game and handling are a key to access the mental representation of the traumatic event that the child has formed. They are also used as indicators of the child experience and how he solves the traumatic elements of the event. The present work aims to collect testimonies and mental maps of drawn by Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta students. A critical comparison was made on the natural disasters experiences reported by students.

  6. Using faults for PSHA in a volcanic context: the Etna case (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Gee, Robin; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    At Mt. Etna volcano (Southern Italy), recurrent volcano-tectonic earthquakes affect the urbanised areas, with an overall population of about 400,000 and with important infrastructures and lifelines. For this reason, seismic hazard analyses have been undertaken in the last decade focusing on the capability of local faults to generate damaging earthquakes especially in the short-term (30-5 yrs); these results have to be intended as complementary to the regulatory seismic hazard maps, and devoted to establish priority in the seismic retrofitting of the exposed municipalities. Starting from past experience, in the framework of the V3 Project funded by the Italian Department of Civil Defense we performed a fully probabilistic seismic hazard assessment by using an original definition of seismic sources and ground-motion prediction equations specifically derived for this volcanic area; calculations are referred to a new brand topographic surface (Mt. Etna reaches more than 3,000 m in elevation, in less than 20 km from the coast), and to both Poissonian and time-dependent occurrence models. We present at first the process of defining seismic sources that includes individual faults, seismic zones and gridded seismicity; they are obtained by integrating geological field data with long-term (the historical macroseismic catalogue) and short-term earthquake data (the instrumental catalogue). The analysis of the Frequency Magnitude Distribution identifies areas in the volcanic complex, with a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship representative of different dynamic processes. Then, we discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults estimated by using a purely geologic approach. This analysis has been carried out through the software code FISH, a Matlab® tool developed to turn fault data representative of the seismogenic process into hazard models. The utilization of a magnitude-size scaling relationship

  7. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  8. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  9. Tephra layers along the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy: Links to the X-5 & X-6 using volcanic glass geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, P.; Albert, P. G.; Crocitti, M.; De Rosa, R.; Menzies, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the geochemistry of glass fragments from three visible tephra layers outcropping in Southern Italy. Two tephra deposits (LeS1 and LeS2), outcropping in the Palinuro area (Cilento, Southern Italy), correspond stratigraphically to the CIL1 and CIL2 tephra units (Giaccio et al., 2012), respectively; in turn these are correlated with the X-5 (ca. 105 ka) and X-6 (ca. 108 ka) marine tephra markers on the basis of their major element glass compositions. In order to reinforce these tephra correlations we examine both their major and trace element glass compositions. LeS1 compositions were compared with other correlatives of the X-5 tephra layer (POP3 [Sulmona basin], TM-25 [Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM)], CIL1 [Palinuro]) from the central Mediterranean. Our data validate a correlation of the Palinuro tephra layer, LeS1, to the X-5 correlatives. The Palinuro tephra deposit, LeS2, has glass compositions which correspond precisely with correlatives of the X-6 marker tephra (CIL2 [Palinuro], TM-27 [LGdM], I-9 [Ionian Sea] and PRAD 2812 [PRAD1-2, Adriatic Sea]). A tephra in the Valle del Crati (Calabria) appears to overlap in composition with the LeS2 tephra, indicating a probable correlation with the X-6 marker. These new data provide a detailed geochemical characterisation of two widespread marker horizons and are crucial for establishing precise correlations of sedimentary archives across the central Mediterranean region.

  10. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  11. Etiology of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver disease in Southern Italy: results of a prospective multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ascione

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of liver diseases has radically changed in our country over the last few decades. We prospectively collected data on the newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver diseases in a region of southern Italy after about a decade from the last epidemiological study. We conducted a multicentric prospective study that enrolled 631 patients from 21 Liver Centers of the Campania region (Southern Italy at their first hospital admission or at their first outpatient visit. In our cohort of 631 patients (367 males, 263 females, 397 (62.9% were hepatitis C virus (HCV positive, 75 (11.9% were hepatitis B virus (HBV positive, 8 (1.3% were co-infected by HBV and HCV, 73 (11.6% had an alcoholic liver disease and 64 (10.1% had a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HBV infection was present in young people with a higher-than-expected prevalence, despite the vaccination program which should have involved this population. HCV chronic hepatitis still remains the most common cause of liver disease in our region. HBV infection still continues to represent a health problem in young people, despite the vaccination program.

  12. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region Oussama Broutou1, Nuray Baser1, Francesco Porcelli2, Vincenzo Verrastro1, Flutura Lamaj1 1International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM)- Institute of Bari (IAMB), Italy 2Dept. of Soil, Plant and Food Science (Di.S.S.P.A.), University of Bari, Bari, Italy D. suzukii (Diptera Drosophilidae family, sub-genus Sophophora); is a vinegar fly, known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in USA. This insect gained an increasing attention for its heavy infestations on strawberry, blueberry and raspberry in the U.S.A, occurred in 2008 and 2009. D. suzukii has been reported also in Europe, (Spain October 2008), and later on in Italy and France. The first captures occurred in Italy, in Trento province, in 2009. By 2010-2012, other captures were done in Italy, involving other regions, such as: Piemonte, Val d'Aosta, Lombardia, Liguria, Marche Campania and Sicilia. D. suzukii has been indicated by EPPO, as a possible threat for Mediterranean fruit production. An advanced study was carried out in order to find out the potential phytosanitary risk for Mediterranean grapes producing areas, considering that there are only few reports for damages on this crop. By the way Italy is at the third place in the world for grapes production (2011) and at the first place for grapes economical value (2011). The first identification of D. suzukii in Apulia was made in October 2012 and reported to the regional plant protection service in January 2013 by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAMB) and by Bari University (UNIBA). The aim of this study is to estimate the susceptibility of different grapes varieties to such a pest. Ten varieties of table grapes from nine different localities of Bari and Taranto province were used in this study. We tested 23 samples cultivated with organic agriculture method and 16 samples cultivated by conventional agriculture. Thirty berries were collected from

  13. Natural durability, physical and mechanical properties of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) wood from Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Michele; De Capua, Enrico; Nicola MACCHIONI; Monachello, Salvatore

    2001-01-01

    Durabilité naturelle et propriétés physiques et mécaniques du bois de cèdre de l'Atlas (Cedrus atlantica Manetti), de l'Italie du sud. Les auteurs ont étudié la caractérisation technologique du bois de cèdre de l'Atlas qui provient de plantations artificielles de l'Italie du sud. Le cèdre de l'Atlas semble être une des espèces qui pourra obtenir de bons résultats dans la reforestation en Italie du centre et du sud, soit pour sa faculté d'adaptation écologique, soit pour la qualité des arbres ...

  14. Distribution of trace elements in altered pyroclastites from Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccarreta, G.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Three pyroclastic deposits from Monte Yulture volcanic area (Potenza, southern Italy looking like paleosols in the field were investigated in a previous study for mineralogy and major elements to estimate the stage of the weathering. Here is dealt with the behaviour of sorne trace elements (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in the same deposits to give a comprehensive geochemical picture. The distribution of the chemical elements within the whole rock and after its attack with Na-pyrosulfate (residue + solute has been considered. Ba and Sr, as well as their distribution, appear to be controlled by the residual crystals in each of the deposits; La, Ce, Y and Nb are more concentrated in the solute that once was represented by vitric component, allophane, and Fe-Si-Al gels, biotite, carbonates and analcite; Y, Cr, and Ni show similar trends in whole rock and in solute. In particular La, Ce, Y, Y, Cr and Ni in the lowermost unit increase with the depth, as well as the contents of gels and allophane. Probably this behaviour was superimposed by the fluctuation of the water tables, as documented by the occurrence of a carbonate level upon the unit lies. It is concluded that the earliest stage of weathering did not affect the trace element distribution and that interpretations about chemical changes in deeply altered pyroclastic rocks should be always the outcome of careful accurate analyses.En un trabajo previo se estudiaron tres depósitos piroclásticos, considerados como paleosuelos, del área volcánica del Monte Yulture (Potenza, Italia para deducir su grado de meteorización. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de algunos elementos traza (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb en esos depósitos para intentar obtener una imagen geoquímica más completa. Se ha estudiado la distribución de elementos traza en la roca total y después de un ataque con pirosulfato-Na (residuo + solución. Ba y Sr parecen estar controlados

  15. Measuring forest floor evaporation from interception in prescribed burned forests in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Elisabetta; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Greco, Roberto; Ialongo, Gianluca; Esposito, Assunta; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are one of the major environmental issue in the Mediterranean area. Prescribed burning (PB) is increasingly used in Europe as a practice to reduce fire risk, through dead fine fuel reduction. Several studies have focused on fire effects on vegetation and soil microbial community, but very few on ecosystem processes involved in water cycle. This study aims to estimate interception by the litter and fermentation layer and the successive evaporation flux in laboratory conditions, using a water balance and 2H and 18O isotopes mass balance calculation, in order to assess PB effects on the hydrology and ecosystem in pine plantations. PB was carried out in spring 2014 in three pine plantations of Southern Italy, dominated by Pinus halepensis (Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni National Park, CVDANP), P. pinaster (Vesuvio National Park, VNP) and P. pinea (Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, CVNR). A dataset concerning the effects of PB on vegetation structure, floristic composition, microbial biomass and activity in the fermentation layer and 5-cm of soil beneath is available for the same stands. In each plantation, two cores of litter and fermentation layer were sampled in a burned area and in a near unburned area (control), respectively, with a collector to extract an "undisturbed" core. Then, each core was transferred in a lysimeter installed in the Water Lab of Delft University of Technology. In total, three lysimeters were set up and each experiment was carried out in duplicate. The laboratory had constant temperature, and both temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 15 minutes. To simulate rainfall, ~1 litre of tap water was sprinkled uniformly on the lysimeter with a plant spray (equivalent to 32 mm of rain). The precipitation was sprinkled every 3 days for a period of two months. Soil moisture and temperature were measured during the experiment every 15 minutes in the top and bottom of the litter and fermentation layer. Interception water was

  16. High resolution seismic imaging of an active normal fault in the Agri Valley, Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Bruno, P.; di Fiore, V.; Mariani, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Agri Valley is an intermontane basin located in the Southern Apennine seismic belt (Italy) whose formation in tied to large NW-trending trastensional and extensional faults active since Early Pleistocene. Recent faulting activity in the area is documented by faulted paleosoils and suggested by a M7 earthquake that struck the basin in 1857. On the contrary, present-day background seismicity in the area is extremely low. Despite intense geomorphic investigations, the identification of the source responsible for this historical event and of further large seismogenic faults in the area is still a matter of debate. A new NW trending normal faulting system has been recently recognized based on subtle geomorphic expressions on the ridge bounding the basin westward. Recent faulting activity along this structure is locally documented by a trench. Aimed at yielding new information about the shallow structure of the fault, we conducted a high resolution seismic experiment in a small lacustrine basin, located 4 km south of the trench, in which the presence of the fault is inferred by a linear surface warping but trench excavation is impractical. Both multi-fold wide-angle data and multichannel near vertical reflection data have been collected along a 220-m-long profile in order to obtain an accurate model of the basin combining seismic velocity and reflectivity images. About 3600 first arrival traveltimes picked on 36 wide-angle record sections have been inverted by a non-linear tomographic technique that is specially designed to image complex structures. The tomographic inversion provides a high-resolution velocity model of the basin down to 60 m depth. The model is strongly heterogeneous and displays sharp lateral velocity variations. Seismic reflection processing has been applied to both data sets. Data have been edited for trace quality and first (refracted and direct) arrivals have been muted. A following FK dip filtering on the shot gathers reduced the energy

  17. Olive cultivars adaptability in Southern Italy in present and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, M.; Alfieri, S.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Menenti, M.; De Lorenzi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops is very significant and likely to provide the single major opportunity to cope with the effects of the changing climate on agricultural ecosystems. Assessment of adaptive capacity must rely on quantitative descriptions of plant responses to environmental factors (e.g. soil water availability, temperature). Moreover climate scenario needs to be downscaled to the spatial scale relevant to crop and farm management. Distributed models of crop response to environmental forcing might be used for this purpose, but severely constrained by the very scarce knowledge on variety-specific values of model parameters, thus limiting the potential exploitation of intra-specific biodiversity towards adaptation. We have developed an approach towards this objective that relies on two complementary elements: a)a distributed model of the soil plant atmosphere system to downscale climate scenarios to landscape units, where generic model parameters for each species are used; b)a data base on climatic requirements of as many varieties as feasible for each species relevant to the agricultural production system of a given region. By means of this approach, the adaptability of some olive cultivars was evaluated in a composite (hills and plains) area of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, Campania Region, about 20.000 ha). The yearly average temperature is 22.5 °C and rainfall ranges between 600 and 900 mm. Two different climate scenarios were considered: current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios at low spatial resolution were generated with general circulation models (AOGCM) and down-scaled by means of a statistical model (Tomozeiu et al., 2007). The climate was represented by daily observations of minimum, maximum temperature and precipitation on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km; 50 realizations were used for future climate. The soil water regime of 45 soil units was described for

  18. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  19. Uncertainty assessment through a precipitation dependent HUP: an application to a small Southern Italy catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, D.; Versace, P.; Sirangelo, B.

    2009-04-01

    The present study focuses on the application of a precipitation dependent HUP (Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor) to assess the predictive uncertainty on water discharge predictions for a small headwater catchment located in Calabria (South Italy) through a complete example of the estimation procedure, modelling assumptions and results. The applied HUP was proposed by Krzysztofowicz in 1999, and is a component of the Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) which provides a general methodology for probabilistic forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. Within the BFS framework, the task of the HUP is to quantify the effects of various uncertainty sources on the forecasts, e.g. of river discharges, under the hypothesis that there is no precipitation uncertainty. According to the principle of Bayesian revision of a probability distribution, the general formulation of the HUP supplies the hydrologic uncertainty in terms of a family,g°(×|s,h0), of posterior densities of discharge H, for every possible realization s of the model river discharge process S and observation H0 = h0 of river discharge up to the forecast time. This result is obtained through the revision of a prior distribution g of the predictand, which exists before the preparation of a forecast, on the basis of a likelihood function f estimated from past evidence on model performance against observations. The implemented HUP rests on the following assumptions: precipitation dependent structure; nonstationarity of both actual river stage and model river stage process with lead time n; meta-gaussian formulation for all the conditional distributions. The study watershed is the test site of the Turbolo Creek catchment (29 km2), a tributary of the Crati River, located in Southern Italy. The hydro-meteorological database used within this study comprises rainfall, temperature, and discharge values sampled with a 20 minutes temporal resolution. The hydrologic response in the HUP is simulated by the RISE

  20. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  1. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene vegetation and climate in Southern Italy: the case of Lago di Trifoglietti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Brugiapaglia, E.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Bernardo, L.; Magny, M.; Peyron, O.; Vannière, B.

    2012-06-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Lake Trifoglietti in Calabria (Southern Italy) provides new insights into the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes which characterise the Holocene period in the Southern Italy. The chronology is based on 11 AMS radiocarbon dates from terrestrial macro-remains. The Holocene history of the vegetation cover shows the persistence of an important and relatively stable Fagus forest present over that entire period, offering a rare example of a woodstand able to withstand climate changes for more than 11 000 yr. Probably in relation with early Holocene dry climate conditions which affected Southern Italy, the Trifoglietti pollen record supports a southward delay in thermophilous forest expansion dated to ca. 13 500 cal. BP at Monticchio, ca. 11 000 cal. BP at Trifoglietti, and finally ca. 9800 cal. BP in Sicily. Regarding the human impact history, the Trifoglietti pollen record shows only poor imprints of agricultural activities and anthopogenic indicators, apart from those indicating pastoralism activities beneath forest cover. The selective exploitation of Abies appears to have been the strongest human impact on the Trifoglietti surroundings. On the basis of (1) a specific ratio between hygrophilous and terrestrial taxa, and (2) the modern analogue technique, the pollen data collected at Lake Trifoglietti led to the establishment of two palaeoclimatic records tracing changes in (1) lake depth and (2) annual precipitation. On a millennial scale, these records give evidence of increasing moisture from ca. 11 000 to ca. 9400 cal. BP and maximum humidity from ca. 9400 to ca. 6200 cal. BP, prior to a general trend towards the drier climate conditions that have prevailed up to the present. In addition, several successive centennial-scale oscillations appear to have punctuated the entire Holocene. The identification of a cold dry event around 11 300 cal. BP, responsible for a marked decline in timberline altitude and possibly

  2. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene vegetation and climate in southern Italy: the case of Lago Trifoglietti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Brugiapaglia, E.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Bernardo, L.; Magny, M.; Peyron, O.; Goring, S.; Vannière, B.

    2012-12-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Lago Trifoglietti in Calabria (southern Italy) provides new insights into the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes which characterise the Holocene period in the southern Italy. The chronology is based on 11 AMS radiocarbon dates from terrestrial organic material. The Holocene history of the vegetation cover shows the persistence of an important and relatively stable Fagus forest present over that entire period, offering a rare example of a beech woodstand able to withstand climate changes for more than 11 000 yr. Probably in relation with early Holocene dry climate conditions which affected southern Italy, the Trifoglietti pollen record supports a southward delay in thermophyllous forest expansion dated to ca. 13 500 cal BP at Monticchio, ca. 11 000 cal BP at Trifoglietti, and finally ca. 9800 cal BP in Sicily. Regarding the human impact history, the Trifoglietti pollen record shows only poor imprints of agricultural activities and anthopogenic indicators, apart from those indicating pastoralism activities beneath forest cover. The selective exploitation of Abies appears to have been the strongest human impact on the Trifoglietti surroundings. On the basis of (1) a specific ratio between hygrophilous and terrestrial taxa, and (2) the Modern Analogue Technique, the pollen data collected at Lago Trifoglietti led to the establishment of two palaeoclimatic records tracing changes in (1) lake depth and (2) annual precipitation. On a millennial scale, these records give evidence of increasing moisture from ca. 11 000 to ca. 9400 cal BP and maximum humidity from ca. 9400 to ca. 6200 cal BP, prior to a general trend towards the drier climate conditions that have prevailed up to the present. In addition, several successive centennial-scale oscillations appear to have punctuated the entire Holocene. The identification of a cold dry event around 11 300 cal BP, responsible for a marked decline in timberline altitude and possibly

  3. Pattern of seismicity in the Lucanian Apennines and foredeep (Southern Italy from recording by SAPTEX temporary array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Gori

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of a temporary seismic network in Southern Italy during 2001-2004 (the SAPTEX array, Southern APennine Tomography EXperiment allowed us to relocate the hypocenters of Southern Apennines earthquakes with low uncertainty among the location parameters. The best array distribution of the SAPTEX network for the analysis of seismicity in the Lucanian Apennines and foredeep was reached in the first two years of recording. The SAPTEX data were merged with those of the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. For the hypocenters computation of events in the upper Agri Valley we also included P- and S- waves arrivals from the local Eni-Agip network. The seismicity for the Lucanian Apennines and foredeep in the analyzed period has magnitudes ranging from 2.0 to 4.1. A major finding is the identification of two different crustal domains: the westernmost characterizing the chain, mostly with shallow earthquakes (within about 20 km of depth, and the easternmost one belonging to the outer margin of the chain and to the foredeep, with deeper seismicity (mostly between 20-40 km of depth. Thirty fault-plane solutions were computed and used for stress inversion; most of them are related to earthquakes within the chain sector and indicate a generalized NE-SW extension. Moreover, the dense network allowed us to improve the location of events relative to two low magnitude sequences which occurred in the study period.

  4. Risk analysis and perception of an hypothetic volcanogenic tsunami along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita

    2016-04-01

    The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.

  5. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals Jointly measured in a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piscitelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  6. Investigating correlations of local seismicty with anomalous geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals jointly recorded in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results analysing the correlation between local seismicity and geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals concomitantly recorded in Basilicata Region, one of the most seismically active areas in Southern Italy. The signals were recorded by two stations: Tito and Tramutola. Tito station measures vertically the Self-Potential field (SP by an array of five no-polarizable electrodes equally spaced with the common electrode at 20 m depth as well as water-level, water-temperature and electrical-conductivity. Tramutola station measures self-potential signals in soil surface, gas flow and water temperature in a thermal-water well, as well as atmospheric barometric pressure and ambient temperature. Correlations were found between the sharp variability of the signals recorded by both stations and the seismic sequence that occurred on September 3 to 4, 2004, allowing us to link these anomalies with the tectonic evolution of the investigated area.

  7. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  8. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  9. Comparative medical ethnobotany of the senegalese community living in turin (northwestern Italy) and in adeane (southern senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Rachele; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy) and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal), both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies. PMID:22761638

  10. Activities and vectors responsible for the biological pollution in the Taranto Seas (Mediterranean Sea, southern Italy): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A; Belmonte, M; Portacci, G; Rubino, F

    2016-07-01

    Biological pollution, caused by the negative impact of alien species, also known as non-indigenous species (NIS), is regarded as one of the greatest threat to marine ecosystems. The recent upsurge in the number and spread of these species drew attention to putative vectors such as shipping and shellfish importation for culture and consumption. The port of Taranto in Southern Italy is a hub for several vectors as it serves commercial and military shipping, fishing and recreational boating, in addition to shellfish importation. An analysis of anthropogenic activities and possible vectors in Taranto Seas was recently carried out within the framework of the RITMARE Project, involving local stakeholders. Different categories of stakeholders answered dedicated questionnaires with a high degree of reticence, and this highlighted a general lack of awareness of the problems associated with alien species. Consequently, there is a strong need to instil a truly ecological awareness among the general public and stakeholders. PMID:26178840

  11. Spatial decision support for strategic environmental assessment of land use plans. A case study in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and discusses the construction of a spatial decision-support tool for the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of a land use plan: the spatial coordination plan of the Province of Naples, in southern Italy. The decision-support tool organises the relevant information, spatially resolves the actions of the plan, predicts their environmental impacts, and generates overall performance maps. Its final goal is to provide a suitable technical support to a formal SEA procedure. The expected implications of the plan, such as changes in land use and traffic flows and urban expansion, were modelled and assessed against a set of environmental criteria using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis and mapping. It was found that the SWOT analysis provided a good basis for assessment and strategy formulation. The paper also intends to contribute to the topic of data and scale issues in SEA, by exemplifying the role played by spatial data and spatial analyses to support informative SEA

  12. Characterization of biodiversity in six goat breeds reared in Southern Italy by means of microsatellite and SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Urso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An integrated analysis, using 20 microsatellite markers and 32 SNP markers belonging to thecasein cluster has been carried out on 174 goats from 6 local goat breeds and populations from Southern Italy.Microsatellite markers provided 216 alleles (10.8 per locus; from 6.6 to 8.2 per breed.The average expected heterozygosity (He was 0.732. Fis value (0.148 indicated a general heterozygosity deficiency.A high number of intragenic haplotypes (56 have been detected at casein loci, 25 at aS1 casein (CSN1S1, 12 atb casein (CSN2, 8 at aS2 casein (CSN1S2, 11 at k casein (CSN3, when 1% frequency was required for each breed.The breeds with higher production and management level, fixed the lowest number of combinations at casein loci(28. Molecular data have been used to calculate genetic distances and in clustering analysis.

  13. Improvement of Solar and Wind forecasting in southern Italy through a multi-model approach: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Elenio; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Federico, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The improvement of the Solar and Wind short-term forecasting represents a critical goal for the weather prediction community and is of great importance for a better estimation of power production from solar and wind farms. In this work we analyze the performance of two deterministic models operational at ISAC-CNR for the prediction of short-wave irradiance and wind speed, at two experimental sites in southern Italy. A post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted to improve the performance of the two mesoscale models. The results show that the multi-model approach produces a significant error reduction with respect to the forecast of each model. The error is reduced up to 20 % of the model errors, depending on the parameter and forecasting time.

  14. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

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    A. Frepoli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  15. Trends of Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cerebrocardiovascular Disease: Southern Italy from 1988/9 to 2008/9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto; Capuano, Rocco; Capuano, Eduardo; Mazzotta, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the trends of cardiovascular risk factor prevalence between 1988/9 and 2008/9 in the 25–74-year-old population in an area of Southern Italy. We compared three cross-sectional studies conducted in random population samples, in 1988/9, 1998/9, and 2008/9 in Salerno, Italy. The methodology of data collection (lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycaemia, and smoking) and conducting tests which the population underwent during the three phases was standardized and comparable. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking was calculated and standardized for age. A total of 3491 subjects were included. From 1988/9 to 2008/9, in males, the prevalence of all four risk factors was reduced. In women, there was a clear reduction of hypertension, a similar prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, and an increase of smoking and diabetes. In the area of Salerno, our data confirm that the global prevalence of the major risk factors is decreasing in men, but their absolute values are still far from optimization. In women, diabetes and smoking showed a negative trend, therefore requiring targeted interventions. These data are now used as a base for executive targeted programs to improve prevention of cardiovascular disease in our community. PMID:27213054

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  17. Reappraising a wartime earthquake: the October 3, 1943 event in the southern Marches (central Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Tertulliani; Viviana Castelli; Antonio Rossi; Maurizio Vecchi

    2015-01-01

    The earthquake of October 3, 1943, is an important event for characterization of hazard in central Italy, but none of the earlier studies provide an exhaustive description of its effects. The context in which the earthquake occurred was very complex and many relevant records were not available for consultation when the studies were made. This study set out to improve our understanding of the earthquake and its effects by giving special care to the interpretative problems deriving from the pec...

  18. Importance of Mapping Design Earthquakes: Insights for the Southern Apennines, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Convertito, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Iervolino, I.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Università degli studi di Napoli Federico II; Herrero, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is currently the soundest basis for the rational evaluation of ground-motion hazard for site-specific engineering design and assessment purposes. An increasing number of building codes worldwide acknowledge the uniform hazard spectra as the reference to determine design actions on structures and to select input ground motions for seismic structural analysis. This is the case, for example, in Italy where the new seismic code also requires the seismic inpu...

  19. Is There a Southern-Sclerosis? Worker Reallocation and Regional Unemployment in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Mussida, Chiara; Pastore, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical reasoning justifies different signs of the relationship between the local variation in unemployment rates and the extent of workers reallocation. This paper aims to test different theoretical hypotheses in the case of Italy by using the longitudinal files of the Italian labour force survey over the years from 2004 to 2010. We find that labour turnover, as well as inflows and outflows separately, differ significantly at the regional level and are ceteris paribus positively related ...

  20. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3) gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Pilla; Antonella Angiolillo; Armand Sanchez; Josè Maria Folch; Mohamed Habib Yahyaoui; Silvia Reale

    2010-01-01

    K-casein (K-CN) represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere), have been analysed in this p...

  1. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Joannin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions

  2. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J. N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

    2013-04-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP) and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  3. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  4. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  5. The quality of preventive health care delivered to adults: results from a cross-sectional study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobile Carmelo GA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is assumed that providing clinical preventive services to patients can identify or detect early important causes of adult mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify access to preventive services in Southern Italy and to assess whether and how the provision of preventive care was influenced by any specific characteristics of patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study adults aged 18 years and over attending primary care physician (PCP offices located in Southern Italy were interviewed from June through December 2007. Quality indicators of preventive health care developed from RAND's Quality Assessment Tools and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS were used. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify and to assess the role of patients' characteristics on delivery of clinical preventive services. Results A total of 1467 subjects participated in the study. Excepting blood pressure preventive check (delivered to 64.4% of eligible subjects and influenza vaccination (recommended to 90.2% of elderly, the rates of delivery of clinical preventive services were low across all measures, particularly for screening and counseling on health habits. Rates for providing cancer screening tests at recommended times were 21.3% for colonoscopy, 51.5% for mammography and 52.4% for Pap smear. Statistical analysis showed clear disparities in the provision of clinical preventive services associated with age, gender, education level, perceived health status, current health conditions and primary care access measures. Conclusions There is overwhelming need to develop and implement effective interventions to improve delivery of routine clinical preventive services.

  6. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

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    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  7. Microcystin Contamination in Sea Mussel Farms from the Italian Southern Adriatic Coast following Cyanobacterial Blooms in an Artificial Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pace Rita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed in 2009-2010 to investigate the polluting effect of eutrophic inland waters communicating with the sea coast. The study was planned after a heavy and long-lasting Planktothrix rubescens bloom occurred in the Lake Occhito, an artificial reservoir. The waters of the reservoir flow into the southern Adriatic Sea, near several marine breeding of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels, a typical seafood from the Apulia region (Southern Italy. A monitoring study of water and mussels from the sea coast of northern Apulia region and on the Occhito reservoir was carried out over twelve months, to get more information regarding the contamination by cyanobacteria and related cyanotoxins. Elisa immunoassay analyses estimated total microcystin amounts from 1.73 to 256 ng/g in mussels, up to 0.61 μg/L in sea water and up to 298.7 μg/L in lake water. Analyses of some samples of free-living marine clams as well as of marine and freshwater fish proved microcystin contamination. Selective confirmatory analyses by LC/ESI-Q-ToF-MS/MS on some mussel samples identified the microcystin desMe-MC-RR as the major toxin; this compound has been reported in the literature as a specific marker toxin of Planktothrix rubescens blooms. Our study describes for the first time the direct relationship between environmental pollution and food safety, caused by seafood contamination from freshwater toxic blooms.

  8. First U-Pb detrital zircon ages from Numidian sandstones in Southern Apennines (Italy): Evidences of African provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornelli, Annamaria; Micheletti, Francesca; Langone, Antonio; Perrone, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    Two samples of quartz-rich sandstones collected in the Numidian Flysch of Southern Apennines (Italy) have been studied to highlight the provenance of detritus using radiometric dating by LA-ICP-MS of detrital zircons and to compare the obtained ages with those of the Betic and Maghrebian Chains. The provenance of quartzose detritus from European or African Plates is still debated in these Chains, accordingly the ages of the detrital zircons can contribute significantly to discriminate the origin of the quartzose supply. The U-Pb zircon ages (n = 47) vary from 3047 ± 13 Ma (Mesoarchean) to 516 ± 19 Ma (Cambrian). The predominance of Paleo-Proteozoic ages (2500-1600 Ma) and the lack of Hercynian and Alpine ones suggest a provenance of the Numidian supply from North-African cratonic areas during the early-middle Langhian, when the Numidian successions of Southern Apennines were deposited. In addition, a cluster of ages at 773 ± 24 Ma and 668 ± 12 Ma in one sample and at 664 ± 17 Ma in the other sample, calculated on zircon domains with magmatic zoning, testify to an important contribution from Neo-proterozoic "granitic" rocks widely outcropping in the North-African Craton. The age data on detrital zircons from Numidian sandstones in Southern Apennines overlap those found in the Numidian sandstones widespread in the Betic Cordillera and in the Maghrebian Chain from south Spain to Sicily. This suggests that the entire depositional zone in which Numidian Flysch deposited, was fed from a southerly source represented by the African Craton where Archean, Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks widely crop out from the Atlantic coast to the Hoggar and Tibesti Massifs. Finally, it must be outlined that a Meso-Archean zircon age (3047 Ma) has been found in the Numidian Flysch of the Southern Apennines whereas in the Numidian Flysch of the Maghrebian Chain, zircons older than Paleo-proterozoic (1840 Ma) have not yet been found.

  9. Deep electrical resistivity tomography and geothermal analysis of Bradano foredeep deposits in Venosa area (Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.

  10. Southern Italy between History and Popular Literature. A Reply to Daniele and Malanima

    OpenAIRE

    Felice Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The article responds to Daniele and Malanima's harsh criticism ("Perché il Sud è rimasto indietro? Il Mezzogiorno fra storia e pubblicistica", Ri vista di Storia Economica, 2014, n. 1) of my last book (Perché il Sud è rimasto indietro, il Mulino, 2013), about the reconstruction of regional disparities in Italy and the causes of the Italian North-South divide. For what concerns the estimates of regional GDP, it is shown that: my estimation procedure for 1871 was transparent; the interpolation ...

  11. Tracing mercury pathways in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) by total concentration and isotope determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mercury (Hg) pollution of sediments is the main carrier of Hg for the biota and, subsequently, for the local fish consumers in Augusta Bay area (SE Sicily, Italy), a coastal marine system affected by relevant sewage from an important chlor-alkali factory. This relationship was revealed by the determination of Mass Dependent (MDF) and Mass Independent Fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in sediment, fish and human hair samples. Sediments showed MDF but no MIF, while fish showed MIF, possibly due to photochemical reduction in the water column and depending on the feeding habitat of the species. Benthic and demersal fish exhibited MDF similar to that of sediments in which anthropogenic Hg was deposited, while pelagic organisms evidenced higher MDF and MIF due to photoreduction. Human hair showed high values of δ202Hg (offset of +2.2‰ with respect to the consumed fish) and Δ199Hg, both associated to fish consumption. - Highlights: • We report the Hg isotope ratios of sediments, fish and human hair in Augusta Bay. • Hg isotopes show mercury transfers from sediments to benthic and demersal fish. • MIF in fish appears to be driven by effect of photoreduction. • MIF in human hair is inherited by fish consumption. - The mercury (Hg) isotope composition of sediments, fish muscles and human hair has been investigated from the highly polluted Augusta Bay (SE Sicily, Italy)

  12. Characterization of surface layers formed under natural environmental conditions on medieval glass from Siponto (Southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) was used to investigate the alteration processes that occur on silica-soda-lime glass exposed to soil materials and dated from XI to second half of XIII sec. The chemical data were collected for altered glass gel and fresh glass. In order to study the influence of chemical composition on weathering process, 16 glasses have been selected on the basis of the chemical characterization and on the basis of the different corrosion processes present on the fragments. Six selected samples had been produced with the use of natron as fluxer and 10 samples with the use of plant ash as fluxer. The analysed pieces come from Siponto excavations (Foggia, Italy) and they include feet and rims of chalices, fragments of lamps and of globular bottles

  13. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area. PMID:26806294

  14. Tracing mercury pathways in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) by total concentration and isotope determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, M; Tamburrino, S; Oliveri, E; Marchetti, A; Durante, C; Berni, A; Quinci, E; Sprovieri, M

    2015-10-01

    The mercury (Hg) pollution of sediments is the main carrier of Hg for the biota and, subsequently, for the local fish consumers in Augusta Bay area (SE Sicily, Italy), a coastal marine system affected by relevant sewage from an important chlor-alkali factory. This relationship was revealed by the determination of Mass Dependent (MDF) and Mass Independent Fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in sediment, fish and human hair samples. Sediments showed MDF but no MIF, while fish showed MIF, possibly due to photochemical reduction in the water column and depending on the feeding habitat of the species. Benthic and demersal fish exhibited MDF similar to that of sediments in which anthropogenic Hg was deposited, while pelagic organisms evidenced higher MDF and MIF due to photoreduction. Human hair showed high values of δ(202)Hg (offset of +2.2‰ with respect to the consumed fish) and Δ(199)Hg, both associated to fish consumption. PMID:26074159

  15. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3 gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available K-casein (K-CN represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere, have been analysed in this paper by the primer extension method.Alleles A and B were found to be the most represented in all the analysed breeds; allele D is present only in Maltese andCashmere animals with a very low frequency; while allele G has been found in all but two (Garganica and Cashmerebreeds. Alleles C, E and F were not present in the material used for this study.

  16. Geochemistry of fluids discharged over the seismic area of the Southern Apennines (Calabria region, Southern Italy): Implications for Fluid-Fault relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive geochemical data-set of the fluids circulating over a 14,000 km2-wide seismic-prone area of the Southern Apennines, Calabria Region (Italy), is presented here. The geochemical investigations were carried out with the twofold aim of constraining the origin and interactions of the circulating fluids and to investigate possible relationships with local faults. Sixty samples of both thermal and cold waters were collected, from which the dissolved gases were extracted. The geochemical features of the water samples display different types and degrees of water-rock interactions, irrespective of the outlet temperature. The calculated equilibrium temperatures of the thermal waters (60-160 deg. C) and the low heat flow of the whole study area, are consistent with a heating process due to deep water circulation and rapid upflow through lithospheric structures. The composition of the dissolved gases reveals that crustal-originating gases (N2 and CO2-dominated) feed all the groundwaters. The 3He/4He ratios of the dissolved He, in the range of 0.03-0.22Rac for the thermal waters and 0.05-0.63Rac for the cold waters (Rac = He isotope ratio corrected for atmospheric contamination), are mainly the result of a two-component (radiogenic and atmospheric) mixing, although indications of mantle-derived He are found in some cold waters. As the study area had been hit by 18 of the most destructive earthquakes (magnitude ranging from 5.9 to 7.2) occurring over a 280-a time span (1626-1908) in the Southern Apennines, the reported results on the circulating fluids may represent the reference for a better inside knowledge of the fault-fluid relationships and for the development of long-term geochemical monitoring strategies for the area.

  17. The 1998-1999 Pollino (Southern Apennines, Italy seismic crisis: tomography of a sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rosa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-1999 a seismic sequence occurred in the Southern Apennines, after the moderate size (mb=5.0 9th September 1998 Pollino earthquake. It lasted about 14 months and was clearly localized to the sole north-west area of the main shock epicenter. Its peculiarity consisted in sudden changes of activity from a series of normal faults with Apenninic (NW-SE trend and transfer, presumably strike slip, faults with Antiapenninic (NE-SW and E-W trend. The complexity of the behavior and the different orientations of the activated systems suggest that the area acts as a hinge between the NW-SE trending Southern Apennines and the locally N-S trending Calabrian Arc.

  18. Paleomagnetic constraints for the tectonic evolution of the southern Apennines belt (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Gattacceca, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Speranza, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia

    2007-01-01

    The southern Apennine belt is formed by nappes that have undergone large (i. e. hundreds of kms) horizontal displacements. In such tectonic scenario, orogenic rotations of nappes are clearly expected, and paleomagnetism may represent a key tool to constrain displacements and understand the pre-orogenic paleogeography. Recent paleomagnetic data have shown that the Apenninic carbonate platform, on top of the nappe pile, has rotated ~80° counterclockwise (CCW) after Langhian...

  19. A geomagnetic reference model for Albania, Southern Italy and the Ionian Sea from 1990 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    M. Chiappini; S. Bushati; De Santis, A.; L. R. Gaya-Piqué; B. Duka; G. Dominici

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of the measurements undertaken during the Albanian and Italian magnetic repeat station networks since 1990, as well as of a selected set of Ørsted satellite total field measurements, a magnetic reference model for the region comprising the Albanian territory, the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, and the Ionian Sea is presented. The model, designed to model the components of the main geomagnetic field for epochs between 1990 and 2005, has been developed by means of sphe...

  20. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Ferretti; Paolo Cantiani; Isabella De Meo; Alessandro Paletto

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection). This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district...

  1. The Basilicata Wealth Fund: resource policy and long-run economic development in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Iacono, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing political economy literature of within-country natural resources management, by proposing a new resource policy for the oil-rich southern Italian region of Basilicata. The policy proposal is to establish a (regional) wealth fund in which all the royalty revenues from non-renewable natural resource exploitation in Basilicata would be stored and fully converted into low-risk financial assets. The scope is to give priority to long-run investments as to bette...

  2. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANTORO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  3. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  4. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy) in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7)

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, E.; R. Pece; PORFIDO, S; Tranfaglia, G.

    2009-01-01

    The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7) in the Southern Apennines (Italy) was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrogra...

  5. Trace element and isotopic variations from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes: constraints for slab detachment and mantle inflow beneath southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    De Astis, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Kempton, P. D.; Natural Environment Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1EU, UK; Peccerillo, A.; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Perugia; Wu, T. W.; Department of Geology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B7

    2006-01-01

    New Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic ratios and trace element data for volcanic mafic rocks outcropping along a E–W transect in southern Italy, from Mt. Vulture to Neapolitan volcanoes, are reported. The variation of LILE/HFSE, HFSE/HFSE and radiogenic isotopes along this transect indicates that all of these volcanoes contain both intra-plate and subduction-related signatures, with the former decreasing from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes. New data are also reported for the Pa...

  6. Grain-Size Control on the Rare Earth Elements Distribution in the Late Diagenesis of Cretaceous Shales from the Southern Apennines (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Cavalcante; Claudia Belviso; Giuseppe Piccarreta; Saverio Fiore

    2014-01-01

    Different grain-size fractions of samples collected from shales were investigated to determine the role of late diagenetic grade and mineralogy on the rare earth elements (REE) distribution. The samples were collected from Upper Cretaceous varicoloured shales of the Sicilide Unit near the Corleto Perticara villages, Southern Apennines (Italy). The mineralogical and chemical composition of the sample’s five fractions (>63, 32–63, 2–32, 0.1–2, and

  7. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vingiani; G. Mele; R. De Mascellis; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic...

  8. Determination of Site amplification in the Campania-Lucania Region (southern Italy) by comparison of different Site-Response Estimation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cantore, Luciana

    2008-01-01

    We have applied a non-linear inversion technique to estimate both the earthquake source parameters and site response from a set of microearthquake records acquired by a dense seismic network, in order to provide a simple uniform site classification for the strong-motion stations installed in Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy) by ISNet network. The main assumption of this inversion method, is the linear response of the sites with respect to the input earthquakes. The technique is appl...

  9. A Rationale for Pollutograph Evaluation in Ungauged Areas, Using Daily Rainfall Patterns: Case Studies of the Apulian Region in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Gorgoglione; Andrea Gioia; Vito Iacobellis; Alberto Ferruccio Piccinni; Ezio Ranieri

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the implementation of sustainable water treatment technologies for soil pollution prevention, a methodology that try to overcome the lack of runoff quality data in Puglia (Southern Italy) is firstly tackled in this paper. It provides a tool to obtain total suspended solid (TSS) pollutographs in areas without availability of monitoring campaigns. The proposed procedure is based on the relationship between rainfall characteristics and pollutant wash-off. In particular, startin...

  10. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H.

    1994-01-01

    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Permian continental basins in the Southern Alps (Italy) and peri-mediterranean correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinis, Giuseppe; Perotti, Cesare R.; Ronchi, Ausonio

    2012-01-01

    The Late Carboniferous to Permian continental successions of the Southern Alps can be subdivided into two main tectono-sedimentary Cycles, separated by a marked unconformity sealing a Middle Permian time gap, generally estimated at over 10 Ma. The lower cycle (1), between the Variscan crystalline basement and the Early Permian, is mainly characterised by fluvio-lacustrine and volcanic deposits of calc-alkaline acidic-to-intermediate composition, which range up to a maximum thickness of more than 2,000 m. The upper cycle (2), which is devoid of volcanics, is mostly dominated through the Mid?-Late Permian by alluvial sedimentation which covered the previous basins and the surrounding highs, giving rise to the subaerial Verrucano Lombardo-Val Gardena (Gröden) red-beds, up to about 800 m thick. The palaeontological record from the terrigenous deposits of both the above cycles consists mainly of macro- and microfloras and tetrapod footprints. The age of the continental deposits is widely discussed because of the poor chronological significance of a large number of fossils which do not allow reliable datings; however, some sections are also controlled by radiometric calibrations. The comparison with some selected continental successions in southern Europe allows to determine their evolution and set up correlations. A marked stratigraphic gap shows everywhere between the above-mentioned Cycles 1 and 2. As in the Southern Alps, the gap reaches the greatest extent during the Mid-Permian, near the Illawarra Reversal geomagnetic event (265 Ma). In western Europe, however, such as in Provence and Sardinia, the discussed gap persists upwardly to Late Permian and Early Triassic or slightly younger times, i.e. to the onset of the "Alpine sedimentary Cycle", even though in northeastern Spain (Iberian Ranges, Balearic Islands) this gap results clearly interrupted by late Guadalupian-Lopingian deposits. The above two major tectonosedimentary cycles reflect, in our view, two main

  12. Neogene-Quaternary tectonic stratigraphy of the eastern Southern Alps, NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, R.; Poli, M. E.; Zanferrari, A.

    2010-07-01

    In order to reconstruct the Neogene-Quaternary Tectonic Stratigraphy of the eastern Southern Alps, the late Tortonian-lower Pleistocene foredeep clastic sequences, cropping out in the Veneto and Friuli piedmont areas have been extensively investigated focusing on the contractional features observed in the frequent conglomerate layers (pitted pebbles). The eastern Southern Alps is the result of a typical polyphase tectonic activity initiated in Late Oligocene, characterised by the occurrence of several non-coaxial stress regimes. Based on careful analyses of the pebbles' surfaces (shape and orientation of the indented features) and following a systematic and statistical approach, the mean orientation of the maximum compressive stress axis (σ 1) has been obtained for more than 30 sites of measurements along the ca. 120 km-long investigated piedmont area. The affected lithostratigraphic units and the orientation (pre- versus post-tilting) of the stereonets density peaks make it possible to recognize four distinct deformational events and characterize them in terms of mean σ 1 direction and timing: late Tortonian ( σ1 = 313°/00°), late Messinian-Early Pliocene (338°/04°), Late Pliocene (314°/03°), and Early-Middle Pleistocene (160°/03°). The Tectonic Stratigraphy of the eastern Southern Alps during the last ca. 10 Ma shows the occurrence of several variations of the stress field characterized by a repeated oscillation of the σ 1 axis between an NNW-SSE and NW-SE directions (Twist Tectonics). Taking also into account literature data about older deformational events (Chattian-Burdigalian and Serravallian-Tortonian), we analyse the Neogene-Quaternary tectonic evolution in the frame of the central Mediterranean realm and compare it with the convergence direction between the Adria-Africa and Europe lithospheric plates. We show that compressional directions within the eastern Southern Alps are basically governed by the remote plate convergence, though since late

  13. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Santangelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy. These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes.

    The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network, the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  14. The Monte Orfano Conglomerate revisited: stratigraphic constraints on Cenozoic tectonic uplift of the Southern Alps (Lombardy, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciunnach, Dario; Scardia, Giancarlo; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Premoli Silva, Isabella

    2010-09-01

    The Monte Orfano Conglomerate (MOC), exposed in the foothills of the Southern Alps (northern Italy), is one of the few outcrops of sediments documenting the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Alpine retrowedge. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy allowed us to constrain the upper part of the MOC, formerly attributed to the Early-Middle Miocene in the type-locality, to the earliest Miocene (Neogene part of the NN1 nannofossil zone). A likely latest Oligocene age is therefore suggested for the bulk of the underlying conglomerates, whose base is not exposed. Deposition of the MOC can be placed within the post-collisional tectonic uplift of the Alps, documented in the Lake Como area by the Como Conglomerate (CC) at the base of the Gonfolite Lombarda Group, and supports the correlation with Upper Oligocene clastic sediments cropping out further to the East, in the Lake Garda and in the Veneto-Friuli areas (“ molassa”). The remarkable difference in petrographic composition between the western (CC) and eastern (MOC) clastics deposited in the Alpine retro-foreland basin highlights the synchronous tectonic activity of two structural domains involving different crustal levels. Whilst the bulk of the CC, that straddles the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, records largely the tectonic exhumation of the Alpine axial chain crystalline complexes, the coeval MOC consists of detritus derived from the superficial crustal section (Triassic to Paleogene sedimentary rocks) of the Alpine retrowedge and constrains the onset of the post-collisional deformation phase of the Southern Alps as not younger than the Late Oligocene.

  15. Mass loading of Hg in the Monte Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimondi V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg transport in natural environments is of concern because Hg bioaccumulates in the food web. Particularly methyl-Hg is the form of Hg of major concern as it is highly toxic to humans and is ingested through food consumption, dominantly fish. Quantification of Hg mass loads in watersheds draining Hg mine districts allows (1 the identification of sources of contamination, (2 the evaluation of the effect of Hg on the environment, and (3 the identification of processes affecting Hg transport. This study focuses on the determination of Hg loads in the Paglia River, which drains the Hg district of Monte Amiata (Italy, world’s 4th largest Hg producing district. Mass loads were determined for total Hg, particulate Hg, and dissolved Hg. Data obtained from two sampling campaigns carried out in 2011 indicated that up to 34 g/d of Hg were transported during the rainy season, of which up to 99% was as particulate Hg. Maximum Hg loads were related to runoff from the Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM, and thus, this mine is the main source of Hg to the Paglia River basin. Data indicate that particulate Hg has been deposited along with river sediment, forming a natural sink where resultant chemical reactions promote conversion of Hg from particulate matter to dissolved Hg. These results suggest that mining of Hg has affected this area. Even today, 30 years after the cessation of mining, considerable amounts of Hg are continuously transported downstream from mined areas by local rivers.

  16. Calcio-carbonatite melts and metasomatism in the mantle beneath Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Wall, Frances; Stoppa, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    At Mt. Vulture volcano (Basilicata, Italy) calcite globules (5-150 μm) are hosted by silicate glass pools or veins cross-cutting amphibole-bearing, or more common spinel-bearing mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. The carbonate globules are rounded or elongated and are composed of a mosaic of 2-20 μm crystals, with varying optical orientation. These features are consistent with formation from a quenched calciocarbonatite melt. Where in contact with carbonate amphibole has reacted to form fassaitic pyroxene. Some of these globules contain liquid/gaseous CO 2 bubbles and sulphide inclusions, and are pierced by quench microphenocrysts of silicate phases. The carbonate composition varies from calcite to Mg-calcite (3.8-5.0 wt.% MgO) both within the carbonate globules and from globule to globule. Trace element contents of the carbonate, determined by LAICPMS, are similar to those of carbonatites worldwide including ΣREE up to 123 ppm. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios of the xenolith carbonate are similar to the extrusive carbonatite and silicate rocks of Mt. Vulture testifying to derivation from the same mantle source. Formation of immiscibile silicate-carbonatite liquids within mantle xenoliths occurred via disequilibrium immiscibility during their exhumation.

  17. The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Anagnostou, Paolo; Busby, George B J; Ferri, Gianmarco; Thomas, Mark G; Taglioli, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Bolnick, Deborah; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Luiselli, Donata; Shepherd, Gillian B; Tusa, Sebastiano; Facella, Antonino; Capelli, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Greek colonisation of South Italy and Sicily (Magna Graecia) was a defining event in European cultural history, although the demographic processes and genetic impacts involved have not been systematically investigated. Here, we combine high-resolution surveys of the variability at the uni-parentally inherited Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in selected samples of putative source and recipient populations with forward-in-time simulations of alternative demographic models to detect signatures of that impact. Using a subset of haplotypes chosen to represent historical sources, we recover a clear signature of Greek ancestry in East Sicily compatible with the settlement from Euboea during the Archaic Period (eighth to fifth century BCE). We inferred moderate sex-bias in the numbers of individuals involved in the colonisation: a few thousand breeding men and a few hundred breeding women were the estimated number of migrants. Last, we demonstrate that studies aimed at quantifying Hellenic genetic flow by the proportion of specific lineages surviving in present-day populations may be misleading. PMID:26173964

  18. Reservoir-induced seismicity associated with the Pertusillo lake (Southern Italy): poroelastic and time-dependent earthquake nucleation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalli, Flaminia; Hainzl, Sebastian; Urpi, Luca; Improta, Luigi; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The Pertusillo artificial lake in Southern Italy is one of the known water reservoirs showing protracted seismicity for several years after the initial filling in 1965. For a period of about twelve years in between 2001 and 2013 we have records of seismicity and water level changes. In this period more than 1800 events with local magnitude ranging between -0.2 and 3.2 are observed; in the same period the water column fluctuated in average of 15 m per year. We model stress and time-dependent pore-pressure due to water level variations associated with the Pertusillo lake. The solutions are given for a homogeneous, porous-elastic half-space and considering the decoupled approximation when resolving the governing partial differential equations (i.e. elastic stresses influence the pore pressure but not vice versa). Stress and pore-pressure are used to compute seismicity rate changes through the rate-and-state nucleation model. Our approach is a first-order approximation of the problem of reservoir-induced earthquakes because we are not considering information of the complex crustal structure in our methodology. However, it allows for understanding the relative importance of the driving forces and quantifying the primary consistency between modelled and observed seismicity. All the discrepancies between forecasted and observed seismicity might reveal the need of considering different settings of the surrounding area, as for example the existence of high-permeable fracture zones and layers with different elastic and hydraulic parameters.

  19. On the LiDAR contribution for the archaeological and geomorphological study of a deserted medieval village in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an optical measurement technique for obtaining high-precision information about the Earth's surface including basic terrain mapping (digital terrain model, bathymetry, corridor mapping), vegetation cover (forest assessment and inventory) and coastal and urban areas. Recent studies examined the possibility of using ALS in archaeological investigations to identify earthworks, although the ability of ALS measurements in this context has not yet been studied in detail. This paper focuses on the potential of the latest generation of airborne ALS for the detection and the spatial characterization of micro-topographic relief linked to archaeological and geomorphological features. The investigations were carried out near Monteserico, an archaeological area in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy) which is characterized by complex topographical and morphological features. The study emphasizes that the DTM-LiDAR data are a powerful instrument for detecting surface discontinuities relevant for investigating geomorphological processes and cultural features. The LiDAR survey allowed us to identify the urban shape of a medieval village, by capturing the small differences in height produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks) which were not visible from ground or from optical dataset. In this way, surface reliefs and small elevation changes, linked to geomorphological and archaeological features, have been surveyed with great detail

  20. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  1. Geophysical prospecting in archaeology: investigations in Santa Venera, south suburb of Poseidonia-Paestum, Campania, southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a joint work between geophysicists and archaeologists in which the authors have used geophysical techniques to investigate the Greek and Roman settlement of Paestum, southern Italy for preventive archaeological research (commonly termed 'rescue archaeology') on an area of the ancient settlement affected by new building work and infrastructure. Starting from a background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, an integrated geophysical approach based on magnetic, GPR and geoelectrical surveys was carried out on the Santa Venera area, a site selected to build a car parking. High-density and high-resolution cross-correlated geophysical surveys were carried out in different parts of the area to better resolve the structures. Systematic excavations confirmed the clues suggested by geophysical prospecting about the presence of archaeological remains such as walls, canals and tombs. By the use of non-destructive geophysical techniques a two-fold aim was reached: to properly plan the building of the infrastructure and preserve the ancient artefacts according to the advanced European guidelines on the protection of archaeological heritage

  2. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus on the river Avena (Calabria, southern Italy

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    Concetta Milazzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy, which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta, Rictularia proni, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma and S. frederici. Four helminth species were recorded from the riverbed and shore sections, whereas only H. polygyrus and S. frederici were found on the slopes. Syphacia frederici occurred at every trapping site. The total prevalence was 25.5% and total mean intensity was 27.2 parasites/mouse. No statistical significant difference was found for both the prevalence and mean intensity of infection between either habitats or sexes, suggesting that, from the point of view of the helminth community, the study area should be considered as a single habitat.

  3. Geological and geophysical characterization of the south-eastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the south-eastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results of the in situ geophysical investigation. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) by earthquakes and ambient noise measurements were carried out in the study area. The results were supported by interpretation of aerial photos, geological field surveys, morphotectonic investigation and borehole data. The joint analysis of geological, ERT and HVSR data allowed us to (1) show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) characterize the geometry of an active landslide that caused damages to structures and infrastructures.

  4. Oil/gas pre-treatment plants and air quality hazards: PM1 measurements in Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, S.; Caggiano, R.; Sabia, S.

    2014-04-01

    A PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less 1.0 μm) short term monitoring campaign was carried out in Agri Valley (southern Italy) in September 2012. This area is of international concern since it houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri - COVA) within an anthropized context. PM1 measurements were performed in Viggiano, the nearest town to the COVA plant and one of the most populated town of the Agri Valley. During the study period, the PM1 daily concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 8.4 μg m-3 with a mean value of 4.6 μg m-3. Regarding the PM1 chemical composition, it can be observed that S and typical crustal elements were the most abundant constituents of the PM1 collected. By applying the Principal Component Analysis, it was pointed out that crustal soil, biomass and wood burning, secondary atmospheric reactions involving COVA plant emissions and local soil particles, and traffic were the main sources contributing to the PM1 measured in the area under study. Moreover, a possible contribution of the long-range transport of African dust was observed.

  5. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

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    Mariateresa Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  6. Bacterial migration through low-permeability fault zones in compartmentalised aquifer systems: a case study in Southern Italy

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    Antonio Bucci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to experimentally verify the significance of microbial transport through low-permeability fault zones in a compartmentalised carbonate aquifer system in Southern Italy. The temporal variability of microbial communities in two springs fed by the same aquifer system, but discharging up- and down-gradient of two low-permeability fault zones, was analysed using a 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE-based approach. At both springs, a remarkable temporal variation in PCR-DGGE profiles was detected throughout the observation period. When comparing the PCR-DGGE profiles of the two springs, a synchronous evolution over time was observed. Moreover, the per cent of PCR-DGGE bands common to both springs progressively increased from early (23% to late recharge (70%, only to decrease once more in late recession (33%. Considering the results of the hydrogeological and isotopic investigations and EC measurements, the results of biomolecular analyses demonstrate that, at the study site, compartments straddling the analysed fault zones have microbial interconnections, despite the existence of low-permeability fault cores.

  7. Groundwater recharge areas of a volcanic aquifer system inferred from hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data: Mount Vulture, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Serena; Paternoster, Michele; Kohfahl, Claus; Pekdeger, Asaf; Meyer, Hanno; Hubberten, Hans Wolfgang; Spilotro, Giuseppe; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Environmental isotope techniques, hydrogeochemical analysis and hydraulic data are employed to identify the main recharge areas of the Mt. Vulture hydrogeological basin, one of the most important aquifers of southern Italy. The groundwaters are derived from seepage of rainwater, flowing from the highest to the lowest elevations through the shallow volcanic weathered host-rock fracture zones. Samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected at 48 locations with elevations ranging from 352 to 1,100 m above sea level (a.s.l.), for stable isotope (δ18O, δD) and major ion analyses. A complete dataset of available hydraulic information has been integrated with measurements carried out in the present study. Inferred recharge elevations, estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient of δ18O, range between 550 and 1,200 m a.s.l. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different recharge sources. Knowledge of the local hydrogeological setting was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study to define the recharge and discharge patterns identifying the groundwater flow pathways of the Mt. Vulture basin. The integration of all the data allowed for the tracing of the groundwater flows of the Mt. Vulture basin.

  8. Active degassing of mantle-derived fluid: A geochemical study along the Vulture line, southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, A.; Martelli, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Paternoster, M.; Stuart, F. M.

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions along a NE-SW transect in southern Italy in order to test the hypothesis that the region around Monte Vulture is affected by degassing of mantle-derived fluids through a lithospheric discontinuity. We also investigated lavas from the Monte Vulture volcano displaying 3He/4He (up to ~ 6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin in mantle that has had minimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. Similar 3He/4He in fluids from around Mt. Vulture indicate that the deep volcanic system is still degassing. Mantle-derived He occurs in fluids along the length of the Vulture line, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is a deep tectonic discontinuity along which mantle fluids and/or melts advect to the surface. The CO2/3He ratios are highly variable (2.7 × 108-2.15 × 1011) in response to processes such as gas dissolution into aquifers, addition of crustal gases and degassing fractionation.

  9. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, C.; Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash flood in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, southern Italy. In this area, alluvial fan flooding has been the most frequent and destructive geologic hazard since Roman times. Sudden torrents of water (flash floods) are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration, inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope to stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at the stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak of nearly 120 mm h-1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade videos and eyewitness accounts, it is reported that the flash flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment) peak flow of 80 m3 s-1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s-1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  10. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Violante

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash-flood occurred in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, Southern Italy. In this area, alluvial-fan-flooding is the most frequent and destructive geologic hazards since Roman time. Sudden torrent of waters (flash flood are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope-to-stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak nearly to 120 mm h−1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade-videos, and eyewitness accounts the consequent flash-flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment peak flow of 80 m3 s−1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s−1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  11. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk. PMID:27217357

  12. Biochemical and lysosomal biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Biomarkers are internationally recognized as useful tools in marine coastal biomonitoring, in particular, as early-warning signals at the level of individual organisms to assess biological effects of pollutants and other stressors. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis has been employed as a sentinel organism to assess biological pollution effects in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy), a coastal lagoon divided into two small inlets, connected to the open sea through one natural and one artificial narrow openings. Mussels were collected in June 2013 at three sites located within each of the two inlets of the Mar Piccolo. Biological effects were investigated through a suite of biomarkers suitable to reflect effects and/or exposure to contaminants at biochemical and cellular levels. Biochemical biomarkers included glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities; as histochemical biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscin and neutral lipid accumulation, and lysosomal structural changes were considered. As a whole, results highlighted differences among the three study sites, particularly for GST, AChE, and lipofuscins, which are consistent with the variations of the chemical pollutants in sediments. The applied biomarkers showed that a stress syndrome likely to be ascribed to environmental pollutants is occurring in mussels living in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, in particular, the ones inhabiting the first inlet. PMID:26160119

  13. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

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    T. Maugeri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.

  14. Geophysical surveying of slopes affected by debris flows: the case of S. Felicea Cancello (Caserta, Southern Italy

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    S. Superbo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of a series of geophysical investigations carried out on the largest debris flow to have taken place in Tavernole, S. Felice a Cancello (Caserta, Southern Italy. The landslide occurred in concurrence with other catastrophic events in the Sarno Mountains in May 1998. This research project is part of a series of geological, geomorphological and geotechnical studies whose purpose is to improve the knowledge of this type of phenomenon. The project also tested and compared various survey methods in the sample area of S. Felice a Cancello. Geophysical surveying allowed us to collect information regarding the physical features and thickness of the materials affected by landslide phenomena and to verify the applicability and effectiveness of the various indirect surveying methods adopted. The preliminary results of the study enabled us to generate a series of suggestions which could prove useful in formulating the correct approach to this type of problem to be adopted in ordinary professional practice. These indications concerned the type of geophysical surveying to be conducted and, where applicable, the means of implementation. In general, seismic refraction was found to be the best technique for collecting information on the area studied.

  15. Eighteen years of GPS surveys in the Aeolian Islands (southern Italy: open data archive and velocity field

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    Alessandra Esposito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, geodetic networks became a most important tool to monitor the present day deformations of the volcanic arc of the Aeolian Islands. The first benchmarks were installed in this region at Lipari and Vulcano Islands and the number of GPS benchmarks increased in time since the early ’90s. These networks were periodically surveyed in the frame of national and international geodynamic projects and for Civil Protection programs devoted to the mitigation of the volcanic hazard. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV played a fundamental role in the realization and periodical reoccupation of these networks, with the goal to investigate the tectonic and volcanic processes, still active in this crucial area of the central Mediterranean. An updated GPS velocity map for this region, both for the horizontal and vertical component of land motion, with details for Lipari, Vulcano and Panarea Islands, is provided in this paper. The presented GPS velocity field also includes a set of additional discrete stations located in northern Sicily and Calabria together with data from the available CGPS networks active in southern Italy. Here we show the results from eighteen years of repeated GPS surveys performed in this region in the time span 1995-2013 and the open access AINET-GPS data archive, now freely available for the scientific community. Data will support scientific research and hopefully improve the assessment of volcanic and seismic hazard in this region.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy

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    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.

  17. Multi-functional approach in forest landscape management planning: an application in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paletto, A.; Ferretti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de

    2012-11-01

    Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP) is intended to have an intermediate role between forest management plans on a regional level and forest management on a unit level. FLMP addresses long-term management issues, with special attention to social and environmental functions, normally not meticulously considered when working on a single forest property level. This paper presents a method to evaluate forest multi functionality, in order to define management guidelines and support forest planning. A FLMP was conducted in a district of the Basilicata region (Italy). A total of 92 inventory plots comprising the main forest types: i) turkey oak, Hungarian oak, and sessile oak forests (Quercus cerris L. dominant), ii) downy oak forests (Quercus pubescens Willd. dominant), iii) Mediterranean evergreen oak forests (Quercus ilex L. dominant), were considered. Technicians evaluated the multifunctionality of each area by estimating in the context of an Index of Importance of Function (I) the capacity of each forest to fulfil different functions. The index was successively aggregated according to forest type and forest system (high forest and coppice). The results showed that the higher level of multifunctionality was found in the high forests. According to the synthetic indicators of multifunctionality, the turkey oak forests obtained the highest values among all forest types. The last part of the paper illustrates an approach to multi-functional forest management, analysing how different silvicultural systems are able to fulfil the main forest functions. This method, as shown in the results, seems to provide a useful support for technicians to evaluate multifunctionality related to forest types and different silvicultural treatments. (Author) 55 refs.

  18. Hospital readmission prevalence and analysis of those potentially avoidable in southern Italy.

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    Aida Bianco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One quality indicator of hospital care, which can be used to judge the process of care, is the prevalence of hospital readmission because it reflects the impact of hospital care on the patient's condition after discharge. The purposes of the study were to measure the prevalence of hospital readmissions, to identify possible factors that influence such readmission and to measure the prevalence of readmissions potentially avoidable in Italy. METHODS: A sample of 2289 medical records of patients aged 18 and over admitted for medical or surgical illness at one 502-bed community non-teaching hospital were randomly selected. RESULTS: A total of 2252 patients were included in the final analysis, equaling a response rate of 98.4%. The overall hospital readmission prevalence within 30 days of discharge was 10.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the proportion of patients readmitted within 30 days of discharge significantly increased regardless of Charlson et al. comorbidity score, among unemployed or retired patients, and in patients in general surgery. A total of 43.7% hospital readmissions were judged to be potentially avoidable. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that potentially avoidable readmissions were significantly higher in general surgery, in patients referred to hospital by an emergency department physician, and in those with a shortened time between discharge and readmission. CONCLUSION: Additional research on intervention or bundle of interventions applicable to acute inpatient populations that aim to reduce potentially avoidable readmissions is strongly needed, and health care providers are urged to implement evidence-based programs for more cost-effective delivery of health care.

  19. Epidemiology and genetics of FTD: a door-to-door survey in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colao, Rosanna; Puccio, Gianfranco; Curcio, Sabrina AM; Mirabelli, Maria; Maletta, Raffaele; Anfossi, Maria; Gallo, Maura; Geracitano, Silvana; Conidi, Maria Elena; Di Lorenzo, Raffale; Clodomiro, Alessandra; Cupidi, Chiara; Marzano, Sandra; Comito, Francesco; Valenti, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Maria Angela; Ghani, Mahdi; Xi, Zhengrui; Sato, Christine; Moreno, Danielle; Borelli, Annelisa; Leone, Rosa Anna; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Bruni, Amalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate FTD prevalence, identify FTD-related mutations, correlate FTD phenotype with mutations in a Southern Italian population. Methods Study population consisting of subjects ≥50 years of age residing in the Community of Biv. on January 1, 2004. Door-to-door two-phase design. Genetic and biochemical analyses were done on samples collected from 32 patients. Results Prevalence rates were 0.6 for AD, 0.4 for VD, 3.5 for FTD, 0.2 for Parkinson Dementia and 1.2 for unspecified dementia. Three GRN (one known and two novel) mutations with reduced plasma protein levels were found associated to three distinct phenotypes (behavioural, affective and delirious type). Conclusions We report an unusually high FTD prevalence in the investigated population, but a low prevalence of AD. We confirm the heterogeneity of FTD phenotype associated with different GRN mutations. PMID:22819134

  20. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

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    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  1. Tectonic and climatic control on geomorphological and sedimentary evolution of the Mercure basin, southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robustelli, Gaetano; Ermolli, Elda Russo; Petrosino, Paola; Jicha, Brian; Sardella, Raffaele; Donato, Paola

    2014-06-01

    The morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Mercure intramontane basin (Calabria-Lucania boundary, southern Apennines) has been assessed through facies analysis, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The Mercure basin, one of the most active seismogenic zones of the southern Apennines, is a favorable area for reconstructing the main stages of landscape evolution of the axial zone because of its capability to record changes in base level during the Quaternary. In addition, the presence of both erosional and depositional Palaeosurfaces is a useful marker for reconstructing tectonic and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect the role played by tectonics and climate in its genesis, evolution and extinction. The present study identifies the key role of tectonics and denudation, combined with high-frequency floods, as mechanisms controlling alluvial sedimentation in the study area. During endorheic conditions, denudational processes driven by pulses of extensional deformation of the basin margin caused strong alluvial inputs that resulted in the development of alluvial fans. Alluvial facies are mainly characterized by turbulent, subaerial, hyperconcentrated flood flows deposited during the glacial, semi-arid conditions of MIS 14. The retrogradational stacking pattern of the alluvial system indicates decreasing rates of tectonic activity along with declining river gradients. The Mercure coalescing alluvial fans were inundated by lake transgression during MIS 13 in response to (i) abrupt tectonic subsidence at the basin margins and (ii) large decrease of coarse sediment supply due to the interplay among climate, tectonics and catchment size changes. In this regard, it is suggested that tectonic control on the drainage network along with climate and long-term slope evolution may have caused marked pulses in sediment supply, thus influencing the arrangement of facies associations in the sedimentary succession. In addition, the

  2. New records of Coenagrion ornatum in Italy (Odonata: Coenagrionidae

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    Fabio Mastropasqua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coenagrion ornatum (Sélys, 1850 is a damselfly ranging from northwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. It is highly local, and northwestern populations are experiencing a steep decline. In Europe, Coenagrion ornatum is a species of conservation interest and is listed as Near Threatened due to habitat loss; it is nearly extinct in Italy. We report the finding of 4 male C. ornatum on 3 June 2005 in Apulia, southeastern Italy. This is the only recent record for Italy, and highlights the need for further research on this species in the country.

  3. Preventable hospitalization and access to primary health care in an area of Southern Italy

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    Pavia Maria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSC, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, are conditions that can be managed with timely and effective outpatient care reducing the need of hospitalization. Avoidable hospitalizations for ACSC have been used to assess access, quality and performance of the primary care delivery system. The aims of this study were to quantify the proportion of avoidable hospital admissions for ACSCs, to identify the related patient's socio-demographic profile and health conditions, to assess the relationship between the primary care access characteristics and preventable hospitalizations, and the usefulness of avoidable hospitalizations for ACSCs to monitor the effectiveness of primary health care. Methods A random sample of 520 medical records of patients admitted to medical wards (Cardiology, Internal Medicine, Pneumology, Geriatrics of a non-teaching acute care 717-bed hospital located in Catanzaro (Italy were reviewed. Results A total of 31.5% of the hospitalizations in the sample were judged to be preventable. Of these, 40% were for congestive heart failure, 23.2% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13.5% for angina without procedure, 8.4% for hypertension, and 7.1% for bacterial pneumonia. Preventable hospitalizations were significantly associated to age and sex since they were higher in older patients and in males. The proportion of patients who had a preventable hospitalization significantly increased with regard to the number of hospital admissions in the previous year and to the number of patients for each primary care physician (PCP, with lower number of PCP accesses and PCP medical visits in the previous year, with less satisfaction about PCP health services, and, finally, with worse self-reported health status and shorter length of hospital stay. Conclusion The findings from this study add to the evidence and the

  4. Almond tree and organic fertilization for soil quality improvement in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Masciandaro, Grazia; Mennone, Carmelo; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2012-03-01

    The semi-arid Mediterranean region, characterized by long dry periods followed by heavy bursts of rainfall, is particularly prone to soil erosion. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the soil quality under different practices of bio-physical amelioration which involve the soil-plant system (almond trees) and microorganism-manure. This study, carried out in the South of Italy (Basilicata Region- Pantanello farm), considered two types of fertilization (mineral and organic) and three slope gradients (0, 2 and 6%), in order to evaluate the effects of management practices in resisting soil erosion. Chemical (organic carbon and nitrogen), physical (soil shrinkage and bulk density) and biochemical (dehydrogenase activity and hydrolytic enzyme activities) parameters were selected as markers to follow agro-ecological changes with time. The organic treatment affected soil microbiological and physico-chemical properties by increasing soil nutrient availability, microbial activity, and improving soil structure. The consistently higher values of the hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease) often observed in the presence of plants and on the 0 and 2% slopes, suggested the stimulation of nutrient cycles by tree roots, which improve the conditions for soil microorganisms in carrying out their metabolic activity. In the 6% slope and, in particular, in the mineral fertilizer treatment, soil metabolism was lower as suggested by the dehydrogenase activity which was 50% lower than that found in the 0 and 2% slopes, this seemed to be related to a slowdown in the nutrient cycling and organic carbon metabolism. However, on this slope, in both mineral and organic treatments, a significant stimulation of hydrolytic enzyme activities and an improvement of soil structure (reduction of bulk density of about 10% and increase in total shrinkage from 20 to 60%) were observed with plants compared to the control soil. The combination of organic

  5. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    It is now well-established that landscape can record spatial and temporal variations in tectonic rates. However, decoding this information to extract detailed histories of fault growth is often a complex problem that requires careful integration of tectonic and geomorphic data sets. Here, we present new data addressing both normal fault evolution and coupled landscape response for two normal faults in the Southern Apennines: the Vallo di Diano and East Agri faults. By integrating published constraints with new data, we show that these faults have total throws of up to 2100 m, and Holocene throw rates of up to 1 mm/yr at their maximum. We demonstrate that geomorphology is effectively recording tectonics, with relief, channel and catchment slopes varying along fault strike as normal fault activity does. Therefore, valuable information about fault growth and interaction can be extracted from their geomorphic expression. We use the spatial distribution of knickpoints on the footwall channels to infer two episodes of base level change, which can be associated with distinct fault interaction events. From our detailed fault throw profiles, we reconstruct the amount of throw accumulated after each of these events, and the segments involved in each, and we use slip rate enhancement factors derived from fault interaction theory to estimate the magnitude of the tectonic perturbation in each case. From this approach, we are able to reconstruct pre-linkage throw rates, and we estimate that fault linkage events likely took place 0.7 ± 0.2 Ma and 1.9 ± 0.6 Ma in the Vallo di Diano fault, and 1.1 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.9 Ma in the East Agri fault. Our study suggests that both faults started their activity at 3.6 ± 0.5 Ma. These fault linkage scenarios are consistent with the knickpoint heights, and may relate to soft-linkage interaction with the Southern Apennines normal fault array, the existence of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Our combined geomorphic and

  6. Dynamics of natural regeneration in Pinus laricio stands from southern Apennines (Italy

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    Albanesi E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings establishment was studied in small (380 m2, medium (855 m2 and large (1520 m2 gaps created in calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret stands (mean height 22 m in the Southern Apennine. After three growing seasons first results put in evidence: a no significant differences of water soil content were observed between gap sizes; b transmittance was higher in large and medium gaps than in small ones and in the centre and northern sides in both gap sizes; c calabrian pine seedling density was higher in large gaps than in medium and small ones and namely in the centre positions; silver fir seedlings appear after the second growing season in small and medium gaps; d seedling mortality of calabrian pine was relevant in small and medium gaps in the edge and silver fir seedling mortality in the centre of the large ones; e in these first years the ground vegetation (bramble and bracken represents a moderate detrimental effect on seedlings establishment that could be removed by partial cuttings.

  7. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  8. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF UPPER CALLOVIAN-LOWER BERRIASIAN SUCCESSIONS FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS, NORTH ITALY

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    CRISTINA EMANUELA CASELLATO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  9. Geomorphic signature of active tectonics in the southern Abruzzi Periadriatic hilly belt (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racano, Simone; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Centamore, Ernesto; Dramis, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The geo-structural setting of the southern Abruzzi hilly belt that stretches from the northeastern front of the Maiella Massif to the Adriatic coast is characterized by deep-seated northeast verging thrusts masked by a thick cover of Late Pliocene-Middle Pleistocene marine deposits. Most authors consider this area tectonically inactive while only few of them support the hypothesis of its recent activity from the analysis of the river network pattern. Geological and geomorphological investigations carried out in the area have clearly shown the occurrence of surface deformations resulting from the continued activity of compressive tectonics up to recent times. The analysis of the study area by of a 10 m resolution DTM (using the open-source QGIS software) confirmed and supplemented field observations. Particularly significant in this context is the topographic setting of the alluvial strath terraces in the river valleys that develop transversally to the buried thrusts. In correspondence of these structures, topographic highs have grown up displacing the middle-Pleistocene planation surface developed on top of the hilly belt, from the Maiella piedmont to the coastal zone, and diverting laterally the river courses uphill. In the same places, as along the Alento and Foro rivers that cross by antecedence the grown up topographic highs, the long profiles of terraces bend eastward and the height difference between the terrace orders, essentially related all around the area to the Quaternary regional uplift, strongly increases. In some cases, surficial faults have lowered the terraces into graben troughs or have displaced them until assuming an uphill trend. This recent tectonic activity should be taken in account in assessing the seismic hazard of the study area.

  10. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy.

    In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of

  11. Occurrence and correlates of HIV and hepatitis B/C virus infections among prisoners of Southern Lazio, Italy

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    Giuseppe La Torre

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV among the prisoners of
    the jails of Southern Latium (Italy.
    Methods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting: Clinical charts of 2653 prisoners, of whom 940 were of the jail of Cassino, 1581 of the jail of Frosinone and 132 of that of Latina, since 1995 to 1999, were reviewed. Measurement: number of people tested for HIV, HCV and HBV infection and prevalence of diagnosed HIV, HCV and HBV infections.
    Results. HCV was the most prevalent infection (28.2 %; HBV showed a lower prevalence (26%. Finally,
    5.4% of inmates were infected by HIV. Multivariate regression analysis indicated drug addiction, civil status,
    smoking habit, age (age group 25-34 and 35-44, in respect with people aged 18-24 and Italian nationality
    as factors mainly associated to HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In particular we found HIV infection associated
    with the status of drug addiction (OR = 15.8, civil status (OR = 12.6 for widowers; and OR = 2.44 for
    cohabitants, smoking habits (OR = 3.09 and Italian nationality (OR = 5.39. Similar risk estimates were
    found for HCV and HBV.
    Conclusion. High prevalence of blood transmitted infections in jails suggests that diagnostic and preventive
    measures, as hepatitis B vaccination, but also information and education programs for inmates, are needed
    to reduce the spreading of such infections, particularly HIV and HCV.

  12. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems. In this study, groundwater recharge was estimated at local and episodic scales in a representative perched karst aquifer in a region of southern Italy with a Mediterranean climate. The research utilized measurements of precipitation, air temperature, soil water content, and water-table depth, obtained in 2008 at the Acqua della Madonna test area (Terminio Mount karst aquifer, Campania region). At this location the aquifer is overlain by ash-fall pyroclastic soils. The Episodic Master Recession (EMR) method, an improved version of the Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method, was applied to estimate the amount of recharge generated episodically by individual rainfall events. The method also quantifies the amount of precipitation generating each recharge episode, thus permitting calculation of the Recharge to the Precipitation Ratio (RPR) on a storm-by-storm basis. Depending on the seasonally varying air temperature, evapotranspiration, and precipitation patterns, calculated values of RPR varied between 35% and 97% among the individual episodes. A multiple linear correlation of the RPR with both the average intensity of recharging rainfall events and the antecedent soil water content was calculated. Given the relatively easy measurability of precipitation and soil water content, such an empirical model would have great hydrogeological and practical utility. It would facilitate short-term forecasting of recharge in karst aquifers of the Mediterranean region and other aquifers with similar hydrogeological characteristics. By establishing relationships between the RPR and climate-dependent variables such as average storm intensity, it would facilitate prediction of climate-change effects on groundwater recharge. The EMR methodology

  13. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations. PMID:26891362

  14. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy and relationship with other Campania events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vingiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy. Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15–25 μm, (iv occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  15. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  16. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy) and relationship with other Campania events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy). Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity), mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i) as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii) ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii) a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class) pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15-25 μm), (iv) occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v) higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material) in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  17. Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.

    2013-12-01

    We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

  18. Field test of a multi-frequency electromagnetic induction sensor for soil moisture monitoring in southern Italy test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, G.; Perrone, A.; Brocca, L.; Onorati, B.; Manfreda, S.

    2015-10-01

    Soil moisture is a variable of paramount importance for a number of natural processes and requires the capacity to be routinely measured at different spatial and temporal scales (e.g., hillslope and/or small catchment scale). The electromagnetic induction (EMI) method is one of the geophysical techniques potentially useful in this regard. Indeed, it does not require contact with the ground, it allows a relatively fast survey of hillslope, it gives information related to soil depth greater than few centimetres and it can also be used in wooded areas. In this study, apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture (SM) measurements were jointly carried out by using a multi-frequency EMI sensor (GEM-300) and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probes, respectively. The aim was to retrieve SM variations at the hillslope scale over four sites, characterized by different land-soil units, located in a small mountainous catchment in southern Italy. Repeated measurements of ECa carried out over a fixed point showed that the signal variability of the GEM-300 sensor (Std. Err. ∼[0.02-0.1 mS/m]) was negligible. The correlation estimated between point ECa and SM, measured with both portable and buried TDR probes, varied between 0.24 and 0.58, depending on the site considered. In order to reduce the effect of small-scale variability, a spatial smoothing filter was applied which allowed the estimation of linear relationships with higher coefficient of correlation (r ∼ 0.46-0.8). The accuracy obtained in the estimation of the temporal trend of the soil moisture spatial averages was in the range ∼4.5-7.8% v/v and up to the ∼70% of the point soil moisture variance was explained by the ECa signal. The obtained results highlighted the potential of EMI to provide, in a short time, sufficiently accurate estimate of soil moisture over large areas that are highly needed for hydrological and remote sensing applications.

  19. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo d’Andria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  20. Crustal motion and active deformation along the Eurasia-Africa collisional area in Southern Italy from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, V.; Mattia, M.; Palano, M.; Rossi, M.; Cannavo', F.

    2009-12-01

    We have used continuously recording GPS and survey-mode GPS observations to determine a new velocity field of Southern Italy for the period 1996-2009. We have combined local, regional and global networks into a common reference frame (ITRF2005) and then rotated the estimated velocities with respect to both an Eurasian fixed and African fixed frame. Then, we have provided strain-rate values for the Eastern Sicily, where the GPS network is denser. The results highlight a different kinematic for the Calabrian Arc and Sicily. The Calabrian Arc behaves as an independent block. It has an independent motion with respect to both Eurasia and Africa. In Sicily the analysis of the geodetic velocities and strain-rate parameters shows the presence of different domains with different motions and deformation styles, besides local effects produced by the principal fault systems or volcanic activity. The deformation pattern can be considered as the result of the interaction between the main NNW-SSE regional compression and the local movements of the main faults cutting the area. The convergence along the Plio-Pleistocene nappe thrust front north of the Hyblean Plateau is active, with compressive strain-rate values of about 0.14 μstrain/yr. Part of the regional compression is localized in the Eastern sector of the Aeolian Islands, bounded at west by the Lipari-Vulcano complex, where the compressive strain-rate reaches the maximum values of about 0.65 μstrain/yr (with the principal axes mostly NW-SE oriented). A transition to extensional domains is observed in the Nebrodi-Peloritani and the Messina Straits area, showing the maximum strain-rate values along the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni and the Messina Straits fault systems. We have also calculated the movement rates along these fault systems.

  1. Yield response and optimal allocation of irrigation water under actual and simulated climate change scenarios in a southern Italy district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Rubino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of climate change on the optimal allocation of irrigation water was investigated for a Southern Italy district. The study was carried out on 5 representative crops (grapevine, olive, sugar beet, processing tomato, asparagus, considering six simulated climate change conditions, corresponding to three 30-year periods (2011-2040; 2041-2070; 2071-2100 for two greenhouse gas emission schemes proposed by IPCC (A2 and B1, plus the current climatic condition. The framework adopted was based on: i the modeling of crop yield response for increasing levels of water supply, under current and future climatic conditions, through a non-linear regression equation and ii the definition of the best water allocation by means of a mathematical optimization model written in GAMS. Total irrigation water (TIW volume was allowed to vary from a low total supply 10000 m3 to 7000000 m3, whilst a fixed surface, corresponding to that currently occupied in the studied district, was assigned to each crop. The economic return was studied in terms of Value of Production less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic. The TIW volume that maximized the VPlic of the whole district surface under the current climatic condition was 5697861 m3. The total volume was partitioned among the five crops as a function of the surface occupied: grapevine>olive>processing tomato>asparagus>sugar beet. Nevertheless, grapevine and olive received seasonal volumes corresponding only to 59 and 50% of total irrigation water requirements. On the contrary, processing tomato and asparagus received seasonal water volumes close to those fully satisfying irrigation water requirements (100% and 85% ETc. Future climatic conditions slightly differed from the current one for the expected optimal allocation. Under water shortage conditions (160000 m3 the whole irrigation water was allocated to the horticultural crops. Forecasted growing season features varied to a different extent in

  2. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  3. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo d’Andria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  4. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  5. Geodetic Deformation in the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) From Repeated GPS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, M.; Serpelloni, E.; Baldi, P.; Shen, Z.; Casula, G.; Galvani, A.; Pesci, A.; Riguzzi, F.

    2001-12-01

    We analyzed the horizontal strain rate field of a sector of the Central-Southern Apennines. This area was a site of large earthquakes in the past, and its present low seismicity could suggest a high seismic hazard. The number of permanent GPS stations is still too limited to provide a satisfactory description of the highly heterogeneous strain field which seems to affect this zone; thus, the use of non continuous but denser GPS networks is still a fundamental tool. We used GPS data collected during yearly repeated campaigns performed from 1994 to 2001 on the GEOMODAP network. Site velocities were obtained starting from the daily coordinates and covariance solutions, using a Kalman filter approach. We used the ITRF2000 solution for European IGS stations to compute an Euler pole and to determine a stable Europe reference frame. The residual velocity field obtained shows two different prevalent motion trends, NNE-ward for the eastern sector of the network and NW-ward for most of the sites of the western side. The mean strain rate tensor obtained from a least square inversion method, over a sub-network oriented approximately SW-NE, shows a significant extensional deformation (1.5x10-8 strain/yr) about normal to the Apennine chain, in agreement with seismological and neotectonic data. On the basis of a network dimension of about 250 Km, this value gives a well constrained estimate of the extensional velocity of about 4.0 mm/yr, normal to the chain axis, that can be considered an upper bound of the active extensio of this area. In order to detect changes in the spatial pattern of the strain rate field within this sub-network we used a least square inversion method that interpolates the velocity solution and solves for the velocity gradient tensor over a regular grid. This analysis shows a more complex picture, with a transition of the strain rate field from about N-S compression in the Tyrrhenian side to about NE-SW extension toward the Adriatic.

  6. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  7. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  8. Paleoseismologic and geomorphic constraints to the deformation style and activity of the Cittanova Fault (southern Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial

  9. Investigation of the buried structure of the Volturara Irpina Basin (southern Italy) by microtremor and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Rosalba; Berrino, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the structure of the Volturara Irpina Plain, a small intra-mountain basin in southern Italy. Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) measurements were performed on a 50-point grid across the plain, and contour maps of the peak frequencies and maximum amplitudes of the HVSR curves were constructed. In the deepest part of the plain, the fundamental resonance frequencies were 0.8 Hz to 0.9 Hz. Assuming that the HVSR peak frequencies interpret the fundamental resonance frequencies, and taking into account the shear-wave velocity-depth relationship derived from down-hole data, a first thickness-frequency relationship for the plain was estimated. The sediment thickness corresponds to the depth from the ground surface of the seismic basement. A power-law thickness-frequency relationship was also derived through nonlinear regression fitting of the borehole data that intercepted the bedrock. Finally, the contour map of the depth of the seismic basement was constructed by averaging the thickness estimates from the two different approaches. Gravity measurements were also acquired on a 54-point grid across the plain, most of which coincided with microtremor stations. From these data, the Bouguer gravity anomaly was computed with reference to the 1980 Ellipsoid, and using a density of 2670 kg/m3, we propose a three-dimensional interpretation of the buried structure of the plain that is mainly formed by three overlapped layers. The separately obtained microtremor and gravity results were also compared, using constraints from the drillings. Thus, we interpret the first layer as Plio-Pleistocenic sediments mostly composed of clay, silty clay, and gravel. The underlying basement has maximum depth ~ 500 m below ground level (altitude, ~ 200 m a.s.l.), and corresponds to Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These rocks are nonhomogeneous, with an upper, less compact, layer formed by unstable rocks with clay, or fractured rocks with water circulation. This is

  10. The role of river trajectories and channel recovery potential within sustainable river management: some case studies from southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Most of Italian and European rivers have undergone notable channel adjustments since the last 150-200 years. Major adjustments fall within the second half of the last century and consisted in overall channel narrowing and degradation, accompanied by important pattern changes. In the cases of the six investigated rivers located in southern Italy (namely Trigno, Biferno, Fortore, Volturno, Sinni and Crati), major adjustments occurred from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s. They consisted in channel narrowing up to 98%, bed level lowering from -2 to -10m and extensive changes from multi-thread to single thread pattern that led to the abandonment of extensive channel areas and consistent increase of floodplain and terraced areas. The integrated analysis of river trajectories and potential control factors, both of natural and anthropic origin, showed that human disturbances, especially gravel mining and river control works, are key driving factors of channel adjustments. Furthermore, the presence of major hydraulic structures along the rivers Biferno, Fortore, Sinni and Trigno significantly influenced the amounts of channel adjustments which are sharply higher within the reaches located downstream of such structures. Considering the last 15-20 years, most of the evolutionary trajectories of the investigated reaches highlight ongoing channel stabilization or even some appreciable channel recovery. Particularly, channel widening had occurred in those reaches that are not under the direct influence of major hydraulic structures (check-dams and dams) and in which in-channel interventions had pratically ceased and woody riparian vegetation developed only in a discontinuous manner. Conversely, the reaches that are located immediately downstream of major hydraulic structures, in which control works are placed very close to the actual riverbanks and/or a continuous riparian forest has developed, appear stable, only locally affected by very slight widening, or even affected by

  11. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

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    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  12. Effects of planting density on the distribution of biomass in a douglas-fir plantation in southern Italy

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    Marziliano PA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of initial planting densities on the distribution of above-ground biomass of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii were investigated in a plantation in southern Italy. Allometric equations designed for the plantation under study were used to estimate above-ground biomass and in particular partitioning to stem and crown compartments. A comparison between biomass estimated with allometric equations and biomass estimated with a constant biomass expansion factor (BEF from the Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC 2005 was carried out. Moreover, a BEF calculated as the ratio of total above-ground or compartment biomass to stem volume was used to define the sensitivity of BEF to age and to tree density. Variation of above-ground standing biomass estimated with allometric equations was evaluated according to 6 differing planting densities (833, 1000, 1250, 1667, 2000 and 2500 trees per hectare. In the first 20 years after planting higher biomass stock was detected in high density plots, but after the age of 32 years differences between plots disappeared. When the plantation was 40 years old, a higher amount of total biomass was observed in plots of 2000 trees per hectare (about 405 Mg ha-1, a lower amount in plots of 2500 trees per hectare (about 381 Mg ha-1. The Douglas-fir plantation has a total above-ground carbon stock of 197 Mg C ha-1 at the age of 40 and a mean annual CO2 sequestration of 18 Mg ha-1 y-1. Constant BEF from INFC underestimated biomass on average by 11% for ages 15 and 25 and overestimated biomass on average by 16% for older ages. BEFs expressed as a ratio of biomass to stem volume significantly depended upon age and planting density, with decreasing trends for total, stem and crown compartments. Our results indicated that total above-ground biomass production is not influenced by different tree density if considered over a long period. If cutting cycles are short, planting density on average

  13. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  14. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  15. The contribution of fluvial and mass wasting processes to sedimentary budget in mountain catchments of the southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Danese, M.; Gioia, D.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion quantification is an important topic for both scientific and social community, although the large number of prediction models developed in the last decades showed controversial results and limited reliability (Boardman, 2006 and references therein). On the other hand, direct measurements of sediment flux are extremely rare and limited to a few years. This is true also for southern Apennines where, in this work, the sediment yield has been estimated in a wide sector of the axial zone, by using simple empirical relationships, such as the statistical correlation between some geomorphic parameters of the drainage network and the measured suspended sediment yield at the outlet of several drainage basins of Italy (Ciccacci et al., 1980). The test area includes several mountain catchments of the central-western sector of the Basilicata region, characterized by strong differences in litho-structural, morphological and tectonic features. In this area, classical and GIS-aided quantitative geomorphic analysis allowed to estimate several geomorphic indexes and topographic attributes, which are used to estimate fluvial turbid transport data (Tu, mean annual suspension sediment yield), an expression of the erosion degree within the drainage basin. In particular, in this study Tu calculation was modified considering also some morphological and climate parameters, with the aim to relate this index to the real physiography of the studied area and to recent (i.e. the last ten years) pluviometric trend. Then, Tu index is converted into a mean denudation rate, giving a mean bulk density to the rocks outcropping into drainage basins. Denudation rates obtained through Tu method have been compared with those estimated by published study of long-term erosion rates and with data of historical sediment accumulation in the artificial reservoir of the Camastra dam. In order to assess also the contribution of mass movement processes to the sedimentary yield, a landslide inventory map

  16. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

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    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  17. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy

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    R. Caggiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy. The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6–12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  18. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  19. Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in southern Italy from 2000-2005: molecular typing of isolates from human and non human sources

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    Caterina Mammina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotype Infantis ranks within the top-five Salmonella serotypes in many European countries. An association between this serotype and the poultry ecosystem is apparent in some geographic areas and could account for its persistent or emergent role as causative agent of human salmonellosis. Recently, in southern Italy isolation from eggs and poultry has become increasingly frequent, and in one case the egg yolk also cultured positive. Molecular typing was performed to assess the possible relationship among isolates from human, food and animal sources. Isolates of serotype Infantis identified in southern Italy between 2000 and 2005 rom various sources were submitted to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE by a CHEF-Mapper apparatus fter endonuclease digestion of DNA by XbaI. PFGE patterns of isolates from swine and poultry reservoirs showed distinctive PFGE profiles and human solates shared pulsotypes with isolates from both sources. Moreover, egg isolates from different farms ppeared very similar to each other. Epidemiological investigation and risk assessment can obtain reliable and useful pointers from he pplication of molecular epidemiology techniques.

  20. High Nature Value Forests identification: A case study in Apulia region – Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Petrontino; Vincenzo Fucilli

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of environmental compliance and the introduction of new challenges in rural development policy have led to a wide shift of resources toward specific objectives, concerning the conservation of particular areas identified as High Nature Value Farmlands/Forests (HNVF). These areas represent important elements of rural strategies due to their ability to allow both biodiversity and economic development. The aim of the research is to create an analysis frame, with Multi Criteria A...

  1. High Nature Value Forests identification: A case study in Apulia region – Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Petrontino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The strengthening of environmental compliance and the introduction of new challenges in rural development policy have led to a wide shift of resources toward specific objectives, concerning the conservation of particular areas identified as High Nature Value Farmlands/Forests (HNVF. These areas represent important elements of rural strategies due to their ability to allow both biodiversity and economic development. The aim of the research is to create an analysis frame, with Multi Criteria Analysis method and GIS elaboration, in order to identify forests that meet the HNV concept. The analysis examines also several aspects related to the multifunctional role of forests and the effect that different contextual factors might have on it. The research provide a support in terms of implementation and resource distribution of the Rural Development Programme in a field where the main efforts have been yet spent on agriculture, leaving forestry behind.

  2. Geochemical Patterns of Geothermal Elements in Southern Italian Fumaroles and Thermal Springs in Relation with Mantle Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, A. E.; Minissale, A.; Donato, A.; Procesi, M.; Pizzino, L.; Giammanco, S.

    2015-12-01

    The review of published data together with some new data specifically made to fill gaps, to make a database of chemical and isotopic data for thermal emergences (springs, fumaroles and gas vents) in southern Italy, to be used for the publication of a Geothermal Atlas, has hallowed the re-interpretation of all the geochemical data gathered. The main conclusions are as follows. All active volcanic areas (Solfatara, Vesuvius, Ischia Isle, Mt Etna, Aeolian Islands and Pantelleria Isle) have i) high 3He/4He rations coupled with ii) high CO2 emissions and iii) geo-thermometric (isotopic) signatures that suggest the presence of active geothermal systems in all places at shallow depth. In spite of this, no one of these areas, is exploited for geothermal power generation. There are three further Quaternary volcanic areas at: Iblei Mts in Sicily, Vulture volcano in Basilicata region and Logudoro area in Sardinia Island that also have CO2-rich gas emissions, high in 3He/4He ratio, but they are not associated to any relevant thermal emission nearby. In terms of regional patterns, apart from the Calabria subduction arc area (Calabria region), the stable flat cratonic areas of Apulia in SE Italy, the Iblean Platform in SE Sicily, and most of Sardinia, the latter not involved in the Apennine Orogeny, the remaining southern Italy along the Tyrrhenian sector has huge emission of hydrothermally generated CO2 crossed, in counterflow, by descending topographically driven N2 solubilized in recharge meteoric water from the main Apennine belt. Iso-distribution maps of several of the parameters investigated even more clearly show the sectors of southern Italy affected by the intrusion of mantle magma and therefore the areas where the geothermal heat-flow is maximized by active tectonics.

  3. The MeTIBas project: an example of settlement continuity in a coastal changing landscape of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Di Leo, Paola; Giammatteo, Tonia; Gioia, Dario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The MeTIBas (Italian acronym for Innovative Methods and Technologies for the Cultural Heritage in the Basilicata region) project aims to develop an innovative geoarchaeological investigation approach for large areas. Analyses of environmental dynamics, palaeoclimatic proxies, spatial and temporal evolution of settlements and, more in general, of the relationships between man and landscape have been carried also through the implementation of a Territorial Information System, drawing-up of an experimental digital geoarchaeological map, and creation of an open geoarchaeological database. The project methods have been applied in the coastal area of Metaponto, which roughly coincides with the ancient territory of the Greek settlement of Metapontum and its chora and includes a region of about 400 sq. km in the Ionian sector of the Basilicata region, southern Italy. The backshore area of the Metaponto coastal plain was characterized by the presence of wide limno-palustrine environments, reclaimed during the first decades of the last century. Geomorphological mapping, GIS-supported statistics, and analysis of the topographic features of the landforms represent the key to extract the settlement rules and the site dynamics of the study area. Site distribution and relationships with landscape elements allow us to investigate the settlement patterns and human activities and choices. A wide archive of archaeological data on the whole study area - from Prehistoric times to Roman age - has been therefore used to connect the wandering or persistence of the ancient sites in relation with different landforms and their changes during the last 5000 years. The layout of the site arrangement clearly traces the main geomorphological features of the area (i.e. settlements along fluvial scarps, sites on the flat surfaces of marine and fluvial terraces, main villages in the coastal plain). From a chronological viewpoint, after a progressive increase of the settlements and other

  4. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  5. Characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal system in the Campania region (southern Italy): from geological data to resource modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, G.; Inversi, B.; Scrocca, D.; Livani, M.; Petracchini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIGOR project, a characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal resources have been carried out in the Campania region (southern Italy), with a focus on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" area (province of Avellino). The VIGOR project began on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of Economic Development and the Italian National Research Council, and it deal with the exploitation of innovative uses of geothermal energy in the so-called "regions of convergence"(Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicilia). Thanks to the intense hydrocarbon exploration, carried out particularly during the 1956-1996 period, an extensive data set made up by deep wells and seismic reflection profiles exist in the study area. The previous exploration demonstrated the presence of a fractured carbonate reservoir, mainly belonging to the Cretaceous section of the Apulian shallow water carbonate platform (e.g. Scrocca 2010 and references therein), which is deformed to shape a buried antiformal stack. The culmination of the uppermost thrust unit reaches a depth of about 200 m SSL (i.e., about 1100 m below the ground level). The reservoir fluids are made up by a CO2 gas cap, which rests above an accumulation of fresh water in the central and upper part of the culmination of the deep carbonatic acquifer (e.g., Monte Forcuso 1 and 2 wells), and a saline water along the flank of the buried anticline (e.g., Bonito 1 Dir, Ciccone 1 wells). Medium enthalpy geothermal resources with a reservoir fluid temperature up to 100°C have been estimated in previous assessments at depth of 2000 m below ground level (ENEL 1987; 1994). However, the presence of thermal springs (e.g. Terme di S. Teodoro) in the area suggests the presence of an active hydraulic circuit and provide further constraints about the geochemical characteristics of the reservoir waters, and the geothermometers investigation (Duchi et al. 1995) give a possible reservoir fluid temperature up to about 124 °C. In this

  6. Emergency preparedness activities during an ongoing seismic swarm: the experience of the 2011-2012 Pollino (Southern Italy) sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Chiauzzi, L.; De Costanzo, G.; Loperte, G.

    2012-04-01

    Facing natural disasters effects can be a very difficult task lacking suitable activities and tools to preventively prepare the involved community (people, authorities, professionals, …) to the expected events. Therefore, a suite of preventive actions should be carried out to mitigate natural risks, in particular working to reduce the territorial vulnerability with respect to the specific natural hazard at hand, and to increase people response capacity. In fact, building social capacity helps to increase the risk perception and the people capacity to adapt to and cope with natural hazards. Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, Southern Italy. At present the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area mainly affected by the seismic sequence includes 12 villages, with a total population of about 50.000 inhabitants and, according to the current seismic hazard map it has high seismicity level. Such area was hit by a magnitude Ml=5.7 event in 1998 that produced macroseismic intensity not higher that VII-VIII degree of MCS scale and caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. During the sequence, the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) and the Civil Protection of Basilicata Region decided to put in action some measures aimed at verifying and enhancing emergency preparedness. These actions have been carried out with a constant and fruitful collaboration among the main stakeholders involved (scientific community, local and national governmental agencies, civil protection volunteers, etc) trough the following main activities: 1. collaboration between scientific community and the local and national offices of Civil Protection especially in the relationship with local authorities (e.g. mayors, which are civil protection authorities in their municipality); 2. interaction between DPC

  7. Interaction between soil formation and geomorphic dynamics along a soil catena in the Turbolo watershed (northwest Calabria, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Conforti, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Robustelli, Gaetano; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of a soil catena located along a slope in the Turbolo watershed in northwest Calabria, southern Italy. This geomorphological context can be assumed as representative of widespread sites in the same region, as well as of several zones in the Mediterranean area, on the basis of its variegate but common lithological, topographic, pedological and climatic features, on the whole prone to high soil erosion susceptibility. The Turbolo stream is a tributary of the Crati river, covers an area of about 30 km2 and develops longitudinally from west to east up to about 13 km in length. It originates from the eastern flank of the Coastal Range and ranges from more than 1000 m to 75 m asl. The watershed is developed through Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks in the western sector, where high relief and steep slopes dominate, whereas the eastern hilly reaches are characterised by gentler slopes and terraces cut on sedimentary terrains of Neogene-Quaternary ages. The soil toposequence we analysed consists of six soil profiles in the eastern sector, on a north-facing slope, cut across Pleistocene marine silty clays, comprised between 85 to 140 m asl in elevation and 5 to 20° inclined. Field observations, chemical-physical data and micromorphological features contribute interesting considerations in the understanding of the interplay between soil-forming processes and geomorphic dynamics. At present, the land is uncultivated with sparse olive trees and is mainly affected by sheet wash and rill erosion, with poor gully incision in places. These processes are presumably promoted by the recent abandon of agricultural crops in the last decade and by the slight local relief of the footslope (about 3 m) above the Turbolo valley-floor, whose main channel occurs less than 100 m far. The selected soil profiles represent loam to (sandy-)clay-loam Inceptisols characterised by accumulation of organic matter (always > 2% except in one profile) in topsoils, neutral to

  8. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  9. DISCOSIPHONELLA MINIMA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & LINK AND SOLENOLMIA? PARVA N. SP. ("SPHINCTOZOA", PORIFERA FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN OF THE SOUTHERN APPENNINES (NORTHERN CALABRIA/ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  10. A Study of the Correlation Between Electrical Resistivity and Matric Suction for Unsaturated Ash-Fall Pyroclastic Soils in the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester

    2011-01-01

    In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...

  11. Characterization of Essential Oil Components from Aromatic Plants that Grow Wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Vitulano, Manuela; Trifuoggi, Marco; Gallo, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis and Mentha spicata growing wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) have been extracted by hydro-distillation, quantified and characterized by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass-spectrometry (MS). Sixty-nine compounds were identified and classified according to their chemical classes. The results showed that the composition of the essential oils was extremely variable and specific for each botanical species. Hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in all essential oils except for sage where aldehydes and ketones were the most representative compounds. Only for thyme was a higher content of alcohols found. PMID:26411033

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Three Chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart Growing Wild in Campania (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained from inflorescences of three Origanum vulgare L.ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart samples, growing wild in different locations in Campania (Southern Italy, were analysed. Three chemotypes were found: the first, with a prevalence of carvacrol/thymol; the second, characterized by the prevalence of thymol/α-terpineol; the third, featuring a prevalence of linalyl acetate and linalool. This chemical study attempts to provide a contribution in shedding light on the relationship between chemical composition and biotypes and/or chemotypes in Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future view to use the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  13. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  14. Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in human breast milk collected in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy): first case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Zianni, Rosalia; Anzillotta, Giuseppe; Palma, Achille; Vitacco, Vincenzo; Scrano, Laura; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2013-03-01

    We report on the content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 15 breast milk samples of nursing women living in the city of Taranto (Southern, Italy) or nearby. Breast milk samples were collected over the 2008-2009 period and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using acetone/n-hexane mixture 1:1 (v/v). The method was validated demonstrating good performing features. Profiles of PCDD/PCDF congeners in breast milk samples exhibited a prevalence of PCDFs compared to PCDDs. Toxic equivalents (TEQs in picogram per gram fat) of four breast milk were far above the legal limit for human consumption of 3.0 pg/g; their estimated daily and weekly dietary intake were almost 5-20 and 10-40 times higher, respectively, than the tolerable intake values established by the World Health Organization. PMID:23344638

  15. Comments on: Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy) by d'Orazio et al., (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, F.; Principe, C.; Giannandrea, P.

    2008-07-01

    [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334] describe a new finding of alvikite Ca-carbonatite at Vulture. They stress its importance as being the first carbonatite to be discovered in a subduction environment. They suggest that this rock is different from the other Italian carbonatites, considered as 'rocks sharing a carbonatitic affinity', which are radiogenic and chemically diluted by addition of sedimentary limestone. They note that Vulture 'alvikite' is not diluted and is very unradiogenic with respect to other Italian carbonatites. However, they maintain that Vulture 'alvikite' carbonate is derived from subducted limestones. We present an account of the field relationships relating to the above-mentioned rocks, setting the geological and petrographic records straight and describing pyroclastic rocks. We did not find that these rocks are formed from alvikite dykes or lava, but instead recognised them to be a continuous blanket of 'flaggy', welded tuff. We found that the rocks consist of physically separated melilitite and carbonatite juvenile lapilli settled into a carbonatite ash matrix form the rock. We disagree with the geochemical interpretation of the rock by [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334], and are particularly concerned by their conclusion of its carbonate origin. We remark on the rock's geodynamic assignment in the frame of an extensional tectonic setting, also referring to the other Italian carbonatite occurrences. We reject any ad hoc modified subduction as a direct source of Vulture and Italian carbonatites.

  16. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  17. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  18. Stratigraphic significance of carbon isotope variations in the shallow-marine Seis/Siusi Permian–Triassic boundary section (Southern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kraus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate carbon-isotope values from the Permian–Triassic (P–T boundary section at Seis/Siusi (Southern Alps, Italy show a trend similar to that in numerous other P–T boundary sections worldwide. Values decrease from 3.2‰ (V-PDB in the upper Bellerophon Limestone Formation (Late Permian to a minimum of –1.7‰ in the lower Mazzin Member. This minimum may represent the P–T boundary. The overall declining carbon-isotope trend is interrupted by a ca. 1‰ positive excursion in the higher Tesero Oolite Horizon. This positive peak is located at a higher lithostratigraphic level than a comparable peak in the adjacent Pufels section, which suggests that the Tesero Oolite Horizon in the Seis section is stratigraphically slightly older than in the Pufels section, and this is also suggested by palaeomagnetic correlation. It is therefore concluded that the base of the Tesero Oolite Horizon does not reflect a synchronous "current event" but is slightly diachronous, a result that was previously shown by biostratigraphic correlation. Nevertheless, this suggestion should be verified by further detailed litho-, magneto- and chemostratigraphic analysis of other P–T sections in the Southern Alps. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900007

  19. Evaluation of rapeseed cultivation suitability in Apulia with GIS-multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Grassano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of land for energy crops is determined by an evaluation of biophysical and economical variables. From this respect, climate, soil and geomorphologic environmental components are the most important agro-ecological variables to conduct this kind of evaluation. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to identify the most suitable areas for rapeseed crop production in the Apulia region. Environmental components such as climate (precipitation, temperature, soil (chemical and physical characteristics including texture, gravel percentage, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, soil depth, etc., topography (slope and economical components (farm-useful surface, mechanization, percentage of land covered by cereals and horticulture, irrigated surface, set-aside surface were considered. Biophysical parameters (climate, geomorphology and soil were used to draw a map of agronomic suitability of rapeseed according to the Agronomic Classification of the Territory II (CAT II classification system; a map of general suitability of rapeseed in the Apulia region has been drawn with the support of multicriteria analysis, which also takes into account the economical parameters. The results from overlay maps for agronomic evaluation in the Apulia region showed that 38% (189,983 ha of the arable land area is highly suitable (S1, 43.4% (21,6642 ha is moderately suitable (S2, 11.9% (59,487 ha is marginally suitable (S3 and 6.7% (33,210 ha is and not suitable (N for rapeseed cultivation.

  20. Odontocetes of the Southern Ocean Sanctuary. Scientific Committee document SC/56/SOS1, International Whaling Commission, July 2004, Sorrento, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waerebeek, K.; Leaper, R.; Baker, A.N.; Papastavrou, V; Thiele, D

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-seven odontocete species are identified as occupying subantarctic and Antarctic habitat covered by the 1994 IWC-established Southern Ocean Sanctuary. Twenty-one species are autochthonous in showing a regular, apparently year-round, presence: Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, Orcinus orca, Globicephala melas edwardii, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, Lissodelphis peronii, Cephalorhynchus commersonii, Cephalorhynchus hectori, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis,...

  1. [Ecology of Thelazia spp. in cattle and their vectors in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, A; Traversa, D; Otranto, D

    2004-06-01

    The genus Thelazia (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) includes a cosmopolitan group of eyeworm spirurids responsible for ocular infections in domestic and wild animals and transmitted by different species of muscids. Bovine thelaziosis is caused by Thelazia rhodesi Desmarest 1828, Thelazia gulosa Railliet & Henry 1910, and Thelazia skrjabini Erschow 1928, which occur in many countries; T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been reported mainly in the New World, while T. rhodesi is particularly common in the Old World. In Italy, T. rhodesi was reported in southern regions a long time ago and, recently, T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been identified in autochthonous cattle first in Apulia and then in Sardinia. Thirteen species of Musca are listed as intermediate hosts of eyeworms, but only Musca autumnalis and Musca larvipara have been demonstrated to act as vectors of Thelazia in the ex-URSS, North America, ex-Czechoslovakia and more recently in Sweden. In Italy, after the reports of T. gulosa and T. skrjabini in southern regions, the intermediate hosts of bovine eyeworms were initially only suspected as the predominant secretophagous Muscidae collected from the periocular region of cattle with thelaziosis were the face flies, M. autumnalis and M. larvipara, followed by Musca osiris, Musca tempestiva and Musca domestica. The well-known constraints in the identification of immature eyeworms to species by fly dissection and also the time-consuming techniques used constitute important obstacles to epidemiological field studies (i.e. vector identification and/or role, prevalence and pattern of infection in flies, etc.). Molecular studies have recently permitted to further investigations into this area. A PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal ITS-1 sequence was developed to differentiate the 3 species of Thelazia (i.e. T. gulosa, T. rhodesi and T. skrjabini) found in Italy, then a molecular epidemiological survey has recently been carried out in field conditions throughout five seasons of

  2. Application of DSSAT models for an agronomic adaptation strategy under climate change in Southern of Italy: optimum sowing and transplanting time for winter durum wheat and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many climate change studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to assess climate change vulnerability and adaptation capacity of agricultural crops for determined environments characterized from climatic, pedological and agronomical point of view. The objective of this study was to analyse the productive response of winter durum wheat and tomato to climate change and sowing/transplanting time in one of most productive areas of Italy (i.e. Capitanata, Puglia, using CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO cropping system models. Three climatic datasets were used: i a single dataset (50 km x 50 km provided by the JRC European centre for the period 1975-2005; two datasets from HadCM3 for the IPCC A2 GHG scenario for time slices with +2°C (centred over 2030-2060 and +5°C (centred over 2070-2099, respectively. All three datasets were used to generate synthetic climate series using a weather simulator (model LARS-WG. No negative yield effects of climate change were observed for winter durum wheat with delayed sowing (from 330 to 345 DOY increasing the average dry matter grain yield under forecasted scenarios. Instead, the warmer temperatures were primarily shown to accelerate the phenology, resulting in decreased yield for tomato under the + 5°C future climate scenario. In general, under global temperature increase by 5°C, early transplanting times could minimize the negative impact of climate change on crop productivity but the intensity of this effect was not sufficient to restore the current production levels of tomato cultivated in southern Italy.

  3. Trends and Extremes Analysis of Daily Weather Data from a Site in the Capitanata Plain (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Vitale

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the climate change for agriculture is an ambitious and unresolved topic due to the complexity of the natural phenomena. The high variability of the Mediterranean basin does not allow us to generalize with enough certainty the results obtained from other researches and other locations. Therefore, a site specific analysis in Capitanata plain was conducted. The aim is to provide a detailed picture of recent change in climate regime in one of the most important agricultural area of South Italy. Climate analysis was carried out and several indices of extreme events were studied on the basis of temperature and precipitation observations registered at experimental station ‘Podere 124’ (CRA-SCA. The period under study is 1979-2008. Increasing trends were identified for the summer season with an intensification of the number of heat waves.

  4. Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    G. G. R. Iovine; P. Lollino; S. L. Gariano; O. G. Terranova

    2010-01-01

    On 28 January 2009, a large debris slide was triggered by prolonged rainfalls at the southern suburbs of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria). The slope movement affected fractured and weathered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist, and included a pre-existing landslide. A detailed geomorphologic field survey, carried out during the whole phase of mobilization, allowed to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A set of datum points was located along the borders of the landslide and f...

  5. Waveform modeling of historical seismograms of the 1930 Irpinia earthquake provides insight on ``blind'' faulting in Southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, N. A.; Palombo, B.; Ventura, G.; Perniola, B.; Ferrari, G.

    2008-05-01

    The Southern Apennines chain is related to the west-dipping subduction of the Apulian lithosphere. The strongest seismic events mostly occurred in correspondence of the chain axis along normal NW-SE striking faults parallel to the chain axis. These structures are related to mantle wedge upwelling beneath the chain. In the foreland, faulting develops along E-W strike-slip to oblique-slip faults related to the roll-back of the foreland. Similarly to other historical events in Southern Apennines, the I0 = XI (MCS intensity scale) 23 July 1930 earthquake occurred between the chain axis and the thrust front without surface faulting. This event produced more than 1400 casualties and extensive damage elongated approximately E-W. The analysis of the historical waveforms provides the chance to study the fault geometry of this "anomalous" event and allow us to clarify its geodynamic significance. Our results indicate that the MS = 6.6 1930 event nucleated at 14.6 ± 3.06 km depth and ruptured a north dipping, N100°E striking plane with an oblique motion. The fault propagated along the fault strike 32 km to the east at about 2 km/s. The eastern fault tip is located in proximity of the Vulture volcano. The 1930 hypocenter, similarly to the 1990 (MW = 5.8) Southern Apennines event, is within the Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulian foredeep and the rupture developed along a "blind" fault. The 1930 fault kinematics significantly differs from that typical of large Southern Apennines earthquakes, which occur in a distinct seismotectonic domain on late Pleistocene to Holocene outcropping faults. These results stress the role played by pre-existing, "blind" faults in the Apennines subduction setting.

  6. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANO LARGHI; MARCO BALINI; VALENTINA TORTI

    2006-01-01

    The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic) carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, c...

  7. New insights on volcanic and tectonic structures of the southern Tyrrhenian (Italy) from marine and land seismic data

    OpenAIRE

    Monna, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Sgroi, T.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Dahm, T.; Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches Geo Forschungs Zentrum, Potsdam, Germany

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the first crustal seismic tomography for the southern Tyrrhenian area, which includes ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data and a bathymetry correction. This area comprises Mt. Etna, the Aeolian Islands, and many volcanic seamounts, including the Marsili Seamount. The seismicity distribution in the area depends on the complex interaction between tectonics and volcanism. The 3-D velocity model presented in this study is obtained by the inversion of P wave arrival times...

  8. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  9. Low-pH waters discharging from submarine vents at Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) after the 2002 gas blast: origin of hydrothermal fluids and implications for volcanic surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Tassi, F.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Florence, Via G. La Pira, 4, 50121 Florence, Italy; Capaccioni, B.; Dept. of Earth and Geological-Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Bologna, P.zza di Porta S. Donato, 40127 Bologna, Italy; Caramanna, G.; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Rome 'La Sapienza', P.le Aldo Moro,5 - 00185 Rome, Italy; Cinti, D.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Montegrossi, G.; CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources; Pizzino, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Quattrocchi, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Vaselli, O.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Florence, Via G. La Pira, 4, 50121 Florence, Italy

    2008-01-01

    A geochemical survey of thermal waters collected from submarine vents at Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) was carried out from December 2002 to March 2007, in order to investigate i) the geochemical processes controlling the chemical composition of the hydrothermal fluids and ii) the possible relations between the chemical features of the hydrothermal reservoir and the activity of the magmatic system. Compositional data of the thermal water samples were integrated in a hydrolo...

  10. Low-pH waters discharging from submarine vents at Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) after the 2002 gas blast: origin of hydrothermal fluids and implications for volcanic surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Tassi, F.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Florence, Via G. La Pira, 4, 50121 Florence, Italy; Capaccioni, B.; Dept. of Earth and Geological-Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Bologna, P.zza di Porta S. Donato, 40127 Bologna, Italy; Caramanna, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Cinti, D.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Montegrossi, G.; CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources; Pizzino, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Quattrocchi, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Vaselli, O.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Florence, Via G. La Pira, 4, 50121 Florence, Italy

    2007-01-01

    A geochemical survey of thermal waters collected from submarine vents at Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) was carried out from December 2002 to March 2007, in order to investigate i) the geochemical processes controlling the chemical composition of the hydrothermal fluids and ii) the possible relations between the chemical features of the hydrothermal reservoir and the activity of the magmatic system. Compositional data of the thermal water samples were integrated in a hydrolo...

  11. A Polymorphism at the Translation Start Site of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Is Associated with the Response to Anti-Osteoporotic Therapy in Postmenopausal Women from Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Conti; Giusy Russomanno; Graziamaria Corbi; Giuseppe Toro; Vittorio Simeon; Walter Filippelli; Nicola Ferrara; Michela Grimaldi; Valeria D'Argenio; Nicola Maffulli; Amelia Filippelli

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, rs1544410 A/G and rs2228570 C/T, in modulating bone mineral density (BMD) and the response to treatment with bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). Four hundred eighteen postmenopausal women from Southern Italy treated with bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate for three years were enrolled and stratified according to their genotype...

  12. The September 27, 2012, ML 4.1, Benevento earthquake: A case of strike-slip faulting in Southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Guido Maria; De Matteis, Raffaella; Orefice, Antonella; Festa, Gaetano; Zollo, Aldo; de Nardis, Rita; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2015-10-01

    On September 27, 2012 at 01:08 (UTC) a ML 4.1 earthquake started a seismic sequence approximately 10 km east of the city of Benevento, in Southern Apennines (Italy). During the following four days, about 40 events with ML ranging between 1.3 and 4.1 were detected in the same area, where the seismic hazard is one of the largest of the Italian Peninsula and where several historical and destructive events took place. In order to investigate the seismicity spatio-temporal pattern and to identify the seismogenic source geometry, a detailed analysis was performed integrating data recorded at three different seismic networks. The earthquakes were relocated using the double-difference technique and focal mechanism solutions were obtained by the moment tensor inversion. Also, to better understand the rupture process, seismic source parameters were estimated and apparent source time functions were inverted to retrieve the slip distribution for the largest magnitude event. Our results show the existence in the study area of roughly E-W striking fault plane with a right-lateral strike-slip kinematics, seated at mid-crustal depths (10-20 km), revealing a characteristic seismicity quite different from that typically associated to the outcropping NW-SE-striking active normal faults that are responsible of moderate to large earthquakes in the Southern Apennines axial sector. In this work, we address questions concerning i) the presence in the Benevento area of a mid-crust seismogenic strike-slip fault, previously unrecognized; ii) its link to the regional seismotectonic setting; and iii) the existence of a strike-slip tectonic regime that uniformly extends in the footwall of the Apennines thrust at relevant depth, not only in the Apulian foreland, as demonstrated to date, but also under the mountain chain axial zone.

  13. A stochastic ensemble-based model to predict crop water requirements from numerical weather forecasts and VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Anna; Falanga Bolognesi, Salvatore; De Michele, Carlo; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Ensemble numerical weather predictions can be valuable data for developing operational advisory irrigation services. We propose a stochastic ensemble-based model providing spatial and temporal estimates of crop water requirements, implemented within an advisory service offering detailed maps of irrigation water requirements and crop water consumption estimates, to be used by water irrigation managers and farmers. The stochastic model combines estimates of crop potential evapotranspiration retrieved from ensemble numerical weather forecasts (COSMO-LEPS, 16 members, 7 km resolution) and canopy parameters (LAI, albedo, fractional vegetation cover) derived from high resolution satellite images in the visible and near infrared wavelengths. The service provides users with daily estimates of crop water requirements for lead times up to five days. The temporal evolution of the crop potential evapotranspiration is simulated with autoregressive models. An ensemble Kalman filter is employed for updating model states by assimilating both ground based meteorological variables (where available) and numerical weather forecasts. The model has been applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. This work presents the results of the system performance for one year of experimental service. The results suggest that the proposed model can be an effective support for a sustainable use and management of irrigation water, under conditions of water scarcity and drought. Since the evapotranspiration term represents a staple

  14. Applications of a synergic analytical strategy to figure out technologies in medieval glazed pottery with "negative decoration" from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Acquaviva, Marianna; Laganara, Caterina; Laviano, Rocco; Mangone, Annarosa

    2014-09-01

    Glazed pottery with "negative decoration" samples, dating back to the twelfth to thirteenth century ad and coming from three sites along the Adriatic coast, Siponto, Egnatia and Trani (Southern Italy) were characterized from physical-chemical, mineralogical and morphological points of view. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations were carried out on ceramic bodies, pigments and glazes of the fragments. We aimed to outline the technological features, define the nature of decorations and coatings—glazes and engobes—and look for clues to hypothesize provenance. Results obtained show clear differences in raw materials and production technology between the impressed ceramic of Islamic tradition and the incised one of Byzantine tradition. Regarding the latter, evidences of a non-local origin can be found in the compositional diversity of raw materials used for the ceramic bodies of fragments decorated with spiral and pseudo-kufic motifs, which stressed the use of clays so far not recorded in Apulia. At the same time, at least in the case of Siponto, the compositional similarity of both ceramic bodies and materials used under the glaze for impressed ceramic and painted polychrome ceramics (RMR and protomaiolica), more likely local production, could suggest that both were produced in the same workshops.

  15. Damaging Hydrogeological Events: A Procedure for the Assessment of Severity Levels and an Application to Calabria (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A damaging hydrogeological event (DHE is characterized by two components: a rainfall event and a subsequent damage event, which is the result of floods and landslides triggered by rainfall. The characteristics of both events depend on climatic, geomorphological and anthropogenic factors. In this paper, a methodology to classify the severity of DHEs is presented. A chart which considers indicators of both the damage (Dscore and the daily rainfall (Rscore values recorded in the study area is proposed. According to the chart, the events are classified into four types: ordinary events, with low Dscore and Rscore values; extraordinary events, with high Rscore values but low Dscore values; catastrophic events, characterized by non-exceptional rainfall (low Rscore and severe damage (high Dscore; major catastrophic events, obtained by both high Dscore and Rscore values. Using this approach, the 2013 DHE that occurred in Calabria (Italy was classified as an ordinary event, when compared to the previous ones, even though the widespread diffusion of damage data induced the perception of high severity damage. The rainfall that triggered this event confirms the negative trend of heavy daily precipitation detected in Calabria, and the damage can be ascribed more to sub-daily than daily rainfall affecting urbanized flood-prone areas.

  16. ASTROCHRONOLOGICAL CALIBRATION OF THE UPPER SERRAVALLIAN/LOWER TORTONIAN SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE AT TREMITI ISLANDS(ADRIATIC SEA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution cyclostratigraphic study was carried out on a cyclicaly bedded succession of late Middle Miocene deep marine deposits from the Tremiti Islands, Adriatic sea (Italy. Astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provides absolute ages for different calcareous plankton bioevents, widely used for intra Mediterranean correlation, in the interval between 11.12 and 12.60 Ma. The sedimentary record of the S. nicola composite section consists of an alternation of indurated, withish coloured, CaCo3 rich and grey less indurated, CaCo3 poor marly beds, at times replaced by red coloured CaCo3 poor marls. Results of direct correlation between the La 90 (1,1 solution of the insolation curve and the cyclic lithologic patterns occurring in the studied sections, combined with results of spectral methodologies applied on the climate sensitive data (CaCo3 and Globigerinoides showed that the classic Milankovitch periodicity can be represented through the modulation forcing of the studied sedimentary records. 

  17. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  18. Low shear velocity in a normal fault system imaged by ambient noise cross correlation: The case of the Irpinia fault zone, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Maurizio; Festa, Gaetano; Bobbio, Antonella; Serra, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    We extracted the Green's functions from cross correlation of ambient noise recorded at broadband stations located across the Apennine belt, Southern Italy. Continuous records at 26 seismic stations acquired for 3 years were analyzed. We found the emergence of surface waves in the whole range of the investigated distances (10-140 km) with energy confined in the frequency band 0.04-0.09 Hz. This phase reproduces Rayleigh waves generated by earthquakes in the same frequency range. Arrival time of Rayleigh waves was picked at all the couples of stations to obtain the average group velocity along the path connecting the two stations. The picks were inverted in separated frequency bands to get group velocity maps then used to obtain an S wave velocity model. Penetration depth of the model ranges between 12 and 25 km, depending on the velocity values and on the depth of the interfaces, here associated to strong velocity gradients. We found a low-velocity anomaly in the region bounded by the two main faults that generated the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. A second anomaly was retrieved in the southeast part of the region and can be ascribed to a reminiscence of the Adria slab under the Apennine Chain.

  19. PM1 measurements at a site close to an oil/gas pre-treatment plant (Agri Valley - southern Italy): a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, S.; Caggiano, R.; Sabia, S.

    2014-09-01

    A PM1 (i.e. particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 1.0 μm) short-term monitoring campaign was carried out in the Agri Valley (southern Italy) in September 2012. This area is of international concern, since it houses one of the largest European on-shore reservoirs and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Centro Olio Val d'Agri - COVA) within an anthropised context. PM1 measurements were performed in Viggiano, the nearest town to the COVA plant and one of the most populated towns of the Agri Valley. During the study period, the PM1 daily concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 8.4 μg m-3, with a mean value of 4.6 μg m-3. Regarding the PM1 chemical composition, it can be observed that S and typical crustal elements were the most abundant constituents of the PM1 collected. By applying principal component analysis (PCA), it was pointed out that crustal soil, biomass and wood burning, secondary atmospheric reactions involving COVA plant emissions and local soil particles, and traffic were the main sources contributing to the PM1 measured in the area under study. Moreover, a possible contribution of the long-range transport of African dust was observed.

  20. Geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of mantle xenoliths from the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano, central southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, H.; Kostoula, T.; Jones, A. P.; Beard, A. D.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bodinier, J.-L.

    2002-08-01

    Spinel peridotite xenoliths found in the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano have been derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath central southern Italy. Clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites and harzburgites are the most common rock types, with subordinate wehrlites and dunites. Small quantities of phlogopite and carbonate are present in a few samples. The peridotites record a large degree of partial melting and have experienced subsequent enrichment which has increased their LILE and LREE contents, but in most cases their HFSE contents are low. Despite being carried to the surface by a carbonatite-melilitite host, the whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions of the xenoliths have a trace-element signature more closely resembling that of silicate-melt metasomatised mantle rather than carbonatite-metasomatised peridotites. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios for clinopyroxene from the Vulture peridotites are 0.7042-0.7058 and 0.51260-0.5131 respectively. They form a trend away from the depleted mantle to the composition of the host magmas, and show a significant enrichment in 87Sr/86Sr compared with most European mantle samples. The mantle beneath Monte Vulture has had a complex evolution - we propose that the lithosphere had already undergone extensive partial melting before being affected by metasomatism from a silicate melt which may have been subduction-related.

  1. A new-old approach for shallow landslide analysis and susceptibility zoning in fine-grained weathered soils of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascini, Leonardo; Ciurleo, Mariantonietta; Di Nocera, Silvio; Gullà, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides involve several geo-environmental contexts and different types of soils. In clayey soils, they affect the most superficial layer, which is generally constituted by physically weathered soils characterised by a diffuse pattern of cracks. This type of landslide most commonly occurs in the form of multiple-occurrence landslide phenomena simultaneously involving large areas and thus has several consequences in terms of environmental and economic damage. Indeed, landslide susceptibility zoning is a relevant issue for land use planning and/or design purposes. This study proposes a multi-scale approach to reach this goal. The proposed approach is tested and validated over an area in southern Italy affected by widespread shallow landslides that can be classified as earth slides and earth slide-flows. Specifically, by moving from a small (1:100,000) to a medium scale (1:25,000), with the aid of heuristic and statistical methods, the approach identifies the main factors leading to landslide occurrence and effectively detects the areas potentially affected by these phenomena. Finally, at a larger scale (1:5000), deterministic methods, i.e., physically based models (TRIGRS and TRIGRS-unsaturated), allow quantitative landslide susceptibility assessment, starting from sample areas representative of those that can be affected by shallow landslides. Considering the reliability of the obtained results, the proposed approach seems useful for analysing other case studies in similar geological contexts.

  2. Buried volcanic structures in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy resulting from high resolution magnetic survey and seismic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruggieri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a correlation between volcanic structures and magnetic anomalies in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea based on high resolution magnetic profiling. A densely spaced grid of magnetic profiles coupled with multichannel seismics (seismic source Watergun 15 cubic inch was recorded in the Gulf of Naples, representing an active volcanic area during the Late Quaternary (volcanic centers of Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia and Procida islands. The dataset was collected during the oceanographic cruise GMS00-05 which took place during October-November 2000 in the South Tyrrhenian Sea onboard of the R/V Urania (National Research Council, Italy. Shallow volcanic structures in the subsurface of the gulf were recognized by seismo-stratigraphic analysis of high resolution profiles; the volcanic nature of some of these structures was inferred identifying the magnetic anomalies on a high resolution magnetic anomaly map of the gulf. Even if qualitative, the correlations between seismic and magnetic profiles allow us to better assess the geological structure of the Gulf of Naples.

  3. Functional comparisons between unimodal and bimodal analytical relationships in terms of water balance predictions for the case study of the Vesuvius volcanic area (Naples, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Nasta, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Optimal performance of large-scale numerical modeling of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system mandates accurate assessment and description of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention (WRF) and hydraulic conductivity (HCF) functions. These functions are commonly described by simple unimodal analytical relations that guarantee mathematical flexibility with few parameters in the majority of soil types. However, other soils, like volcanic soils, are characterized by a complex structure yielding a bimodal or even a multimodal distribution of pore sizes. In these cases, reliable hydrologic predictions can be obtained resorting to more complex hydraulic functions, yet more accurate and robust ones. To overcome some drawbacks of the classic unimodal hydraulic relationships, Romano et al. (2011) have developed closed-form bimodal lognormal relations for improving the description of both WRF and HCF. However, the reliability of this description of the soil hydraulic behavior is often tested at the curve fitting level only. Comparisons between unimodal and bimodal soil hydraulic relationships are more effective and informative when performed in functional terms. Therefore, as the primary objective of this study, we used a hydrological balance model to quantify and compare soil moisture flow and storage regimes for 14 years (1999-2012), when characterized by unimodal or bimodal approximations of 39 measured soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics collected in volcanic Vesuvian soil located in the Campania Region Plain (Naples, Southern Italy).

  4. A Rationale for Pollutograph Evaluation in Ungauged Areas, Using Daily Rainfall Patterns: Case Studies of the Apulian Region in Southern Italy

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    Angela Gorgoglione

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the implementation of sustainable water treatment technologies for soil pollution prevention, a methodology that try to overcome the lack of runoff quality data in Puglia (Southern Italy is firstly tackled in this paper. It provides a tool to obtain total suspended solid (TSS pollutographs in areas without availability of monitoring campaigns. The proposed procedure is based on the relationship between rainfall characteristics and pollutant wash-off. In particular, starting from the evaluation of the observed regional rainfall patterns by using a rainfall generator model, the storm water management model (SWMM was applied on five case studies located in different climatic subareas. The quantity SWMM parameters were evaluated starting from the drainage network and catchments characteristics, while the quality parameters were obtained from results of a monitoring campaign conducted for quality model calibration and validation with reference to the pollutograph’s shape and the peak-time. The research yields a procedure useful to evaluate the first flush phenomenon in ungauged sites and, in particular, it provides interesting information for designing efficient and sustainable drainage systems for first flush treatment and diffuse pollution treatment.

  5. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

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    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  6. Investigation on potential landslide sources along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment for the 1693 tsunami in Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The study of the source of 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (South Italy) is still debated in the scientific community. Macroseismic analyses provide inland location for the epicenter of the earthquake, while historical reports describing 1-2 m waves hitting the coast suggest the existence of at least an offshore extension of the fault. Furthermore, an anomalous water elevation was described in Augusta (between Siracusa and Catania), that was interpreted as the manifestation of a local submarine landslide. The presence of the steep Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, that runs parallel to the eastern coast of Sicily at a short distance from the shoreline and is cut by several canyons and scars, corroborates the hypothesis of a landslide occurrence, though no clear evidence has been found yet. This research, realized in the frame of the project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), aims at assessing the effect of landslide-generated tsunamis on the coastal stretch around Augusta considering different scenarios of collapsing masses along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment. The slide dynamics is computed by means of the numerical code UBO-BLOCK1 (developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team), and the corresponding tsunami is simulated via the code UBO-TSUFD. The sliding bodies are placed in different positions in order to assess which of them could produce significant effects on the town of Augusta, providing then clues on the possible source area for the hypothesized slide related to the 1693 tsunami. The sensitivity analysis shows the spatial dependence of the coastal tsunami height on the source volume, position, distance from the coast, and on other parameters.

  7. Floristic diversity analysis along a fragmentation gradients: a case study of beech forests in the Molisean Appenines (southern Italy

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    Frate L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of fragmentation of natural habitats is increasing exponentially worldwide and represents one of the foremost threats to biological diversity. Forest fragmentation is considered to heavily affect the demographic and genetic structure of forest plant populations. Habitat fragmentation is a landscape process occurring when areas of continuous habitat are broken into smaller and discontinuous patches. In this paper we analyzed the effects of fragmentation on vascular plant diversity of Fagus sylvatica forest in central Italy (habitat of Community interest -92/43/ECC- “Appenine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex” - cod. 9210*. First, by integrating five parameters that describe beech forest patches structure (patch area, perimeter, shape index, corea area, euclidean nearest neighbor we identified three levels of fragmentation: high, medium and absent. Then the vascular plants of each level of fragmentation were sampled following a random stratified design. The diversity of vascular plant species was analyzed considering two species groups: all sampled species and “diagnostic” species of the habitat 9210* (sensu Directive 92/43/ECC. We compared the biodiversity patterns of the different fragmentation levels by using rarefaction curves and Rényi’s profiles. We also tested the significance of the founded differences by a bootstrapping procedure. The diversity pattern of the two species groups (diagnostics and all species showed two opposite trends. As the diversity of the entire pool of species increased on fragmented beech forests the diversity of the diagnostic group decreased. The differences between diversity values of high and low fragmentation levels resulted significant. Our results emphasize the existence of two diagnostic species: Cardamine kitaibelii and Paris quadrifolia that are indicators of not fragmented beech forests. Additionally the diversity pattern of the diagnostics species allow us to propose them as

  8. Climate change impact on crop rotations of winter durum wheat and tomato in southern Italy: yield analysis and soil fertility

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    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems are affected by climate change because of the strong relationship between crop development, growth, yield, CO2 atmospheric concentration and climate conditions. The increasing temperatures and the reduction of available water resources may result in negative impacts on the agricultural activity in Mediterranean environments than other areas. In this study the CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO-Tomato models were used to assess the effects of climate change on winter wheat (Triticum durum L. and processing tomato (Lycopersicon aesculentum Mill. in one of most productive areas of Italy, located in the northern part of the Puglia region. In particular we have compared three different General Circulation Models (HadCM3, CCSM3, ECHAM5 subjected to a statistical downscaling under two future IPCC scenarios (B1 and A2. The analysis was carried out at regional scale repeating the simulations for seven homogeneous area characterizing the spatial variability of the region. In the second part of the study, considering only HadCM3 data set, climate change impact on long-term sequences of the two crops combined in three crop rotations were evaluated in terms of yield performances and soil fertility as indicated by the soil organic content of carbon and nitrogen. The comparison between GCMs showed no significant differences for winter durum wheat yield, while noticeable differences were found for yield and irrigation requirements of tomato. Under future scenarios, the production levels were reduced for tomato, whereas positive yield effects were observed for winter durum wheat. For winter durum wheat the simulation indicated that two- and three-year rotations, including one year of tomato cultivation, improved the cereal yield and this positive effect maintained its validity also in future scenarios. For both crops higher requirements of water and nitrogen were predicted under future scenarios. This result coupled with the decrease of yield caused

  9. Aeromagnetic data provide new insights on the volcanism and tectonics of Vulcano Island and offshore areas (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ritis, Riccardo; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Ventura, Guido; Chiappini, Massimo

    2005-08-01

    The active Vulcano Island (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) represents the southernmost portion of a NW-SE elongated volcanic ridge that includes also Lipari and Salina islands. The ridge is affected by a regional, NW-SE to N-S striking fault system. The elaboration and analysis of data from three high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys carried out between 1999 and 2004 on Vulcano and offshore allow us to recognize high intensity magnetic anomalies related to volcanic centers/conduits or shallow intrusions. Previously unreported offshore submarine vents have been also recognized. Some of them may correspond with source areas of outcropping exotic pyroclastics on Vulcano. The spatial analysis of the recognized magnetic anomalies and volcanic structures shows that they are preferably aligned along the strikes of the main regional faults that affect the volcanic ridge. Submarine volcanic conduits revealed by the aeromagnetic survey might represent potential sources for future submarine, effusive or explosive activity.

  10. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Italy) and its archaeobotanical implications. J. Archaeol. Sci. 37, 2365-2375. [4] Russo Ermolli E., Romano P., Ruello M.R., Barone Lumaga M.R, in press. The natural and cultural landscape of Naples (southern Italy) during the Graeco-Roman and Late Antique periods. J. Archaeol. Sci. [5] Amato, V., Aucelli, P.,D'Argenio, B., Da Prato, S., Ferraro, L., Pappone, G., Petrosino, P., Rosskopf, C.M., Russo Ermolli, E., 2012. Holocene environmental evolution of the coastal sector before the Poseidonia-Paestum archaeological area (Sele plain, southern Italy). Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei. doi:10.1007/s12210-011-0161-1 [6] Amato V., Bisogno G., Cicala L., Cinque A., Romano P., Ruello MR., Russo Ermolli E., 2010. Palaeo-environmental changes in the archaeological settlement of Elea-Velia: climatic and/or human impact signatures? In Ciarallo A., Senatore M.R. (2010) Scienze naturali ed archeologia. Il paesaggio antico: interazione uomo/ambiente ed eventi catastrofici. Aracne Editrice, Roma, pag 13-16. ISBN 978-88-548-3525-2 [7] Russo Ermolli E., Romano P., Ruello M.R., 2013. Human-environment interactions in the southern Tyrrhenian coastal area: hypothesis from Neapolis and Elea-Velia. In: Harris W.V. (Ed.) The ancient Mediterranean environment between science and history Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition 39, BRILL Leiden-Boston, ISBN 978-90-04-25343-8, pp. 213-232. [8] Büntgen, U., Tegel, W., Nicolussi, K., McCormick, M., Frank, D., Trouet, V., Kaplan, J.O., Herzig, F., Heussner, K-U., Wanner, H., Luterbacher, J., Esper, J., 2011. 2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility. Science 331, 578-582.

  11. On the tracks of Nitrogen deposition effects on temperate forests at their southern European range - an observational study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marco; Marchetto, Aldo; Arisci, Silvia; Bussotti, Filippo; Calderisi, Marco; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cecchini, Guia; Fabbio, Gianfranco; Bertini, Giada; Matteucci, Giorgio; de Cinti, Bruno; Salvati, Luca; Pompei, Enrico

    2014-11-01

    We studied forest monitoring data collected at permanent plots in Italy over the period 2000-2009 to identify the possible impact of nitrogen (N) deposition on soil chemistry, tree nutrition and growth. Average N throughfall (N-NO3 +N-NH4 ) ranged between 4 and 29 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) , with Critical Loads (CLs) for nutrient N exceeded at several sites. Evidence is consistent in pointing out effects of N deposition on soil and tree nutrition: topsoil exchangeable base cations (BCE) and pH decreased with increasing N deposition, and foliar nutrient N ratios (especially N : P and N : K) increased. Comparison between bulk openfield and throughfall data suggested possible canopy uptake of N, levelling out for bulk deposition >4-6 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) . Partial Least Square (PLS) regression revealed that - although stand and meteorological variables explained the largest portion of variance in relative basal area increment (BAIrel 2000-2009) - N-related predictors (topsoil BCE, C : N, pH; foliar N-ratios; N deposition) nearly always improved the BAIrel model in terms of variance explained (from 78.2 to 93.5%) and error (from 2.98 to 1.50%). N deposition was the strongest predictor even when stand, management and atmosphere-related variables (meteorology and tropospheric ozone) were accounted for. The maximal annual response of BAIrel was estimated at 0.074-0.085% for every additional kgN. This corresponds to an annual maximal relative increase of 0.13-0.14% of carbon sequestered in the above-ground woody biomass for every additional kgN, i.e. a median value of 159 kgC per kgN ha(-1)  yr(-1) (range: 50-504 kgC per kgN, depending on the site). Positive growth response occurred also at sites where signals of possible, perhaps recent N saturation were detected. This may suggest a time lag for detrimental N effects, but also that, under continuous high N input, the reported positive growth response may be not sustainable in the long-term. PMID:24729460

  12. Eruption style and petrology of a new carbonatitic suite from the Mt. Vulture Southern Italy/: The Monticchio Lakes Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia

    1997-09-01

    The Monticchio Lakes Formation MLF is a newly identified carbonatite-melilitite tuff sequence which is exposed in the southwestern sector of the Vulture volcano. It is the youngest example ca. 0.13 m.y. of this type of volcanism in Italy, although other carbonatites of smaller volume, but with similar characteristics, have been discovered recently. This volcanic event occurred in isolation after a 0.35 m.y. period of inactivity at Vulture. The eruption produced two maar-type vents and formed tuff aprons mainly composed of dune beds of lapilli. Depositional features suggest that a dry surge mechanism, possibly triggered by CO 2 expansion, was dominant during tuff emplacement. The MLF event involved a mixture of carbonatite and melilitite liquids which were physically separated before the eruption. Abundant mantle xenoliths are direct evidence of the deep-seated origin of the parental magma and its high velocity of propagation towards the surface. Often, these nodules form the core of lapilli composed of concentric shells of melilitite andror porphyritic carbonatite. Coarse-ash beds alternate with lapilli beds and consist of abundant lumps and spherulae of very fine-grained calcite immersed in a welded, highly compacted carbonatite matrix. Porphyritic carbonatite shells of the lapilli and fine-grained spherulae of calcite in the tuff matrix suggest incipient crystallisation of a carbonatite liquid in subvolcanic conditions and eruption of carbonatite-spray droplets. Dark coloured juvenile fragments mainly consist of melilite, phlogopite, calcite, apatite, perovskite, and häuyne crystals in a carbonatite or melilitite matrix. The rocks have an extremely primitive, ultramafic composition with very high Mga) 85. and Cr and Ni content 1500 ppm-. The calcite contains high SrO, BaO and REE of up to 1.5 wt.%. Similar compositions are typical of primary, magmatic carbonates which are found in both intrusive and extrusive carbonatites. The high modal Sr-Ba-REE-rich calcite

  13. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy

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    di Tizio Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian, a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions. Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7 were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of

  14. Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both

  15. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or "memes"), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  16. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  17. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.

    2001-12-01

    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  18. Evidences of precession and obliquity orbital forcing in oxygen-18 isotope composition of Montalbano Jonico Section (Basilicata, southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative signal processing methods have been applied to a δ180 profile for a land-based stratigraphic section, extending from the upper part of lower Pleistocene to the lower part of middle Pleistocene. The section is well exposed with a continuous succession of muds and muddy silts, about 400 m thick, located in the southernmost part of Bradano Trough, near Montalbano Jonico in Basilicata (south Italy). The sampled part of the section is about 240 m thick, in which a foram benthic species (Cassidulina carinata) is continuously available for oxygen isotope ratio measurements. The aim of the data treatment is to discover how much of the Earth's orbital periodic movements, precession and obliquity, which represent the dominant periodicities in paleoclimatic variations from the base of the Pleistocene until 0.735 Myr BP, are responsible for the oscillations observed in the oxygen-18 record of the Montalbano Jonico section. A time framework of the section was constructed on the basis of calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic analyses, preliminary magnetostratigraphic results and oxygen isotope correlation with the record from DSDP s607 (isotope data collected in the NOAA World Data Center). The resulting time-scale extends from 1.15 to 0.74 Myr. Power spectrum analysis was performed on the isotope data to illuminate the most important periodicity components of the Montalbano Jonico record. The periodic components of 41,000 and 21,000 yr are present in this record; the former associated with periodic changes in the tilt of Earth's axis and the latter with periodic changes with the precession of the equinoxes, as predicted by the astronomical theory of ice ages. They are, however, not the most important components of the power spectrum, in which a lower frequency component contains most of the variance. This low-frequency component is centered at a period around 208,000 yr. This periodicity seems not to be attributable to any known astronomical or paleoclimatic

  19. First paleoseismological assessment of active deformation along the eastern front of the southern Alps (NE Italy, Friuli). Insights on the 1511 earthquake causative fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, Emanuela; Eliana Poli, Maria; Galadini, Fabrizio; Paiero, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Zanferrari, Adriano

    2014-05-01

    seismic event, which is one of the largest events that struck Northern Italy in the past millennium, has been tentatively attributed to the activation of Idrija fault system (Fizko et al., 2005). However, no paleoseismological evidence of this has been provided to date, the damage distribution of this event suggests its seismogenic source to be located at the easternmost portion of the Julian Prealps, and our investigations indicate that the ESC has been probably involved in the seismotectonic framework of the 1511 seismic event. The present study provides information useful for updating and improving the knowledge on active faulting of the NE sector of the ESC and provides geological insights, substantiated by paleoseismological investigations performed for the first time along the front of the ESC, about one of the most problematic seismotectonic issues of Northern Italy, i.e. the 1511 earthquake. References Galadini et al. (2005). Seismogenic sources potentially responsible for earthquakes with M≥6 in the eastern Southern Alps (Thiene-Udine sector, NE Italy). G. J. I, 161, 739-762. Locati et al. (2011). DBMI11, the 2011 version of the Italian Macroseismic Database. Milano, Bologna, http://emidius.mi.ingv.it/DBMI11 Fitzko et al. (2005). Constrains on the location and mechanism of the 1511 Western-Slovenia earthquake from active tectonics and modeling of macroseismic data. Tectonophysis, 404, 77-90.

  20. The strain path and emplacement mechanism of lava flows: an example from Salina (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guido

    2001-05-01

    A lava flow from Salina (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) consists of subcircular to ellipsoidal basaltic enclaves dispersed in a dacitic host. A 2D strain and kinematic analysis of the enclaves has been performed in order to determine (a) the relative contribution of the coaxial ( α) and non-coaxial ( γ) components to the bulk flow deformation, (b) the flow vorticity Wk, (c) the strain path and (d) the mechanism of flow emplacement. The axial ratio Rf and the angle φf between the long axis of the enclaves and the transport direction have been measured in 196 sites located at different distances from the vent. In the near vent zone α> γ whereas further from the vent γ> α. α values were always larger than 1, ranging from 1.6 in the near vent zone to 1 at the front. γ values were between 0.2 (at the back) and 2.6 (at the front). Wk was between 0.13 and 1 and increased from the back to the front. The enclaves result from the injection of basalt into dacite. Most of the deformation was acquired during the lava flow emplacement and not during the rise in the conduit (plug flow). The strain path depicted by the enclaves is consistent with that resulting from experimental analogue models and reveals that the lava suffers lateral extension near the vent. Further from the vent, the lava deforms according to an ideal non-coaxial model. The lava emplacement is mainly controlled by the gravity. Evidence of deformation induced by the magma pressure is lacking. Near the vent, the lava behaves as a hyperbolic flow whereas at the front it behaves as a simple shear flow. The mechanism of flow emplacement is consistent with a mixed 'viscous gliding-spreading' transport model at the back and with a 'viscous gliding' model at the front.

  1. Use of a 137Cs re-sampling technique to investigate temporal changes in soil erosion and sediment mobilisation for a small forested catchment in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil erosion and both its on-site and off-site impacts are increasingly seen as a serious environmental problem across the world. The need for an improved evidence base on soil loss and soil redistribution rates has directed attention to the use of fallout radionuclides, and particularly 137Cs, for documenting soil redistribution rates. This approach possesses important advantages over more traditional means of documenting soil erosion and soil redistribution. However, one key limitation of the approach is the time-averaged or lumped nature of the estimated erosion rates. In nearly all cases, these will relate to the period extending from the main period of bomb fallout to the time of sampling. Increasing concern for the impact of global change, particularly that related to changing land use and climate change, has frequently directed attention to the need to document changes in soil redistribution rates within this period. Re-sampling techniques, which should be distinguished from repeat-sampling techniques, have the potential to meet this requirement. As an example, the use of a re-sampling technique to derive estimates of the mean annual net soil loss from a small (1.38 ha) forested catchment in southern Italy is reported. The catchment was originally sampled in 1998 and samples were collected from points very close to the original sampling points again in 2013. This made it possible to compare the estimate of mean annual erosion for the period 1954–1998 with that for the period 1999–2013. The availability of measurements of sediment yield from the catchment for parts of the overall period made it possible to compare the results provided by the 137Cs re-sampling study with the estimates of sediment yield for the same periods. In order to compare the estimates of soil loss and sediment yield for the two different periods, it was necessary to establish the uncertainty associated with the individual estimates. In the absence of a generally accepted procedure

  2. Short-term foreshocks in Southern California and Italy revisited: Observed deviations from the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Stefanie; Mignan, Arnaud; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that short-term foreshocks observed prior to large earthquakes are undistinguishable from the normal behaviour of seismicity, which is well described for example by the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. Here we show that these studies fail to extract abnormal foreshock behaviour due to the much more frequent occurrence of aftershocks in comparison to potential foreshocks, which results in undervaluing the role of foreshocks. We first define mainshocks as earthquakes of magnitude M6+ and use a space-time-magnitude window method with a maximum distance of 10 km to the mainshock, a maximum time range of 3 days before the mainshock and a minimum magnitude M4+ to define foreshocks in Southern California and in Italy. We then compare the observed rate of foreshock-mainshock pairs to the rate expected by ETAS simulations. Similar to previous studies, these results indicate that the foreshock activity observed in real catalogues is compatible with the ETAS model. Definition of foreshocks with a window method is, however, simplistic, since any individual event may be considered a foreshock although it is impossible to distinguish a foreshock from background or aftershock activity at a one-to-one event basis. We extend our foreshock analysis based on the predictions of the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory (NC PAST), which are: (1) foreshocks are due to overloading on the main fault and occur in clusters, the activity of which is significantly higher than background activity, (2) microseismicity (Mguidelines, we systematically investigate foreshock sequences before large earthquakes (M6+) in Southern California and Italy. Using different approaches, we finally show that significant anomalies are observed before some mainshocks (e.g., 1992 Landers, 2009 L'Aquila earthquakes), which are not explained by the ETAS process. Anomalies are defined as any deviation from a Poissonian distribution (which describes the

  3. Do we know how to reconcile preservation of landscapes with adaptation of agriculture to climate change? A case-study in a hilly area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Alfieri, Silvia; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Limited impacts of climate change on agricultural yields are unlikely to induce any significant changes in current landscapes. Larger impacts, unacceptable on economic or social ground, are likely to trigger interventions towards adaptation of agricultural production systems by reducing or removing vulnerabilities to climate variability and change. Such interventions may require a transition to a different production system, i.e. complete substitution of current crops, or displacement of current crops at their current location towards other locations, e.g. at higher elevations within the landscape. We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options for adaptation of a valley in Southern Italy, dominated by vine and olive orchards with a significant presence of wheat. We have first estimated the climatic requirements of several varieties for each dominant species. Next, to identify options for adaptation we have evaluated the compatibility of such requirements with indicators of a reference (current) climate and of future climate. This climate - compatibility assessment was done for each soil unit within the valley, leading to maps of locations where each crop is expected to be compatible with climate. This leads to identify both potential crop substitutions within the entire valley and crop displacements from one location to another within the valley. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. We evaluated the adaptive capacity of the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to describe the hydrological conditions in response to climate for each

  4. SELECTED AMMONOID FAUNA FROM PRATI DI STUORES/STUORES WIESEN AND RELATED SECTIONS ACROSS THE LADINIAN-CARNIAN BOUNDARY (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

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    PAOLO MIETTO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna of the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section (Dolomites, north-eastern Italy was studied in detail. This section was proposed as stratotype for the Carnian GSSP, with the first appearance of Daxatina cf. canadensis as primary marker, based on preliminary data. The validity of this proposal is confirmed by the present study, which integrates collections from the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section and from others, particularly Bec de Roces (Passo Campolongo and Antersass (Badia Valley. Ammonoids collected in these localities belong to three biostratigraphic units: regoledanus, canadensis and aon subzones. These subzones constitute, in the Southern Alps, the Ladinian/Carnian boundary interval. Regoledanus Subzone: the north American species Zestoceras enode is most probably documented in this biostratigraphic interval. Canadensis Subzone: the base is marked by the first appearance of Daxatina canadensis, and at least, another north American species, Daxatina laubei, seems to be present. Two species of Zestoceras were found: Z. barwicki e Z. lorigae sp.n. Two species of Trachyceras, distinct from T. aon, are represented in the canadensis Subzone: T. muensteri and T. bipunctatum. These species predate the first appearance of Trachyceras, justifying the canadensis Subzone to be included in the Carnian also on the basis of nomenclatural stability. Other significant taxa of this subzone are Rossiceras? armatum and Sirenotrachyceras thusneldae. Aon Subzone: the ammonoid fauna of this subzone is extensively treated in existing literature and thus not further discussed. Taxonomical notes and stratigraphic consequences: the new subfamily Anolcitinae (family Trachyceratidae is erected. At present, Frankites regoledanus, F. apertus and F. sp. A have been recognized in the Southern Alps. The lectotype of Ammonites (Trachyceras ? Regoledanus was defined. The latter species is exclusive of the regoledanus Subzone, whereas the

  5. Detection of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges: a case study from the central-southern Siena Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

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    Martini, Ivan; Arragoni, Simone; Aldinucci, Mauro; Foresi, Luca Maria; Bambini, Anna Maria; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The detection of detached nearshore wedges formed in response to relative sea-level drops is considered one of the hottest topics in sequence stratigraphic analysis due to their importance as reservoir analogues. In fact, they usually constitute sandy and porous bodies generally encased in impermeable clay, thus presenting a good potential as traps for fluids. This paper focuses on the sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pliocene deposits cropping out in the central-southern sector of the Siena Basin (Tuscany, Italy), a post-collisional basin of the Northern Apennines. The exposed sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic approach, integrated by biostratigraphic analyses, aimed at a better characterization of the infilling history of this sector of the basin. Specifically, this study revealed the occurrence of repeated facies shifts that allowed the identification of two depositional sequences. In detail, a thick sand-rich body far from the basin margins, and previously considered as a turbiditic lobe, has been reinterpreted as formed in a nearshore setting during a fall in relative sea level. This body is totally encased in offshore clay, and due to the lack of physical connection with the related HST deposits, it has to be considered as a detached forced-regressive wedge. The present work led to the recognition of some sedimentological and stratigraphic features typical of falling stage systems tract deposits (e.g. presence of intrabasinal recycled materials, sedimentological evidence of a pre-existing fluvial network subsequently eroded) that can provide useful clues for the identification of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges in core studies and poorly exposed settings.

  6. Finite element modelling of stress field perturbations and interseismic crustal deformation in the Val d'Agri region, southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Stefania; Mazzoli, Stefano; Megna, Antonella; Santini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area provides the opportunity to analyse active structures in a seismic region for which a large amount of subsurface data is available. This area, which was struck in 1857 by one of the most destructive earthquakes in Italy (MW = 7.03), represents a unique natural laboratory to gain new insights into geometry, modes and rates of faulting controlling crustal deformation in an actively extending orogen. In this study, a crustal geological section through the southern Apennines is discretized into a finite element model (FEM). We present a 2D elastoplastic FEM that reproduces stress perturbations and strain field around the Val d'Agri active fault system. The influence of fault strand activity on interseismic crustal deformation is tested by a series of computer models, whose predictions are compared with the horizontal velocity components of continuous GPS sites in the region and with stress directions and geological data. The best fit with available geological and geophysical constraints is obtained with a 300 km long, 29 km deep model formed by a multilayer including three components having different rheological characteristics and including several shallow, locked fault segments, which branch into a freely slipping major basement fault at depth. Finite element modelling provides new insights into the controversial and widely debated active tectonic setting of the study area, pointing out the fundamental role played by a structural reactivation process involving inherited, long-lived, mature fault systems at depth. Our FEM, reconciling apparently contrasting geological and geophysical constraints from the study area, points to maximum stress build up and strain accumulation at a depth of 15 ± 5 km. Such a depth range is suggested as the most likely one for the nucleation of large events such as the 1857 Val d'Agri earthquake.

  7. Description of earthquake sequences using complex network theory: the cases of Italy (L'Aquila, 2009) and Southern California (Baja, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalaki, E.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Minadakis, G.; Spiliotis, K.; Siettos, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complex networks pertain to the structure of many real-world systems influencing their dynamics. Earthquakes are a highly complex natural process that develops in the space-time-size domains given that the state of the seismogenic layer of the Earth is characterized by self-organized criticality. Over the last years, complex network theory was tested as a tool to quantify the topological characteristics of seismic activity aiming to investigate possible correlation patterns between earthquakes. With the aid of complex network theory, we have analyzed foreshock and aftershock sequences associated with the mainshocks of L'Aquila (Italy), 6th April 2009, Mw=6.3, and of Baja (Southern California) 4th April 2010, Mw=7.2. After testing the catalogues for data completeness on the basis of the magnitude-frequency relationship, we selected magnitude cut-off of 1.3 and 1.0, respectively. We constructed the underlying network that describes the evolution of the two sequences in space and extracted the statistical properties of the underlying topology resulting in characteristic scale-free and small-world structures. We found that the corresponding earthquake networks form a scale-free degree distribution and we computed their basic statistical measures, such as the Average Clustering Coefficient, Mean Path Length and Entropy. Taking into account a spatio-temporal sensitivity analysis, we found that the statistical measures of the two networks change considerably before and after the two main shocks, thus underlying the space-time clustering of the sequences. Our findings are in agreement with the ones obtained by using well established classical methods of statistical seismology. Thus, we believe that the proposed approach has the potential to serve as a supplementary or stand-alone methodology towards the better assessment of seismicity clusters

  8. Geochemical insight into differences in the physical structures and dynamics of two adjacent maar lakes at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, A.; Nicolosi, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Favara, R.; Paternoster, M.; Rosciglione, A.

    2013-05-01

    report on the first geochemical investigation of the Monticchio maar lakes (Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy) covering an annual cycle that aimed at understanding the characteristic features of the physical structures and dynamics of the two lakes. We provide the first detailed description of the lakes based on high-resolution conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles, chemical and isotopic (H and O) compositions of the water, and the amounts of dissolved gases (e.g., He, Ar, CH4, and CO2). The combined data set reveals that the two lakes, which are separated by less than 200 m, exhibit different dynamics: one is a meromictic lake, where the waters are rich in biogenic and mantle-derived gases, while the other is a monomictic lake, which exhibits complete turnover of the water in winter and the release of dissolved gases. Our data strongly suggest that the differences in the dynamics of the two lakes are due to different density profiles affected by dissolved solutes, mainly Fe, which is strongly enriched in the deep water of the meromictic lake. A conceptual model of water balance was constructed based on the correlation between the chemical composition of the water and the hydrogen isotopic signature. Gas-rich groundwaters that feed both of the lakes and evaporation processes subsequently modify the water chemistry of the lakes. Our data highlight that no further potential hazardous accumulation of lethal gases is expected at the Monticchio lakes. Nevertheless, geochemical monitoring is needed to prevent the possibility of vigorous gas releases that have previously occurred in historical time.

  9. Conjunctival cytological examination,bacteriological culture,and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Lamagna; Maria; Pia; Pasolini; Sandra; Nizza; Karina; Mallardo; Maurizio; Formicola; Alessandro; Costagliola; Gerardo; Fatone; Filomena; Fiorito; Orlando; Paciello; Luisa; De; Martino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo(Bubalus bubalis).Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region(Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis.The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates.Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens(114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells(basal, intermediate, columnar and super ficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples,respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% con fidence interval(CI): 93.18–99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi(2/114, 1.75%;95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured(181/261,69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria(80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular micro flora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  10. A New Method to Infer Advancement of Saline Front in Coastal Groundwater Systems by 3D: The Case of Bari (Southern Italy Fractured Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Masciopinto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method to study 3D saline front advancement in coastal fractured aquifers has been presented. Field groundwater salinity was measured in boreholes of the Bari (Southern Italy coastal aquifer with depth below water table. Then, the Ghyben-Herzberg freshwater/saltwater (50% sharp interface and saline front position were determined by model simulations of the freshwater flow in groundwater. Afterward, the best-fit procedure between groundwater salinity measurements, at assigned water depth of 1.0 m in boreholes, and distances of each borehole from the modelled freshwater/saltwater saline front was used to convert each position (x, y in groundwater to the water salinity concentration at depth of 1.0 m. Moreover, a second best-fit procedure was applied to the salinity measurements in boreholes with depth z. These results provided a grid file (x, y, z, salinity suitable for plotting the actual Bari aquifer salinity by 3D maps. Subsequently, in order to assess effects of pumping on the saltwater-freshwater transition zone in the coastal aquifer, the Navier-Stokes (N-S equations were applied to study transient density-driven flow and salt mass transport into freshwater of a single fracture. The rate of seawater/freshwater interface advancement given by the N-S solution was used to define the progression of saline front in Bari groundwater, starting from the actual salinity 3D map. The impact of pumping of 335 L·s−1 during the transition period of 112.8 days was easily highlighted on 3D salinity maps of Bari aquifer.

  11. Permeability and continuous gradient temperature monitoring of volcanic rocks: new insights from borehole and laboratory analysis at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Piochi, Monica; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Mormone, Angela; Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Klaus, Mayer; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The pilot borehole recently drilled in the eastern caldera of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), during the Campi Flegrei Deep Drill Project (CFDDP) (in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) allowed (i) estimating on-field permeability and coring the crustal rocks for laboratory experiments, and (ii) determining thermal gradient measurements down to ca. 500 m of depth. We report here a first comparative in situ and laboratory tests to evaluate the rock permeability in the very high volcanic risk caldera of Campi Flegrei, in which ground deformations likely occur as the persistent disturbance effect of fluid circulation in the shallower geothermal system. A large amount of petro-physical information derives from outcropping welded tuffs, cores and geophysical logs from previous AGIP's drillings, which are located in the central and western part of the caldera. We discuss the expected scale dependency of rock permeability results in relation with well-stratigraphy and core lithology, texture and mineralogy. The new acquired data improve the database related to physical property of Campi Flegrei rocks, allowing a better constrain for the various fluid-dynamical models performed in the tentative to understand (and forecast) the caldera behavior. We also present the first data on thermal gradient continuously measured through 0 - to 475 m of depth by a fiber optic sensor installed in the CFDDP pilot hole. As regards, we show that the obtained values of permeability, compared with those inferred from eastern sector of the caldera, can explain the different distribution of temperature at depth, as well as the variable amount of vapor phase in the shallow geothermal system. The measured temperatures are consistent with the distribution of volcanism in the last 15 ka.

  12. Late Norian δ13Corg record in the Tethyan realm: New clues on the complex Late Triassic carbon cycle from the Lagonegro Basin (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffani, Mariachiara; Agnini, Claudia; Concheri, Giuseppe; Godfrey, Linda; Katz, Miriam; Maron, Matteo; Rigo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The Late Triassic (ca. 237-201 Ma) is characterized by complex and extreme environmental, climatic and biotic changes (e.g.: the break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea; the humid event known as the Carnian Pluvial Event; the End-Triassic mass extinction; the emplacement of the CAMP volcanism). A global δ13Corg curve for the Late Triassic would provide new clues on this perturbed time interval and would have the potential for global correlations. In particular, the few available data from North American successions define the late Norian (ca. 220-206 Ma) as a "chaotic carbon interval", with rapid vacillations of the carbon isotope values paired with low faunal diversity. Our goal is to reconstruct a global δ13Corg profile for the late Norian, as a contribution to the construction of a more complete global carbon isotope curve for the Late Triassic. For this purpose, we analyzed three sections from the Lagonegro Basin (southern Italy), originally located in the western Tethys, on the other side of the supercontinent Pangaea respect to the North America. The obtained δ13Corg profiles show four negative shifts correlatable with those of the North American record, suggesting that these carbon cycle perturbations have a widespread occurrence. These perturbations are associated with negative shifts of the 87Sr/86Sr, indicating that these global δ13Corg and 87Sr/86Sr negative excursions were possibly caused by emplacement of a Large Igneous Province (LIP). The input of volcanogenic CO2 to the atmosphere-ocean system is supported also by the 12C enrichment observed, as well as by the increase of atmospheric pCO2 inferred by different models for the Norian- Rhaetian interval. This Norian magmatic activity may be ascribed to the Angayucham province (Alaska, North America), a large oceanic plateau active ca. 214 Ma ±7 Myr, with an estimated volume comparable to other two Late Triassic LIPs: the Wrangellia and the CAMP.

  13. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tranfaglia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7 in the Southern Apennines (Italy was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrographic Survey (IHS set up from 1925 to 1929. For this earthquake we analysed the initial IHS hydrometric and pluviometric data, looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. Hydrological data relative to rivers, springs and water wells indicate that some changes can be correlated with the earthquake: a post-seismic excess discharge in some streams, pre- and co-seismic decreases in stream flows and water levels in wells, pre- and post-seismic increases in discharges. The pre- and co-seismic stresses and the tectonic deformations were studied in order to find a possible model of interaction between stress state and hydrological variations. The anomalies found in this work can be considered "rebound anomalies", which are the most common precursor reported by many authors and related to increases in porosity and permeability caused by the fracturing that precedes an earthquake. An estimation of the total excess discharge (0.035 km3 caused by the MS=6.7 Irpinia earthquake is consistent with the excess discharge of about 0.01 km3 determined for the Mw=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake.

  14. Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (southern Italy

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    G. G. R. Iovine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On 28 January 2009, a large debris slide was triggered by prolonged rainfalls at the southern suburbs of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria. The slope movement affected fractured and weathered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist, and included a pre-existing landslide. A detailed geomorphologic field survey, carried out during the whole phase of mobilization, allowed to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A set of datum points was located along the borders of the landslide and frequent hand-made measurements of surface displacements were performed. Since 11 February, a basic real-time monitoring system of meteoric parameters and of surface displacements, measured by means of high-precision extensometers, was also implemented.

    Based on the data gained through the monitoring system, and on field surveying, a basic support system for emergency management could be defined since the first phases of activation of the phenomenon. The evolution of the landslide was monitored during the following months: as a consequence, evidence of retrogressive distribution could be recognized, with initial activation in the middle sector of the slope, where new temporary springs were observed. During early May, the activity reduced to displacements of a few millimetres per month and the geo-hydrological crisis seemed to be concluded.

    Afterwards, the geological scheme of the slope was refined based on the data collected through a set of explorative boreholes, equipped with inclinometers and piezometers: according to the stratigraphic and inclinometric data, the depth of the mobilized body resulted in varying between 15 and 35 m along a longitudinal section. A parametric limit equilibrium analysis was carried out to explore the stability conditions of the slope affected by the landslide as well as to quantify the role of the water table in destabilizing the slope. The interpretation of the process based on field observations was confirmed

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard from historical macroseismic data: an application at the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, R.; D'Amico, S.; Tuvè, T.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquakes are, by far, the most relevant source of hazard for the densely urbanised areas of Mt. Etna region. Local communities living in the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano continuously suffer social and economic losses due to the very high occurrence of damaging earthquakes, which produce intensities up to degree X EMS despite of low energy (MPSHA) by using macroseismic data (D’Amico and Albarello, 2007) as an alternative to the Cornell-McGuire methodology. The input dataset is the CMTE earthquake catalogue (Azzaro et al. 2000), covering a time-span of ca. 180 yrs, from which the site seismic histories, i.e. the database of intensity data available for a given locality, are derived. When historical information is missing, the completeness of the site seismic history is improved by integrating observed data with values calculated according to the decay of the intensity with distance from the epicenter. This step is faced with a procedure based on the Bayesian statistics (Zonno et al., 2009), which provides the probabilistic mode of binomial distribution of the intensity at a given site. Then, by a probability distribution considering the completeness of the catalogue and the uncertainty of intensity data, the seismic hazard is expressed in terms of the maximum expected intensity characterised by a 10% probability of exceedance over different exposure times (10 to 50 yrs). The results shows that if shorter exposure times are considered, the expected intensity due to local very frequent earthquakes reaches the same values (Iexp = IX EMS) of those determined by large, but rare, regional events. References Azzaro R., Barbano M.S., Antichi B. and Rigano R. (2000): Macroseismic catalogue of Mt. Etna earthquakes from 1832 to 1998. Acta Volcanol., 12 (1/2), 3-36 with CD-ROM. Upgrade to 2008 available on the web at http://www.ct.ingv.it/Sismologia/macro. D'Amico V. and Albarello D. (2008): SASHA: A Computer Program to Assess Seismic Hazard from Intensity

  16. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Several lakes on the southern Italian peninsula provide valuable palaeoenvironmental archives of the Last Glacial period. These archives include, e.g., the long high-resolution record from varved lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio, the bigger one of two maar lakes situated on top of Mt. Vulture. Its pollen record indicates (1) temperate deciduous forest during MIS5.2-MIS5.1 (St. Germain 2); (2) frequent vegetation fluctuations, then Artemisia steppe during MIS5.1-MIS4; (3) alternations between open steppe (stadials) and wooded steppe (interstadials) during MIS3; and (4) open steppe during MIS2 (Last Glacial Maximum). However, only few palaeosol records of this period have been reported from southern Italy in the literature so far. Such records would allow for gaining insight also into spatial patterns of the vegetation cover during this period that should have formed, e.g., according to relief, elevation, and continentality gradient (related to the much lower coastline during the last glacial period). So far, we have studied three sediment-palaeosol successions in southern Italy, two in the Calabria region, and one in north-western Sardinia. All of them have developed in alluvial fan deposits resting on littoral sediments of the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5). The southernmost succession studied is located near Lazzaro (south of Reggio di Calabria). It is exposed in an alluvial fan overlying the MIS5.5 terrace. Due to strong tectonic uplift (1.3 m ka-1) the alluvial fan has been dissected by the same creek which previously had built it up. Therefore, its internal structure is exposed, exhibiting a detailed sediment-palaeosol sequence. The palaeosols are mainly characterized by accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM), bioturbation and secondary carbonates. They represent Chernozem- and Phaeozem-like soils that most likely formed under steppe to forest steppe. SOM of the two uppermost Lazzaro palaeosols was 14C-dated to 26.8-28.8 ka cal BP and 28

  17. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  18. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution in outcrops of exhumed fault zones is of fundamental importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation. We present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM), developed on the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ), a well exposed strike-slip fault in the Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). The GLFZ has been exhumed from ca. 8-10 km depth, and consists of hundreds of individual seismogenic slip surfaces lined by green cataclasites (crushed wall rocks cemented by the hydrothermal epidote and K-feldspar) and black pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts, considered as a marker for seismic slip). A digital model of selected outcrop exposures was reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs processed with VisualSFM software. The resulting DOM has a resolution up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Most of the outcrop was imaged using images each one covering a 1 x 1 m2 area, while selected structural features, such as sidewall ripouts or stepovers, were covered with higher-resolution images covering 30 x 40 cm2 areas.Image processing algorithms were preliminarily tested using the ImageJ-Fiji package, then a workflow in Matlab was developed to process a large collection of images sequentially. Particularly in detailed 30 x 40 cm images, cataclasites and hydrothermal veins were successfully identified using spectral analysis in RGB and HSV color spaces. This allows mapping the network of cataclasites and veins which provided the pathway for hydrothermal fluid circulation, and also the volume of mineralization, since we are able to measure the thickness of cataclasites and veins on the outcrop surface. The spectral signature of pseudotachylyte veins is indistinguishable from that of biotite grains in the wall rock (tonalite), so we tested morphological analysis tools to discriminate

  19. Timing of False Ring Formation in Pinus halepensis and Arbutus unedo in Southern Italy: Outlook from an Analysis of Xylogenesis and Tree-Ring Chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Balzano, Angela; Čufar, Katarina; Aronne, Giovanna; Gričar, Jožica; Merela, Maks; Battipaglia, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean tree rings are characterized by intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) due to partly climate-driven cambial activity. IADFs are used as structural signals to gain information on relations between environmental conditions and eco-physiological processes during xylogenesis, with intra-annual resolution. To reach an unbiased synchronization of the IADF position within tree rings and seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the timing of cambial activity and wood formation, which are species- and site-specific processes. We applied the microcoring technique to analyze xylogenesis in Pinus halepensis and Arbutus unedo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study xylogenesis in a hardwood species forming frequent IADFs. Both species co-occur at a site in southern Italy characterized by a Mediterranean climate. To facilitate tree-ring dating and identification of IADFs, we performed traditional dendroecological analysis. We analyzed xylogenesis during summer, which is considered a constraint for xylogenesis and a trigger for IADF formation. We followed the different phases of cell development in the current wood increment with the aim of evaluating whether and which type of IADFs were formed. We additionally analyzed the same phases again in September and in winter to verify the possible formation of IADFs in fall and whether cell production and differentiation was completed by the end of the calendar year. Both species formed the same type of IADFs (earlywood-like cells within latewood), due to temporary growth restoration triggered by rain events during the period of summer drought. At the end of the calendar year, no cells in the phases of enlargement and secondary cell wall deposition occurred. A. unedo was more sensitive than P. halepensis because IADFs were formed earlier in the season and were more frequent in the tree-ring series. The dendro-anatomical approach, combining analysis of tree

  20. Adjustments in channel morphology due to land-use changes and check dam installation in mountain torrents of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortugno, Diego; Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Bombino, Giuseppe; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Quinonero Rubio, Juan Manuel; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean semi-arid conditions the geomorphic effects of land-use changes and check dam installation on active channel headwater morphology are not completely understood. In such environments, the availability of specific studies, which monitor channel adjustments as a response to reforestation and check dams over representative observation periods, could help develop new management strategies and erosion control measures. This investigation is an integrated approach assessing the adjustments of channel morphology in a typical torrent (Sant'Agata, Calabria, Southern Italy) after land-use changes (e.g. fire, reforestation, land abandonment) and check dam construction across a period of about 60 years (1955-2012). A statistical analysis of historical rainfall records, an analysis of land-use change in the catchment area and a geomorphological mapping of channel adjustments were carried out and combined with field surveys of bed surface grain-size over a 5-km reach including 14 check dams. The analysis of the historical rainfall records showed a slight decrease in the amount and erosivity of precipitation. Mapping of land-use changes highlighted a general increase of vegetal coverage on the slopes adjacent to the monitored reaches. Together with the check dam network installation, this increase could have induced a reduction in water and sediment supply. The different erosional and depositional forms and adjustments showed a general narrowing between consecutive check dams together with local modifications detected upstream (bed aggradation and cross section expansion together with low-flow realignments) and downstream (local incision) of the installed check dams. Changes in the torrent bends were also detected as a response to erosional and depositional processes with different intensities. The study highlighted: (i) the efficiency of check dams against the disrupting power of the most intense floods by stabilising the active channel; and (ii) the influence of

  1. A seismogenic zone in the deep crust indicated by pseudotachylytes and ultramylonites in granulite-facies rocks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberger, U.; Prosser, G.; Grande, A.; Günter, C.; Langone, A.

    2013-10-01

    Pseudotachylyte veins frequently associated with mylonites and ultramylonites occur within migmatitic paragneisses, metamonzodiorites, as well as felsic and mafic granulites at the base of the section of the Hercynian lower crust exposed in Calabria (Southern Italy). The crustal section is tectonically superposed on lower grade units. Ultramylonites and pseudotachylytes are particularly well developed in migmatitic paragneisses, whereas sparse fault-related pseudotachylytes and thin mylonite/ultramylonite bands occur in granulite-facies rocks. The presence of sillimanite and clinopyroxene in ultramylonites and mylonites indicates that relatively high-temperature conditions preceded the formation of pseudotachylytes. We have analysed pseudotachylytes from different rock types to ascertain their deep crustal origin and to better understand the relationships between brittle and ductile processes during deformation of the deeper crust. Different protoliths were selected to test how lithology controls pseudotachylyte composition and textures. In migmatites and felsic granulites, euhedral or cauliflower-shaped garnets directly crystallized from pseudotachylyte melts of near andesitic composition. This indicates that pseudotachylytes originated at deep crustal conditions (>0.75 GPa). In mafic protoliths, quenched needle-to-feather-shaped high-alumina orthopyroxene occurs in contact with newly crystallized plagioclase. The pyroxene crystallizes in garnet-free and garnet-bearing veins. The simultaneous growth of orthopyroxene and plagioclase as well as almandine, suggests lower crustal origin, with pressures in excess of 0.85 GPa. The existence of melts of different composition in the same vein indicates the stepwise, non-equilibrium conditions of frictional melting. Melt formed and intruded into pre-existing anisotropies. In mafic granulites, brittle faulting is localized in a previously formed thin high-temperature mylonite bands. migmatitic gneisses are deformed into

  2. Tectonic triggering of slump sheets in the Upper Cretaceous carbonate succession of the Porto Selvaggio area (Salento peninsula, southern Italy): Synsedimentary tectonics in the Apulian Carbonate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiacomo, G.; Moretti, M.; Owen, G.; Spalluto, L.

    2012-08-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures crop out in the Upper Cretaceous carbonate succession in Porto Selvaggio cove in the western Salento peninsula, Apulian foreland, southern Italy. The deformed interval is about 13 m thick and occurs between shallow-water limestones and dolostones formed in peritidal and shallow subtidal environments. It comprises well-bedded grey mudstones interlayered with dark grey laminated microbioclastic wackestones characterized by couplets of closely spaced dark and bright laminae marked by the parallel orientation of calcareous microbioclasts and thin-shelled bivalves. The low biological diversity, scarcity of burrowing biota, and presence of a well preserved fish fauna provide evidence of anoxic conditions occurring in morphological depressions within the platform, and a stagnant, stratified water body affected by weak bottom currents, indicating the sudden development of a localised and short-lived intraplatform basin. Two soft-sediment deformation horizons (slump sheets) separated by undeformed limestones with similar facies occur in this part of the succession. The lower, thicker slump sheet (1.0-1.3 m thick) contains asymmetric and box folds. Well-developed décollement surfaces (locally containing thick brecciated zones) cut the folds, forming small-scale thrust-sheets and indicating mixed plastic to brittle behaviour. The upper, thinner slump sheet (0.25-0.35 m thick) contains only asymmetric folds, indicating plastic behaviour only. The differences in deformation style are attributed to differences in facies. Measurements of fold-axis orientations in the slump sheets show that they moved in similar directions, recording the development of a local, gently dipping palaeoslope. Autogenic (internal) trigger mechanisms are ruled out by a detailed consideration of facies. The slump sheets were triggered by allogenic, tectonic effects, either the weakening of sediment by seismic activity or the tectonically induced steepening of slopes

  3. Inferring LGM sedimentary and climatic changes in the southern Eastern Alps foreland through the analysis of a 14C ages database (Brenta megafan, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Sandro; Mozzi, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of a database of radiocarbon ages is proposed as a tool for investigating major glaciofluvial systems of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alpine foreland, and their relations with glacier dynamics and climatic fluctuations. Our research concerns the Brenta megafan (NE Italy), where 110 radiocarbon dates integrate a robust regional stratigraphic and palaeoclimatic framework. Age-depth models allowed us to calculate sedimentation rates, while the time distribution of peat layers, which recurrently formed in this region during the LGM, were estimated through meta-analysis. The reliability of statistical results was carefully evaluated using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Sedimentation rates in the Brenta megafan markedly fluctuated during LGM: ≈1.8 m/ka between 40 and 26.7 ka cal BP; ≈3 m/ka between 26.7 and 23.8 ka cal BP and ≈1.4 m/ka from 23.8 to 17.5 ka cal BP, when the distributary system deactivated due to fan-head trenching. This is evidence that sediment input and routing in the glaciofluvial distributary system was particularly efficient during the central part of LGM, when glaciers were stable at their outermost position. Meta-analysis indicates an increase in peat formation in correspondence with global (Heinrich Event 3 and/or the Greenland Interstadial 5.1 and 4 for the 30.5, 29.6 and 28.8 ka cal BP peaks) and regional (23.5 ka cal BP) wet events. Other peaks at 22.2, 21.8, 20.2 and 19 ka cal BP correlate with fluctuations of south-eastern Alpine glaciers. Significant peat formation continued until ≈18 ka cal BP, when the last peak occurred. A marked decrease in peat formation is recorded concomitantly with the onset of Heinrich Event 2 (i.e. the 26 ka cal BP trough). The good correspondence of sedimentary events in the Brenta glaciofluvial system with the dynamics of glaciers and glaciofluvial and lacustrine systems in the southern Eastern Alps suggests a common climatic forcing on the whole region during the LGM. Peat layer

  4. Diffuse soil emission of hydrothermal gases (CO2, CH4, and C6H6) at Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present the first measurements of soil C6H6 fluxes in a volcanic system. • Methane oxidation rate is controlled by soil gas fluxes. • Benzene oxidation rate is controlled by presence of a SO42-rich aquifer. • Fumarolic emissions cause a strong benzene air contamination at a local scale. • Endogenous monoaromatics are detected in air samples from the whole crater. - Abstract: Measurements of soil fluxes of hydrothermal gases, with special emphasis on C6H6, as well as chemical composition of mono-aromatic compounds in fumaroles and air, were carried out in April 2012 at the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) to investigate the distribution and behavior of these species as they migrate through the soil from their deep source to the atmosphere. Soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and C6H6 exhibit good spatial correlation, suggesting that diffuse degassing is mainly controlled by local fractures. The calculated total output of diffuse C6H6 from Solfatara is 0.10 kg day−1, whereas fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are 79 × 103 and 1.04 kg day−1, respectively. A comparison between soil gas fluxes and fumarole composition reveals that within the crater soil CH4 is significantly affected by oxidation processes, which are more efficient for low gas fluxes, being dependent on the residence time of the uprising hydrothermal gases at shallow depth. Benzene degradation, mainly proceeding through oxidation via benzoate, seems to be strongly controlled by the presence of a shallow SO42-rich aquifer located in the central and southwestern sectors of the crater, suggesting that the process is particularly efficient when SO42- acts as terminal electron acceptor (SO4 reduction). Relatively high C6H6/C7H8 ratios, typical of hydrothermal fluids, were measured in air close to the main fumarolic field of Solfatara crater. Here, C6H6 concentrations, whose detection limit is ∼0.1 μg m−3, are more than one order of magnitude higher than the limit value for ambient

  5. Forecasting the timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides. An application of GA-SAKe to the Acri case study (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Terranova, Oreste; Greco, Roberto; Iaquinta, Pasquale; Iovine, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    In Calabria (Southern Italy), rainfall-induced landslides often cause significant economic loss and victims. The timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides can be predicted by means of either empirical ("hydrological") or physically-based ("complete") approaches. In this study, by adopting the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel), the relationships between the rainfall series and the dates of historical activations of the Acri slope movement, a large rock slide located in the Sila Massif (Northern Calabria), have been investigated. SAKe is a self-adaptive hydrological model, based on a black-box approach and on the assumption of a linear and steady slope-stability response to rainfall. The model can be employed to predict the timing of occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides. With the model, either the mobilizations of a single phenomenon, or those of a homogeneous set of landslides in a given study area can be analysed. By properly tuning the model parameters against past occurrences, the mobility function and the threshold value can be identified. The ranges of the parameters depend on the characteristics of the slope and of the considered landslide, besides hydrological characteristics of the triggering events. SAKe requires as input: i) the series of rains, and ii) the set of known dates of landslide activation. The output of the model is represented by the mobilization function, Z(t): it is defined by means of the convolution between the rains and a filter function (i.e. the Kernel). The triggering conditions occur when the value of Z(t) gets greater than a given threshold, Zcr. In particular, the specific release of the model here employed (GA-SAKe) employs an automated tool, based on elitist Genetic Algorithms. As a result, a family of optimal, discretized kernels has been obtained from initial standard analytical functions. Such kernels maximize the fitness function of the model: they have been

  6. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-06-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), mineralogical and micromorphological analyses were carried out for three soil profiles selected in two of the main head scarps. The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties at the interface with a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon), that was only marginally involved in the sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. When compared to the overlying horizons, 2C showed (i) fine grey ash that is almost pumice free, with the silt content increasing by 20 %; (ii) ks values 1 order of magnitude lower; (iii) a pore distribution concentrated into small (15-30 μm modal class) pores characterised by a very low percolation threshold (approximately 15-25 μm); (iv) the presence of expandable clay minerals; and (v) increasing Na content in the exchange complex. Most of these properties indicated that 2C was a lower permeability horizon compared to the overlying ones. Nevertheless, it was possible to assume this interface to be an impeding layer to vertical water fluxes only by the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer, on top of 2C, and of the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on top of the layer. Although Mt. Vezzi's soil environment has many properties in common with those of other Campania debris-mudflows (e.g. high gradient, north-facing slope, similar forestry, and volcanic origin of the parent material), the results of this study suggest a more complex relationship between soil

  7. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15–16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iovine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On 15–16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy, triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000. Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI –Hydrogeological setting plan, in press, an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones". Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3–hex – a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966, specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002. In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices; moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3–hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial

  8. Holocene hydrological changes in south-western Mediterranean as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magny, Michel; Vannière, Boris; Calo, Camilla; Millet, Laurent; Leroux, Aurélie; Peyron, Odile; Zanchetta, Gianni; La Mantia, Tommaso; Tinner, Willy

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a high-resolution lake-level record for the Holocene at Lago Preola (Sicily, southern Italy) based on a specific sedimentological approach, with a chronology derived from AMS radiocarbon dates. It gives evidence of three major successive palaeohydrological periods, with (1) a pronounced dryness during the early Holocene until ca 10300 cal BP, (2) a highstand from ca 10300 to 4500 cal BP, and (3) a marked lowstand from 4500 cal BP to present. Large amplitude lake-level fluctuations characterise two transition phases at ca 10300-9000 and 6400-4500 cal BP. Period 2 was interrupted between 8300 and 7000 cal BP by a dry phase that was punctuated to ca 7300 cal BP by the deposition of a tephra from neighbouring Pantelleria Island. Comparisons of the Preola record with other palaeohydrological records along north-south and west-east transects in the Mediterranean show contrasting patterns of hydrological changes: north (south) of around 40°N latitude, the records highlight a mid-Holocene period characterised by lake-level minima (maxima). Humid mid-Holocene conditions over the Mediterranean south of 40°N were probably linked to a strong weakening of the Hadley cell circulation and of monsoon winds. We suggest that the maximum of humidity in the Mediterranean during the mid-Holocene was characterised by humid winters to the north of 40°N and humid summers to the south. On a multi-centennial scale, the high-resolution palaeohydrological reconstructions in the central Mediterranean area reveal a strong climate reversal around 4500-4000 cal BP, with contrasting changes in the hydrological cycle. In addition to seasonal and inter-hemispherical changes related to orbital forcing, this major oscillation might be related to non-linear responses of the climatic system to the gradual decrease in summer insolation at northern latitudes. Another major climate oscillation around 7500-7000 cal BP may have resulted from the combined effects of (1) a strong rate of

  9. Interpreting very slow surface movements on slopes detected by PS interferometry and GPS monitoring: case study from the Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Lamanna, Caterina; Casarano, Domenico; Bovenga, Fabio; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Nutricato, Raffaele; Rana, Fabio; Colangelo, Gerardo

    2010-05-01

    Advanced multi-temporal C-band DInSAR techniques (eg Persistent Scatterer Interferometry - PSI) can typically detect only very slow ground surface displacements (usually up to few cm/year). We argue that it may often be difficult to ascertain the exact origin of such movements, especially when they occur on hillslopes, because they can arise from different causes (eg subsidence and local settlements, shallow seasonal creep, true slope/landslide movements, volumetric changes of geological/artificial materials, tectonics, instability of structures that act as radar targets). We also draw attention to the practical limitations of PSI in the rural areas, where the density of potential radar targets is low. These difficulties are exemplified here with a case study from the Apennine mountains of southern Italy. Although this area, which includes Potenza, capital city of the Basilicata Region, has been known for its susceptibility to landsliding, PSI analysis based on over 30 ENVISAT ASAR ascending and descending acquisitions (covering 2003 to 2009) detected only a limited number of moving radar targets potentially indicative of instable slopes. Instead, the majority of the detected moving persistent scatterers can be associated with local subsidence and settlement/structure instability processes (with average velocities up to several and a few mm/yr, resp.). Nevertheless, one case of a large landslide re-activated in a rural area in 2006 shows that GPS surveying and PSI application, respectively, monitoring the points on the landslide and on nearby buildings, can furnish complementary information useful for the assessment of relative hazard. Thus, local knowledge (geology, geomorphology, slope history) and in situ inspections could often be essential for the correct interpretation of PSI displacement maps. Furthermore, note that the exploitation of both descending and ascending imagery — two independent analyses — not only offers the simplest form of reciprocal

  10. Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Central-Southern Italy: Sero-molecular survey and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé Del Pino, Leticia Elisa; Roberto, Nardini; Vincenzo, Veneziano; Francesca, Iacoponi; Antonella, Cersini; Luca, Autorino Gian; Francesco, Buono; Teresa, Scicluna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are tick-borne pathogens, etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis that affect different species of Equidae causing relevantly important direct and indirect losses. A field study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of the equine piroplasms in an area of Central-Southern Italy and to identify correlated risk factors. Serum samples of 673 asymptomatic horses were collected during spring-summer of 2013 to estimate the seroprevalence of the parasites within the study area using T. equi and B. caballi Antibody test kit (VMRD(®), Inc, Pullman, WA, USA). The 273 seropositive samples were subsequently tested by real time PCR to verify the presence of the genome of the piroplasms, indicative of the carrier status of the subjects. The variables chosen to identify which were the risk factors associated with the serological and PCR-positivity for each of the equine piroplasms were the following: gender, age, breed, access to pasture, altitude, land cover, climatic zone, soil type and province location (coastal/inland). The resulting overall seroprevalence for T. equi was 39.8% (268/673) and for B. caballi was 8.9% (60/673) while 70.3% of the PCR tested samples (185/263) were positive for T. equi and 10.3% (27/263) for B. caballi. The univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association of the risk factors with the different outcomes. The risk factors found to be associated with T. equi seropositivity were gender, age, breed, access to pasture, land cover, soil type and province location, while those associated with PCR-positivity were age, soil type and province location. As the number of B. caballi seropositive subjects was limited, the multiple logistic regression model was performed only for the PCR-positive status, identifying climatic zone and soil type as the sole risk factors. In the study area, a major diffusion of T. equi, in terms of seroprevalence and PCR-positivity was present when

  11. Climate, environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Giraudi, Carlo; Masi, Alessia; Magny, Michel; Ortu, Elena; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the interrelationship between the natural and human history of Sicily over the last 2000 years. It presents a close comparison of the data from the key multi-proxy site of Lago di Pergusa - located inland in the eastern part of Sicily - with the existing archaeological and textual evidence on the socio-economic processes. The article also includes a review of the available natural proxy archives from the Central Mediterranean. On the basis of the isotope and pollen data from the Lago di Pergusa core PRG2, we identified two humid periods (ca. 450-750 AD and ca. 1400-1800 AD) as well as a dry one (ca. 1100-1350 AD); our evidence corresponds closely with other environmental palaeoclimate proxies from the Mediterranean region. In our synthesis of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence from southern Italy, we argue that during both periods of increased humidity - that is during the late antique-Byzantine times and during the late medieval and early modern periods - intense agricultural use of the Sicilian landscape developed on an unprecedented scale. This in turn contributed to the impressive demographic and economic expansion visible during these periods. A sudden period of aridity followed the first of these eras of humidity-related agricultural growth. This climatic shift, dated to around 750 AD, corresponds to a decrease in synanthropic taxa and a recovery of arboreal vegetation. We argue that in this case a climatic change contributed to socio-economic decline. Moreover, as this change occurred prior to the Arab invasion of Sicily in AD 827, the environmental processes may help to explain the collapse of Byzantine society on Sicily which, in turn made the Muslim conquest possible. After this event, there occurred a longer period of agricultural decline, lasting until around 1000 AD, after which we see the first signs of a slow recovery. Ongoing research in nearby archaeological sites will help defining if it was a local

  12. New insights in the geodynamics of the Lipari-Vulcano area (Aeolian Archipelago, southern Italy) from geological, geodetic and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, G.; Bruno, V.; Cultrera, F.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Scarfì, L.

    2014-12-01

    Geological, geodetic and seismological data have been analyzed in order to frame the Lipari-Vulcano complex (Aeolian archipelago, southern Italy) into the geodynamic context of the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea. It is located at the northern end of a major NNW-SSE trending right-lateral strike-slip fault system named "Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni" which has been interpreted as a lithospheric discontinuity extending from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian coast of Sicily and separating two different tectonic domains: a contractional one to the west and an extensional one to the north-east. Structural field data consist of structural measurements performed on well-exposed fault planes and fractures. The mesostructures are mostly represented by NW-SE striking normal faults with a dextral-oblique component of motion. Minor structures are represented by N-S oriented joints and tension gashes widespread over the whole analyzed area and particularly along fumarolized sectors. The analyzed seismological dataset (from 1994 to 2013) is based on earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 1.0 and 4.8. The hypocenter distribution depicts two major alignments corresponding to the NNW-SSE trending Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault system and to the WNW-ESE oriented Sisifo-Alicudi fault system. GPS data analysis displays ∼3.0 mm/yr of active shortening between the two islands, with a maximum shortening rate of about 1.0 × 10-13 s-1, between La Fossa Caldera and south of Vulcanello. This region is bounded to the north by an area where the maximum values of shear strain rates, of about 0.7 × 10-13 s-1 are observed. This major change occurs in the area south of Vulcanello that is also characterized by a transition in the way of the vertical axis rotation. Moreover, both the islands show a clear subsidence process, as suggested by negative vertical velocities of all GPS stations which exhibit a decrease from about -15 to -7 mm/yr from north to south. New data suggest that the current

  13. Forecasting landslide activations by means of GA-SAKe. An example of application to three case studies in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; De Rango, Alessio; Gariano, Stefano L.; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2016-04-01

    GA-SAKe - the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel) - allows to forecast the timing of activation of landslides [1, 2], based on dates of landslide activations and rainfall series. The model can be applied to either single or set of similar landslides in a homogeneous context. Calibration of the model is performed through Genetic-Algorithm, and provides families of optimal, discretized solutions (kernels) that maximize the fitness function. The mobility functions are obtained through convolution of the optimal kernels with rain series. The shape of the kernel, including its base time, is related to magnitude of the landslide and hydro-geological complexity of the slope. Once validated, the model can be applied to estimate the timing of future landslide activations in the same study area, by employing measured or forecasted rainfall. GA-SAKe is here employed to analyse the historical activations of three rock slides in Calabria (Southern Italy), threatening villages and main infrastructures. In particular: 1) the Acri-Serra di Buda case, developed within a Sackung, involving weathered crystalline and metamorphic rocks; for this case study, 6 dates of activation are available; 2) the San Fili-Uncino case, developed in clay and conglomerate overlaying gneiss and biotitic schist; for this