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Sample records for apulia southern italy

  1. Prediction of Climatic Change for the Next 100 Years in the Apulia Region, Southern Italy

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    Mladen Todorovic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on water resources and use for agricultural production has become a critical question for sustainability. Our objective was investigate the impact of the expected climate changes for the next 100 years on the water balance variations, climatic classifications, and crop water requirements in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. The results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2,5 °C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation will not change significantly on yearly basis although a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification, the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decreasing of humid areas and increasing of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR, calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%, wheat (61%, grapevine (49%, and citrus (48% and it is slightly lower for maize (35%, sorghum (34%, sunflower (33%, tomato (31%, and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%.

  2. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy

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    A. Marsico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy. The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  3. Negative effects of land-use changes in the karst setting of Apulia, southern Italy

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    Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Apulia is an almost entirely carbonate region in south-eastern Italy, representing the heel of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Due to its location in the heart of the Mediterranean basin, and its geographical configuration, which in some way connects the Italian territory to the eastward lands, it had a long history of human settlements, as shown by the many remarkable prehistoric findings that have been recorded in this area during the last century. The flatness of the region, derived from the geologic origin of Apulia as the undeformed foreland of the Southern Apenninic Chain of Italy, together with its NW-SE oriented peninsula configuration and the long coastlines, are at the origin of the good-continuity occupation by man during the different phases of human history. The original karst landscape, characterized by absence of surface runoff, due to rapid infiltration of surface water into the network of karst conduits and fissures within the carbonate rock mass, was with time modified by man. Agriculture initially developed in the narrow strips of land where the presence of residual deposits (terre rosse) allowed the establishment of thin soil layers, and/or in small depressions where water was able to be kept for a longer time within the epikarst. Outside of these sites, the karst landscape typically consisted of stony plateaus and subdued rounding hills. To gain further space to agricultural practices, part of the surrounding stony areas was cleared of rocks: the latter were extracted by hand, and used to build dry stone walls to delimitate the properties, and/or to act as a barrier to soil erosion or to work as terrace walls in the sectors with higher gradients. At the same time, extraction and re-use of carbonate rocks originated some of the typical rural architecture common in Apulia, from "trulli" to "pagliare" and, later on, to "masserie" (the old countryside mansions). In the last decades of XX century, thanks to the use of modern technologies and

  4. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

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    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  5. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

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    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  6. A THEROPOD DOMINATED ICHNOCOENOSIS FROM LATE HAUTERIVIAN-EARLYBARREMIAN OF BORGO CELANO (GARGANO PROMONTORY, APULIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    FABIO MASSIMO PETTI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several dinosaur footprints were discovered on three different levels cropping out in the CO.L.MAR quarry, south of the village of Borgo Celano in the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, southern Italy. The track-bearing levels belong to a carbonate inner platform succession referred to the Lower Cretaceous (upper Hauterivian-lower Barremian. This paper describes only the lowest dinoturbated bed, where footprints are preserved as natural cast. Forty footprints, mostly tridactyl, have been attributed to medium-sized theropods. Tridactyl tracks are similar to Kayentapus Welles, 1971 regarding ichnotaxonomy. Round shaped footprints, previously not described from this site, are found in association with tridactyl footprints and are related to ornitischian dinosaurs. 

  7. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia) characterised by moderate seismicity rates

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    Del Gaudio, V.; Pierri, P.; Calcagnile, G.

    2009-02-01

    The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9) has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland). However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  8. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia characterised by moderate seismicity rates

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    V. Del Gaudio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  9. Active tectonic structures and submarine landslides offshore southern Apulia (Italy): a new scenario for the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami

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    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Torrente, Maurizio M.

    2017-01-01

    The southern Apulia foreland recorded a strong (Imax=X MCS) earthquake in 1743 and a concomitant tsunami, which struck the southeastern Salento coast. The seismo-genetic fault and the triggering factors of the tsunami are unknown. Three-dimensional interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles calibrated by wells using a GIS software enabled the recognition of the stratigraphic succession, structural framework, and submarine landslides offshore Salento. A thin Pliocene unit overlying the Mesozoic-Cenozoic substrate is covered by a Pleistocene succession separated by a Middle Pleistocene unconformity that formed during the regional uplift of Salento. The latter gave rise to the morphologic conditions for the deposition of a prograding wedge off the Salento coast, with a shelf break located at 150 m depth. Normal faults, mainly oriented NW-SE, displaced the early Lower Pleistocene succession and are buried by younger deposits. Since the Middle Pleistocene, a compressional event gave rise to the Apulia uplift and large folds and basement-involved reverse faults that are active in the eastern part of Apulia. A huge (58 km3) slump affecting the Middle Pleistocene prograding wedge has been documented offshore the southeast coast of Salento. The proposed geological scenario of the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami is (1) an initial strong earthquake (Imax=X MCS) associated with a thrust fault located in the eastern sector of the Apulia offshore, (2) a shacking-induced large-volume slump offshore Otranto, and (3) landslide-triggered tsunamis that struck the Salento coast.

  10. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy

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    Patti Annamaria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV. On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy, which may be considered a border region due to its position. Methods 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0–15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Results Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre ≥ 8 for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. Conclusion These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  11. STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE SALENTO COAST FROM CAPO D'OTRANTO TO S.MARIA DI LEUCA (APULIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    ALFONSO BOSELLINI

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous to Quaternary succession of the Apulia Platform cropping out on the eastern coast of the Salento Peninsula shows a special stratigraphic architecture. Whereas on the platform top, i.e. on the Salento Peninsula proper, the succession is at most a few tens of metres thick and is punctuated by unconformities, on the margin and slope of the platform, along the present-day eastern coast of the peninsula, several carbonate systems are laterally disposed and grafted one upon the other. Three of these systems are clinostratified and include well developed reef tracts of Priabonian, early Chattian and early Messinian age. The geologic conclusion of our study is that, since the Late Cretaceous, the eastern coast of the Salento Peninsula grossly coincided with the margin of the Apulia Platform. This paleogeographic element acted as a foreland horst and registered important geodynamic events related to the growth of the adjacent Hellenide and Apennine thrust belts. During the last 60 m.y., the horst carapace was constantly near sea level and sediments were mainly accommodated and preserved on the deep margin and slope of the platform. 

  12. CARBONATE FACIES ZONATION OF THE UPPER JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS APULIA PLATFORM MARGIN (GARGANO PROMONTORY, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    MICHELE MORSILLI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Apulia platform margin and the transition to adjacent basinal deposits (inner platform to basin are well exposed in the Gargano Promontory. Detailed field work has allowed to recognize eight main facies associations which reflect various depositional environments, and which document a differentiated zonation, from the inner platform to the basin. A shallow lagoon existed in the internal part of the Gargano Promontory with a transition to tidal flat areas (F1. Oolitic shoals (F2 bordered this internal peritidal area passing seaward to a reef-flat with abundant corals (F3. A reef-front, associated with a coral rubble zone, has been found in some areas (F4. In the external margin zone, massive wackestones with Ellipsactinia occur (F5 and pass gradually to a rudstone facies on the proximal slope (F6. The base-of-slope facies association consists of pelagic sediments interbedded with gravity-displaced deposits (F7 and F8. The depositional profile of the Apulia Platform is typical of the Tethyan Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platforms, with slope declivities in the order of 25°-28°. The remarkable progradation of the platform in the northern tract of the Gargano (Lesina and Varano lakes area and its substantial stability east- and southwards (Mattinata area suggest a possible windward position of the margin in this latter portion and, in contrast, a leeward position of the northern portion.   

  13. New distribution and genetic data extend the ranges of the spectacled salamanders, genus Salamandrina, in the Apulia region (South Italy

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    Cristiano Liuzzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additional data on the distribution of the genus Salamandrina in the Apulia region (southern Italy are provided. Based on fieldwork carried out from May to August 2011 in two new localities, Volturara Appula (Foggia province and Spinazzola (Barletta province, the presence of Salamandrina species was recorded. Results from the genetic analyses of the 12S rRNA gene fragment from six individuals demonstrated that S. perspicillata occurs in Volturara Appula while S. terdigitata in the Spinazzola locality. The latter species is reported for the first time for the Apulia region. These new distribution data represent considerable range extensions for the Salamandrina species, indicating that more surveys are needed to complement the existing knowledge on their distribution as well as of the herpetofauna from the Apulia region. The conservation implications of our findings are also discussed.

  14. Brucella ceti from two striped dolphins stranded on the Apulia coastline, Italy.

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    Garofolo, Giuliano; Zilli, Katiuscia; Troiano, Pasquale; Petrella, Antonio; Marotta, Francesca; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Ancora, Massimo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2014-02-01

    Since 1994, when Brucella ceti was first isolated from an aborted dolphin fetus, several cases have been reported worldwide. The first case of B. ceti in the Mediterranean (and in Italy), however, was recorded only in 2012, off the coast of Tuscany. Extensive studies, using serological and microbiological methods, have documented this bacterium in dolphins and demonstrated its zoonotic potential. We describe the typing of two B. ceti strains isolated from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the southern Apulia coastline. B. ceti isolates were conventionally typed, and then genotyped by both the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the multilocus variable number of tandem repeats typing (MLVA) methodologies to infer phylogeny and potential epidemiological links between the two cases. The two isolates were identified through MLST analysis as belonging to the common sequence type 26 (ST26), while MLVA analysis, having established that the two isolates have identical profiles, assigned them to a novel genotype within cluster A - a unique representative of a new Mediterranean subcluster. The results thus revealed a link between the two cases studied, demonstrating the usefulness of MLST and MLVA for the epidemiological investigation of brucellae among marine mammals.

  15. Assessing hydrological drought risk for the irrigation sector in future climate scenarios: lessons learned from the Apulia case study (Italy)

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    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Ronco, Paolo; Zennaro, Federica; Santini, Monia; Trabucco, Antonio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is already affecting the frequency of drought events which may threaten the current stocks of water resources and thus the availability of freshwater for the irrigation. The achievement of a sustainable equilibrium between the availability of water resources and the irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. In this sense, the improvement (of existing) and the development of (new) appropriate risk assessment methods and tools to evaluate the impact of drought events on irrigated crops is fundamental in order to assure that the agricultural yields are appropriate to meet the current and future food and market demand. This study evaluates the risk of hydrological drought on the irrigated agronomic compartment of Apulia, a semi-arid region in Southern Italy. We applied a stepwise Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) procedure, based on the consecutive analysis of hazards, exposure, vulnerability and risks, integrating the qualitative and quantitative available information. Future climate projections for the timeframes 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 were provided by COSMO-CLM under the radiative forcing RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The run-off feeding the water stocks of the most important irrigation reservoirs in Apulia was then modeled with Arc-SWAT. Hence, the hazard analysis was carried out in order to estimate the degree of fulfillment of actual irrigation demand satisfied by water supply of different reservoirs in future scenarios. Vulnerability of exposed irrigated crops was evaluated depending on three factors accounting for crop yield variation vs water stress, water losses along the irrigation network, diversification of water supply. Resulting risk and vulnerability maps allowed: the identification of Reclamation Consortia at higher risk of not fulfilling their future irrigation demand (e.g. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia in RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario); the ranking of most

  16. Human papilloma virus (HPV genotypes prevalence in a region of South Italy (Apulia

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    Maria Franca Coscia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since human papillomavirus (HPV is the central casual factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology and geographical area distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes constitutes an important step towards development of strategies of prevention. AIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection and to determine HPV types distribution among 822 HPV positive women and some sexual male partners in Apulia (Italy. METHODS. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed by nested-PCR for the L1 region and reverse line blot hybridization allowing the specific detection of 24 HPV genotyping both high risk (HR and low risk (LR. RESULTS. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (35%, HPV 31 (16% HPV 6 (9%, HPV 58 and 66 (7%, followed by HPV 33 (6%, HPV 18 and 56 (4%, HPV 70 and 45 (3%, HPV 53 and 11 (2%. Currently 1.5% of tested specimens remained unclassified. Multiple infections with at last two different high-risk HPV genotypes were observed in 10% of specimens. CONCLUSIONS. This finding adds knowledge to HPV epidemiological investigation, and addresses further studies aimed to consider public health for identifying groups at risk for cervical cancer.

  17. Relation between "terra rossa" from the Apulia aquifer of Italy and the radon content of groundwater: Experimental results and their applicability to radon occurrence in the aquifer

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    Tadolini, T.; Spizzico, M.

    The radon-222 (222Rn) activity in groundwater of the Apulian karstic aquifer in southern Italy is as great as 500 Becquerel per liter (Bq/L) locally. Normal radium-226 (226Ra) activity in the limestone and calcareous dolomites of the aquifer is not enough to explain such a high level. Laboratory investigations identified high 226Ra activity in the "terra rossa," the residuum occupying fissures and cavities in the bedrock, and also the relation between (1) 226Ra-bearing bedrock and "terra rossa" and (2) 222Rn in water. The "terra rossa" is the primary source of the radon in the groundwater. The experimental results show the need to characterize the "terra rossa" of Apulia on the basis of 226Ra activity and also to study the distribution and variations in 222Rn activity over time in the aquifer. Résumé L'activité du radon-222 (222Rn) dans les eaux souterraines de l'aquifère karstique des Pouilles, dans le sud de l'Italie, atteint localement 500 Becquerel par litre (Bq/L). L'activité normale du radium-226 (226Ra) dans les calcaires et dans les calcaires dolomitiques de l'aquifère n'est pas assez élevée pour expliquer des valeurs aussi élevées. Des analyses de laboratoire ont mis en évidence une forte activité en 226Ra dans la terra rossa, remplissage de fissures et de cavités de la roche, ainsi qu'une relation entre (1) la roche et la terra rossa contenant du 226Ra et (2) le 222Rn dans l'eau. La terra rossa est la source primaire de radon dans l'eau souterraine. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent qu'il est nécessaire de caractériser la terra rossa des Pouilles par son activité en 226Ra et d'étudier la distribution et les variations de l'activité en 222Rn au cours du temps dans l'aquifère. Resumen La actividad del radon-222 (222Rn) en el agua subterránea del acuífero cárstico de Apulia, al sur de Italia, alcanza localmente los 500Bq/L. La actividad normal del radio-226 (226Ra) en las calcitas y dolomitas del acuífero no es suficiente para

  18. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

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    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  19. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

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    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  20. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

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    Clara Albano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  1. REINTERPRETATION OF THE LATE PLEISTOCENE INGARANO CAVE DEPOSIT BASED ON THE FOSSIL BIRD ASSOCIATION (APULIA, SOUTH-EASTERN ITALY

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    CLAUDIA BEDETTI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Late Pleistocene fossil bird remains from Ingarano (Apulia, SE Italy, based on the revision of previously published material and the study of unpublished fossils bones. New field observations make it possible to simplify the stratigraphy of the deposit compared to previous work. The systematic study of the fossil bird bones revealed the presence of 15 taxa, including two hypothetical ones: Circus aeruginosus, Buteo rufinus, Aquila chrysaëtos, Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Otus scops, Nyctea scandiaca, Nyctea scandiaca vel Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone vel Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax. Our detailed study also helps improve the taphonomical interpretation of the deposit: the remains from the lower layers were accumulated after mammalian predator activity and were transported over short distances, while the ones from the upper layers show sings of intense transport, such as fractures and surface abrasion. Two different bird assemblages were recognized, respectively from the lowermost and the upper layers of the clastic succession exposed in the Ingarano deposit; this difference is also confirmed by the fossil mammal remains. The systematic study makes it possible to make palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions: both assemblages indicate open environments, and the taxa of the lower layers indicate the presence of woods and wetlands with colder characteristics, while birds of the upper layers indicate drier and warmer conditions. This analysis, and the dating established through geochemical analyses and study of lithic artefacts, lead us to date the formation of the Ingarano deposit to the Late Pleistocene, in particular to the MIS 3. The presence of a layer dated to the MIS 2 at the base of the succession indicated in previous works cannot be confirmed. 

  2. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

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    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  3. Surfactant damages on coastal vegetation in southern Italy

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal vegetation decline caused by seaspray has been reported to affect a variety of species in several countries: Australia, South of France, along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast, Spain and Tunisia. The most serious injury is due to the interaction between sea salt and surfactants, even if surfactants may cause direct damage on cell membranes. The salt uptake is enhanced by the durfactant-induced erosion of the epicuticular wax, which reduces the water surface tension. The symptoms are non-specific and consist in leaf discoloration and necrosis. In needles, necrosis begins from the apex; in leaves, from the edges. Directionality of crown damage is the main symptom for diagnosing the involvement of polluted seaspray. If an obstacle is placed between trees and sea wind, the trees do not show appreciable damage. In Italy, the tree decline caused by seaspray and surfactants has been investigated with special reference to the pinewoods of the San Rossore (Tuscany, Central Italy, or on the Tyrrhenian coastlands of Central Italy, such as the area around Castelporziano in Lazio. This research is aimed at a preliminary assessment of the extent of surfactant damage to the coastal vegetation in four regions in Southern Italy by: i field surveys and mapping of damage caused by surfactants; ii detecting the presence of surfactants on the tree crowns. The damages have been observed in a lot of zones in Apulia, Basilicata, Campania and Calabria, within 500 m inland from the sea, for a maximum length of 5500 m coastline, near the mouth of a river or stream, near the outlet of sewage canals and in any other coastal areas where the surface currents carry a surfactant load.

  4. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy

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    M. Balasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the result of a Magnetotelluric (MT investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV, southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer, associated to the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units, and a deeper high resistivity layer, related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  5. Integrating geophysical and archaeological data for knowledge and management of the Historical Heritage. The case of the medieval church at Vereto (Apulia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, F.; Pepe, P.; Sammarco, M.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The native settlement of Vereto lies at the top of a small calcareous hill near the Adriatic coast, in the southernmost part of the Salento Peninsula of Apulia region (southern Italy). Recent topographical and aero-topographical surveys carried out in the ‘urban' area and in a wide sector of the surrounding territory, integrated by a thorough research of the literary and archival sources, allowed to define the long human occupation of the site between Bronze Age and the late Middle Age, and to focus the important role it played for many centuries, due to both vicinity to a commercial port and a coastal sanctuary, and its connection with the ancient road network. Within the framework of a research project by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the Salento University, the regional Archaeological Superintendence and the local Administration, detailed analyses of the ancient settlement and of its most significant structures (city-walls, cisterns, private buildings) have been started. The attention was focused particularly on the 500th century religious building located at the hilltop and dedicated to the eponymous Holy Virgin. Here two different methods of investigation have been used. The first level of knowledge consists in geophysical surveys, that included georadar (GPR) and geoelectrical prospections. Georadar data were acquired using GSSI SIR 20 with 2 antenna simultaneously mounted on the same cart. The choice of array was determined to get a very good resolution (up to 1 meter) using an high frequency antenna (900Mhz) and to increase the investigation depth (up to 3 meters) with the medium frequency antenna (400Mhz). Data were acquired both inside and outside the religious building along two orthogonal direction (lines spaced 0.5 m), processed using Radan 6.5 software, and eventually were represented as georadar profiles and 3D time-slices and 3D volumes in order to show the distribution of anomalies with depth. To get information at higher depth, to

  6. Occurrence of mislabelling in prepared fishery products in Southern Italy

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    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, and hake (Merluccius merluccius fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8% fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4% fillets of sole (Solea solea were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4% plaice (Pleuronectes platessa samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6% hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  7. Microbiological and hydrogeological assessment of groundwater in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, Osvalda; Barbuti, Giovanna; Trerotoli, Paolo; Brigida, Silvia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Di Vittorio, Giuseppe; Lovero, Grazia; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Uricchio, Vito Felice; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This study represents the first investigation of microbiological groundwater pollution as a function of aquifer type and season for the Apulia region of southern Italy. Two hundred and seven wells were randomly selected from those monitored by the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection for emergency use. Both compulsory (Escherichia coli, Total Coliform, and Enterococci) and optional (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Heterotrophic Plate Count at 37 and 22 °C) microbiological parameters were assessed regularly at these wells. Groundwater from only 18 of the 207 (8.7 %) wells was potable; these all draw from karst-fissured aquifers. The remaining 189 wells draw from karst-fissured (66.1 %) or porous (33.9 %) aquifers. Of these, 82 (43.4 %) tested negative for Salmonella spp. and P. aeruginosa, while 107 (56.6 %) tested positive for P. aeruginosa (75.7 %), Salmonella spp. (10.3 %), or for both Salmonella spp. and P. aeruginosa (14 %). A logistic regression model shows that the probability of potable groundwater depends on both season and aquifer type. Typically, water samples were more likely to be potable in autumn-winter than in spring-summer periods (odds ratio, OR = 2.1; 95 % confidence interval, 95 % CI = 1.6-2.7) and from karst-fissured rather than porous aquifers (OR = 5.8; 95 % CI = 4.4-7.8). Optional parameters only showed a seasonal pattern (OR = 2.6; 95 % CI = 1.7-3.9). Clearly, further investigation of groundwater microbiological aspects should be carried out to identify the risks of fecal contamination and to establish appropriate protection methods, which take into account the hydrogeological and climatic characteristics of this region.

  8. [Mortality from respiratory diseases in the provinces of Apulia Region (Southern Italy) from 1933 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: valutare l'andamento temporale della mortalità per patologie respiratorie nelle province pugliesi utilizzando dati omogenei per fonte e metodologia di calcolo. DISEGNO: analisi ecologica storica degli andamenti temporali di mortalità per tumori e patologie dell'apparato respiratorio nelle province pugliesi, in Puglia e nelle ripartizioni geografiche italiane dal 1933 al 2010. SETTING E PARTECIPANTI: i dati di mortalità e le popolazioni residenti sono di fonte Istat. Sono state esaminate tutte le cause di decesso, il tumore della laringe, il tumore del polmone, l'insieme dei tumori respiratori, la bronchite, la polmonite e la broncopolmonite considerate congiuntamente, e l'insieme delle patologie respiratorie. Le analisi sono disaggregate per sesso dal 1969. PRINCIPALI MISURE DI OUTCOME: rapporti standardizzati di mortalità (SMR%) in riferimento all'Italia, con intervalli di confidenza al 95%, e tassi di mortalità standardizzati col metodo diretto (TSD ) in riferimento alla popolazione standard europea. RISULTATI: dal 1933 al 2010, i TSD per tumori respiratori e per bronchiti diminuiscono in tutte le aree analizzate. Tuttavia, nelle province di Taranto, Brindisi e Lecce, l'SMR% per tumori respiratori, inferiore al riferimento nazionale fino agli anni Sessanta, si allinea (a Brindisi) e supera (a Lecce e Taranto) il riferimento negli anni successivi. Nelle province di Foggia e Bari il numero dei decessi per tumore del polmone è costantemente inferiore all'atteso. CONCLUSIONI: la ricostruzione storica e l'analisi dei trend temporali di mortalità dal 1933 al 2010 mostrano alcune criticità sanitarie in periodi specifici. L'elaborazione dei dati di mortalità per un arco temporale di circa 80 anni ha messo in evidenza la maggiore rilevanza di queste criticità con l'avvio dello sviluppo industriale.

  9. A P-wave velocity model of the upper crust of the Sannio region (Southern Apennines, Italy

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    M. Cocco

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a seismic refraction profile conducted in October 1992 in the Sannio region, Southern Italy, to obtain a detailed P-wave velocity model of the upper crust. The profile, 75 km long, extended parallel to the Apenninic chain in a region frequently damaged in historical time by strong earthquakes. Six shots were fired at five sites and recorded by a number of seismic stations ranging from 41 to 71 with a spacing of 1-2 km along the recording line. We used a two-dimensional raytracing technique to model travel times and amplitudes of first and second arrivals. The obtained P-wave velocity model has a shallow structure with strong lateral variations in the southern portion of the profile. Near surface sediments of the Tertiary age are characterized by seismic velocities in the 3.0-4.1 km/s range. In the northern part of the profile these deposits overlie a layer with a velocity of 4.8 km/s that has been interpreted as a Mesozoic sedimentary succession. A high velocity body, corresponding to the limestones of the Western Carbonate Platform with a velocity of 6 km/s, characterizes the southernmost part of the profile at shallow depths. At a depth of about 4 km the model becomes laterally homogeneous showing a continuous layer with a thickness in the 3-4 km range and a velocity of 6 km/s corresponding to the Meso-Cenozoic limestone succession of the Apulia Carbonate Platform. This platform appears to be layered, as indicated by an increase in seismic velocity from 6 to 6.7 km/s at depths in the 6-8 km range, that has been interpreted as a lithological transition from limestones to Triassic dolomites and anhydrites of the Burano formation. A lower P-wave velocity of about 5.0-5.5 km/s is hypothesized at the bottom of the Apulia Platform at depths ranging from 10 km down to 12.5 km; these low velocities could be related to Permo-Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Verrucano sequence drilled at the bottom of the Apulia

  10. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

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    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  11. PLEISTOCENE BATHYAL MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGES FROM SOUTHERN ITALY

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    ITALO DI GERONIMO

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  12. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  13. HYSTRIX REFOSSA GERVAIS, 1852 FROM PIRRO NORD (EARLY PLEISTOCENE, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    LORENZO ROOK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe fossil remains attributable to genus Hystrix, collected from fissure filings in the area between Apricena and Poggio Imperiale (Apulia, Italy. The vertebrate assemblage that yielded these Hystrix remains is known in the literature as Pirro Nord, and is one of the richest Early Pleistocene mammal assemblages from Italy. The porcupine remains from Pirro Nord are attributed to the species Hystrix refossa. The problem of the taxonomy of Plio-Pleistocene hystricids in the framework of their morphological variability is discussed. 

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  15. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  16. Differences between weekend and weekday ozone levels over rural and urban sites in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipa, Ilenia; Tanzarella, Annalisa; Mangia, Cristina

    2009-09-01

    Air quality data from a network of 11 monitoring stations in the Apulia region of southern Italy during the summer of 2005 reveal a high frequency of ozone law limit violations. Since ozone is a secondary pollutant, air quality control strategies aimed at reducing ozone concentration are not immediate. Herein, we analyse weekly changes in concentration levels of ozone (O(3)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and evaluate how the differences in primary emissions cause changes in the production of ozone. The comparison between weekend and weekday levels of O(3) and its precursors are direct evidence for the existence of the "ozone weekend effect." This effect was observed at all stations with a considerable variation in the overall ozone magnitude, including both traffic stations and non-traffic stations. Data from VOC measurements at traffic stations primarily indicated elevated levels of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX); all of these substances showed an overall decrease over the weekend. A single station indicated levels of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and PM10, both of which did not demonstrate any weekly cycle. Analysis of weekly and diurnal cycles of O(3), NO(x), CO, NMHC, and PM10 indicates that higher weekend ozone levels result from a reduction in the emission of nitrogen oxides on weekends in VOC-sensitive regimes. This indicates that a reduction in VOC and NO(x) levels would be more effective than NO(x) reduction alone. Our results underscore the need for improved and more efficient VOC measurements.

  17. [Ecological study on the mortality of residents in Manfredonia (Apulia Region, Southern Italy) from 1970 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Bruni, Antonella; De Marchi, Bruna; Biggeri, Annibale; Porcu, Rosa; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: valutare lo stato di salute della popolazione residente nel comune di Manfredonia dal 1970 al 2013. DISEGNO: analisi descrittiva dell'andamento temporale della mortalità generale, per gruppi di cause, dal 1970 al 2013. SETTING E PARTECIPANTI: i dati di mortalità e le popolazioni residenti sono di fonte Istat. Sono state esaminate 55 cause di decesso. Le analisi sono disaggregate per sesso e periodo. PRINCIPALI MISURE DI OUTCOME: sono stati elaborati i rapporti standardizzati di mortalità (SMR%), con i rispettivi intervalli di confidenza al 90% (IC90%), e i tassi di mortalità standardizzati col metodo diretto (TSD ). RISULTATI: lo stato di salute misurato dal tasso di mortalità per tutte le cause migliora nel tempo: i TSD passano da 92 x10.000 negli anni 1970-1974 a 52 x10.000 nel biennio 2012-2013 negli uomini, da 70 x10.000 a 39 x10.000 nelle donne. Tuttavia, rispetto alla media regionale Manfredonia perde progressivamente il suo vantaggio, passando da -20% a -10% negli uomini, e da -20% a +1,5% nelle donne. Questo andamento è molto evidente per il complesso delle cause cardiovascolari, mentre i tumori maligni sono in generale nella media regionale. Nell'ultimo periodo disponibile per causa di decesso (2006-2011), la mortalità per infarto miocardico è stata più alta della media regionale (uomini: +35%; donne: +54%). I rapporti standardizzati di mortalità (SMR) mostrano tra gli uomini valori in crescita, in particolar modo rispetto al riferimento provinciale, con un eccesso a cominciare dal periodo 2006-2011 (22 decessi/anno e 19 attesi; SMR%: 117,2; IC90% 101,1-135,2; riferimento: provincia di Foggia). Anche tra le donne gli SMR% superano i riferimenti provinciali negli ultimi periodi esaminati (nel 2012-2013: 7 decessi/ anno e 4,2 attesi; SMR%: 116,4; IC90% 97,0-260,7; riferimento: provincia di Foggia). CONCLUSIONI: la mortalità a Manfredonia è diminuita in misura minore rispetto a quella osservata nei riferimenti provinciali e regionali. Il vantaggio che si osservava negli anni Sessanta si è, infatti, ridotto nel tempo, fino ad annullarsi negli ultimi anni. Dal 1970, Manfredonia ha progressivamente perso il vantaggio che aveva. Dagli anni Duemila, la mortalità per infarto del miocardio è in eccesso sulla media regionale e provinciale. Da casi documentati in letteratura si osserva che le popolazioni che sperimentano catastrofi di origine naturale o antropica possono fronteggiare un aumento di patologie cardiovascolari. La mortalità per tumore polmonare mostra un eccesso sulla media regionale, in particolare provinciale, a cominciare dal 2000, coerentemente con i tempi di latenza legati all'esposizione ad arsenico negli anni Settanta.

  18. Molecular and Technological Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Natural Fermentation of Susumaniello Grape Must in Apulia, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tristezza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is an important step towards the conservation and employment of microbial biodiversity. The utilization of selected autochthonous yeast strains would be a powerful tool to enhance the organoleptic and sensory properties of typical regional wines. In fact, indigenous yeasts are better tailored to a particular must and because of this they are able to praise the peculiarities of the derived wine. The present study described the biodiversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated from natural must fermentations of an ancient and recently rediscovered Apulian grape cultivar, denoted as “Susumaniello.” The yeast strains denoted by the best oenological and technological features were identified and their fermentative performances were tested by either laboratory assay. Five yeast strains showed that they could be excellent candidates for the production of industrial starter cultures, since they dominated the fermentation process and produced wines characterized by peculiar oenological and organoleptic features.

  19. Molecular and Technological Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Natural Fermentation of Susumaniello Grape Must in Apulia, Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Tristezza; Lorenagostina Fantastico; Cosimo Vetrano; Gianluca Bleve; Daniela Corallo; Giovanni Mita; Francesco Grieco

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is an important step towards the conservation and employment of microbial biodiversity. The utilization of selected autochthonous yeast strains would be a powerful tool to enhance the organoleptic and sensory properties of typical regional wines. In fact, indigenous yeasts are better tailored to a particular must and because of this they are able to praise the peculiarities of the derived wine. The present study described ...

  20. Molecular and Technological Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Natural Fermentation of Susumaniello Grape Must in Apulia, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristezza, Mariana; Fantastico, Lorenagostina; Vetrano, Cosimo; Bleve, Gianluca; Corallo, Daniela; Grieco, Francesco; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is an important step towards the conservation and employment of microbial biodiversity. The utilization of selected autochthonous yeast strains would be a powerful tool to enhance the organoleptic and sensory properties of typical regional wines. In fact, indigenous yeasts are better tailored to a particular must and because of this they are able to praise the peculiarities of the derived wine. The present study described the biodiversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated from natural must fermentations of an ancient and recently rediscovered Apulian grape cultivar, denoted as "Susumaniello." The yeast strains denoted by the best oenological and technological features were identified and their fermentative performances were tested by either laboratory assay. Five yeast strains showed that they could be excellent candidates for the production of industrial starter cultures, since they dominated the fermentation process and produced wines characterized by peculiar oenological and organoleptic features.

  1. Precipitation change in Southern Italy linked to global scale oscillation indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.; Mancini, M.

    2009-09-01

    linked high values of NAO index to low annual and seasonal precipitation (drought) and, on the contrary, low values to intense rainfalls and floods. For this reason, knowing the changes in monthly rainfalls, due to evolution of a planetary-scale oscillation, is useful for farmers and water management in a specific area. This study presents an investigation on the rainfall trends in Southern Italy (Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) using a database of about 70 rain gauges with more than 70 years of observation. Statistical analyses for trend detection were performed on rainfall monthly records through the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and a least-square linear regression. These analyses are made for the entire year and also on seasonal scale. The normalized rainfalls and some global climatic indexes were jointly analysed in order to find their possible correlations. Results obtained for trend analyses of rainfall series show statistically significant negative trends for annual and winter aggregations in the most part of the series. The correlation analyses between the adopted planetary-scale indexes and the precipitation anomalies demonstrate that the indexes influence to some extent precipitation over Southern Italy, though in different way. The correlation coefficients between planetary-scale indexes and rainfalls appear more significant for winter precipitation.

  2. Boundaries inside the body: women's sufferings in southern peasant Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M

    1990-06-01

    In a village of Southern Italy the secret world of women's emotions is fundamentally expressed through the body. The female body is open to events of the world and absorbs and feels their effect and defines a new identity, a minimal one. This gives rise to a symbolic anatomy, pathology, and physiology that serve to distinguish male and female worlds and to bridge inner and outer experience. These "traces" of external and extraordinary events, which in the past and in daily life have cut the secret and emotional world of women, are inscribed on the body. This body becomes a phenomenological memoir that opens a new way of interpreting distress and suffering and illness. This article represents a bridge from the interpretation of suffering and illness in Southern Italy via Gramsci and De Martino to a metacultural process of creating a polysemic and multilevel sense of self.

  3. An example of the effects of anthropogenic changes on natural environment in the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, G. F.; Walsh, N.

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines a case study regarding a site in the Murge karst (Apulia, southern Italy) where, in the course of time, anthropogenic activity has caused significant damage to the natural landscape and environment, also in terms of loss of human lives. The study site comprises the city of Bari and the neighbouring towns, belonging to the same catchment basin, which is characterised by a low-relief karst very rich in natural cavities and dry valleys, the latter locally called lame. From the second half of the 1500s until today, in the whole area, short rainfall storms (lasting less than 6 h) with disastrous and mortal consequences have been recorded many times. In the last decades, human activities, such as urbanization, stone clearing for agricultural purposes, quarrying and deforestation induced severe changes in the karst landscape causing the modification of the surficial and underground drainage. In particular, an examination is made of the factors causing the complete destruction of the “di Maso” Park on the night between 22 and 23 October 2005, in consequence of a high-intensity rainfall (152.6 mm in a 6-h period) accompanied by flash flooding. Finally, the need for a better understanding of natural processes and patterns in karst areas, and the interactions with human activities through to the development of environmental management systems ensuring further steps towards sustainable development is remarked.

  4. Oil and gas occurrences vs. geodynamic evolution in the southern Apennines (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, P. (TOTAL Mineraria S.A., Rome (Italy)); Roure, F.; Vially, R. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)); Sarp, A.R.

    1990-05-01

    The present architecture of the southern Apennines results from the Neogene continental subduction of the Apulia margin (part of North Africa margin). An allochthonous complex is formed by the low-angle, large-scale, east-vergent tectonic stack of Triassic to upper Miocene (Messinian) units. The rocks represent both a shelf carbonate domain (Apennine platform) and a deep marine domain (Lagonegro-Molise basin). They are emplaced as a nappe during uppermost Miocene (Messinian) to lowermost Pliocene. They are transported to the northeast onto the flexed inner part of the Apulia platform (Mesozoic to late Miocene shelf carbonate series). During the middle-upper Pliocene, the inner Apulia carbonate margin (intermediate platform) was thrust against the outer Apulia domain (overthrust belt). Pliocene-Quaternary syntectonic clastic series were deposited in the flexural basin developed to the east of the Apenninic, allochthon outer ramp and also in piggyback basins carried on top of the allochthon. Oil occurrences are confined to the top of the platform carbonates. Discoveries have been made in (1) compressional structures of the overthrust belt (outer margin of the inner Apulian Platform), (2) late-stage compressive folds in the outer slope of the foredeep, and (3) slightly inverted structures of the foreland margin. Gas accumulations at the top of platform limestones occur only in antithetic fault block traps or in slightly inverted structures of the foreland. The most important and frequent biogenic accumulations are in clastic rocks of the foredeep, beneath and to the east of the frontal ramp of the allochthon.

  5. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagarelli Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy. The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  6. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  7. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

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    C. Vennari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning

  8. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  9. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  10. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Federico, Stefano; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Drofa, Oxana; Landi, Tony Christian; Malguzzi, Piero; Buzzi, Andrea; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013) three-model ensemble (TME) experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council - Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System), BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model), and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates). The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  11. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  12. Stochastic analysis of long dry spells in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2017-02-01

    A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, streamflow, groundwater and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to investigate this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this study, a non-homogeneous Poisson model has been applied to a set of high-quality daily rainfall series, recorded in southern Italy (Calabria region) during the period 1981-2010, for the stochastic analysis of dry spells. Firstly, some statistical details of the Poisson models were presented. Then, the proposed model has been applied to the analysis of long dry spells. In particular, a Monte Carlo technique was performed to reproduce the characteristics of the process. As a result, the main characteristics of the long dry spells have shown patterns clearly related to some geographical features of the study area, such as elevation and latitude. The results obtained from the stochastic modelling of the long dry spells proved that the proposed model is useful for the probability evaluation of drought, thus improving environmental planning and management.

  13. Seismological investigations in the Gioia Tauro Basin (southern Calabria, Italy

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    S. Gresta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides new seismological information to characterize the seismically active area of the Gioia Tauro basin (southern Calabria, Italy. Seismic activity recorded by a temporary network from 1985 to 1994 was analyzed for focal mechanisms, stress tensor inversion, P-wave seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters estimation. Fault plane solutions of selected events showed a variety of different mechanisms, even if a prevalence of normal dip-slip solutions with prevalent rupture orientations occurring along ca. NE-SW directions was observed. Stress tensor inversion analysis disclosed a region governed mainly by a NW-SE extensional stress regime with a nearly vertical ?1. These results are consistent with the structure movements affecting the studied area and with geodetic data. Furthermore, evaluation of P-waves seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters of a subset of events highlighted a strong heterogeneity of the crust and the presence of fault segments and/or weakened zones where great stress accumulation or long-rupture propagation are hindered.

  14. Miocene phosphate-rich sediments in Salento (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hofmann, Hélène; Chiaradia, Massimo; de Kaenel, Eric; Frijia, Gianluca; Parente, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    The upper Middle to lower Upper Miocene (Serravallian to Tortonian) sedimentary succession in Salento (southern Italy) includes glauconite- and phosphate-rich deposits, which are associated with pelagic micrite. In Baia del Ciolo and Marittima (southern Salento), the succession is composed of shallow-water platform carbonates of Late Oligocene age (Chattian; Porto Badisco Formation), which are overlain by a 20- to 30-cm-thick level of glauconite-rich micrite with abundant reworked particles and fossils of the underlying Porto Badisco Formation. This interval is in turn covered by an up to 15 cm thick phosphatic crust ("Livello ad Aturia"), which itself is overlain either by a hemipelagic chalk-like carbonate of Middle to Late Miocene age ("Pietra Leccese"; Marittima) or directly by a micrite of Late Miocene age (Messinian; Novaglie Formation; Baia del Ciolo), which shallows upwards into a shallow-water platform carbonate. A large hiatus is present in this succession, which likely includes the Lower and lower Middle Miocene. In the region of Lecce, two discrete levels enriched in glauconite and phosphate-each associated with a major discontinuity-occur within the Pietra Leccese. The strontium-isotope ages derived on phosphate nodules and phosphatized and non-phosphatized fossils and calcareous nannofossil ages indicate a time interval of phosphogenesis between 13.5 and 7.5 Ma, with two clusters at 12 and 10.5 Ma. The glauconite and phosphate-rich sediments resulted from a current-dominated regime, which was characterized by low overall sedimentation rates, erosion and sediment reworking, and authigenesis. This regime was likely related to a generally westward-directed bottom current, which was forced to upwell once it arrived at the western border of the eastern Mediterranean basin. The timing of the principal phosphogenic phases can only partly be correlated to those of other occurrences in this part of the Mediterranean (Malta, Gozo, southern Sicily, Matese

  15. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mucciarelli; S. I. Giano; D. Chianese; M. Bavusi

    2004-01-01

    The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings ...

  16. On the morphometric analysis of palaeosurfaces in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, D.; Martino, C.; Nico, G.; Schiattarella, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we investigate the self-organized critical (SOC) properties of palaeosurfaces with the aim of distinguishing regions with a different Quaternary tectonic activity. Palaeosurface reconstruction provides information on palaeo-environments and a method of assessing neotectonic effects. Techniques such as remote sensing and GIS can give a useful means for the rapid and insightfull quantification of spatial data properties. The SRTM DEM was used in this study. It has a spatial resolution of 90 m and an absolute vertical accuracy smaller than 16m. The main advantage of this DEM, obtained by means of the radar interferometry technique, is the homogeneous quality of topographic information due to consistency in data collection and analysis. The Sila Massif (Calabrian Arc) and Campanian-Lucanian segment of the Campanian-Lucanian Apennines, both area in southern Apennines, Italy, were investigated. Maps of palaeosurfaces were derived by identifying on the DEM pixels with an altitude above 1000 m a.s.l. and a slope below 6 degrees. These values characterize all palaeosurfaces in southern Apennines and may change in other regions with a different tectonic climate history. A quantile-quantile analysis of palaeosurfaces' areas showed a linear relationship and a clear knee between 300 and 500 squared meters in both the regions. This property can be explained in terms of the existence of two sub-populations. The distribution of palaeosurfaces' area and orientation was derived. A set of palaeosurfaces with small areas and random orientation was found. For areas larger than 500 squared meters, a few palaeosurfaces with well defined directions were found. The analysis of the cumulative area frequency distribution shows the existence of two populations in both the Sila Massif and Campanian-Lucanian Apennines. In both cases the threshold area value between the two populations is about 400 squared meters. Below this value, the surface fragmentation has the same scaling

  17. Sedimentology of the Paestum travertines, Salerno, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, E.; Ferreri, V.; D'Argenio, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Paestum travertines, outcrop in the southern part of the Sele plain (Campania, southern Italy)and span in age from the late Pleistocene to the Recent. We have considered both the travertines resting under the ancient town of Paestum (founded by Sybaris Greeks in the VII century b.C.) and in its vicinities, as well as the travertine incrustations that post-date the VII century a.C. and partly cover the archaeological area. The textures and sedimentary features of the above rocks allow the environmental dynamics of the ancient as well as of the recent travertine deposits to be interpreted. The age of the ancient travertines ranges from 30-40 ka to 70-75 ka, even though more recent times of deposition cannot be excluded. They are genetically related to the waters springing from the south- western margin of the Mesozoic-Tertiary carbonates of Monte Soprano and Monte Sottano. These waters flow also through the travertines and their neighbouring deposits, feeding other springs along the coast. The travertines, both in situ and forming the building blocks of the town walls, have been classified using the textural nomenclature of the primary incrustations. On this basis, different lithofacies have been recognized and grouped into 3 main lithofacies associations: 1) Microhermal and Stromatolitic Travertines associated with Grain Supported Phytoclastic Travertines (gentle to steep slope environments); this lithofacies association is largely represented in the foundation travertines as well as in the blocks used to build the walls and the monuments of the ancient town; 2) Phytohermal and Microhermal Travertines (rapid and waterfall environments); this lithofacies association is well exposed in the foundation travertines of Porta Marina (western side of the town) and in some wall blocks (e.g. nearby Porta Sirena, eastern side of the town); 3) Phytoclastic and Phytohermal Travertines (swamp and marsh environments); this lithofacies association is common in the blocks

  18. The impact of education on wage determination between workers in southern and central-northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agovino Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the earnings dynamic in Italy, in order to explain earnings differences between southern Italy and centralnorthern Italy. In our analysis we use different techniques: ordinary least squares (OLS, quantile regression models and the algorithm developed by Machado and Mata (2005. In particular, the Machado and Mata (2005 algorithm allows us to examine the relative importance of both differences in workers’ characteristics and in their returns in explaining southern, central and northern Italy earnings differences at a point in time, as well as across time within each macro-area. We focus on the role of differences in educational endowment and returns to education, one of the most important components of human capital in the stylised literature. The level of education determines the substantial disparities in terms of wage returns. However, this holds only for levels of education related to compulsory education.

  19. Hydrological anomalies connected to earthquakes in southern Apennines (Italy

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    E. Esposito

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrological variations in the watersheds of seismic areas can be useful in order to acquire a new knowledge of the mechanisms by which earthquakes can produce hydrological anomalies. Italy has the availability of many long historical series both of hydrological parameters and of seismological data, and is an ideal laboratory to verify the validity of theoretical models proposed by various authors. In this work we analyse the hydrological anomalies associated with some of the big earthquakes that occurred in the last century in the southern Apennines: 1930, 1980 and 1984. For these earthquakes we analysed hydrometric and pluviometric data looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. The influence of rainfalls on the normal flows of rivers, springs and wells has been ascertained. Also, the earthquake of 1805, for which a lot of hydrological perturbations have been reported, is considered in order to point out effects imputable to this earthquake that can be similar to the effects of the other big earthquakes. The considered seismic events exhibit different modes of energy release, different focal mechanisms and different propagation of effects on the invested areas. Furthermore, even if their epicentres were not localised in contiguous seismogenetic areas, it seems that the hydrological effects imputable to them took place in the same areas. Such phenomena have been compared with macroseismic fields and transformed in parameters, in order to derive empirical relationships between the dimensions of the event and the characteristics of the hydrological variations. The results of this work point to a close dependence among hydrological anomalies, regional structures and fault mechanisms, and indicate that many clear anomalies have been forerunners of earthquakes. In 1993, the Naples Bureau of the Hydrographic National Service started the continuous monitoring of hydrologic parameters by a network of

  20. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  1. Interactions between soil consumption and archaeological heritage: spatial analysis for hydrogeological risk evaluation and urban sprawl in the Tavoliere di Puglia (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The soil consumption is a complex phenomenon because it is due to different causes and it also produces many consequences on landscape and related human activities. In low-relief areas of the Mediterranean regions such as the foredeep of the southern Italian chain, alluvional processes and flooding can play an important role on the amount of available soil, especially if one consider the recent climate changes and the recurrence of extreme events. Moreover the uncontrolled growth of the cities is a cause of soil consumption too. Consequently occurrence of flood events in low-relief areas, erosion processes and urban sprawl have a strong impact on agricultural activities and real estate market, but also in research activities about archaeological heritage, with the risk to loose signs of the past. To consider this phenomenon from a spatial point of view is essential to determine protection policies, but it is nowadays still a problem. In this contribution, we performed a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological features of the drainage network of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain in order to investigate erosional and depositional processes. GIS-supported statistical analysis of the drainage network features allow us to compile a map of the hydrogeological hazard [1]. The map has been used as a basic tool useful to consider areal distribution in soil consumption coming from alluvional processes, erosional phenomena and the urban sprawl of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain (Southern Italy). Moreover, we investigated the relationships between sectors of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain featured by higher hydrogeological risk and archaeological sensibility areas, such as places with existing or with not yet discovered archaeological sites or areas characterized by crop marks [2]. [1] Danese M., Gioia D., Biscione M., Masini N. 2014. Spatial Methods for Archaeological Flood Risk: The Case Study of the Neolithic Sites in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Computational

  2. Genome Sequences of Five Oenococcus oeni Strains Isolated from Nero Di Troia Wine from the Same Terroir in Apulia, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Lamontanara, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-10-23

    Oenococcus oeni is the principal lactic acid bacterium responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine. Here, we announce the genome sequences of five O. oeni strains isolated from Nero di Troia wine undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation, and we report, for the first time, several genome sequences of strains isolated from the same terroir.

  3. Outcomes on the Spray Profiles Produced by the Feasible Adjustments of Commonly Used Sprayers in “Tendone” Vineyards of Apulia (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the outcomes on the spray patterns produced by the different feasible adjustments of two different air blast sprayers and one mist blower sprayer, commonly employed for treatments to Apulian “tendone” vineyards. The spray profiles of these machines and the respective refinements affected by the alteration of the available adjusting devices were evaluated using a test bench, suitably set up for calibrating the sprayers used inside such vines. The air...

  4. Outcomes on the Spray Profiles Produced by the Feasible Adjustments of Commonly Used Sprayers in “Tendone” Vineyards of Apulia (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to assess the outcomes on the spray patterns produced by the different feasible adjustments of two different air blast sprayers and one mist blower sprayer, commonly employed for treatments to Apulian “tendone” vineyards. The spray profiles of these machines and the respective refinements affected by the alteration of the available adjusting devices were evaluated using a test bench, suitably set up for calibrating the sprayers used inside such vines. The air blast sprayers, compared with the mist blower model, have a better chance to match the spray pattern and the canopy profile of the “tendone” vines. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the spray profile is reduced only in the case of sprayers with two counter-rotating fans, under certain operating conditions. Conversely, the symmetry index worsens with the activation of the fan in the case of the air blast sprayer fitted with a single fan either with or without the air deflectors. The mist blower sprayer develops lower drawbacks, in terms of left-right asymmetry of the spray profile, even if the high “stiffness” of the spray profile makes this sprayer not particularly suitable to the changing needs of the canopy of the “tendone” vineyards. The obtained results, even if related to the analyzed sprayers, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for the adjustment of sprayers used for treatments inside “tendone” vineyards, very useful for the officially authorized Apulian workshops to make sprayers inspection and calibration.

  5. Wild geophytes of ornamental interest in the native flora of southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Fascetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing focus on the protection and the conservation of biodiversity has attracted attention to problem of the potential invasiveness of alien species that escaped cultivation spread in various types of habitats and might replace native species. This would lead to a loss of biodiversity and have negative economic and environmental repercussions. The Mediterranean flora is particularly rich in genera and species that are characteristic of different habitats, soil and climatic conditions, and can offer exciting opportunities for innovation in the floricultural industry. In this paper we test the qualitative and quantitative data of wild geophytic species with a focus on the peninsular regions of Southern Italy. Information regarding the attributes of each species was obtained from a number of published sources, including flora and plant checklists. This selection of geophytes belonging to the spontaneous flora of Southern Italy presents a potential floricultural interest in Italy, since these plants could be used as street furniture and for gardens and turfing.

  6. The history of the "Virgin with Child" sculpture (Ottaviano, Naples, southern Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Toscano, Maria; Cavazzini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    A life-size whitish marble statue of a "Virgin with Child" has been recently rediscovered in the St.Rosario church located in Ottaviano, a small town near Naples (southern Italy). This artwork shows stylistic features of the Tuscan-Roman school of the 16th century, and is framed in an intriguing ...

  7. Traditional pharmacopoeias and medicines among Albanians and Italians in southern Italy: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-cultural comparison of traditional household remedies in primary health care and ritual healing practices in two economically and socio-demographically similar communities in Lucania (inland southern Italy) was considered: Ginestra/Zhurë, inhabited by ethnic Albanians, who migrated to the ar

  8. Folk pharmaceutical knowledge in the territory of the Dolomiti Lucane, inland southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Santoro, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    An ethnopharmacognostic survey on the traditional pharmaceutical knowledge (TPhK) of old and newly introduced natural remedies used for healing humans in a small mountainous area in Central Lucania, inland southern Italy, was carried out using classical ethnographical and ethnobiological methods. Ap

  9. Stratigraphical and micropaleontological data on the tertiary of Southern Piemont (Northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, C.C.

    1966-01-01

    During the years 1959-1963 stratigraphical investigations were carried out in Southern Piemont (Northern Italy) along five traverses, taken at right angles to the strike of the strata, which range in age from Eocene to Pliocene. These sections are important in that they include the rype sections of

  10. Ritual healing in Arbereshe Albanian and Italian communities of Lucania, southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quave, C.L.; Pieroni, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the traditional healing and magical practices of three Arbëreshë and three Italian communities in the northern part of the Region Basilicata (Lucania), southern Italy. Data include several folk illnesses not previously discussed in the literature on south Italian nosology, suc

  11. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined...

  12. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy. Standardized…

  13. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy : A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M. P D; Santilano, A.; van Wees, J. D.; Manzella, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The metho

  14. Application of a toxicity test battery integrated index for a first screening of the ecotoxicological threat posed by ports and harbors in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Sonia; Schiavo, Simona; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-11-01

    Ports and harbors may represent a threat for coastal ecosystems due to pollutant inputs, especially those derived from maritime activities. In this study, we report a first assessment of the ecotoxicological threat posed by six ports and harbors of opposite coastal regions, Apulia and Albania, in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy). A bioassay battery consisting of four different species representing different trophic levels, algae Dunaliella tertiolecta, bacteria Vibrio fischeri, crustacean Artemia salina, and echinoids Paracentrotus lividus, has been used to assess sediment elutriates, pore waters, and sediment suspensions. Two different approaches of toxicity data integration, worst case and integrated index, have been used to determine the most appropriate procedure for the investigated sites. All sites with the worst case approach showed high toxicity levels. The chronic test with algae was the most sensitive identifying the highest effects in the battery. This effect can be attributable to contaminants derived from antifouling paints. The sediments, evaluated with V. fischeri test, often showed toxicity not found in the aqueous matrices of the same sites and that can be mainly linked to organic compounds. The test battery used in this study allowed us to perform a preliminary screening of the ecotoxicological risk of the studied area. In fact, the species utilized for toxicity tests responded differently to the investigated samples, showing different sensitivity. The test battery integrated index did not allow highlighting the differences among the sites and showed a general high ecotoxicological risk. A larger number of tests with higher sensitivity together with a tailored attribution of weights to endpoints and matrices will improve the final site evaluation.

  15. Integrated geological and geophisycal methods for the evaluation of the ceiling collapse hazard of the Poesia Cave in the Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Leucci, G.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    According to the Protection Civil Department database, Apulia is the fourth region in Italy affected by sinkholes, due to collapse of natural or man-made cavities. The southern part of the region (the Salento peninsula) had hosted in the last twenty years at least fifteen events of sinkholes, the greatest part of which occurred inside "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites). The most catastrophic sinkhole, due to the presence of underground quarries, occurred at Gallipoli on 29 March 2007, when a collapse created a 12 x 18 m sinkhole which involved two 3 floors buildings. and 140 people were evacuated. In these cases, the usual approach of investigation of the area consist of geological survey supported by geophysical prospecting aimed to evaluate the real size of sinkhole crater and to predict its development over the time. In spite of the importance on the civil protection, the prediction of the sinkhole events is currently an hard issue, especially if they are related to caves of cultural interest as the case at hand, where are summarised questions of safety of people and cultural heritage. The "Poesia Piccola" cave, located at the Salento area of the Puglia region (southern Italy), has such features and it is the case study of this paper. The cave is an outstanding example of hypogean archaeological site morphologically in evolution and potentially dangerous for humans. It belongs to a karst system formed by dome-shaped caves, minor cavities and galleries. The system, named "Grotte della Poesia", is joined to the ground through vertical and horizontal entrances, respectively placed on a coastal plateau and along the contiguous cliff. This paper provides a new methodological approach on the evaluation of sinkhole hazard in such "soft" carbonate rocks combing geological, geophysical and mine engineering complementary methods, such as: geological analysis of outcrops and boreholes, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity

  16. Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in Southern Italy by IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Gianluca; Maruccio, Lucio; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2011-12-01

    Obsidian samples recovered in archaeological contexts in Southern Italy were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) for the quantitative determination of both major and trace elements composition. The archaeological contexts were absolutely dated to the 5th millennium BC by mean of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on associated organic materials such as charcoal and human bones. The comparison of the compositional results obtained for the analysed samples with published data available for the known obsidian sources in the Mediterranean allowed to identify the sources of the raw material, giving an important contribution to the reconstruction of the ancient trade and exchange routes in Southern Italy prehistory.

  17. Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in Southern Italy by IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarta, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.quarta@unisalento.it; Maruccio, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.maruccio@unisalento.it; Calcagnile, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.calcagnile@unisalento.it

    2011-12-15

    Obsidian samples recovered in archaeological contexts in Southern Italy were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) for the quantitative determination of both major and trace elements composition. The archaeological contexts were absolutely dated to the 5th millennium BC by mean of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on associated organic materials such as charcoal and human bones. The comparison of the compositional results obtained for the analysed samples with published data available for the known obsidian sources in the Mediterranean allowed to identify the sources of the raw material, giving an important contribution to the reconstruction of the ancient trade and exchange routes in Southern Italy prehistory.

  18. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  19. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  20. Characterization of plant diversity of pastures and volatile organic compound analysis in ewe’s milk from a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia national park (southern Italy: opportunities for a sustainable land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest of consumers in traditional dairy products whose origin from defined geographical areas is guaranteed. These products are appreciated for the distinctive sensorial characteristics, derived by extensive grazing system on natural and artificial pastures and traditional cheese-making techniques. Moreover, a considerable public interest is also attributed to typical dairy products for their role in stimulating the economy of rural areas and in preserving environment and biodiversity. Here we present the results of a survey on the botanical composition of Alta Murgia pastures, together with the analysis of VOCs (volatile organic compounds in milk from ewes reared under a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia National Park (Apulia region, southern Italy. Data from two less ordinary farm systems are also reported as external reference. The botanical composition of pastures was estimated by three modified Whittaker plots placed in the prevailing habitat types. Milk samples were analyzed for VOC compounds by head-space SPME/GC-MS. Consumer acceptance of cheese, made from each milk sample using homogeneous traditional cheese-making techniques, was evaluated. The study provides interesting insights on the floral composition of Alta Murgia pastures and the first characterization of VOC profiles in ewe’s raw milk from Alta Murgia.

  1. Predicting elusiveness: potential distribution model of the Southern smooth snake, Coronella girondica, in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bombi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models of species distribution may be very useful for understanding actual distribution of elusive species, including several snakes. The southern smooth snake (Coronella girondica is likely the most elusive snake species of peninsular Italy, and is therefore well-suited for predicting potential distribution studies. In this paper we predict the potential distribution map of this species in Italy by using MAXENT algorithm, that finds the probability distribution of maximum entropy that is constrained by considered ecological parameters. Presence data for Coronella girondica were gotten from CKmap. The potential distribution model of Coronella girondica showed a very good overall performance (AUC = 0.959, and indicated that high suitability areas correspond mainly to Tyrrhenian north and central regions, including Liguria, western Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, and northern Latium. Southern Italian regions were clearly unsuitable for this snake species. Overall, our study revealed that previous distribution maps indicating the occurrence of Coronella girondica in southern Italy and Sicily were poorly reliable. The conservation and management implications of our study are also addressed.

  2. Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in an incident ALS cohort: results from the Apulia registry (SLAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortelli, Rosanna; Copetti, Massimiliano; Arcuti, Simona; Tursi, Marianna; Iurillo, Annalisa; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Cortese, Rosa; Capozzo, Rosa; D'Errico, Eustachio; Marin, Benoit; Simone, Isabella Laura; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and the clinical correlations of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in a population-based incident cohort of ALS patients. Incident ALS cases, diagnosed in 2011 and 2012, according to El Escorial criteria were enrolled from a prospective population-based registry in Apulia, Southern Italy. Neurological status was assessed using a standard neurological examination and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRSr). The Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS), a self-administered questionnaire, was used to evaluate the presence and severity of PBA. Total scores range from 7 to 35. A score ≥13 was used to identify the presence of PBA. One-hundred thirty-two sporadic incident ALS cases were enrolled. Median disease duration was 20 months (range 2-143), median onset-diagnosis interval (ODI) 12 months (range 2-131), median ALSFRSr at baseline 36/48 (range 2-47) and median ALSFRSr bulbar sub-score 10/12 (range 0-12). Neurological examination revealed presence of PBA in 34/132 patients (26%). Pathological CNS-LS score was found in 45/132 patients (34%). Median total CNS-LS score was 9/35 (range 7-29). The subgroup with pathological CNS-LS was characterized by a short disease duration from symptom onset, ODI, time to diffusion to a second region, time to generalization and ALSFRSr bulbar sub-score, bulbar onset, "definite" diagnostic category, bulbar upper motor-neuron involvement and presence of PBA at neurological examination. In population-based setting, one-third of ALS patients present PBA at diagnosis. The presence of PBA is associated with bulbar UMN involvement and markers of a more severe phenotype.

  3. Electrical features of deep structures of Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiordelist, A. [ENEL-VDTG, Pisa (Italy); Mackie, R. [Geosystem, S.Francisco, CA (United States); Manzella, A. [Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Istituto Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche; Watts, D. [Geosystem, Milan (Italy); Zaja, A. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica

    1998-08-01

    Over the last new years, magnetotelluric data were acquired at 86 sites covering much of Southern Tuscany. Twenty-four of these sites were acquired in single-site or local-reference mode, whereas 62 were acquired in very-remote-reference mode, with a remote site located on Capraia Island - 40 Km from the cost - where the cultural noise is very low. The data modelling showed that Southern Tuscany is characterized by a fairly uniform middle-lower crust that has a resistivity of a few thousand {Omega}centre dotm. The uniformity is interrupted only below the Larderello and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields where deep conductive bodies are believed to exist. A general anomalous condition can hence be depicted for this region, with low resistivity values typical of those in tectonically active areas as opposed to more resistive values typical in continental areas. These data and those from other geophysical techniques suggest that these conductive zones may be associated with hot material coming from deeper sources below the geothermal areas.

  4. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Marchetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

  5. Stable isotope ratios in meteoric recharge and groundwater at Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.

  6. Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team

    The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The Campi Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The Campi Flegrei are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a

  7. Vertical dipoles to detect self potential signals in a seismic area of southern Italy: Tito station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Colangelo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with local seismicity. To better understand the influence of rain and cultural noise on geoelectrical signals (Self Potential, during May 2004 we drilled in Tito station a 20 m-depth hole to measure the SP vertical component. The array is characterized by five Pb-PbCl2 electrodes put at different depths. The common electrode is fixed at 20 m. In this work we present some electrical anomalies probably correlated with local seismic activity on vertical dipoles recorded in Tito station.  

  8. Prediction of Seasonal Temperature Using Soft Computing Techniques: Application in Benevento (Southern Italy) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Rampone, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In this work two soft computing methods, Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Programming, are proposed in order to forecast the mean temperature that will occur in future seasons. The area in which the soft computing techniques were applied is that of the surroundings of the town of Benevento, in the south of Italy, having geographic coordinates (lat. 41{\\deg}07'50"N; long.14{\\deg}47'13"E). This area is not affected by maritime influences as well as by winds coming from the west. The methods are fed by data recorded in the meteorological stations of Benevento and Castelvenere, located in the hilly area, which characterizes the territory surrounding this city, at 144 m a.s.l. Both the applied methods show low error rates, while the Genetic Programming offers an explicit rule representation (a formula) explaining the prevision. Keywords Seasonal Temperature Forecasting; Soft Computing; Artificial Neural Networks; Genetic Programming; Southern Italy.

  9. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  10. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise, Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus) from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy. PMID:28267780

  11. 3He/4He Ratio in Olivines from Linosa, Ustica, and Pantelleria Islands (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Fourré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report helium isotope data for 0.03–1 Ma olivine-bearing basaltic hawaiites from three volcanoes of the southern Italy magmatic province (Ustica, Pantelleria, and Linosa Islands. Homogenous 3He/4He ratios (range: 7.3–7.6 Ra for the three islands, and their similarity with the ratio of modern volcanic gases on Pantelleria, indicate a common magmatic end-member. In particular, Ustica (7.6±0.2 Ra clearly differs from the nearby Aeolian Islands Arc volcanism, despite its location on the Tyrrhenian side of the plate boundary. Although limited in size, our data set complements the large existing database for helium isotope in southern Italy and adds further constraints upon the spatial extent of intraplate alkaline volcanism in southern Mediterranea. As already discussed by others, the He-Pb isotopic signature of this magmatic province indicates a derivation from a mantle diapir of a OIB-type that is partially diluted by the depleted upper mantle (MORB mantle at its periphery.

  12. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise, Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus) from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  13. Radon migration in the soils of the Irno Valley (Southern Italy inferred from radioactive disequilibrium

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    P. Gasparini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Radon migration along vertical profiles in the soils of Irno River alluvial Valley (Southern Italy was studied using radioactive disequilibrium between 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Fractional Radon loss, migration length, diffusion and emanation coefficient and Radon flux density were determined. Our results are in agreement with a migra- tion model by simple diffusion. The migration parameters are within typical values, except the Radon flux density, which is about one order of magnitude higher than the values reported in literature. The values of fractional Radon loss are sensitive to changes in the physical properties of the soil.

  14. Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian new thalamid sponges from northern Calabria (southern Italy

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    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new “sphinctozoan” sponges, Calabrisiphonella labyrinthica nov. gen., nov. sp. and Calabrispongia globosa nov. gen., nov. sp., are described from reef boulders derived from Triassic dolomites (“Dolomia principale“ of the Argentino valley in Northern Calabria (Southern Italy. Calabrisiphonella is an Amblysiphonella-type sponge characterized by having a complicated canal system (labyrinth-like within the chamber walls. The structure of Calabrispongia is similar to some Paleozoic or Jurassic "Stromatoporoidea“, which are attributed to the sponges. The systemtic position of both sponges, described here, is discussed. The age of the sponge-bearing reefs represented in the boulders is Norian-Rhaetian.

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN CHEESES PRODUCED IN SOUTHERN ITALY

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    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  16. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  17. CATASTROPHIC DEATH ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE OF ITALY: THE CASE OF AVETRANA KARST FILLING (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New and detailed taphonomic and stratigraphical analyses have been carried out at the early Late Pleistocene site of “La Grave”, nearby Avetrana (Taranto, Southern Italy. These, together with population analyses of the principal species represented (Bos primigenius, Dama dama, Cervus elaphus, Sus scrofa and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus, suggest that the fossiliferous deposits were probably accumulated rapidly, over a short time span, by exceptional events of heavy rainfall with overbank flooding. These results are supported particularly by comparison of the mammalian death assemblages from Avetrana with data from recent and Pleistocene catastrophic death assemblages documented in the literature. Furthermore, population analysis of species pinpoints the time of death between late autumn and winter. Periods with abundant and heavy rainfall are recorded in Late Pleistocene Mediterranean marine cores by the presence of sapropel levels, and in continental pollen diagrams covering the same time. Finally, observations on the morphometric variations in the bones of Bos primigenius reveal an increase in size of the species during the early Late Pleistocene and a decrease in size during the late Late Pleistocene and the Holocene. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  18. The late Quaternary tephrostratigraphical record of the San Gregorio Magno basin (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.

    2007-03-01

    Twenty-one primary pyroclastic layers were found embedded in the lacustrine sediments of the San Gregorio Magno basin (Southern Apennines). These sand-sized layers were characterised by a noticeable juvenile fragments content and by a sharp basal contact with the underlying clay and silt sediments. The tephra layers have been correlated with terrestrial counterparts from well-known eruptive events of the Campanian volcanic area, or with reference layers from deep sea sediment cores and from the Monticchio maar sequence. The investigation of the San Gregorio Magno tephra layers made it possible to deduce that lacustrine sedimentation at San Gregorio Magno basin began before 170k yr BP and lasted at least until the emplacement of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, which occurred about 15k yr BP. The tephrochronology allowed determination of the varying sedimentation rate that occurred in the basin. Correlation of the lacustrine record with marine sequences has allowed development of a late Quaternary tephrostratotype for southern Italy. Copyright

  19. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  20. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  1. A critical review of seismotectonic setting of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Luiso, Paola; Nappi, Rosa; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression of the Southern Italy located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennine chain. It is surrounded to the North, East and South by the Mesozoic carbonate massifs of the Apennine chain and, to the West, by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The graben origin is similar to other peri-Tyrrhenian regions and is related to a stretching and thinning of the continental crust by the counterclockwise rotation of the Italian peninsula and the contemporaneous opening of the Tyrrhenian sea. The consequent subsidence of the Campanian carbonate platform took place along the Tyrrhenian coast during the Plio-Pleistocene with a maximum vertical extent of 5 km. The plain is filled by volcanic and clastic, continental and marine deposits. Voluminous volcanic activity of Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Procida and Vesuvio occurred in the Plain during the Quaternary. In the middle of the plain lies the city of Naples, bordered by the two active volcanoes of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio. It is a very densely inhabited area that is exposed to high potential volcanic risk. The stress field acting in the Campanian area is poorly known. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW- SE-trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW-trending structures. These movements are consistent with those of the structures affecting the inner margin of the Southern Apennines. The Campanian Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennine chain. The earthquakes mainly occur along the margin of the plain, in the volcanic areas and a minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. The aim of this paper is an attempt to identify active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian plain through the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures. Seismic, geologic and geomorphologic data have been

  2. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age, a

  3. Expectations and reality: a case study of return migration from the United States to Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerase, F P

    1974-01-01

    A summary of Italy's emigration flows shows that Southern Italy sent her people abroad in great number, and, at the same time, return migration to Italy has been characteristic of a minority, e.g., an estimated 3000 from the US alone, 1964-68. Italy's modernization proceeded unevenly, the South remaining agricultural and for the most part, economically backward. Any form of identification with Italy as a country did not affect the Southern peasant thus preparing his/her way to emigrate as soon as any opportunity presented itself. Due to all the conditions which facilitated emigration from Italy on an individualistic and nonideological basis and without an understanding of the economic forces pushing the emigrant out, and in view of the lack of understanding of how the New World economy of the US was constituted, it is no surprise that the return migration of some remained as much ad hoc and based solely on individual motivations as was the emigration. The 2 fundamental approaches to the concept of immigrant both start by considering the immigrant in his/her new situation. 1 approach views the immigrant's success in the new situation as dependent upon acquiring values and patterns of behavior which would resolve his/her problems in the new society. According to the other approach, in order to resolve the problems of his/her new situation the immigrant must become critically aware of the consequences of his/her actions. The 1st view of conceiving integration has been prevalent, particularly in the study of international migration. And, mass migration from Italy, from the emigrant's perspective, is connected to a repeatedly unsuccessful search for economic success and failure to reach prevailing cultural objectives. The act of emigration, of abandonment, may thus be seen as the resolution of the disparity between the means at the emigrant's disposal and the objectives he/she seeks. The great majority succeed but some fail, and if they have a home and family to return

  4. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity

  5. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  6. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  7. Coupling of high-resolution meteorological and wave models over southern Italy

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    L. Bertotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of RISKMED project, three different high-resolution limited area meteorological models (BOLAM, MOLOCH and WRF have been run over southern Italy for the retrospective analysis of three case studies characterized by strong winds and severe wave conditions in the Ionian, southern Adriatic and southern Tyrrhenian seas. All the models were able to reproduce the main meteorological features of each event.

    The wind fields simulated by the meteorological models and those provided by the ECMWF analysis have been ingested into a wave model (WAM for the hindcast of the main wave parameters. The results have been compared with the observations of three buoys whose measurements were available in the area of interest.

    A remarkable improvement in the representation of the significant wave height came out using the limited area model data with respect to the simulations where the ECMWF analyses were used as forcing. Among the limited area models, the BOLAM-MOLOCH modelling system provided slightly better performances. From the limited set of simulations, the different model predictions came out closer to each other and more skilful in areas where the waves approach the coastline perpendicularly from the open sea.

  8. TESTING SOME PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS (PTFS IN APULIA REGION

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    Floriano Buccigrossi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of soil water retention vs. soil water matric potential is used to study irrigation and drainage schedules, soil water storage capacity (plant available water, solute movement, plant growth and water stress. The hydraulic soil properties measuring is expensive, laborious and takes too long time, so, frequently, matemathic models, called pedo-transfer functions (PTFs are utilized to estimate hydraulic soil properties through soil chimical and phisical characteristics. Six pedo-transfer functions have been evaluated (Gupta & Larson, 1979; Rawls et al., 1982; De Jong et al., 1983; Rawls & Brakensiek, 1985; Saxton et al., 1986; Vereecken et al., 1989 by comparing estimated with measured soil moisture values at soil water matric potential of –33 and –1500 kPa of 361 soil samples collected from 185 pedons of Apulia Region (South Italy, having various combinations of particle-size distribution, soil organic matter content and bulk density. Accuracy of the soil moisture predictions have been evaluated by statistic indexes such as Weighted stantard error (WSEE, Mean Deviation (MD, Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD and the determination coefficient (R2 between estimated and measured water retention values. The Rawls PTF model demostrated to have the lowest values of WSEE, MD and RMSD indexes (0.044, -0.007 and 0.059 m3 H2O m-3 soil, respectively at –33 Kpa soil water matric potential (Field Capacity, while for estimating soil moisture at the Wilting Point (-1500 kPa Rawls & Brakensiek model is adequate (WSEE, MD and RMSD of 0.034, -0.016 and 0.046 m3 H2O m-3 soil. De Jong, Saxton and Rawls & Brakensiek models, at –33 kPa soil water matric potential and Gupta & Larson and De Jong models at –1500 kPa soil water matric potential, showed the highest statistic errors.

  9. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  10. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

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    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  11. Otter (Lutra lutra presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy

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    Roberto Fasano

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new area of presence of the otter (Lutra lutra was found in Campania region (Southern Italy. It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province. A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra nei monti Lattari (Campania - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno. In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.

  12. Trace metal distributions in Posidonia oceanica and sediments from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy

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    A. DI LEO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of metals (Hg, Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd and Zn was determined in sediments and in different tissues of Posidonia oceanica collected from San Pietro Island, Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy. In seagrass, results, compared with metal concentrations in sediments, showed that the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb, Sn and Cu were found in the roots, while in the green leaves were found the highest levels of Cd and Zn. Instead the lowest metal concentrations were found in the basal part of the leaf. Levels of  metals in the leaves were similar to those found by other authors in uncontaminated areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Mercury levels in roots were correlated to levels in sediments. This could demonstrate the plant memorizes sediments contamination . This study reinforces the usefulness and the relevance of Posidonia oceanica as an indicator of spatial metal contamination and an interesting tool for environmental quality evaluation.

  13. Tomographic analysis of self-potential data in a seismic area of Southern Italy

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    S. Piscitelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The time and space anomalous behaviour of the Self-Potential (SP field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, Italy, is discussed. The SP data were collected in the period June 1992-November 1994 along a profile located north of the town of Potenza in the Basilicata region, Italy. The profile is perpendicular to an active fault system, where a W-E directed strike-slip structure has been identified from recent earthquakes. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows us to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.

  14. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

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    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  15. Field evaluation of Amaranthus species for seed and biomass yields in southern Italy

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    Salvatore Pizza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a crop with a potentially increasing cultivation area. Little information is available on amaranth cultivation in Mediterranean environments and in southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic traits and assess the grain and biomass yield responses of 11 genotypes belonging to 5 Amaranthus species, provided from the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System. There was wide diversity in agronomic traits among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. The accessions belonging to A. cruentus had the shortest growing cycle followed by A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and, finally, A. hybrid that had the longest growing season. The A. cruentus accessions reached maturity more quickly than the other species. The total above-ground dry matter ranged from 15 to 23 t ha-1 with A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, and A. hybridus being the most productive. The stem plus branches dry matter was well correlated to the plant height (r2 = 0.75**. The tested amaranth genotypes showed appreciable biomass production that can thus be regarded as an interesting secondary product after seed harvesting. Grain yield and components varied among species and accessions. A. hypochondriacus showed the highest yield per plant (55.4 g followed by five accessions belonging to A. cruentus and A. hybridus (26.4 g on average. Considering together their shorter growing season and their higher grain production, the five accessions belonging to A. cruentus species appear to be better adapted to Mediterranean environments and southern Italy as compared to the other species.

  16. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  17. An application of a multi model approach for solar energy prediction in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Elenio; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Tiriolo, Luca; Montesanti, Stefania; Transerici, Claudio; Federico, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of the short and medium range forecast of solar irradiance is very important for solar energy integration into the grid. This issue is particularly important for Southern Italy where a significant availability of solar energy is associated with a poor development of the grid. In this work we analyse the performance of two deterministic models for the prediction of surface temperature and short-wavelength radiance for two sites in southern Italy. Both parameters are needed to forecast the power production from solar power plants, so the performance of the forecast for these meteorological parameters is of paramount importance. The models considered in this work are the RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) and they were run for the summer 2013 at 4 km horizontal resolution over Italy. The forecast lasts three days. Initial and dynamic boundary conditions are given by the 12 UTC deterministic forecast of the ECMWF-IFS (European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecast - Integrated Forecasting System) model, and were available every 6 hours. Verification is given against two surface stations located in Southern Italy, Lamezia Terme and Lecce, and are based on hourly output of models forecast. Results for the whole period for temperature show a positive bias for the RAMS model and a negative bias for the WRF model. RMSE is between 1 and 2 °C for both models. Results for the whole period for the short-wavelength radiance show a positive bias for both models (about 30 W/m2 for both models) and a RMSE of 100 W/m2. To reduce the model errors, a statistical post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted. In this approach the two model's outputs are weighted with an adequate set of weights computed for a training period. In general, the performance is improved by the application of the technique, and the RMSE is reduced by a sizeable fraction (i.e. larger than 10% of the initial RMSE

  18. Species diversity and abundance of ticks in three habitats in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in a forested area in southern Italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. In total, 10,795 ticks were collected. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed by Haemaphysalis inermis (19.1%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (6.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (3.2%), and Hyalomma marginatum (1.0%). The least frequently collected species were Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Haemaphysalis concinna, representing together less than 1% of the collections. Immature ticks predominated over adult ticks. In particular, immature stages of Ix. ricinus (i.e., 3246 larvae and 3554 nymphs) represented 63% of the total number of ticks collected. High levels of species diversity and abundance of ticks were recorded in all habitats and the daily number of ticks collected was negatively correlated with daily mean temperature, evapotranspiration, and saturation deficit. This study indicates that the southern Italian climate is suitable for different tick species, which may find a preferred 'climate niche' during a specific season, when a combination of factors (e.g., suitable meteorological and environmental conditions) associated with the presence of suitable hosts will facilitate their development and reproduction.

  19. Passive house optimization for Southern Italy based on the 'New Passivhaus Standard'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangheri, Paolo; Pagliano, Lorenzo; Carlucci, Salvatore (end-use Efficiency Research Group, Dept. di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)). e-mail: paolo.zangheri@polimi.it

    2009-07-01

    In Germany and in other countries of Central and Northern Europe more than 8,000 homes conforming to the Passivhaus standard have been built since 1991. The applicability of this Standard has not yet been sufficiently tested in European areas with warm climates, where reducing cooling needs under growing summer comfort requirements poses a challenge. The IEE Passive-On project has drafted a proposal to adapt that Standard to the conditions that characterize Southern Europe, which is described in this paper together with its rationale. Compared with the original definition, one of the main changes is the introduction of explicit requirements on internal comfort during summer, in parallel to a limit to energy needs for cooling. The dynamic simulations conducted to test the new definition of the Standard in the context of Southern Italy (e.g. Palermo) show that the requirements identified by the Passivhaus Standard can be met by simplifying the envelope technologies (e.g. relaxing air-tightness design value) used in the context of Central Europe and adopting passive cooling strategies appropriately adjusted. Some simplifications of the ventilation system can be compensated by an increased role of thermal insulation of the building envelope and some of the choices can make energy needs tend to zero. In accordance with EN 15251, thermal comfort is characterized according to Fanger's PMV in cases where mechanical cooling is still required for peak situations, and according to the adaptive model where no mechanical cooling is required.

  20. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy

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    M. Mucciarelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings and finally endowed the Roman colony with important infrastructures, such as the new aqueduct. In this work, we attempt to reconstruct the ancient layout of the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum. As a starting point, we followed some descriptions from the 19th century, when the structure was still well preserved. Then, we performed a multidisciplinary geophysical approach to the best preserved remains of the aqueduct. In particular, the geophysical investigation started with the use of a portable GPS allowing us to acquire the co-ordinates of the outcropping rests of the ancient structure. Then, we used an optical pumping magnetometer to perform seven gradiometric maps over a broad area of about 8000 m2. From the literature descriptions, dating to the first part of the 19th century, we can deduce that the state of preservation of the Roman aqueduct was much better than the present one. Thus we can hypothesise as the cause of its fast involution the fact that it was located in the epicentral area of the large destructive earthquake which occurred in the Basilicata Region in 1857 (Mallet, 1862. To this aim, we performed a first attempt to correlate the state of preservation of the aqueduct remains with the local seismic amplification by means of the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio technique. This survey allowed us to obtain the site amplification spectra along the aqueduct layout and assess the fundamental vibration frequency of the investigated structure

  1. Growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mughini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Eucalypt short-rotation woody crop (SRWC is becoming an attractive option for energy biomass in Mediterranean dry environments. The present study is aimed at assessing growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in three Italian sites (Massama, Sardinia; Mirto, Calabria; Rome, Latium compared with Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the most commonly cultivated eucalypt species in Italy. The study identified eucalypt clones with stable and high performance between several alternatives. Results pointed out the declining growth performance observed in the second rotation compared with the first cycle. This is due to the cultivation model, age rotation and harvesting method adopted, which negatively affect the available soil nutrients’ content. The clone/site interaction as for basal area growth at the three investigated sites, suggests a significantly different clones’ performance among sites. Viglio and Velino clones showed the best overall performance and are suggested to be used over the large scale SRWC in central and southern Italy.

  2. Survey of zoonotic dermatoses in client-owned exotic pet mammals in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Santoro, D

    2015-03-01

    Several 'exotic' mammalian species (e.g. rabbits, rodents, ferrets and hedgehogs) live in close proximity to humans as companion pets. Skin diseases (SD) are frequent causes of morbidity in exotic pet mammals, and most of those SDs have a zoonotic potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of zoonotic dermatosis (ZD) in client-owned, exotic pet mammals in Southern Italy. Six-hundred and fifty-five medical records of exotic pet mammals examined between 2011 and 2012, across twenty private practice veterinary clinics around the Naples area (Italy), were retrospectively evaluated and screened for animals diagnosed with SDs (rabbits n = 455, guinea pigs n = 93, ferrets n = 64, hedgehogs n = 19, chinchillas n = 13 and rats n = 11). The records of animals diagnosed with SD, whose causative agents had a zoonotic potential, were selected for analysis. The Mann-Whitney independent test was used for statistical analysis. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eighty-two records (12.5%) of animals with ZD were identified. Of those, 56.1% (46/82) were affected by fungal infections and 42.7% (35/82) by parasitic infections. No zoonotic bacterial or viral infections were diagnosed. Dermatophytosis was significantly diagnosed more frequently in younger animals. The results of this survey indicate that exotic pet mammals may serve as active carriers for many highly contagious pathogens with zoonotic potential. Awareness and vigilance by the veterinary practitioner is crucial in the prevention of occurrences of ZDs. Children frequently come in close contact with exotic pets. To prevent the unplanned transmission of pathogen from pet to human, an active routine screening examination and preventative treatments are strongly recommended for every newly purchased pet mammal.

  3. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  4. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  6. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de; Paletto, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: To support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach -based on simplified index- is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection). This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silviculture treatments. Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district -Basilicata Region- Italy), where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1) the tendency towards instability, 2) the protective action of forest cover and 3) different silviculture options. Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silviculture options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years) has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations. Research highlights The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silviculture options for each forest category, a series of silviculture treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase. Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy); Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP); management; silviculture treatment; protective function e soil erosion. (Author)

  7. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection. This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district – Basilicata Region - Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and Methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1 the tendency towards instability, 2 the protective action of forest cover and 3 different silvicultural options.Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silvicultural options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations.Research highlights: The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silvicultural options for each forest category, a series of silvicultural treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase.Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy; Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP; management; silvicultural treatment; protective function and soil erosion.

  8. Spatial and temporal features of heavy rainstorm events in Calabria, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Greco, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash floods, shallow landslides and debris flows, which cause several damage to manmade infrastructures and loss of lives. The analysis of spatial distribution and temporal features of intense rainfall events is a fundamental step for a better understanding of the phenomena and for its possible prediction. The present study is an attempt to improve, from a statistical point of view, the understanding at sub-hourly scale of the temporal and spatial structure of intense rainfall events, by examining those that have hit Calabria (Southern Italy) in the years 1998-2008. More in detail, a considerable amount of series with high temporal detail (5 min) related to 155 sites (one rain gauge per less than 100 sq km), were analysed. First, more than 152 thousands rainfall events, separated by at least 6 hours of dry weather, were recognized. Then, less than a third (45,533) were selected, since denoted as erosive. Finally, several heavy rainstorm events (HREs) were chosen by considering the rainfall events recorded simultaneously at different rain gauges, even non-contiguous, within the region. In particular, this further selection was conducted, based on heuristic threshold values of cumulated rainfall (≥ 100 mm), maximum intensity (≥ 50 mm/h), and kinetic energy (≥ 29 MJ/ha). Therefore, 25 distinct HREs, including all the well-known catastrophic geo-hydrological events, were subjected to thorough investigation. The obtained HREs, automatically classified according to their structure in time, were analysed as regards both spatial and temporal evolution. At this end, the 25 HREs were distinguished as widespread (17) or localized (8), if the affected area is ≥ 500 sq km or < 500 sq km, respectively. In particular, the temporal storm structure was described by means of the standardized rainfall profile (rainfall amount vs. duration, in terms on cumulative percentages). Then, a 4-digit binary shape code was adopted to automatically

  9. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  10. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from Apulia region

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    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in 20 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis purchased at fish markets in Apulia region. The detection of Arcobacter spp. was performed, after selective enrichment, on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD agar supplemented with Cefoperazone, Amphotericin B and Teicoplanin (CAT. In 6 out of the 20 tested samples the presence of Arcobacter spp. was found and confirmed by genus-based polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were identified as belonging to the species Arcobacter butzleri using 16S rDNA sequencing and BLAST online. The results represent the first report in Italy of A. butzleri detection in marketed Mytilus galloprovincialis. The survey underlines the epidemiological importance of A. butzleri as an emerging pathogen, and highlights that mussels should be considered as a potential cause of foodborne disease outbreak.

  11. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  12. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

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    Carmela Nardelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n=500; BMI > 40 kg/m2 and controls (n=216; BMI 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.

  13. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652ma.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes durin...

  14. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and E...

  15. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and la...

  16. Multilocus molecular and phylogenetic analysis of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Parisi, Antonio; Traversa, Donato; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-08-01

    This study reports a combined analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA target regions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Mediterranean region. A ∼900 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial DNA encompassing regions within cytb and nd1 gene and the complete ITS2 ribosomal region (∼500 bp) were sequenced and characterized for Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Sergentomyia minuta, captured in two sites of southern Italy. From one to eight mitochondrial haplotypes and from one to three ITS2 sequence types were found for the examined specimens according to the different sand fly species. The mean interspecific difference in the mitochondrial sequences was of 16.1%, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation from 0.1 to 2.8%. A higher interspecific difference (mean 25.1%) was recorded for the ITS2 sequence, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation up to 4.9%. The sequence types alignment of ITS2 region showed that all phlebotomine specimens possessed a split 5.8S rRNA, consisting of a mature 5.8S rRNA and a 2S rRNA separated by a short transcribed spacer. Phylogenetic analysis of the Phlebotomus spp. sequences, herein determined and of those available in GenBank™ were concordant in clustering P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. papatasi with the same species collected from different geographic areas of the Mediterranean basin in four main clades for mtDNA and ITS2, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of multilocus sequencing, provides a dataset for the molecular identification of the most prevalent phlebotomine sand flies in southern Europe and defines the phylogenetic relationships among species examined.

  17. Relationship between rainfall and shallow landslides in the southern Apuan Alps (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giannecchini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Apuan Alps region is one of the rainiest areas in Italy (more than 3000 mm/year, in which frequently heavy and concentrated rainfall occurs. This is particularly due to its geographical position and conformation: the Apuan chain is located along the northern Tuscan coast, close to the Ligurian Sea, and the main peaks reach almost 2000 m. In several cases, the storms that hit the area have triggered many shallow landslides (soil slip-debris flows, which exposed the population to serious risks (during the 19 June 1996 rainstorm about 1000 landslides were triggered and 14 people died. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds is very important in order to prepare efficient alarm systems in a region particularly dedicated to tourism and marble activities. With the aim of contributing to the landslide hazard evaluation of the southern Apuan Alps territory (upper Versilia area, a detailed analysis of the main pluviometric events was carried out. The data recorded at the main rain gauge of the area from 1975 to 2002 were analysed and compared with the occurrence of soil slips, in order to examine the relationship between soil slip initiation and rainfall. The most important rainstorms which triggered shallow landslides occurred in 1984, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. Many attempts were made to obtain a possible correlation between rainfall parameters and the occurrence of soil slip phenomena and to identify the local rainfall threshold for triggering shallow landslides. A threshold for soil slip activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (MAP was defined for the study area. The thresholds obtained for the southern Apuan Alps were also compared with those proposed by other authors for several regions in the world. This emphasized the high value of the rain threshold for shallow landslide activity in the Apuan area. The high threshold is probably also linked to the high mean annual precipitation and to the high

  18. Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy, with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation.

  19. A Reliability Analysis of a Rainfall Harvesting System in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Liuzzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH may be an effective alternative water supply solution in regions affected by water scarcity. It has recently become a particularly important option in arid and semi-arid areas (like Mediterranean basins, mostly because of its many benefits and affordable costs. This study provides an analysis of the reliability of using a rainwater harvesting system to supply water for toilet flushing and garden irrigation purposes, with reference to a single-family home in a residential area of Sicily (Southern Italy. A flushing water demand pattern was evaluated using water consumption data collected from a sample of residential customers during an extended measurement campaign. A daily water balance simulation of the rainwater storage tank was performed, and the yield-after-spillage algorithm was used to define the tank release rule. The model’s performance was evaluated using rainfall data from more than 100 different sites located throughout the Sicilian territory. This regional analysis provided annual reliability curves for the system as a function of mean annual precipitation, which have practical applications in this area of study. The uncertainty related to the regional model predictions was also assessed. A cost-benefit analysis highlighted that the implementation of a rainwater harvesting system in Sicily can provide environmental and economic advantages over traditional water supply methods. In particular, the regional analysis identified areas where the application of this system would be most effective.

  20. Geoelectrical Surveys for Characterization of the Coastal Saltwater Intrusion in Metapontum Forest Reserve (Southern Italy

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    Antonio Satriani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was carried out in the Metapontum Forest Reserve located along the Ionian coast of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy. In this work we used the method of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for obtaining high-resolution electrical images in the investigated site. In particular, three electrical resistivity tomography, all orthogonal to the coastline, in the investigated area were carried out. To complete and integrate the geophysical data, soil and groundwater samplings, seventeen and five, respectively, were analyzed using chemical physical techniques. Geoelectrical survey, supported by laboratory analysis of soil and water samples have revealed the presence of a process of saltwater in coastal Forest Reserve of Metapontum, which have caused the decline of the existing pine forest with the consequent erosion and desertification problems. The results have disclosed the way to identify and discriminate large areas affected by intensive soil salinization and high resolution electrical images of the subsurface electrical resistivity plays a key role in delineating the saltwater intrusion front in coastal areas. Furthermore, our integrated study represents a contribution to the future programs for the protection, planning, and management of the terrestrial and marine resources in this coastal area.

  1. FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

    2014-02-24

    The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents.

  2. Parametric time series analysis of geoelectrical signals: an application to earthquake forecasting in Southern Italy

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    V. Tramutoli

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available An autoregressive model was selected to describe geoelectrical time series. An objective technique was subsequently applied to analyze and discriminate values above (below an a priorifixed threshold possibly related to seismic events. A complete check of the model and the main guidelines to estimate the occurrence probability of extreme events are reported. A first application of the proposed technique is discussed through the analysis of the experimental data recorded by an automatic station located in Tito, a small town on the Apennine chain in Southern Italy. This region was hit by the November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake and it is one of most active areas of the Mediterranean region. After a preliminary filtering procedure to reduce the influence of external parameters (i.e. the meteo-climatic effects, it was demonstrated that the geoelectrical residual time series are well described by means of a second order autoregressive model. Our findings outline a statistical methodology to evaluate the efficiency of electrical seismic precursors.

  3. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; Rosa, Rosanna De; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  4. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  5. Engineering Geological and Petrographic Characterization of Migmatites Belonging to the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, G.; Punturo, R.; Mineo, S.; Ortolano, G.; Castelli, F.

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory characterization of migmatite rocks, affected by tunneling works in southern Calabria (Italy), has been carried out with the purpose of investigating the relationship between some potentially interdependent petrographic and petrophysical features with the mechanical behavior of the excavated rocks. Mineralogical and petrographic investigation allowed estimating the modal composition of the rock and the grain size of the constituting minerals, as well as examining the intergranular contacts and associated microfractures. The velocity of seismic waves within the specimens has been measured and calculated, along with the elastic properties of the rock. Specimens were also characterized from the physical-mechanical point of view and their mode of failure was considered. Results show that the mechanical behavior of migmatites varies within the sample population, although the specimens belong to the same sampling area. It is controlled by both porosity and modal composition of the rock. Thus, primary minerals were grouped with respect to their elastic properties; their abundance/deficiency within the specimen controls its mechanical strength. This is also reflected in the modes of failure associated to different strength values. This is a new consideration in the laboratory characterization of this rock type, largely cropping out in several contexts worldwide. Results should be taken into account before starting engineering works, in order to avoid errors resulting from considering this rock as a homogeneous material from the mechanical and petrographic points of view.

  6. The Vie Cave Geomorphological Site in Southern Tuscany (Italy: Problems of Decay and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pecchioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vie Cave are a suggestive network of roads deeply entrenched in the rock, dating back to the Etruscan civilization; these ancient roads connect various settlements and necropolises existing mainly in the area of Sovana, Sorano and Pitigliano towns (Southern Tuscany, Italy. The Vie Cave are located in a peculiar geomorphological site, characterized by the presence of extensive pyroclastic deposits, which have been incised by a parallel network of deep gorges. In this paper, the geomorphological, geological and lithological setting of the Vie Cave area, where several Etruscan archaeological sites are found, are described. The precarious stability of the Vie Cave walls and the several archaeological structures carved into them, the high grade of decay shown by the constituent materials, together with the dense vegetation that has developed over the rocky scarps, are taken into account with the aim to provide a complete assessment of the conditions in which the site lies. Finally, we propose some targeted actions related to the preservation of this territory, showing so distinctive morphology, in order to protect the area from further decay to which it would be subjected if it remained abandoned.

  7. Geodetic deformations in the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from repeated GPS surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpelloni, E.; Baldi, P. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Pesci, A.; Riguzzi, F.; Anzidei, M.; Casula, G.; Galvani, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    It was computed the horizontal strain rate field for a sector of the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from GPS data collected during yearly repeated campaigns performed from 1994 to 2000 on the GeoModAp (Geodynamic Modeling of the Appennines) geodetic network. Site velocities were obtained starting from the daily coordinates and covariance solutions, using a Kalman filter approach. The residual velocity field with respect to a Eurasian fixed reference frame shows two different prevalent motion trends, NE-ward for the the eastern sector of the network and NW-ward for the western one. The mean strain rate tensor, obtained from a least square inversion method, shows a significant extensional deformation (1.2 x 10{sup -}8 strain/yr) normal to the Apennine chain, in agreement with seismological and neotectonic data. On the basis of the network dimension, of about 250 km, this value gives a well constrained estimate of about 3.0 plus or minus 0.2 mm/yr of the extensional velocity oriented N55E, normal to the chain axis. The results show a transition of the strain rate field from about N-S compression in the Tyrrhenian side to about NE-SW extension toward the Adriatic, which depicts a more complex deformation pattern.

  8. The uppermost crust structure of Ischia (southern Italy) from ambient noise Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, R.; Nunziata, C.; Iannotta, A.; Iannotta, D.

    2015-05-01

    Ambient noise measurements were performed at the island of Ischia (southern Italy) along alignments of 2.4-7 km by using two three-component seismic stations. Synchronous noise recordings of 2-20 h were cross-correlated over 20-30 s windows, stacked and iteratively band-pass filtered to enhance the dispersive wave trains. Frequency time analysis was performed on the vertical and radial components of cross-correlations and the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocity was obtained. Validation of the dispersion data was possible with those obtained from an earthquake recording along a close path. The non-linear inversion of average Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along 13 paths (receiver inter-distances) allowed the definition of shear wave velocity models in the uppermost 1-2 km of the crust. The correlation of VS profiles vs. depth and drilling stratigraphy allowed to attribute VS lower than 1 km/s to tuffs and VS of 1.41 km/s to very fractured lavas. Higher VS are found in the central area of the island, in correspondence of the resurgent area. The top of the trachytic lava basement, with VS of 2.2-2.4 km/s and density of 2.3 g/cm3 is about 0.6-0.7 km deep b.s.l. in the centre of Ischia, below altered, very fractured lava or thermally altered tuff.

  9. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-11-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Pliocene Bianco section, Calabria, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, D.; Thunell, R.; Sprovieri, R.; Bukry, D.; Destefano, E.; Howell, M.; Raffi, I.; Sancetta, C.; Sanfilippo, A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated micropaleontological and geochemical study was carried out on the Pliocene-age Bianco section located in Calabria, southern Italy. This section is somewhat unique for the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region in that it contains abundant calcareous and siliceous microfossils. Based on the biostratigraphic findings, it ranges in age from approximately 3.7-3.0 Ma. The Bianco section is composed of marly mudstones intercalated with diatomites, with the diatomites being particularly common in the upper 50 m of the section (above 3.1 Ma). The diatomites contain an abundant benthic foraminiferal assemblage and have a low organic carbon content indicating that bottom waters were fairly well-oxygenated during their deposition. Faunal and floral indicators suggest a cooling of surface waters in this region at 3.1 Ma. The diatom assemblages within the Bianco diatomites are very similar to those living in the Gulf of California, suggesting an upwelling origin for these silica-rich units. A model is proposed which attributes diatomite formation to upwelling induced by climatically controlled changes in local hydrography. ?? 1989.

  11. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ilaria Guagliardi; Natalia Rovella; Carmine Apollaro; Andrea Bloise; Rosanna De Rosa; Fabio Scarciglia; Gabriele Buttafuoco

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  12. Fluxes and the mass balance of mercury in Augusta Bay (Sicily, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Bonsignore, Maria; Oliveri, Elvira; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    The flux (Φ) of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-seawater interface was investigated in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) where uncontrolled industrial discharge from one of the most important chlor-alkali plant in Europe has caused significant negative effects on the environment. Hg fluxes were measured by the deployment of in-situ benthic chamber. The obtained value of 1.3 kmol y-1 clearly emphasizes the role of the sediments as source of Hg for the overlying water column. Moreover, Hg concentrations in the outflowing bottom waters were measured to estimate the export of this pollutant from Augusta Bay to the open sea. The calculated value of 0.54 kmol y-1, corresponding to ∼4% of the anthropogenic input of Hg from coastal point/diffuse sources to the Mediterranean Sea (12.5 kmol y-1; Rajar et al., 2007; UNEP-MAP, 2001), assigns this area a crucial role in the Hg inventory of the entire Mediterranean basin. Finally, a consistent and robust mass balance for Hg in Augusta Bay was provided by combining the obtained data with Hg fluxes at seawater-atmosphere interface.

  13. Environmental monitoring in the Mar Grande basin (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Hydrodynamic and water quality data has been recorded since February 2014 by a meteo-oceanographic station installed in the inner part of the Gulf of Taranto, in the northeastern part of the Ionian Sea (Southern Italy). This monitoring action, managed by the research unit of the Technical University of Bari, DICATECh Department, could play a pivotal role in a vulnerable and sensitive area, affected by massive chemical and biological pollutant discharges due to the presence of heavy industry and intense maritime traffic. Monthly trends of winds, waves, currents, and biochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and turbidity, are analyzed and discussed. The analysis exhibits that the wave regime is slightly controlled by wind forcing; rather, topography strongly affects the wave propagation direction. Surface currents appear wind induced in the measuring station, while near the bottom a quasi-steady current directed towards southwest is formed. The selected water quality indicators show monthly trends consistent with the typical seasonal convective fluxes and mixing.

  14. STRATIGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE EOCENE ALBIDONA FORMATION IN THE TYPE LOCALITY (CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA BARUFFINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  15. Late Quaternary activity along the Scorciabuoi Fault (Southern Italy as inferred from electrical resistivity tomographies

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    A. Loperte

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scorciabuoi Fault is one of the major tectonic structures affecting the Southern Apennines, Italy. Across its central sector, we performed several electrical resistivity tomographies with different electrode spacing (5 and 10 m and using a multielectrode system with 32 electrodes. All tomographies were acquired with two different arrays, the dipole-dipole and the Wenner-Schlumberger. We also tested the different sensitivity of the two arrays with respect to the specific geological conditions and research goals. Detailed geological mapping and two boreholes were used to calibrate the electrical stratigraphy. In all but one tomography (purposely performed off the fault trace, we could recognise an abrupt subvertical lateral variation of the main sedimentary bodies showing the displacement and sharp thickening of the two youngest alluvial bodies in the hanging-wall block. These features are interpreted as evidence of synsedimentary activity of the Scorciabuoi Fault during Late Pleistocene and possibly as recently as Holocene and allow accurate location of the fault trace within the Sauro alluvial plain.

  16. Post-orogenetic magmatic activity and related geothermal resources in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merla, A.

    1986-01-01

    A wide area of central Italy, located along the Tyrrhenian coast, is characterized by recent magmatic activity, regional uplifting and abundant thermal manifestations. The area, which includes southern Tuscan and parts of northern Latium, is bounded to the north by the Arno River valley, to the east by the Chiana valley and Lake Trasimeno, to the south by the Tiber valley and to the west by the important normal fault system controlling the Tyrrhenian coast. The area is also well-known for the frequent occurrences of young mineral deposits and the presence of abundant high enthalpy geothermal resources: the dry-seam fields of Larderello and Mt. Amiata, among the largest in the world, with a present electric installed capacity of 459 MW (1984). The understanding of the origin of these phenomena and of the processes which led to the formation of the natural resource characterizing the area (geothermal, mineral etc.), might represent a valuable exploration tool and lead to a further expansion of present exploitation.

  17. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Condoleo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (P<0.02; the higher within-flock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution.

  18. Historical evolution of slope instability in the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Soriano, Marcella; Bellocchi, Gianni; Fiorillo, Francesco; Cevasco, Andrea; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in knowing historical spatio-temporal patterns of landslide activity. However, this is challenging to reconstruct because it is difficult to obtain detailed records for past landslide activity. Here, we deal with hydro-geomorphological signatures, such as storms, downpours, floods, snowmelt and mass movement, to detect annual slope instability events (ASIEs) over historical times. In order to obtain ASIEs for each year, a monthly Instability Density Index (IDI) was used and then monthly values were summed up to obtain a yearly value. Classes of monthly IDI varying between 0 (no instability) and 4 (highest instability) were determined from historical documents. We present an application for the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy, using data from a 313-year long series (1701-2013 CE). After 1880 CE the information becomes more valuable with directly observed landslide frequency. By this cataloguing, 129 ASIEs were obtained. Their evolution shows slight instability during the 18th century. Uneven and greater slope instability occurred instead across the 19th century, when an important phase of deforestation coincided with intensification of agricultural activities. Slope instability events continued during the 20th century but their causes are mainly related to anthropisation and the effects of recent climate change. It was determined that stormy autumns until the 19th century and successive winter-times with enhanced snowmelt, may have driven the reactivation of widespread instability events. We also found that mountainous and hilly terrains have an acute sensitivity to climate change.

  19. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

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    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26 and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97 and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94. The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.

  20. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

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    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants.

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar in Dam Monitoring: The Test Case of Acerenza (Southern Italy

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    A. Loperte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dam safety management is gaining great importance since it affects in a crucial way the monitoring and improvement of risky reservoirs, but this topic is very challenging since the dam safety requires long-term and time-continuous monitoring. In this framework, the exploitation of conventional geotechnical investigation methods often requires invasive actions in the inner of the structure to be investigated (destructiveness and only provides punctual information for small volumes. On the contrary, the application of noninvasive sensing techniques makes it possible to investigate higher volumes without affecting the structure. In this paper we describe the application of GPR for the monitoring and diagnostics of one of the largest dams in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy. The investigation aims at detecting and localizing underground sandstone banks that are potential ways of flow of water below the dam. The manageability and the noninvasiveness of GPR have resulted in particularly suitable for this kind of application because the versatility of this geophysical method allows to investigate large areas with a good spatial resolution giving the possibility to detect the presence of inhomogeneities in the subsoil below the dam.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. in donkeys from Southern Italy.

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    Machačová, T; Bártová, E; Di Loria, A; Sedlák, K; Guccione, J; Fulgione, D; Veneziano, V

    2013-11-15

    In some European countries there is an increasing interest on donkey. Despite there are few data regarding the donkey's parasitic diseases especially those with a protozoal etiology as neosporosis. Samples used in the study were collected from 238 domestic donkeys during year 2010 in Southern Italy from 207 females and 31 males of five breeds (Martina-Franca, Amiata, Sicilian-Grey, Ragusano, Sardinian) and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month - 24 year). Sera were tested by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Neospora caninum; the sera were marked positive, if more than 30% inhibition was found. Out of a total 238 donkeys, 28 (11.8%) were found positive for Neospora antibodies with 12% in females and 6% in males. Different seroprevalence 15.4%, 16%, 12% and 8.8% were found in age categories 0.05) was found among genders and use of donkeys and risk of N. caninum infection. This is the first serological survey for Neospora spp. performed in donkeys.

  3. Mixing of water in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy, analysed through stable isotope investigations

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    Petrella Emma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing of water was analysed in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy, through stable isotope investigations (18O,δ2H. The input signal (rainwater was compared with the isotopic content of a 35-meter groundwater vertical prof ile, over a 1-year period. Within the studied aquifer, recharge and f low are diffuse in a well-connected f issure network.At the test site, the comparison between input and groundwater isotopic signals illustrates that no eff icient mixing takes place in the whole unsaturated zone, between the fresh inf iltration water and the stored water.When analysing the stable isotope composition of groundwater, signif icant variations were observed above the threshold elevation of 1062 m asl, while a nearly constant composition was observed below the same threshold. Thus, temporal variations in stable isotope composition of rainwater are completely attenuated just in the deeper phreatic zone.On the whole, taking into consideration also the results of previous studies in the same area, the investigations showed that physical characteristics of the carbonate bedrock, as well as aquifer heterogeneity, are factors of utmost importance in inf luencing the complete mixing of water. These f indings suggest a more complex scenario at catchment scale.

  4. Flash flood occurrences since the 17th century in steep drainage basins in southern Italy.

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    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  5. Retrieving geomagnetic secular variations from lava flows: evidence from Mounts Arso, Etna and Vesuvius (southern Italy)

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    Incoronato, Alberto; Angelino, Antimo; Romano, Romolo; Ferrante, Agostino; Sauna, Renata; Vanacore, Gianpio; Vecchione, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Mean directions of magnetization from Mounts Arso (Ischia Island, Gulf of Naples), Etna and Vesuvius lava flows have been determined based on very stringent linearity criteria. These indicate that, regardless of the source volcano, the lava flow mean directions of magnetization form a common path, the SISVC (Southern Italy Secular Variation Curve). This curve enables a reassessment of the age of eruption of several lavas. A date of AD 1169 is demonstrated to be the only possible time of emplacement for one Etna lava flow previously assigned an age of AD 812/1169. It is also demonstrated that two Etna lava flows, which, according to the literature, were emplaced in AD 1536 and 1595 respectively, were actually both emplaced around AD 1037. Three other Etna lava flows, one ascribed to AD 1566 and two to AD 1595, were actually emplaced between AD 1169 and 1284/85. The same time window also holds for a Vesuvius lava flow for which only an upper time threshold was previously available. Only one of the studied flows needs further sampling and analysis to verify whether this flow has been affected by a complete remagnetization or has an erroneous historical dating. The applied procedure seems to be the most appropriate one in carrying out palaeomagnetic surveys of lava flows, as also suggested by the broad agreement with some 17th and 19th century measurements of the geomagnetic field in Rome, relocated to Etna, and is likely to improve knowledge of past history of a volcano significantly.

  6. A specimen of Sorex cfr. samniticus in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un Sorex cfr. samniticus (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di Tyto alba delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

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    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of Sorex sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to Sorex samniticus Altobello, 1926. The genus Sorex was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of Sorex in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di Sorex cfr. samniticus da borre di Tyto alba delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  7. An attenuation study in Southern Italy using local and regional earthquakes recorded by seismic network of Basilicata

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    M. Mucciarelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We determined a set of empirical functions that describe the spectral amplitude decay of S-waves with distance in Southern Italy. We analyzed 32 earthquakes with magnitudes ML 2.0-5.4 and hypocentral distances ranging between 12 and 216 km. We obtained attenuation functions for 14 frequencies(1.0< f<20.0 Hz. We compared these functions with average non-parametric attenuation functions reported by Castro et al. (1999 for different regions of Italy, and we observe that at low frequencies (f<5.0 Hz the spectral amplitudes from earthquakes in Southern Italy decay faster than the average. However, at high frequencies ( f > 5.0 Hz, the spectral amplitudes are above the average. At higher frequencies ( f > 10 Hz, the attenuation functions obtained for Southern Italy are slightly above the standard deviation of the average attenuation functions. It is possible that in this frequency range (10-20 Hz site effects may influence the amplitude decay. In order to quantify the attenuation of the S-waves, we estimated the quality factor Q modeling the empirical attenuation functions using the following parametric form: A( f , r=10/r b·e- pfR/Q ß; where 1.6 = f = 10.0 Hz is the frequency band with minimum effect of instrument and site response, r = 120 km is the distance range where the rate of decay of the spectral amplitudes is approximately constant, R=(r-10 and ß=3.2 km/s. We found that the exponent b=1.0±0.2 in the frequency band analyzed and Q shows a frequency dependence that can be approximated by the function Q=32.1 f 1.7.

  8. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  9. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

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    Domenico Ventrella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  10. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  11. Novel monitoring protocol for the Monte Cotugno Dam (Southern Italy) healthiness

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    Soldovieri, Francesco; Loperte, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    to evaluate the water level in the inner part of dam on dependence of the minimum and maximum water level in the basin. These surveys have allowed to identify areas of the side facing upstream, at which sampling coring were carried out, and the samples were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory with the aim to evaluate the state of conservation and permeability. ERT images also permitted to identify areas affected by water infiltration below the basin level, which underwent to a visual inspection through an underwater drone. This underwater survey confirmed the presence of deteriorated areas and submerged fractured bituminous zone. This, the flaring of the reservoir was carried out as far as the managing body saw fit. After, in correspondence of the minimum basin level, a visual inspection of all the bituminous face was performed, thus identifying fractured zones on which to intervene immediately. As conclusion, we can state that the integrated approach here presented was crucial in order to identify, areas of the facing bituminous needing urgent interventions. [1] A. Loperte, M Bavusi, G. Cerverizzo, V Lapenna, and F Soldovieri, "Integrated geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy)", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-9972, 2012

  12. Information sources and knowledge on vaccination in a population from southern Italy: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Ferro, Antonio; Marchese, Valentina; Napoli, Giuseppe; Palmeri, Sara; Raia, Daniele; Restivo, Vincenzo; Siddu, Andrea; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    Vaccine knowledge of the general population is shaped by different information sources and strongly influences vaccination attitudes and uptake. The CCM-Italian Ministry of Health ESCULAPIO project attempted to identify the role of such information sources, in order to address adequate strategies to improve information on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. In the present study, data on 632 adults from Southern Italy regarding information sources were collected, and their perceived and actual knowledge on vaccinations were compared and analyzed in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources. The main reported reference sources were general practitioners (GPs) (42.5%) and pediatricians (33.1%), followed by mass media (24.1%) and the Internet (17.6%). A total of 45.4% reported they believed to be informed (45.4%), while those estimated to be truly informed were 43.8%. However, as showed in the multivariate logistic regression, people having the perception to be correctly informed ascribed their good knowledge to their profession in the health sector (Adj OR 2.28, CI 1.09-4.77, p informed population thought the responsibility had to be attributed to mass media (AdjOR 0.45, CI 0.22-0.92, p information, instead, were younger (AdjOR 1.64, CI 1.04-2.59, p information about vaccination should be addressed to fortifying healthcare workers knowledge in order to make them public health opinion leaders. General population should be provided with correct indications on trustworthy websites on vaccines to contrast false information supplied by anti-vaccinists on their own websites or social networks pages and on the mass media.

  13. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

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    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  14. Morphometric analysis of the thrust front of the Lucanian Apennine, southern Italy

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    Ivo Giano, Salvatore; Mecca, Luciana; Pascale, Stefania; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The thrust front of the southern Apennines, Italy, is formed by a north-east verging imbricate fan, transversally cut by several major rivers draining to the Ionian Sea. In the Lucanian segment of this orogen, the tectonic stack is composed by Cretaceous-Oligocene deep-sea water clayey successions and Miocene siliciclastic units, emplaced during Pliocene and Pleistocene times. It is still debated if the contractional deformation of this external part of the south-Italian orogen continues until now, because clear field evidences of recent shortening does not overcome the Middle Pleistocene. On the other hand, geomorphological features clearly indicate that the whole area suffered a significant uplift in more recent times. The present study will try to discriminate the different components of the recent and active tectonic deformation in the light of an accurate morphotectonic analysis, based on both the study of terraced surfaces and morphometric indices. The analysis of fluvial terraces arrangement and their longitudinal profiles revealed that the study area underwent a diffused rising during the Late Pleistocene. In the Holocene, the same area seems to be affected by differential uplift due to tectonic tilting toward south-east, as also supported by the increasing of the sinuosity index of the Bradano River. The tectonic mobility has been adequately proved by other indices such as the asymmetry index and the stream length-gradient index. The mapping of the SLk values has also shown that the anomalies follow NW-SE trends, suggesting a very recent activity of the ridges previously produced by contractional tectonics. Similar results have been obtained by swath profile analysis, showing peaks in coincidence of the main outcropping thrust and of more external buried structures located in the foredeep. In conclusion, all the data and geomorphic parameters led to consider the frontal portion of the Lucanian Apennines as still tectonically active, even if its recent

  15. Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.

  16. Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy

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    O. G. Terranova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructure and loss of lives, adversely affecting also the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean Countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected with sufficient accuracy by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris-flows. Thus a method is proposed – based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event – to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate Countries. Therefore the obtained (heavy rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time, that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, give robustness to the obtained results.

  17. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

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    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  18. Sedimentological and palaeoecological integrated analysis of a Miocene channelized carbonate margin, Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Davide; Carannante, Gabriele; Checconi, Alessio; Simone, Lucia; Vigorito, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Lower-Middle Miocene temperate marine carbonates occur in the Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines (Italy). These carbonates formed in an open-shelf depositional system with an uneven margin, 10 km long and up to 6 km wide. Shelf margin morphology shows multiple submarine channelized carbonate deposits which are dominated by coralline red algae and subordinate bryozoans. Two main channel networks (Pietraroia and Regia Piana channels) with their sedimentary bodies were analysed. The studied submarine channels grew by sediment accumulation as prograding bodies on a tectonic modelled substrate. Shallow-water rhodalgal skeletal debris, from moderately re-mobilized up to significantly re-worked, built up the complex channel-system fills in which sedimentary lenses overlapped and partially amalgamated one another when they were still unlithified. The early channelized succession is characterized by parautochthonous bryozoan floatstone and rhodolith/bryozoan floatstone representing soft muddy substrates in a low water turbulence and high turbidity setting. The rhodoliths, dominated by melobesioid coralline algae, are sub-discoidal and sub-spheroidal in shape with a characteristic loosely-packed inner arrangement. These sediments, whose latter portion underwent submarine diagenetic processes (incipient to evoluted hard-grounds), were eroded and successively covered by shallower water gravitative deposits constituted by rhodolith floatstone/rudstone. Their rhodoliths, constituted by melobesioids, mastophoroids and subordinate lithophylloids and sporolithaceans, are mainly spheroidal/sub-spheroidal in shape with subordinate sub-discoidal specimens, with massive and laminar inner arrangements. The lack in early lithification can be drawn back to the physiography of the channelized shelf margin, to the active tectonic as well as to the temperate-type carbonate dominant biogenic components. The depositional surface profile and local hydrodynamic conditions were the major

  19. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

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    Franco Tassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  20. Productivity and modifications of ecosystem processes in gaps of a low Macchia in southern Italy

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    A. De Marco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance in Mediterranean shrub lands creates gaps that break up the shrub cover and potentially restrict productivity and other ecosystem processes. Gaps make up to about 20% of the low Macchia area at the Castel Volturno nature reserve (southern Italy. The plant community consists mainly of small annual species (legumes, grasses and forbs that germinate in November and die out before the onset of summer drought. The inter-annual variability in productivity and the relative abundance of legumes, grasses and forbs were assessed over 4 yr (2004–2007 to evaluate main potential modifications of ecosystem processes determined by the occurrence of gaps in the shrub cover.

    In the study years, at the peak production, plant mass varied from about 250 to 700 g m−2; biomass belowground allocation varied from 23% in the wettest to 44% in the driest year. Belowground/aboveground biomass ratios were negatively related to rainfall and positively related to the length of the dry period, showing that water availability controls biomass allocation patterns. Legumes were the most abundant fraction (about 60% of the aboveground mass in the wettest year. In the drier years legumes exhibited a shorter life cycle and senesced by mid-spring. Among the three functional groups monitored, legumes were the most sensitive to water shortage and their biomass was positively related to the amount of rainfall and negatively related to the length of the dry period. The higher fraction of legume mass was associated with higher nitrogen content in plant tissues and in the soil. Senesced annual species decomposed more than senescent Phillyrea sp. leaves. The stability of organic carbon pool, evaluated through the endogenous mineralization coefficient (CEM, was lower in gaps than in understorey soils.

  1. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  2. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

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    Roberta Infascelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha, livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00, nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year. The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should

  3. DDF-curves updating in climate change scenarios for Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzoa, L.; Freni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently trends in extreme rainfall were investigated on the global, regional and local scales. On the global scale, there is robust observational evidence that the frequency and intensity of extreme events significantly changed over the last decades. For this reason, climate change effects on extreme rainfall should be accounted in the design of hydraulics infrastructures, in particular in the definition of rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves. The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of the effects of statistically significant trends in extreme rainfall on the rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves for the return periods typically used in the design of urban drainage systems. The methodology proposed in this study was applied in Southern Italy, specifically in Sicily. Firstly, the detection and quantification of trends in the annual maximum rainfall series of different durations, recorded in 65 rain gauges over the 1950-2008 period, were carried out. For each duration, the moving averages were computed and then the Mann-Kendall test was applied. Results showed that, for all the durations, increasing and decreasing trends occurred over the examined period. The generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) has been employed to compute extreme rainfall with return periods equal to 5, 10 and 20 years. The magnitude of statistically significant trends were used in order to modify the GEV parameters and define the DDF curves in some climate scenarios. The study highlighted the need to revise and update design criteria to account for potential future variations of extreme rainfall due to climate change.

  4. Glucokinase (GCK mutations and their characterization in MODY2 children of southern Italy.

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    Marina Capuano

    Full Text Available Type 2 Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY2 is a monogenic autosomal disease characterized by a primary defect in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. It results from GCK gene mutations that impair enzyme activity. Between 2006 and 2010, we investigated GCK mutations in 66 diabetic children from southern Italy with suspected MODY2. Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC and sequence analysis revealed 19 GCK mutations in 28 children, six of which were novel: p.Glu40Asp, p.Val154Leu, p.Arg447Glyfs, p.Lys458_Cys461del, p.Glu395_Arg397del and c.580-2A>T. We evaluated the effect of these 19 mutations using bioinformatic tools such as Polymorphism Phenotyping (Polyphen, Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT and in silico modelling. We also conducted a functional study to evaluate the pathogenic significance of seven mutations that are among the most severe mutations found in our population, and have never been characterized: p.Glu70Asp, p.His137Asp, p.Phe150Tyr, p.Val154Leu, p.Gly162Asp, p.Arg303Trp and p.Arg392Ser. These seven mutations, by altering one or more kinetic parameters, reduced enzyme catalytic activity by >40%. All mutations except p.Glu70Asp displayed thermal-instability, indeed >50% of enzyme activity was lost at 50°C/30 min. Thus, these seven mutations play a pathogenic role in MODY2 insurgence. In conclusion, this report revealed six novel GCK mutations and sheds some light on the structure-function relationship of human GCK mutations and MODY2.

  5. Thermo-tectonics of the Calabrian Arc, southern Italy: Constraints from fission track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Stuart Nigel

    This study uses fission track analysis to provide temperature and time constraints on the cooling and exhumation history of the basement rocks of the Calabrian Arc of southern Italy. Fission track analysis also provides information on the provenance and burial history of the terrigenous Oligo-Miocene Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation. 65 samples from the basement rocks have yielded 57 apatite fission track ages, 54 zircon fission track ages and 25 apatite track length distributions. 9 samples from the Stilo- Capo d'Orlando Formation have yielded 8 apatite fission track ages, 8 zircon fission track ages and 6 apatite track length distributions. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fission track data reveals that the majority of the basement rocks underwent a phase of increased cooling related to exhumation between about 35 Ma (Early Oligocene) and 15 Ma (Middle Miocene). Evidence from the local sedimentary record indicates that erosion played an important role in the exhumation process. Extensional tectonism also contributes to some of the increased exhumation. Analysis of the fission track results obtained from the Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation confirm a Calabrian basement provenance for the sediments. The previously debated origin of volcanic conglomerate clasts from the formation is also resolved. Finally apatite fission track analysis indicates post-depositional burial at the base of the formation to temperatures greater than 80° C. The final part of this thesis uses the fission track age and temperature constraints to produce an improved tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene tectonic evolution of the Calabrian Arc. This model proposes that increased exhumation is a consequence of the dynamics of an overthickened orogenic wedge. The model is related to the overall plate dynamics of the western Mediterranean orogeny.

  6. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  7. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  8. A Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) Study Project to control Medfly in a Southern region of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A.; Cirio, U.; Balducci, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-12-01

    Since 1967 the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) namely the main Italian governmental technological research organization, is carrying out R and D programmes and demonstrative projects aimed to set up S.I.T. (Sterile Insect Technique) processes. In the framework of a world-wide growing interest concerning pest control technology, the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) developed a very large industrial project aimed to control Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) with reference to fruit crops situation in Sicily region (Southern of Italy) through the production and spreading of over 250 million sterile flies per week.

  9. Strategies for 2nd Grade zonation on susceptibility to seismic-induced landslides in Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, D.; Rapolla, A.; Paoletti, V.; di Nocera, S.; Matano, F.

    2010-12-01

    Key Words: Seismic-induced Landslides, Landslide Susceptibility, Evaluation Strategies, Southern Italy Southern Apennines, Italy, are characterized by a very high seismic hazard and the shaking related to this seismicity has been a major cause for landslide triggering. An effective study of seismic hazard of a landslide-prone region should therefore include a detailed assessment of the seismic slope stability, to be carried out at different scales (Fell et al., 2008). Due to the complexity of the different factors controlling slope stability there are currently only a few grade-2 methods (scales 1:50.000-1:10.000) for assessing seismic-induced landslide susceptibility. We here present an application to different seismic areas (Sannio and Irpinia) in Southern Apennines, Italy, of a new strategy for zonation on seismic-induced landslide susceptibility. These areas are characterized by several landslides most of them triggered by the main 1980 Irpinia earthquake. The new GIS-based approach (Rapolla et al., 2010) employs only three factors that we believe are most significant in the susceptibility assessment: i) the properties of outcropping rock/soil expressed as transversal seismic velocity (Vs) ii) the slope angle, iii) the MCS (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg) Intensity. The lithological characteristics of the study areas were obtained from geological maps with 1:25000 scale. The attribution of the representative shear wave velocity value to the lithological units required a careful evaluation of their geotechnical and geophysical behavior. The slope angles were obtained from high resolution digital elevation model of the topography of the investigated areas. Finally, the seismic input for computing the MCS Intensity was derived from the macroseismic scenario for the worst event expected in the study area. Each of the three parameters was expressed as a Significance percentage and the resulting Seismic Landslide Susceptibility level was given by the average of the

  10. Dry fermented sausages of Southern Italy: a comparison of free amino acids and biogenic amines between industrial and homemade products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia L; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria L; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-04-01

    This paper compares some important parameters and the free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of cured industrial and homemade meat products. To this aim, industrial and homemade "soppressata" and "salsiccia", typical dry fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formation in industrial products is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by a higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that appreciable differences exist between homemade and industrial sausages.

  11. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  12. Geoethics and hazard education. A comparison between Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Zumbo, Rosarianna

    2015-04-01

    reactions. The design, the game and handling are a key to access the mental representation of the traumatic event that the child has formed. They are also used as indicators of the child experience and how he solves the traumatic elements of the event. The present work aims to collect testimonies and mental maps of drawn by Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta students. A critical comparison was made on the natural disasters experiences reported by students.

  13. Stress induced cardiomyopathy presenting as acute coronary syndrome: Tako-Tsubo in Mercogliano, Southern Italy

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    Salemme L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tako-tsubo syndrome (TTS in its typical (apical and atypical (non-apical forms is being increasingly recognized in the West owing to early systematic coronary angiography in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Aim of the study To assess the incidence, the clinical characteristics and the outcome of TTS in a single high volume cath lab in Southern Italy over the last 6 years. Methods Among 1674 consecutive patients (pts referred to our coronary care units in the last 6 years (2001–2006 for ACS we selected 6 (0.5% pts (6 women; age 57 ± 6 years who fulfilled the following 4 criteria: 1 transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities resulting in ballooning at contrast ventricolographic or echocardiographic evaluation; 2 normal coronary artery on coronary angiography performed 5 ± 9 hours from hospitalization; 3 new electrocardiographic ischemic-like abnormalities (either ST-segment elevation or T-wave inversion and 4 emotional or physical trigger event. Results At admission all pts had presumptive diagnosis of ACS and ECG revealed ST elevation in 3 (50% and T wave inversion with QT elongation in 3 (50%. In the acute phase cardiogenic shock occurred in 2 (33% and heart failure in 1(16%. Presenting symptoms were chest pain in 6 (100%, dyspnoea in 2 (33% and lipotimia in 1 (16%. At echocardiographic-ventricolographic assessment, the mechanical dysfunction (ballooning was apical in all 6 pts ("classic" TTS. In all patients wall motion abnormalities completely reversed within 4.5 ± 1.5 days. The region of initial recovery was the anterior and lateral wall in 4 cases and the lateral wall in 2 cases. Ejection fraction was 35 ± 8% in the acute phase and increased progressively at discharge (55 ± 6% and at 41 ± 20 months follow-up (60 ± 4%, p Conclusion Classic TTS is a frequent serendipitous diagnosis after coronary angiography showed "surprisingly" normal findings in a clinical setting mimicking an ACS. Despite its long

  14. Evaluation of the return periods of water crises and evaporation in Monte Cotugno reservoir (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertino, Vito; Lo Vecchio, Giuseppina; Marotta, Lucia; Pastore, Vittoria; Ponzio, Giuseppe; Scavone, Giuseppina; Telesca, Vito; Vita, Michele

    2010-05-01

    In the past water resources management has been dealt and solved increasing water availabilities; today such opportunities have been considerably reduced and the technical-scientific perspectives are addressed above all to improve water system effectiveness and to promote an use of water resources that holds account of the droughts frequency and based on a correct estimate of the hydrologic balance. In this work a study on the water stored in Monte Cotugno reservoir in Sinni river - Basilicata (Southern Italy) - is proposed, estimating water crises return periods and reservoir evaporation. For such purpose the runs method was applied, based on the comparison between the temporal series of the "water volume" hydrological variable and a threshold representative of the "normal" conditions regarding which the availability in excess or defect was estimated. This allowed to individualize the beginning and the end of a water crisis event and to characterize the droughts in terms of duration, sum deficit and intensity. Therefore the return period was evaluated by means of the methodology proposed by Shiau and Shen in 2001, turned out equal approximately to 6 years. Such value was then verified with a frequency analysis of the "water volume" random variable, using the Weibull's distribution. Subsequently, the Fourier's analysis in the last twenty years was carried out, obtaining the same result of the previous methods. Moreover, in proximity of the Monte Cotugno reservoir the weather station of Senise is located, managed by ALSIA (Agenzia Lucana di Sviluppo e Innovazione in Agricultura), that provides in continuous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation since 2000. Such parameters allowed to apply five methods for reservoir evaporation estimate selected from those proposed in the literature, of which the first three, the Jensen-Haise's method, Makkink's method and Stephens-Stewart's one are based on solar radiation

  15. Assessing the role of Climate Variability in the recent evolution of coastlines in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Gianluigi; Atkinson, David; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Walker, Ian

    2016-04-01

    During the last century, Climatic Variability (CV) and change effects have generated a discernable impact on the world's coasts, most notably through changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges, flooding, coastal erosion and sea-level rise. This study explores CV signals and coastal responses along a 36 km stretch of coast in the Molise region of southern Italy on the Central Adriatic Sea. Two dominant signals of CV in the Mediterranean region of Europe are characterized by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) patterns. The NAO is the leading mode of CV in the North Atlantic region and periods with positive NAO index values are typically associated with above average wind speeds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic and western Europe, with anomalously northerly flows across the Mediterranean region and enhanced trade winds over the sub-tropical North Atlantic. Although NAO is one of the most prominent patterns in all seasons, its relative role in regulating the variability of the European climate during non-winter months is not as clear as for the winter season. In contrast, the EAWR exerts strong influence on precipitation in the Mediterranean region such that, during the negative phase of EAWR, wetter conditions prevail across central Europe and the Mediterranean region, with precipitation extremes often occurring during these periods. This study examines the effects of NAO and EAWR on coastline response in the Molise region, which has a microtidal regime (ordinary tidal excursions of 30-40 cm). GIS analysis of shoreline changes from historical aerial photography from 1954-2011 was performed and 20 years (1989-2008) of wave data were analysed from the nearby Ortona buoy to define trends and extreme event occurrence in the wave climate in the study area. Finally, statistical associations between NAO, EAWR, and other CV indices of possible influence (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, Scandinavia Pattern, or the East

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the older (> 40 ka) ignimbrites on the Campanian Plain, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H. E.; Rolandi, G.; Jackson, J. C.; Cannatelli, C.; Doherty, A. L.; Petrosino, P.; De Vivo, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Campanian Plain in southern Italy has been volcanically active for at least the last 300 ka. The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erupted at 39.3 ka, has a volume of ≥ 310 km3 and a great areal extent. However, significant, but scattered deposits of older ignimbrites underlie the CI and document a long history of volcanism. We examined the mineralogy and geochemistry of 11 older ignimbrite strata by optical petrography, electron microprobe, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and various whole-rock geochemical techniques. We have analyzed strata at Durazzano (116.1 ka), Moschiano (184.7 ka), Seiano Valley (245.9 and 289.6 ka), and Taurano - Acqua Feconia (157.4, 183.8, 205.6, and 210.4 ka) that have been previously dated on unaltered sanidine. The older ignimbrites are highly altered with loss on ignition (LOI) that ranges from 17 to 8 wt%. Whole-rock compositions reflect variable element mobility during weathering; e.g., CaO is enriched and Na2O depleted relative to hydration. X-ray diffraction identified major chabazite, kaolinite, and illite alteration products in some samples. Rhabdophane-(Nd), usually intergrown with chabazite and Mn-carbonate, indicates that some LREE were also mobilized during weathering. The phenocryst mineralogy is typical for Campanian Plain (CP) magmas and consists of plagioclase (An88 Ab11 Or1 to An32 Ab63 Or5), potassium feldspar (Or40 Ab57 An3 to Or79 Ab18 An3), biotite (TiO2 = ~ 4-7 wt%, BaO = up to 2 wt%, F = up to 2 wt%), diopside (Ca47Mg47Fe6 to Ca48Mg29Fe23), and titaniferous magnetite. Relatively immobile trace elements Zr, Hf, Th, Ta, V, and Nb were used to investigate element abundance and ratio compared to the Campanian Ignimbrite and other CP magmas. Zr/Hf of the older ignimbrites is similar to that of the CI, but Ta is depleted relative to Th and V is enriched compared to CI. Th/Ta and Nb/V distributions for most of the older ignimbrites are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff with the exception of

  17. Numerical model to support the management of groundwater resources of a coastal karstic aquifer (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of the research is to define management apporouches for a coastal karstic aquifer. The core of the tools uses numerical modelling, applied to groundwater resource of Salento (southern Italy) and criteria to reduce the quantitative and qualitative degradation risks. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. The approach chosen was based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium by which it is assumed that the real heterogeneous aquifer can be simulated as homogeneous porous media within cells or elements. The modelled aquifer portion extends for 2230 km2, and it was uniformly discretized into 97,200 cells, each one of 0.6 km2. Vertically, to allow a good lithological and hydrogeological discretization, the area was divided into 12 layers, from 214 to -350 m asl. Thickness and geometry of layers was defined on the basis of the aquifer conceptualisation based on the 3d knowledge of hydrogeological complexes. For the boundary conditions, inactive cells were used along the boundary with the rest of Murgia-Salento aquifer, as conceptual underground watershed due to the absence of flow. About the sea boundary was used CHD boundary cells (Constant Head Boundary). Additional boundary conditions were used for SEAWAT modelling, as initial concentration and constant concentration, in the latter case for cells shaping the coastline. A mean annual net rainfall (recharge) was calculated in each cell with a GIS elaboration, ranged from 68 to 343 mm, 173 mm an average. The recharge or infiltration was calculated using an infiltration coefficient (IC) (defined as infiltration/net rainfall ratio) for each hydrogeological complex, assuming values equal to 1 inside endorheic areas. The mean annual recharge was equal to 150 mm. The model was implemented using MODFLOW and SEAWAT codes in steady-state conditions to obtain a starting point for following transient scenarios, using piezometric data of thirties as

  18. Wind shear coefficients, roughness length and energy yield over coastal locations in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Giovanni [Research National Council-Institute for Biometeorology (CNR-IBIMET), Via Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Secci, Sauro [Fedi Impianti Srl, Via Caduti di Cefalonia, 31, 50127 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    In the present work a computation of wind shear coefficients (WSCs) based on 1-h measured wind data has been performed by three stations located over coastal sites in Southern Italy, i.e., Brindisi (BR), Portoscuso (PS) and Termini Imerese (TI). Wind observations have been collected through a 6-year period (January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2002) by wind mast recording at the same two sensor heights (i.e., 10 and 50 m AGL), thus enabling a proper wind profile analysis. WSC overall mean values were found to be 0.271 at BR, 0.232 at PS, and 0.150 at TI. In addition, a detailed analysis has been carried out to describe the WSC yearly, monthly and diurnal variation, as well as by wind direction. The characteristics of z{sub 0} surface roughness length have been also investigated as an estimate for neutral stability conditions only, resulting in overall mean values of 0.526 m at BR, 0.287 m at PS, and 0.027 m at TI. The z{sub 0} variation by year, month and hour of the day, as well as by wind direction, has been analysed, too. The European ''Corine Land Cover 2000'' classification of the study areas has been employed to deeply investigate the land use influence on both WSC and z{sub 0} characteristics as a function of wind direction. Based on temperature and pressure surface measurements, the computation of site-specific mean air density as well as monthly variation has been also performed. Site-related 50-m wind resource has been assessed by means of wind roses and wind speed frequency distributions, as well as Weibull's parameters. The potential turbine-converted wind energy yield has been also investigated, enabling to detect, for each site, the most suitable 50-m hub height turbine model regardless of its rated power. Furthermore, a number of comparisons have been made to assess the discrepancy in 50-m energy yield resulting if using data extrapolated from 10 m, both with 0.143 default and overall mean WSC value, instead of actually 50-m

  19. Using faults for PSHA in a volcanic context: the Etna case (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Gee, Robin; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    At Mt. Etna volcano (Southern Italy), recurrent volcano-tectonic earthquakes affect the urbanised areas, with an overall population of about 400,000 and with important infrastructures and lifelines. For this reason, seismic hazard analyses have been undertaken in the last decade focusing on the capability of local faults to generate damaging earthquakes especially in the short-term (30-5 yrs); these results have to be intended as complementary to the regulatory seismic hazard maps, and devoted to establish priority in the seismic retrofitting of the exposed municipalities. Starting from past experience, in the framework of the V3 Project funded by the Italian Department of Civil Defense we performed a fully probabilistic seismic hazard assessment by using an original definition of seismic sources and ground-motion prediction equations specifically derived for this volcanic area; calculations are referred to a new brand topographic surface (Mt. Etna reaches more than 3,000 m in elevation, in less than 20 km from the coast), and to both Poissonian and time-dependent occurrence models. We present at first the process of defining seismic sources that includes individual faults, seismic zones and gridded seismicity; they are obtained by integrating geological field data with long-term (the historical macroseismic catalogue) and short-term earthquake data (the instrumental catalogue). The analysis of the Frequency Magnitude Distribution identifies areas in the volcanic complex, with a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship representative of different dynamic processes. Then, we discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults estimated by using a purely geologic approach. This analysis has been carried out through the software code FISH, a Matlab® tool developed to turn fault data representative of the seismogenic process into hazard models. The utilization of a magnitude-size scaling relationship

  20. Contemporary ground-based and satellite precipitating system characterization for desertification studies in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casazza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During the research project RIADE (Ricerca Integrata per l'Applicazione di tecnologie e processi innovativi per la lotta alla DEsertificazione, devoted to the study on the potential risk of desertification in Southern Italy, a particular attention has been paid also to the analysis of precipitations from three surface stations (Licata, Sicily; Rotondella, Basilicata; Surigheddu, Sardinia in order to improve the knowledge derived from the most modern climatological studies related to this subject. The point of view adopted is to better define the precipitation microphysical properties (in particular, the Drop Size Distribution, DSD, and its moments, which are deeply related to the cloud system that generates the precipitation events. In particular we have used a newly introduced Convective Stratiform discrimination technique, that allowed us to observe a prevalence of events, concentrated along Winter (Wi season, of different microphysical nature. In fact the prevailing Stratiform nature is related to Licata station, while for Surigheddu and for Rotondella the nature is mainly Convective. This distinction is related to the presence of drops of bigger dimensions and more intense precipitations in the latter case, while, in the former case, a prevalence of smaller drops and a less intense precipitation is recorded. This confirms the distinctive belonging to three different climatic regions, as indicated in the study by Brunetti et al. (2006. Our findings are important in the framework of desertification studies, because the cause of desertification can be related either to fertile soils removal (in the case of Convective events or to lack of precipitated water (in the case of Stratiform events. We have also analysed a sub-set of ten events, with contemporary presence of data from VIS/IR channels of METEOSAT-7, SSM/I data from F13 and MODIS data from Terra platform. This has been done both to confirm the findings of PLUDIX data analysis (which

  1. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  2. New constraints for site-effect characterization from seismic noise analysis in southern Italy. San Fele case study

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    Simona Petrosino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of ground-motion amplification analysis for southern Italy, the main target of this study is to provide new constraints on one-dimensional, shallow-velocity profiles for a site in the San Fele area near the city of Potenza (southern Italy where a permanent Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet seismic station is installed. Ambient noise vibrations were recorded during a seismic survey in San Fele, and the data acquired were used to define the shallow shear-wave velocity profiles and thicknesses of the shallow soil layers, through analysis of the dispersion characteristics of the surface waves. Single station and array techniques were used to obtain robust results, which show relatively flat curves of the H/V spectral ratios and variations in shear-wave velocities confined to the first 50 m in depth. On the basis of these results for the San Fele site, the present study aims to delineate a standard procedure that can be systematically applied to all of the other ISNet stations to improve site characterization. This will allow more accurate evaluation of peak ground-motion quantities (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity at rock sites for use in shake-map analysis.

  3. Etiology of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver disease in Southern Italy: results of a prospective multicentric study

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    Antonio Ascione

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of liver diseases has radically changed in our country over the last few decades. We prospectively collected data on the newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver diseases in a region of southern Italy after about a decade from the last epidemiological study. We conducted a multicentric prospective study that enrolled 631 patients from 21 Liver Centers of the Campania region (Southern Italy at their first hospital admission or at their first outpatient visit. In our cohort of 631 patients (367 males, 263 females, 397 (62.9% were hepatitis C virus (HCV positive, 75 (11.9% were hepatitis B virus (HBV positive, 8 (1.3% were co-infected by HBV and HCV, 73 (11.6% had an alcoholic liver disease and 64 (10.1% had a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HBV infection was present in young people with a higher-than-expected prevalence, despite the vaccination program which should have involved this population. HCV chronic hepatitis still remains the most common cause of liver disease in our region. HBV infection still continues to represent a health problem in young people, despite the vaccination program.

  4. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

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    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP.

  6. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy

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    Amalia Piscopo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains complementary results related to the paper “Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy” (Piscopo et al., 2016 [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy, named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP, the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE, the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA, the Ionian southern coast (ISC and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC. Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  7. RFLPs of the APOB gene: comparative study between Greeks and southern Italian peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, G; Leone, O; Falcone, E; Rose, G; Brancati, C; Carotenuto, L

    1993-06-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at codons 2488 (XbaI), 3611 (MspI), and 4154 (EcoRI) of the apolipoprotein B gene were investigated in sample groups from Athens (Greece) and Calabria (southern Italy) to verify whether the distribution of the APOB gene variants in Calabria, where Greek colonization occurred in the eighth century B.C., reflects that of the present Greek population. A sample from Apulia, a southern Italian region having a history different from that of Calabria, was also analyzed. Three specific DNA regions, each containing the polymorphic site, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction on 243 samples, and the restriction data for the three groups were compared. The allelic frequencies of the samples from Apulia and Greece showed variability patterns that agree with those found in Caucasians, whereas the Calabrian sample shows remarkable peculiarities, mainly for the EcoRI RFLP. Linkage disequilibrium analyses of pairs of markers showed strong D linkage values between X-M markers, whereas the D linkage values between M-R markers were too small to be reliably estimated. Last, for both Apulians and Greeks, X-R markers showed linkage disequilibrium, whereas for Calabrians they did not. Estimates of XMR haplotypic frequencies were computed; they were found to be appreciably different between Calabrian and Greek samples, whereas the frequencies in the Apulian sample were approximately midway between those in Calabrians and Greeks.

  8. Olive cultivars adaptability in Southern Italy in present and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, M.; Alfieri, S.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Menenti, M.; De Lorenzi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops is very significant and likely to provide the single major opportunity to cope with the effects of the changing climate on agricultural ecosystems. Assessment of adaptive capacity must rely on quantitative descriptions of plant responses to environmental factors (e.g. soil water availability, temperature). Moreover climate scenario needs to be downscaled to the spatial scale relevant to crop and farm management. Distributed models of crop response to environmental forcing might be used for this purpose, but severely constrained by the very scarce knowledge on variety-specific values of model parameters, thus limiting the potential exploitation of intra-specific biodiversity towards adaptation. We have developed an approach towards this objective that relies on two complementary elements: a)a distributed model of the soil plant atmosphere system to downscale climate scenarios to landscape units, where generic model parameters for each species are used; b)a data base on climatic requirements of as many varieties as feasible for each species relevant to the agricultural production system of a given region. By means of this approach, the adaptability of some olive cultivars was evaluated in a composite (hills and plains) area of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, Campania Region, about 20.000 ha). The yearly average temperature is 22.5 °C and rainfall ranges between 600 and 900 mm. Two different climate scenarios were considered: current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios at low spatial resolution were generated with general circulation models (AOGCM) and down-scaled by means of a statistical model (Tomozeiu et al., 2007). The climate was represented by daily observations of minimum, maximum temperature and precipitation on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km; 50 realizations were used for future climate. The soil water regime of 45 soil units was described for

  9. Electromagnetic outline of the Solfatara-Pisciarelli hydrothermal system, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Patella, D.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2014-05-01

    We describe the results from a combined controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) and natural source magnetotelluric (MT) survey carried out in the Solfatara-Pisciarelli (S-P) area, located in the central part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) composite caldera, west of Naples, Southern Italy. The S-P area represents the most active zone within the CF caldera, in terms of hydrothermal manifestations and local seismicity. Since 1969, the CF caldera is experiencing ground deformation, seismicity and geochemical fluid changes, which are particularly evident in the S-P area. A 1 km long, nearly W-E directed CSAMT-MT profile crossing the fumarole field was carried out in the S-P area with the aim of deducting a resistivity model of the structural setting of the hydrothermal system in the first 3 km depth. An interpretation of the modelled section across the profile is given in this paper, taking advantage from already existing seismic, gravity and geochemical data in the same area. Three well distinct zones have been outlined. The first zone is a very shallow, electrically conductive body localized beneath the westernmost segment of the profile, which, within a short distance of about 100 m, dips westwards from near surface down to some hundred metres in depth. Mostly accounting for the very low resistivity (1-10 Ω m) and the exceedingly high values of vP/vS (> 4), this shallow zone has been ascribed to a water-saturated, high-pressurized geothermal reservoir. The second zone, which has been localized below the west-central portion of the CSAMT-MT transect, appears as a composite body made up of a nearly vertical plumelike structure that escapes at about 2.25 km depth from the top edge of the east side of a presumably horizontal platelike body. The plumelike structure rises up to the free surface in correspondence of the fumarole field, whereas the platelike structure deepens at least down to the 3 km of maximum exploration depth. The combined interpretation of

  10. Geochemistry and argon thermochronology of the Variscan Sila Batholith, southern Italy: source rocks and magma evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, R.A.; Messina, A.; de Vivo, B.; Russo, S.; Woodruff, L.G.; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Sila batholith is the largest granitic massif in the Calabria-Peloritan Arc of southern Italy, consisting of syn to post-tectonic, calc-alkaline and metaluminous tonalite to granodiorite, and post-tectonic, peraluminous and strongly peraluminous, two-mica??cordierite??Al silicate granodiorite to leucomonzogranite. Mineral 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic analyses document Variscan emplacement and cooling of the intrusives (293-289 Ma). SiO2 content in the granitic rocks ranges from ???57 to 77 wt%; cumulate gabbro enclaves have SiO2 as low as 42%. Variations in absolute abundances and ratios involving Hf, Ta, Th, Rb, and the REE, among others, identify genetically linked groups of granitic rocks in the batholith: (1) syn-tectonic biotite??amphibole-bearing tonalites to granodiorites, (2) post-tectonic two-mica??Al-silicate-bearing granodiorites to leucomonzogranites, and (3) post-tectonic biotite??hornblende tonalites to granodiorites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns display variable values of Ce/Yb (up to ???300) and generally small negative Eu anomalies. Degree of REE fractionation depends on whether the intrusives are syn- or post-tectonic, and on their mineralogy. High and variable values of Rb/Y (0.40-4.5), Th/Sm (0.1-3.6), Th/Ta (0-70), Ba/Nb (1-150), and Ba/Ta (???50-2100), as well as low values of Nb/U (???2-28) and La/Th (???1-10) are consistent with a predominant and heterogeneous crustal contribution to the batholith. Whole rock ??18O ranges from ???+8.2 to +11.7???; the mafic cumulate enclaves have the lowest ??18O values and the two-mica granites have the highest values. ??18O values for biotite??honblende tonalitic and granodioritic rocks (9.1 to 10.8???) overlap the values of the mafic enclaves and two-mica granodiorites and leucogranites (10.7 to 11.7???). The initial Pb isotopic range of the granitic rocks (206Pb/204Pb ???18.17-18.45, 207Pb/204Pb ???15.58-15.77, 208Pb/204Pb ???38.20-38.76) also indicates the predominance of a crustal source

  11. Distribution of trace elements in altered pyroclastites from Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy

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    Piccarreta, G.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Three pyroclastic deposits from Monte Yulture volcanic area (Potenza, southern Italy looking like paleosols in the field were investigated in a previous study for mineralogy and major elements to estimate the stage of the weathering. Here is dealt with the behaviour of sorne trace elements (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in the same deposits to give a comprehensive geochemical picture. The distribution of the chemical elements within the whole rock and after its attack with Na-pyrosulfate (residue + solute has been considered. Ba and Sr, as well as their distribution, appear to be controlled by the residual crystals in each of the deposits; La, Ce, Y and Nb are more concentrated in the solute that once was represented by vitric component, allophane, and Fe-Si-Al gels, biotite, carbonates and analcite; Y, Cr, and Ni show similar trends in whole rock and in solute. In particular La, Ce, Y, Y, Cr and Ni in the lowermost unit increase with the depth, as well as the contents of gels and allophane. Probably this behaviour was superimposed by the fluctuation of the water tables, as documented by the occurrence of a carbonate level upon the unit lies. It is concluded that the earliest stage of weathering did not affect the trace element distribution and that interpretations about chemical changes in deeply altered pyroclastic rocks should be always the outcome of careful accurate analyses.En un trabajo previo se estudiaron tres depósitos piroclásticos, considerados como paleosuelos, del área volcánica del Monte Yulture (Potenza, Italia para deducir su grado de meteorización. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de algunos elementos traza (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb en esos depósitos para intentar obtener una imagen geoquímica más completa. Se ha estudiado la distribución de elementos traza en la roca total y después de un ataque con pirosulfato-Na (residuo + solución. Ba y Sr parecen estar controlados

  12. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  13. Measuring forest floor evaporation from interception in prescribed burned forests in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Elisabetta; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Greco, Roberto; Ialongo, Gianluca; Esposito, Assunta; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are one of the major environmental issue in the Mediterranean area. Prescribed burning (PB) is increasingly used in Europe as a practice to reduce fire risk, through dead fine fuel reduction. Several studies have focused on fire effects on vegetation and soil microbial community, but very few on ecosystem processes involved in water cycle. This study aims to estimate interception by the litter and fermentation layer and the successive evaporation flux in laboratory conditions, using a water balance and 2H and 18O isotopes mass balance calculation, in order to assess PB effects on the hydrology and ecosystem in pine plantations. PB was carried out in spring 2014 in three pine plantations of Southern Italy, dominated by Pinus halepensis (Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni National Park, CVDANP), P. pinaster (Vesuvio National Park, VNP) and P. pinea (Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, CVNR). A dataset concerning the effects of PB on vegetation structure, floristic composition, microbial biomass and activity in the fermentation layer and 5-cm of soil beneath is available for the same stands. In each plantation, two cores of litter and fermentation layer were sampled in a burned area and in a near unburned area (control), respectively, with a collector to extract an "undisturbed" core. Then, each core was transferred in a lysimeter installed in the Water Lab of Delft University of Technology. In total, three lysimeters were set up and each experiment was carried out in duplicate. The laboratory had constant temperature, and both temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 15 minutes. To simulate rainfall, ~1 litre of tap water was sprinkled uniformly on the lysimeter with a plant spray (equivalent to 32 mm of rain). The precipitation was sprinkled every 3 days for a period of two months. Soil moisture and temperature were measured during the experiment every 15 minutes in the top and bottom of the litter and fermentation layer. Interception water was

  14. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

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    Antonio Romano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  15. Post-Hercynian subvolcanic magmatism in the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, V.; Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tranchina, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) dykes and subvolcanic bodies intrude diffusively both Hercynian metamorphic rocks and late-Hercynian granitoids. They range in composition from basaltic andesites to dacite-rhyodacites and can be ascribed to the extensive magmatic activity that affects the entire Hercynian orogenic belt in late Paleozoic - early Mesozoic time. The geodinamic framework of the magmatic activity is still matter of debate, nevertheless most authors agree in correlating magmatism both to the late-orogenic collapse of the Hercynian belt and to the lithosphere thinning responsible for the subsequent continental rifting. In this work, we propose a petrogenetic model for acidic to basic hypabissal bodies from southern Calabria in order to define the nature of sources, discriminate magmatic processes and supply a contribution in the geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic in the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. In relation to their geochemical affinity, studied dykes have been divided in two groups: a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and a tholeiitic one. Dykes belonging to the former group, andesitic and dacitic-rhyodacitic in composition, show typical features of subduction-related magmatism, such as LILE and LREE enrichments, depletions in HFSE, peaks in Rb, Th and Ce, accentuated troughs in Ba, Nb-Ta, P and Ti (White and Dupré, 1986; McCulloch and Gamble, 1991), contrasting with the late Hercynian collisional context. On the other side, features typical of intra-plate magmatic activity, such as a moderate enrichment in Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf and Sm relative to MORB composition are also present in studied rocks (Shimizu & Arculus, 1975; Pearce, 1982). REE-patterns are strongly to weakly fractionated for the andesitic rocks (Lan/Ybn = 10.03-13.98) and the dacitic-rhyodacitic ones (Lan/Ybn = 6.00 to 2.82), respectively. The latter rocks exhibit a very slight negative Eu anomaly, whereas no Eu anomaly is recognizable in the andesite

  16. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene vegetation and climate in Southern Italy: the case of Lago di Trifoglietti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Brugiapaglia, E.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Bernardo, L.; Magny, M.; Peyron, O.; Vannière, B.

    2012-06-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Lake Trifoglietti in Calabria (Southern Italy) provides new insights into the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes which characterise the Holocene period in the Southern Italy. The chronology is based on 11 AMS radiocarbon dates from terrestrial macro-remains. The Holocene history of the vegetation cover shows the persistence of an important and relatively stable Fagus forest present over that entire period, offering a rare example of a woodstand able to withstand climate changes for more than 11 000 yr. Probably in relation with early Holocene dry climate conditions which affected Southern Italy, the Trifoglietti pollen record supports a southward delay in thermophilous forest expansion dated to ca. 13 500 cal. BP at Monticchio, ca. 11 000 cal. BP at Trifoglietti, and finally ca. 9800 cal. BP in Sicily. Regarding the human impact history, the Trifoglietti pollen record shows only poor imprints of agricultural activities and anthopogenic indicators, apart from those indicating pastoralism activities beneath forest cover. The selective exploitation of Abies appears to have been the strongest human impact on the Trifoglietti surroundings. On the basis of (1) a specific ratio between hygrophilous and terrestrial taxa, and (2) the modern analogue technique, the pollen data collected at Lake Trifoglietti led to the establishment of two palaeoclimatic records tracing changes in (1) lake depth and (2) annual precipitation. On a millennial scale, these records give evidence of increasing moisture from ca. 11 000 to ca. 9400 cal. BP and maximum humidity from ca. 9400 to ca. 6200 cal. BP, prior to a general trend towards the drier climate conditions that have prevailed up to the present. In addition, several successive centennial-scale oscillations appear to have punctuated the entire Holocene. The identification of a cold dry event around 11 300 cal. BP, responsible for a marked decline in timberline altitude and possibly

  17. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene vegetation and climate in southern Italy: the case of Lago Trifoglietti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Brugiapaglia, E.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Bernardo, L.; Magny, M.; Peyron, O.; Goring, S.; Vannière, B.

    2012-12-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Lago Trifoglietti in Calabria (southern Italy) provides new insights into the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes which characterise the Holocene period in the southern Italy. The chronology is based on 11 AMS radiocarbon dates from terrestrial organic material. The Holocene history of the vegetation cover shows the persistence of an important and relatively stable Fagus forest present over that entire period, offering a rare example of a beech woodstand able to withstand climate changes for more than 11 000 yr. Probably in relation with early Holocene dry climate conditions which affected southern Italy, the Trifoglietti pollen record supports a southward delay in thermophyllous forest expansion dated to ca. 13 500 cal BP at Monticchio, ca. 11 000 cal BP at Trifoglietti, and finally ca. 9800 cal BP in Sicily. Regarding the human impact history, the Trifoglietti pollen record shows only poor imprints of agricultural activities and anthopogenic indicators, apart from those indicating pastoralism activities beneath forest cover. The selective exploitation of Abies appears to have been the strongest human impact on the Trifoglietti surroundings. On the basis of (1) a specific ratio between hygrophilous and terrestrial taxa, and (2) the Modern Analogue Technique, the pollen data collected at Lago Trifoglietti led to the establishment of two palaeoclimatic records tracing changes in (1) lake depth and (2) annual precipitation. On a millennial scale, these records give evidence of increasing moisture from ca. 11 000 to ca. 9400 cal BP and maximum humidity from ca. 9400 to ca. 6200 cal BP, prior to a general trend towards the drier climate conditions that have prevailed up to the present. In addition, several successive centennial-scale oscillations appear to have punctuated the entire Holocene. The identification of a cold dry event around 11 300 cal BP, responsible for a marked decline in timberline altitude and possibly

  18. Monitoring Peripheral Populations Of The Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra In Southern Italy: New Occurrences In The Sila National Park

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    Manlio Marcelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a period of strong decline, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra has re-expanded its area of distribution in Italy from 1984 to 2004, mainly toward the southern periphery of its range. The Sila National Park is located in a strategic position along a drainage divide separating southern peripheral otter populations from unoccupied but potentially recolonizable habitats. A research project aimed to evaluate the aquatic habitats of the Sila National Park for otter recolonization is now in progress. At present, we have surveyed 14 sampling sites to detect otter presence in the study area. Two positive sites were found on the Arvo river. These records represent the first evidence of otter presence in the Sila area after extinction apparently occurred in the late 1970s. One of the two positive sites was negative in the 2003. These data seem to indicate that otter recolonization in the southern periphery of Italian distribution range is still in progress. Management actions in the Sila National Park may favour recolonization processes.

  19. Investigation of subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) through multitemporal DInSAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of an experiment aimed at detecting possible displacements due to subsidence in the coastal area of the Tavoliere plain, Puglia Region, in Southern Italy, through analysis of remotely sensed data. The Tavoliere is the second largest Italian plain. Its coastal area, between the urban centers of Manfredonia and Barletta, is composed of a 50 km long sandy beach (Manfredonia gulf), linking the Gargano massif at north with the Murge plateau in the south-east. Both areas belong to the carbonate Mesozoic Apulian platform. The current configuration of the Gulf was reached recently, as a consequence of the Holocene sea level rise. During the Neolithic age the plain was occupied by an elongated lagoon (Salpi Lagoon) [1]. During the 2nd century B.C., alluvial deposition caused the lagoon to be separated into two basins: the so-called Salpi lake at south and the Salso lake at north. To cope with the increasing demand of arable lands and with the necessity to make unhealthy areas accessible to humans, some reclaims were accomplished by diverting and channelling the rivers crossing the Tavoliere plain, and by levelling dune belts. At present, the beach is separated by low artificial dunes from the areas already reclaimed and intensely cultivated or exploited as evaporation basin for salt production. In the last decades, the coastal area has been retreating due to a reduction in sediment input necessary for coastal equilibrium. The levelling of dunes and the decrease of fluvial turbid discharge due to dam constructions are probably the cause of this deficit in sediment supply. During highly intense hydrodynamic and meteorological events, sea waters often penetrate deeply inland, flooding intensively cultivated areas. These events are occurring with growing frequency and rates. They are an indication of the possibility that those areas are subject to subsidence at a faster rate in comparison to the surroundings. An example is the salt marsh located inland of the

  20. Dengue fever in travellers and risk of local spreading: case reports from Southern Italy and literature update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Claudia; Lepore, Luciana; Chironna, Maria; Angarano, Gioacchino; Saracino, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), an arbovirosis caused by Dengue viruses (DV, serotypes 1-4), is responsible for an increasing number of travel-related acute febrile illnesses due to population growth, climate changes, spreading by viremic travellers, and improved laboratory diagnosis. The presence of efficient vectors (mosquito Aedes albopictus) has also been described in temperate regions including Italy which is considered the most heavily infected European country. Normally characterized by non-specific signs and symptoms, DF incidence is probably underestimated, especially in non-endemic countries, but the risk of severe forms is substantial. Between August and November 2013, five DF patients (4 males, age 23-38) were observed in the Infectious Disease Clinic (University of Bari, Southern Italy). All had just returned from DF endemic areas (2 French Polynesia, 3 Dominican Republic); 4/5 were hospitalized. Common clinical features included acute febrile syndrome, headache (2 with retro-orbital pain), rash (all patients), two with bleeding manifestations and one with gum bleeding. Laboratory tests demonstrated leukopenia (4 patients), elevated liver enzymes (3 patients), and thrombocytopenia (1 patient). Serum samples for DV antibodies and RNA detection were analyzed by the Regional Arbovirosis Reference Laboratory. Viral RNA was identified in 2/5 patients (DV-4) and seroconversion in the remaining cases. All patients made a complete recovery. Recent literature was reviewed, focusing on epidemiology and vector distribution (especially European and Italian territories), pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment including vaccine strategies. The occurrence of 5 DF cases during the period of highest vector activity (June-November) in Italy emphasizes the risk of local outbreaks in temperate regions. This paper highlights the importance of clinical alert for dengue also in non-endemic countries.

  1. Risk analysis and perception of an hypothetic volcanogenic tsunami along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita

    2016-04-01

    The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.

  2. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  3. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals Jointly measured in a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy

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    S. Piscitelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  4. Improvement of Solar and Wind forecasting in southern Italy through a multi-model approach: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Elenio; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Federico, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The improvement of the Solar and Wind short-term forecasting represents a critical goal for the weather prediction community and is of great importance for a better estimation of power production from solar and wind farms. In this work we analyze the performance of two deterministic models operational at ISAC-CNR for the prediction of short-wave irradiance and wind speed, at two experimental sites in southern Italy. A post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted to improve the performance of the two mesoscale models. The results show that the multi-model approach produces a significant error reduction with respect to the forecast of each model. The error is reduced up to 20 % of the model errors, depending on the parameter and forecasting time.

  5. CAIROELLA TRICAMERATA N. GEN., N. SP. (FORAMINIFERIDA, MILIOLOIDEA FROM THE LOWER CENOMANIAN OF MONTE CAIRO (SOUTHERN LATIUM, CENTRAL ITALY

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    MAURIZIO CHIOCCHINI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new porcelaneous foraminifer, Cairoella tricamerata n. gen., n. sp., is here described from the lower Cenomanian of the Monte Cairo area near Cassino (Southern Latium, Italy. The new taxon is characterized by an early stage with triloculine to quinqueloculine coiling, followed by one or two whorls, each consisting of three or more tubular, curved, flattened and undivided chambers, with depressed sutures; it is ascribed  to the superfamily Milioloidea, but the inferred  attribution to the family Hauerinidae remains uncertain. In the type-locality its occurrence is restricted to the back-edge facies of the Latium-Abruzzi carbonate platform represented by fossiliferous grain-supported limestone rich in Sellialveolina viallii Colalongo, 1963.

  6. Activities and vectors responsible for the biological pollution in the Taranto Seas (Mediterranean Sea, southern Italy): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A; Belmonte, M; Portacci, G; Rubino, F

    2016-07-01

    Biological pollution, caused by the negative impact of alien species, also known as non-indigenous species (NIS), is regarded as one of the greatest threat to marine ecosystems. The recent upsurge in the number and spread of these species drew attention to putative vectors such as shipping and shellfish importation for culture and consumption. The port of Taranto in Southern Italy is a hub for several vectors as it serves commercial and military shipping, fishing and recreational boating, in addition to shellfish importation. An analysis of anthropogenic activities and possible vectors in Taranto Seas was recently carried out within the framework of the RITMARE Project, involving local stakeholders. Different categories of stakeholders answered dedicated questionnaires with a high degree of reticence, and this highlighted a general lack of awareness of the problems associated with alien species. Consequently, there is a strong need to instil a truly ecological awareness among the general public and stakeholders.

  7. A database on flash flood events in Campania, southern Italy, with an evaluation of their spatial and temporal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennari, Carmela; Parise, Mario; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an historical database of flash flood events in the Campania region of southern Italy. The study focuses on small catchments characterized by intermittent flow, generally occurring during and after heavy rainstorms, which can be hydrologically defined as small Mediterranean catchments. As the outlet zones of these catchments (consisting mainly of alluvial fans or fan deltas) are highly urbanized in Campania, the population living in the delivery areas is exposed to high risk. Detailed scrutiny and critical analysis of the existing literature, and of the data inventory available, allowed us to build a robust database consisting of about 500 events from 1540 to 2015, which is continuously updated. Since this study is the first step of a longer project to perform a hazard analysis, information about time and site of occurrence is known for all events. As for the hazard analysis envisaged, collecting information about past events could provide information on future events, in terms of damage and also spatial and temporal occurrence. After introducing the issue of flash floods in Italy we then describe the geological and geomorphological settings of the study area. The database is then presented, illustrating the methodology used in collecting information and its general structure. The collected data are then discussed and the statistical data analysis presented.

  8. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

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    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  9. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

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    S. Joannin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions

  10. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Joannin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during

  11. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J. N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

    2013-04-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP) and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  12. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J.-N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

    2012-11-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP) and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  13. Microcystin Contamination in Sea Mussel Farms from the Italian Southern Adriatic Coast following Cyanobacterial Blooms in an Artificial Reservoir

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    De Pace Rita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed in 2009-2010 to investigate the polluting effect of eutrophic inland waters communicating with the sea coast. The study was planned after a heavy and long-lasting Planktothrix rubescens bloom occurred in the Lake Occhito, an artificial reservoir. The waters of the reservoir flow into the southern Adriatic Sea, near several marine breeding of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels, a typical seafood from the Apulia region (Southern Italy. A monitoring study of water and mussels from the sea coast of northern Apulia region and on the Occhito reservoir was carried out over twelve months, to get more information regarding the contamination by cyanobacteria and related cyanotoxins. Elisa immunoassay analyses estimated total microcystin amounts from 1.73 to 256 ng/g in mussels, up to 0.61 μg/L in sea water and up to 298.7 μg/L in lake water. Analyses of some samples of free-living marine clams as well as of marine and freshwater fish proved microcystin contamination. Selective confirmatory analyses by LC/ESI-Q-ToF-MS/MS on some mussel samples identified the microcystin desMe-MC-RR as the major toxin; this compound has been reported in the literature as a specific marker toxin of Planktothrix rubescens blooms. Our study describes for the first time the direct relationship between environmental pollution and food safety, caused by seafood contamination from freshwater toxic blooms.

  14. The northward tectonic transport in the southern Apennines: examples from the Capri Island and western Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Stefano; Tramparulo, Francesco D'Assisi; Ciarcia, Sabatino; Amore, Filomena Ornella; Prinzi, Ernesto Paolo; Laiena, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a thrust fault system located in the western Sorrento Peninsula and Capri Island (southern Italy) where several mesoscale structures related to the main thrusts, such as Riedel shear planes, overturned folds, minor thrust and back-thrust faults, suggest a dominant northward tectonic transport. Major and minor thrust faults, generally characterized by a ramp-flat geometry, involved the Mesozoic Apennine carbonates, the Middle Miocene foredeep, and the unconformable thrust-top basin deposits. The biostratigraphic analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages on the thrust-top basin sediments indicates an age not older than late Tortonian. We propose that this out-of-sequence thrusting stage was related to a regional tectonic event widespread in the entire southern Apennines, probably occurred in the Pliocene time simultaneously with the activity of deep-seated thrust faults that involved the buried carbonates of the Apulian platform. These out-of-sequence thrust faults, here referred to as "envelopment thrusts," were enucleated in a lower structural level with respect to the allochthonous wedge, representing the W-E segments of large regional arcuate structures.

  15. Deep electrical resistivity tomography and geothermal analysis of Bradano foredeep deposits in Venosa area (Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.

  16. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area.

  17. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3 gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

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    Fabio Pilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available K-casein (K-CN represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere, have been analysed in this paper by the primer extension method.Alleles A and B were found to be the most represented in all the analysed breeds; allele D is present only in Maltese andCashmere animals with a very low frequency; while allele G has been found in all but two (Garganica and Cashmerebreeds. Alleles C, E and F were not present in the material used for this study.

  18. Novel mutations and structural implications in R-type pyruvate kinase-deficient patients from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, L; Della Morte, R; Frisso, G; Alfinito, F; Vitale, D; Calise, R M; Ferraro, F; Zagari, A; Rotoli, B; Salvatore, F

    1998-01-01

    Deficiency of the R-type pyruvate kinase (R-PK) causes an autosomal recessive, hereditary, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA). We screened seven unrelated patients from the south of Italy for the known mutations and found one patient homozygous for the 1529A (R510Q) mutation, two others bearing the 1456T (R486W) mutation, one homozygous and another heterozygous, and two heterozygotes for the 994A mutation (G332S). We also found three novel mutations at the heterozygote status: a G to C transversion in position 1010 (1010C; R337P) and a C to T transition in position 1492 (1492T; R498C), which are missense, and a T to G transversion in position 1523 (1523G; L508Z), which produces a stop codon with a subsequent loss of the C-terminal protein domain. The structural features of R-PK in the mutation-bearing regions were examined. In all cases the mutations altered the local conformation of the enzyme. Both G332S and R337P are in highly conserved sequence regions. In particular, the R337P mutation significantly affects the intersubunit interactions, because it is located in a region subjected to a large conformational change that occurs during the R-->T allosteric transition, which is essential for the enzyme activity. The R486W mutation affects an external pocketlike region, producing only a local conformational change; the R498C mutation changes the interactions among neighbouring residues; the R510Q mutation involves the loss of interdomain interactions that may reduce enzyme stability and activity. Our data also indicate that in patients from Southern Italy, pyruvate kinase deficiency is heterogeneous, the 1529A mutation, which is the most frequent mutation in the U.S. Caucasian population, having a lower frequency.

  19. Organotins (TBT and DBT) in water, sediments, and gastropods of the southern Venice lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, D; Giani, M; Boscolo, R; Covelli, S; Giovanardi, O; Massironi, M; Grassia, L

    2007-01-01

    The release of tributyltin (TBT) from maritime traffic represents one of the main problems of direct, diffuse, and continued contamination of the marine environment. In the present survey, the concentrations of TBT and dibultytin (DBT) in brackish waters, sediments, and the gastropods Nassarius nitidus were evaluated in order to estimate the contamination of the southern part of the Venice lagoon. TBT and DBT were determined by GC-MS/MS. Recent contamination of TBT was found in brackish waters near marinas, whereas the highest concentrations of TBT and DBT were observed in surface sediments at dockyards and harbours. High content of organotin in the gastropods sampled near the dockyards, harbours, and marinas showed a mobilisation from the sediments through the food web. The present study allowed assessment of whether, despite the ban on the use of TBT paints, waters, sediments, and biota were still being contaminated by organotin compounds in the southern Venice lagoon.

  20. Tephrochronological study in the quaternary Val d'Agri intermontane basin (Southern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembo, Irene; Vignola, Pietro; Andò, Sergio; Bersezio, Riccardo; Vezzoli, Luigina

    2011-01-01

    In the south-eastern depocentre of the Val d'Agri basin (Southern Apennines), a volcanic ash layer crops out interbedded within poorly structured alluvial fan deposits of Late Pleistocene age. Textural, depositional and pedological features of this weathered layer suggest a primary deposition from a pyroclastic fall-out of volcanic ash. Chemical analyses of feldspars show an alkali trachytic composition and accessory minerals association allow to correlate this tephra layer with the regionally dispersed Y-7 marine tephra layer (Tufo Verde Epomeo eruption, Ischia volcano), dated at 56 ± 4 ka. The Val d'Agri tephra here described for the first time was deposited during MIS Stage 3. Its recovery and characterization permit to contribute to regional correlation of the Mediterranean climatic and volcanic events from marine to continental successions and to describe landscape evolution of the Southern Apennines during glacial-interglacial cycles.

  1. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Laganà; Elena Salerni; Carla Barluzzi; Claudia Perini; Vincenzo de Dominicis

    2014-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already st...

  2. Pisolithic ferricretes around the Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary in southern Sardinia (Italy) as palaeoenvironmental proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Marco; Ferrara, Concetta; Matteucci, Ruggero; Da Pelo, Stefania; Sarria, Edoardo; Vacca, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Some of the weathering deposits that formed during the emersive phase, which in Sardinia lasted from Late Cretaceous to Palaeocene-Early Eocene, consist today of ferruginous palaeosols (ferricretes), sometimes overlain by palustrine limestones. In this article, the two outcrops at Nuxis and Guardia Pisano, containing a ferricrete composed of subspherical goethitic-hematitic concretions, are studied in detail. The main components are Fe, Al, Si, along with Ba, which is very abundant in the Nuxis outcrop. With the exception of the barite, the pisolithic ferricretes of Sardinia can be compared, for their chemical and mineralogical composition, with the pisoplinthites that form in modern tropical soils. They are also comparable with the pisolithic ferricretes cropping out in southern France, that formed around the K/T boundary. The pisolithic ferricretes of southern France and Sardinia can be interpreted as the weathering product of identical warm and humid climatic conditions and, reasonably, of the same climatic event. Therefore, they provide further evidence that Sardinia and southern France formed part of the same palaeogeographic province. A tropical environment is, on the other hand, consistent with the barite leaching from the Palaeozoic substratum and with its reprecipitation into the iron pisoliths. Micro- and nanostructures, observed using SEM analysis within and between the concentric layers of the pisoliths, are consistent with biological processes involving bacteria during their deposition.

  3. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

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    R. SANTORO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  4. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  5. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy) in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Esposito; Pece, R.; Porfido, S.; G. Tranfaglia

    2009-01-01

    The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7) in the Southern Apennines (Italy) was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrogra...

  6. New study on the reproductive biology of a sexual strain of Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina, found in southern Italy: A genetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, Mario; Giannini Forli, Enrica [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell`Ambiente e del Territorio. Lab. di Zoologia

    1997-12-31

    The offspring of a sexual strain of Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina, found in southern Italy, was studied. They have collected and controlled the cocoons laid by F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} specimens, ascertaining that the degree of sterility, in F{sub 1} appears similar to that of parental generation, while it increases in F{sub 2}, in which many cocoons were found completely empty.

  7. Convective initiation and maintenance processes of two back-building mesoscale convective systems leading to heavy precipitation events in Southern Italy during HyMeX IOP 13

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Keun-Ok; Flamant, Cyrille; Ducrocq, Véronique; Duffourg, Fanny; Fourrié, Nadia; Davolio, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; During Intensive Observation Period 13 (15–16 October 2012) of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX), Southern Italy (SI) was affected by two consecutive heavy precipitation events (HPEs). Both HPEs were associated with multi-cell V-shaped retrograde regeneration mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). The life cycle of two MCSs in connection with their dynamic and thermodynamic environments were analysed usin...

  8. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy

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    N. Santangelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy. These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes.

    The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network, the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  9. How many otters are there in Italy?

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    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Riassunto
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  10. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H.

    1994-01-01

    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. ENEA Southern Latium (Italy) seismic array. Rete sismica ENEA del Lazio meridionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervellati, R.; Cochi, C.; Vitiello, F.

    1985-03-01

    The planning and development of ENEA's (Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energies) Southern Latium Seismic array are described. The paper describes the geology of the region and discusses why ENEA chose this area to carry out seismotectonic research. It contains a detailed description of each seismic station and the signal teletransmission method, which made possible the coverage of an uneven orographic area with a point-to-point radio relay system. Finally it describes the acquisition of seismic data in Casaccia.

  12. Characterization of measles virus strains circulating in Southern Italy (Palermo area, Sicily) between 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urone, Noemi; Colomba, Claudia; Ferraro, Donatella

    2016-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) was classified in 24 genotypes that show a distinct geographic distribution. Genotypes contain multiple distinct lineages. In 2011 large outbreaks of measles occurred in Italy and in many European countries. Aims of this study are to analyze the intra-genotype variability and to follow the importation and the spread of new MV strains in Sicily. A fragment of 450 bps of MV C-terminal nucleoprotein was sequenced from sera of 73 Sicilian patients with symptomatic measles infections, occurred between 2010 and 2011. Five MV strains were D4 genotype and 68 were D8 genotype. The MV/D4 sequences were related to MV/D4-Enfield variant. Two lineages of MV/D8 genotypes, related to MV/D8-Villupuram variant and to a strain found in Birmingham in 2006 respectively, were identified. This is the first study that reports the co-circulation of different MV genotypes and lineages in Sicily suggesting multiple origins of the outbreak that occurred during 2010 and 2011 years.

  13. The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Anagnostou, Paolo; Busby, George B J; Ferri, Gianmarco; Thomas, Mark G; Taglioli, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Bolnick, Deborah; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Luiselli, Donata; Shepherd, Gillian B; Tusa, Sebastiano; Facella, Antonino; Capelli, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Greek colonisation of South Italy and Sicily (Magna Graecia) was a defining event in European cultural history, although the demographic processes and genetic impacts involved have not been systematically investigated. Here, we combine high-resolution surveys of the variability at the uni-parentally inherited Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in selected samples of putative source and recipient populations with forward-in-time simulations of alternative demographic models to detect signatures of that impact. Using a subset of haplotypes chosen to represent historical sources, we recover a clear signature of Greek ancestry in East Sicily compatible with the settlement from Euboea during the Archaic Period (eighth to fifth century BCE). We inferred moderate sex-bias in the numbers of individuals involved in the colonisation: a few thousand breeding men and a few hundred breeding women were the estimated number of migrants. Last, we demonstrate that studies aimed at quantifying Hellenic genetic flow by the proportion of specific lineages surviving in present-day populations may be misleading.

  14. Variability of the coat protein gene of Citrus psorosis virus in Campania, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioto, D; Malfitano, M; Troisi, A; Peluso, A; Martin, S; Milne, R G; Guerri, J; Moreno, P

    2003-11-01

    Variability of the Coat protein (CP) gene of Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) was assessed serologically, and by sequence analyses of two genomic regions located in the 3' (region C) and 5' (region V) halves of the gene. Analysis of 53 psorosis field sources from Campania, Italy, with 23 monoclonal antibodies revealed nine serogroups and at least ten different epitopes. Sequence analysis of 19 of these sources showed limited nucleotide diversity of the CP gene in the population. Diversity was slightly higher in region V than in region C. Phylogenetic analysis of the V and C regions of the CP showed that the Campania sources of CPsV were clearly separated from the CPsV-4 isolate from Florida. For C region, most of the CPsV sources clustered together, whereas two clusters were observed for region V. The ratio between nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions for regions C (0.083) and V (0.345) indicated negative selective pressure for amino acid changes, more intense in the C region. No correlation was found between serogroups and specific aminoacid sequences, field location or citrus cultivar.

  15. The occurrence of floods and the role of climate variations from 1880 in Calabria (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polemio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a methodological approach based on a comparative analysis of floods that occurred in a wide region over a long period and the climatic data characterising the same period, focusing on the climate trend. The method simplifies the comparative analysis of several time series by defining some indexes (e.g. the monthly, bi-monthly, and ... m-monthly indexes of precipitation, temperature, wet days and precipitation intensity and the monthly flood number that can be used to study phenomena such as floods that are characterised by spatial and temporal variability. The analysis was used to investigate the potential effect of climate variation on the damaging floods trend.

    The approach was tested for the Calabria region (Italy using historical flood and climatic data from 1880 to 2007. The results showed that the number of floods was correlated with the monthly indexes of precipitation, wet days, and daily precipitation intensity. The following trends were recognised: decreasing precipitation and wet days, almost constant precipitation intensity, increasing temperature, and linearly increasing floods. A second-order polynomial trend analysis showed a slight decrease in floods since the seventies, which might be explained by the favourable climatic conditions during the period and/or the effect of increasing awareness of flood vulnerability.

  16. Benthic foraminifera from two coastal lakes of southern Latium (Italy). Preliminary evaluation of environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Maria Gabriella; Succi, Maria Cristina; Bergamin, Luisa; Di Bella, Letizia; Frezza, Virgilio; Landini, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera and sediment texture were studied on a total of 37 samples, collected from two brackish-water coastal basins: Fogliano Lake and Lungo Lake (central Italy). The research was performed as a preliminary low-cost survey to highlight the degree of the environmental stress and to recognize a possible anthropogenic disturbance. The sedimentological and foraminiferal data were processed by bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Three distinct assemblages, referable to different environments were recognized for the Fogliano Lake: inner, intermediate and outer lagoon. Only the outer lagoon assemblage was found in the Lungo Lake. The distribution of foraminifera in the Fogliano Lake suggests a natural environmental stress probably due to the ecological instability typical of marginal environments, while the absence of the inner and intermediate lagoon assemblages in the Lungo Lake suggests an environmental disturbance possibly related to human activities. An interdisciplinary survey including geochemical analyses is recommended in order to deduce the nature and degree of pollution in the Lungo Lake.

  17. A study to constrain the geometry of an active fault in southern Italy through borehole breakouts and downhole logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola

    2011-10-01

    Identification of an active fault and the local versus regional present-day stress field in the Irpinia region (southern Apennines) have been performed along a 5900 m deep well (San Gregorio Magno 1) by a detailed breakout and geophysical log analysis. The selected area is characterized by diffuse low magnitude seismicity, although in historical times moderate to large earthquakes have repeatedly struck it. On 23rd November 1980 a strong earthquake ( M = 6.9) nucleated on a 38-km long normal fault, named Irpinia fault, producing the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows a direction of minimum horizontal stress N18°±24°, fairly consistent with the regional stress trend (N44°±20°). The small discrepancy between our result and the regional stress orientation might be related to the influence of local stress sources such as variations of the Irpinia fault plane orientation and the presence of differently oriented active shear zones. This paper shows for the first time a detailed analysis on the present-day stress along a well to identify the Irpinia fault at depth and constrain its geometry.

  18. Evaluation of a bioassays battery for ecotoxicological screening of marine sediments from Ionian Sea (Mediterranea Sea, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Ermelinda; Parlapiano, Isabella; Biandolino, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    Sediments are an ecologically important component of the aquatic environment and may play a key role in mediating the exchange of contaminants between particulate, dissolved, and biological phases. For a comprehensive assessment of potential sediment toxicity, the use of a single species may not detect toxicant with a specific mode of action. Therefore it is advisable to carry out ecotoxicological tests on a base-set of taxa utilizing test species belonging to different trophic levels. This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments from seven sites of Mar Piccolo estuary (Southern, Italy), four of them were located in the first inlet and three in the second inlet of Mar Piccolo estuary. Sediment samples from a site in Taranto Gulf were used as control sediment. Dunaliella tertiolecta, Tigriopus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Corophium insidiosum, were employed to identify the quality of sediments. The integration of biological tests results showed that all sampling sites located in the first inlet of Mar Piccolo were identified as toxic, according to all tests, while the sites of second inlet were found not toxic. The results obtained in this study indicate that the use of a battery of biological tests have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine e coastal waters.

  19. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  20. Mapping the main Leishmania phlebotomine vector in the endemic focus of the Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy

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    Erika Rossi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems and remote sensing were used to analyze the distribution of the Leishmania infantum-Phlebotomus perniciosus parasite-vector system in relation to environmental features of two opposite sides (coastal and Apennine of Mt. Vesuvius, an area of intense transmission of human and canine leishmaniasis in southern Italy. Weekly phlebotomine collections were carried out during two consecutive warm seasons (2004- 2005 in 24 and 25 sites of the coastal and Apennine sides, respectively. Sandflies were caught using over one-thousand and seven hundred 20 x 20 cm-sticky traps placed in different environments. A total of 873 sandflies were collected, of which 284 (32.5% were identified as P. perniciosus. The cumulative density (number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap/two nights of this vector species was 3.9. P. perniciosus was significantly more abundant in the coastal side (5.8 as compared to the Apennine side (1.4. The main environmental differences between the two sides were the aspect (south-west for the coastal and north-east for the Apennine side and land use. The predominance of green vegetated environments (forest, semi-natural and agricultural areas in the coastal side, in contrast with the predominance of artificial surfaces (namely urban environment in the Apennine side, could be responsible for the different P. perniciosus densities between the two surveyed areas.

  1. Inorganic contaminants from diffuse pollution in shallow groundwater of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy). Implications for geochemical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, E; Darrah, T H; Buono, G; Verrengia, G; De Francesco, S; Eymold, W K; Tedesco, D

    2015-02-01

    The Campanian Plain (CP) shallow aquifer (Southern Italy) represents a natural laboratory to validate geochemical methods for differentiating diffuse anthropogenic pollution from natural water-rock interaction processes. The CP is an appropriate study area because of numerous potential anthropogenic pollution vectors including agriculture, animal husbandry, septic/drainage sewage systems, and industry. In order to evaluate the potential for geochemical methods to differentiate various contamination vectors, 538 groundwater wells from the shallow aquifer in Campanian Plain (CP) were sampled. The dataset includes both major and trace elements. Natural water-rock interactions, which primarily depend on local lithology, control the majority of geochemical parameters, including most of the major and trace elements. Using prospective statistical methods in combination with the traditional geochemical techniques, we determined the chemical variables that are enriched by anthropogenic contamination (i.e. NO3, SO4 and U) by using NO3 as the diagnostic variable for detecting polluted groundwater. Synthetic agricultural fertilizers are responsible for the majority of SO4 and U pollution throughout the CP area. Both SO4 and U are present in the groundmass of synthetic fertilizers; the uranium concentration is specifically applicable as a tracer for non-point source agricultural fertilizer contamination. The recognition of non-geological (anthropogenic) inputs of these elements has to be considered in the geochemical investigations of contaminated aquifers.

  2. BACTERIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN THE SURGERY WARDS OF A LARGE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN ITALY

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    Silvano Esposito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Surgical infections represent an increasingly important problem for the National Health System. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganisms concerned as well as the utilization of antibiotics in the General and Emergency Surgery wards of a large teaching hospital in southern Italy in the period 2011-2013. Methods: Data concerning bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility were retrieved from the Vitek II database. The pharmacy provided data about the consumption of antibiotics in the above reported wards. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze categorical variables. Results: In all, 94 Gram-negative were isolated in 2011, 77 in 2012, and 125 in 2013, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa always being the most frequently isolated microorganisms. In the same years, there were respectively 105, 93, and 165 Gram-positive isolated, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly found. No significant variation in the antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed, either among Gram-negative or among Gram-positive pathogens; carbapenems (especially meropenem consumption remained stable over time. Conclusions: Our results show no significant increase in antimicrobial resistance over the period in question, and a higher rate of both MRSA isolates and resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii compared with other European data.

  3. Oil/gas pre-treatment plants and air quality hazards: PM1 measurements in Agri Valley (southern Italy

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    S. Trippetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less 1.0 μm short term monitoring campaign was carried out in Agri Valley (southern Italy in September 2012. This area is of international concern since it houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri – COVA within an anthropized context. PM1 measurements were performed in Viggiano, the nearest town to the COVA plant and one of the most populated town of the Agri Valley. During the study period, the PM1 daily concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 8.4 μg m−3 with a mean value of 4.6 μg m−3. Regarding the PM1 chemical composition, it can be observed that S and typical crustal elements were the most abundant constituents of the PM1 collected. By applying the Principal Component Analysis, it was pointed out that crustal soil, biomass and wood burning, secondary atmospheric reactions involving COVA plant emissions and local soil particles, and traffic were the main sources contributing to the PM1 measured in the area under study. Moreover, a possible contribution of the long-range transport of African dust was observed.

  4. Biochemical and lysosomal biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

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    Moschino, Vanessa; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Biomarkers are internationally recognized as useful tools in marine coastal biomonitoring, in particular, as early-warning signals at the level of individual organisms to assess biological effects of pollutants and other stressors. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis has been employed as a sentinel organism to assess biological pollution effects in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy), a coastal lagoon divided into two small inlets, connected to the open sea through one natural and one artificial narrow openings. Mussels were collected in June 2013 at three sites located within each of the two inlets of the Mar Piccolo. Biological effects were investigated through a suite of biomarkers suitable to reflect effects and/or exposure to contaminants at biochemical and cellular levels. Biochemical biomarkers included glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities; as histochemical biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscin and neutral lipid accumulation, and lysosomal structural changes were considered. As a whole, results highlighted differences among the three study sites, particularly for GST, AChE, and lipofuscins, which are consistent with the variations of the chemical pollutants in sediments. The applied biomarkers showed that a stress syndrome likely to be ascribed to environmental pollutants is occurring in mussels living in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, in particular, the ones inhabiting the first inlet.

  5. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

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    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  6. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  7. Transient deformation of karst aquifers due to seasonal and multiyear groundwater variations observed by GPS in southern Apennines (Italy)

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    Silverii, Francesca; D'Agostino, Nicola; Métois, Marianne; Fiorillo, Francesco; Ventafridda, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    We present GPS, hydrological, and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) observations in southern Apennines (Italy) pointing to a previously unnoticed response of the solid Earth to hydrological processes. Transient patterns in GPS horizontal time series near to large karst aquifers are controlled by seasonal and interannual phases of groundwater recharge/discharge of karst aquifers, modulating the extensional ˜3 mm/yr strain within the tectonically active Apennines. We suggest that transient signals are produced, below the saturation level of the aquifers and above a poorly constrained depth in the shallow crust, by time-dependent opening of subvertical, fluid-filled, conductive fractures. We ascribe this process to the immature karstification and intense tectonic fracturing, favoring slow groundwater circulation, and to multiyear variations of the water table elevation, influenced by variable seasonal recharge. The vertical component displays seasonal and multiyear signals more homogeneously distributed in space and closely correlated with estimates of total water storage from GRACE, reflecting the elastic response of the lithosphere to variations of surface water loads. The different sensitivities of vertical and horizontal components to the hydrologically induced deformation processes allow us to spatially and temporally resolve the different phases of the water cycle, from maximum hydrological loading at the surface to maximum hydrostatic pressure beneath karst aquifers. Finally, we suggest that transient deformation signals in the geodetic series of the Apennines are correlated to large-scale climatic patterns (Northern Atlantic Oscillation) through their influence on precipitation variability and trends at the regional scale.

  8. The process of resurgence for Ischia Island (southern Italy) since 55 ka: the laccolith model and implications for eruption forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    This study provides an analysis of the evolution of resurgence from 55 ka for the active volcanic island of Ischia, southern Italy, using a laccolith model proposed in previous studies. This paper explores the uplift phases, eruptive behavior, and associated seismic activity of Ischia Island, which are important issues as the island has a high volcanic risk. Through an analysis of stress and strain over time for laccolith pressurization, it is shown that during resurgence, Ischia Island has undergone flexural uplift and progressive fracturing and faulting of the shallow crust (2 km thick), with an increase in the laccolith's volume of at least 80 km3 and an average magma influx of 0.015 m3 s-1. Different elastic and viscoelastic mechanisms are used to evaluate the modes of stress relaxation due to this laccolith pressurization phase. Stress relaxation can occur through uplift and seismicity, without eruption, or with eruption. It is also shown that large eruptions should be expected only for long-term uplift of the central part of Ischia Island (the Mount Epomeo block). In contrast, the occurrence of small effusive and explosive eruptions should involve the peripheral areas of the resurgent block, and these are more likely to occur in the near future than are large events.

  9. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

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    T. Maugeri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.

  10. Geophysical surveying of slopes affected by debris flows: the case of S. Felicea Cancello (Caserta, Southern Italy

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    S. Superbo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of a series of geophysical investigations carried out on the largest debris flow to have taken place in Tavernole, S. Felice a Cancello (Caserta, Southern Italy. The landslide occurred in concurrence with other catastrophic events in the Sarno Mountains in May 1998. This research project is part of a series of geological, geomorphological and geotechnical studies whose purpose is to improve the knowledge of this type of phenomenon. The project also tested and compared various survey methods in the sample area of S. Felice a Cancello. Geophysical surveying allowed us to collect information regarding the physical features and thickness of the materials affected by landslide phenomena and to verify the applicability and effectiveness of the various indirect surveying methods adopted. The preliminary results of the study enabled us to generate a series of suggestions which could prove useful in formulating the correct approach to this type of problem to be adopted in ordinary professional practice. These indications concerned the type of geophysical surveying to be conducted and, where applicable, the means of implementation. In general, seismic refraction was found to be the best technique for collecting information on the area studied.

  11. New constraints on the origin of the ophiolitic rocks within sinorogenic turbiditic sequences at Cilento region (southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, F.C.; Vita, P. de; Aulinas, M.; Arienzo, I.; Cirillo, G.; Iovine, R.S.; Spari, D.

    2016-07-01

    Mafic igneous rocks (pillow lavas and gabbros) embedded as olistoliths within Miocene turbiditic sequences crop out in the Cilento area at the Mount Centaurino (Campania region, Southern Italy). The concentration of major oxides, as well as trace element ratios (Nb/Yb, Nb/Ta, Th/Nb) and the chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns suggest a tholeiitic character with Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalts (MORB) affinity. The chemical composition of pillow lavas is consistent with magmas generated by 10% degrees of non-modal fractional partial melting, of a spinel-bearing MORB-type asthenospheric mantle. Regarding gabbros, the calculated composition of parental melts in equilibrium with the clinopyroxenes show a wide compositional range, and there are very different from the pillow basalts of the Mount Centaurino, suggesting that the clinopyroxenes might have derived from more evolved melts compared to those that produced the basalts. The origin of these olistoliths is not yet understood. Here we suggest that these rocks represent fragment of a dismantled accretionary wedge embedded during the deposition of the Cilento group sedimentary successions in a thrust top basin. (Author)

  12. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

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    Mariateresa Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  13. Inferences on the lithospheric structure of Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) from seismic noise cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2017-04-01

    Lithospheric VS models are defined in the Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers, and the regional group and phase velocities of the Italian cellular lithospheric model (1° × 1° cells). Four paths are investigated, of which one (ISCHIA-MIS) across two adjoining cells. The distribution of VS shows a pyroclastic covering with VS increasing from 0.3-0.7 km/s to 2.1 km/s. It rests on a lava or carbonate basement, about 5-6 km thick, with VS increasing from 2.1 km/s to 3.1 km/s at about 2 km of depth and rising to ∼0.6 km towards the island of Procida. A metamorphic layer is detected at an average depth of 7.7 km with VS of 3.8-3.9 km/s, about 5 km thick, overlying a low velocity layer (VS of 3.5 km/s) at about 11-12 km of depth. The VS model along the ISCHIA-MIS path, as average of the models obtained by combining local and regional dispersion data of the two adjoining cells, is well consistent with the other paths. The Moho discontinuity is retrieved at about 23 km of depth with VS of 4.2 km/s.

  14. Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in Southern Italy

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    Margherita Ferrante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find out at what age children start smoking, as well as their tobacco habits and risk perceptions according to the different school-age groups.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2007; it involved around 1700 students of the Catania province, in Southern Italy. The students filled in a structured tobacco questionnaire. They did it anonymously in the classrooms. Main outcome measures were initiation of smoking, smoking habits, number of cigarettes smoked per day and risk perception.

    Results: From the first year of the primary school to the last year of the high school the proportion of daily smokers increased from 0.0% to 11.8% for girls and from 0.8% to 12.7% for boys. For both genders the initiation of smoking habits occurred mainly at age 10 to 13. Finally, girls had a better risk perception.

    Conclusions: Studying young people’s tobacco habits over time gives an understanding of when preventive measures have to be implemented. In order to influence smoking attitudes, these preventive interventions must be put in place before children start experimenting tobacco.

  15. A reassessment of the Neanderthal teeth from Taddeo cave (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Viola, Bence; Kullmer, Ottmar; Fiorenza, Luca; Harvati, Katerina; Paul, Tobias; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W; Mallegni, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The Middle Paleolithic fossil human teeth from Taddeo cave in southwestern Italy were discovered in 1967, but to date only scanty and partially incorrect information has been published about them. The teeth were recovered in a reddish sandy layer from the cave's floor, which is attributed either to an early phase of Würm I (OIS 5c or 5d) or a transition phase between Würm I and Würm II (OIS 5a). In this paper, we present a revised morphological description and morphometric comparisons of the four dental remains discovered. Apart from a classic morphometric comparison, we also provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the internal morphology with the aid of micro-CT imaging. In addition, virtual restoration and matching of adjacent teeth were performed with 3D digital modeling and Computer-Aided Design techniques. Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis was also employed to help correctly identify each tooth. While in the previous studies, Taddeo 1 was considered either an upper right canine or a lower right canine, in the present work it has been definitely identified as lower left canine. Taddeo 2 has been reclassified as a right P(4) instead of a right P(3). Based on the occlusal and interproximal wear, we have also shown that Taddeo 2 and Taddeo 3 (right M(1)) belong to the same individual. All of the teeth show characteristic Neanderthal features in crown morphology and fissure pattern. However, although Taddeo 4 shows morphological features typical of Neanderthal M(1)s, some morphometric results (large enamel thickness, low dentine volume) recall more modern humans than Neanderthals. This result might suggest that, at least for lower first molars, the Neanderthal range of variation is large and still not clearly understood.

  16. Appraising hospital performance by using the JCHAO/CMS quality measures in Southern Italy.

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    Domenico Flotta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present study was to estimate the uptake to quality indicators that reflect the current evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of patients admitted to two hospitals in the South of Italy was conducted. For the purposes of the analysis, a sets of quality indicators has been used from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Four areas of care were selected: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, pneumonia (PN, and surgical care improvement project (SCIP. Frequency or median was calculated, as appropriate, for each indicator. A composite score was calculated to estimate the overall performance for each area of care. RESULTS: A total of 1772 medical records were reviewed. The adherence rates showed a wide-ranging variability among the selected indicators. The use of aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB for AMI, the use of ACEI or ARB for HF, the use of appropriate thromboembolism prophylaxis and appropriate hair removal for surgical patients almost approached optimal adherence. At the other extreme, rates regarding adherence to smoking-cessation counseling in AMI and HF patients, discharge instructions in HF patients, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pneumonia patients were noticeably intangible. Overall, the recommended processes of care among eligible patients were provided in 70% for AMI, in 32.4% for HF, in 46.4% for PN, and in 46% for SCIP. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there is still substantial work that lies ahead on the way to improve the uptake to evidence-based processes of care. Improvement initiatives should be focused more on domains of healthcare than on specific conditions, especially on the area of preventive care.

  17. Multi-functional approach in forest landscape management planning: an application in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paletto, A.; Ferretti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de

    2012-11-01

    Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP) is intended to have an intermediate role between forest management plans on a regional level and forest management on a unit level. FLMP addresses long-term management issues, with special attention to social and environmental functions, normally not meticulously considered when working on a single forest property level. This paper presents a method to evaluate forest multi functionality, in order to define management guidelines and support forest planning. A FLMP was conducted in a district of the Basilicata region (Italy). A total of 92 inventory plots comprising the main forest types: i) turkey oak, Hungarian oak, and sessile oak forests (Quercus cerris L. dominant), ii) downy oak forests (Quercus pubescens Willd. dominant), iii) Mediterranean evergreen oak forests (Quercus ilex L. dominant), were considered. Technicians evaluated the multifunctionality of each area by estimating in the context of an Index of Importance of Function (I) the capacity of each forest to fulfil different functions. The index was successively aggregated according to forest type and forest system (high forest and coppice). The results showed that the higher level of multifunctionality was found in the high forests. According to the synthetic indicators of multifunctionality, the turkey oak forests obtained the highest values among all forest types. The last part of the paper illustrates an approach to multi-functional forest management, analysing how different silvicultural systems are able to fulfil the main forest functions. This method, as shown in the results, seems to provide a useful support for technicians to evaluate multifunctionality related to forest types and different silvicultural treatments. (Author) 55 refs.

  18. First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, Italy. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the Campi Flegrei intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.

  19. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

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    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  20. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy

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    Angela Laganà

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already studied in the past. Certain changes were observed in the study areas, but they seem more likely to be due to other factors than pollution, such as the weather conditions, the age and natural evolution of the forests towards their climax.

  1. THE CISMON APTICORE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY: A "REFERENCE SECTION " FOR THE LOWER CRETACEOUS AT LOW LATITUDES

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    ELISABETTA ERBA

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available APTICORE at the Cismon Valley (Belluno Basin, Southern Alps penetrated 131.8 m of limestones, marlstones and "black shales". The cored interval extends from the Upper Aptian down to the lower Upper Hauterivian (about 117-130 Ma and can be considered a "reference section" for low latitudes. The hole was continuously cored with essentially 100% recovery of excellent quality material and completely logged with state-of-the art logging tools. Freshly cored material and logs from the Cismon drill site provide the most informative records for documenting and understanding global changes in the paleoenvironment, biota, geochemistry, paleotemperature of Early Cretaceous oceans. The following is a "site report" containing descriptions of the geologic setting, field operations, basic lithology and age information, and the logging tools and techniques. 

  2. Broadband waveform inversion of moderate earthquakes in the Messina Straits, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    We report the first application of the Cut and Paste (CAP) method to compute earthquake focal mechanisms in the Messina Straits area by waveform inversion of Pnl and surface wave segments. This application of CAP has furnished new knowledge about low-magnitude earthquake mechanics that will be useful for improved understanding of the local geodynamics. This is possible because the CAP inversion technique can be applied to small earthquakes, for which traditional moment tensor inversion methods are not appropriate and P-onset focal mechanisms in the study area fail because of a lack of sufficient observations. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 23 earthquakes with local magnitudes in the range of 3-4 occurring in the 2004-2008 time period, and recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in the northern part of the study area while co-existence of normal faulting and strike-slip has been detected in the southern part. In the whole area of investigation the T-axes of focal mechanisms display a preferential northwest-southeast direction of extension. Combined with the findings of previous investigations, this improved database of focal mechanisms allows us to better detail the transitional area between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (western-central Sicily). The observed spatial change of seismic deformation regime offers new data to current seismotectonic and seismic hazard investigations in the area of Messina Straits where a magnitude 7.2 earthquake caused more than 60,000 casualties on 28 December 1908.

  3. Unmasking the 1349 earthquake source (southern Italy): paleoseismological and archaeoseismological indications from the Aquae Iuliae fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo Antonio Costantino; Naso, José Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The 9th September, 1349, earthquake was one of the most catastrophic events experienced along the Apennines. At least three main shocks struck a vast area of the Molise-Latium-Abruzzi regions, and damage was even sustained by the distant monumental buildings of Rome. The southern-most shock (Mw ˜ 6.7) occurred at the border between southern Latium and western Molise, razing to the ground the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, amongst others, and devastating Montecassino Abbey. As with other Medieval catastrophic sequences (e.g., in December 1456, Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0), this earthquake has not yet been associated to any seismogenic source; thus, it still represents a thorn in the flesh of earthquake geologists. We have here carried out a reappraisal of the effects of this earthquake, and through an interpretation of aerial photographs and a field survey, we have carried out paleoseismological analyses across a poorly known, ˜N130 normal fault that crosses the Molise-Campania border. This structure showed repeated surface ruptures during the late Holocene, the last one of which fits excellently with the 1349 event, both in terms of the dating and the rupture dimension. On the other hand, archaeoseismic analyses have also indicated the faulting of an Augustean aqueduct. The amount of apparent offset of the aqueduct across the fault traces shows that there were other surface faulting event(s) during the Roman-High Middle-Age period. Therefore, in trying to ascertain whether these events were associated with known (potentially of 346 AD or 848 AD), or unknown earthquakes in the area, it became possible that this ˜20-km-long fault (here named the Aquae Iuliae fault) is characterized by high slip rates and a short recurrence time. This is in agreement with both the similar behaviour of the neighbouring northern Matese fault system, and with recent GPS analyses showing unexpectedly high extension rates in this area.

  4. Water Quality and Soil Natural Salinity in the Southern Imera Basin (Sicily, Italy

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    Roberta Selvaggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Imera river crosses one of the most arid part of Sicily. The geochemical composition of the river water is due to the solubilization processes of gypsum rocks, which accounts for the particularly low quality of resources in the areas in which the presence of evaporitics deposits is highest. The geochemical composition and hydraulic parameters of river was monitored with the aim of reaching a better understanding of the relationships between litology and water quality. The Imera river is a potential local hydric resource, but seasonal variability of salinity does not allow farmers to use its water. A geochemical monitoring of the Imera river water has been carried out in selected localities integrating a GIS analysis of the river hydrography basin and of the distribution of the evaporitic formation. During 2003 and 2005 we performed four monitoring surveys of water chemicophysical parameters (temperature, pH and electrical conductivity and of the main ionic concentrations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO4 2- . We also installed a multiparameter probe next to the hydrometrical station of Drasi, about 15 km from the river mouth. Such multiparameter probe was used to determine, continuously and simultaneously, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potenzial, water level. The geochemical composition of the water allowed to confirm the results of Roda (1971 and Favara (2000, who pointed out that the main cause of degrade of the Southern Imera river are the salt-rich waters of some tributaries flowing over gypsum rocks and halite deposits. We have been able to identify which specific areas are the main contributors to the degradation of the Imera river.

  5. New records of Coenagrion ornatum in Italy (Odonata: Coenagrionidae

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    Fabio Mastropasqua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coenagrion ornatum (Sélys, 1850 is a damselfly ranging from northwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. It is highly local, and northwestern populations are experiencing a steep decline. In Europe, Coenagrion ornatum is a species of conservation interest and is listed as Near Threatened due to habitat loss; it is nearly extinct in Italy. We report the finding of 4 male C. ornatum on 3 June 2005 in Apulia, southeastern Italy. This is the only recent record for Italy, and highlights the need for further research on this species in the country.

  6. Almond tree and organic fertilization for soil quality improvement in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Masciandaro, Grazia; Mennone, Carmelo; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2012-03-01

    The semi-arid Mediterranean region, characterized by long dry periods followed by heavy bursts of rainfall, is particularly prone to soil erosion. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the soil quality under different practices of bio-physical amelioration which involve the soil-plant system (almond trees) and microorganism-manure. This study, carried out in the South of Italy (Basilicata Region- Pantanello farm), considered two types of fertilization (mineral and organic) and three slope gradients (0, 2 and 6%), in order to evaluate the effects of management practices in resisting soil erosion. Chemical (organic carbon and nitrogen), physical (soil shrinkage and bulk density) and biochemical (dehydrogenase activity and hydrolytic enzyme activities) parameters were selected as markers to follow agro-ecological changes with time. The organic treatment affected soil microbiological and physico-chemical properties by increasing soil nutrient availability, microbial activity, and improving soil structure. The consistently higher values of the hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease) often observed in the presence of plants and on the 0 and 2% slopes, suggested the stimulation of nutrient cycles by tree roots, which improve the conditions for soil microorganisms in carrying out their metabolic activity. In the 6% slope and, in particular, in the mineral fertilizer treatment, soil metabolism was lower as suggested by the dehydrogenase activity which was 50% lower than that found in the 0 and 2% slopes, this seemed to be related to a slowdown in the nutrient cycling and organic carbon metabolism. However, on this slope, in both mineral and organic treatments, a significant stimulation of hydrolytic enzyme activities and an improvement of soil structure (reduction of bulk density of about 10% and increase in total shrinkage from 20 to 60%) were observed with plants compared to the control soil. The combination of organic

  7. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    It is now well-established that landscape can record spatial and temporal variations in tectonic rates. However, decoding this information to extract detailed histories of fault growth is often a complex problem that requires careful integration of tectonic and geomorphic data sets. Here, we present new data addressing both normal fault evolution and coupled landscape response for two normal faults in the Southern Apennines: the Vallo di Diano and East Agri faults. By integrating published constraints with new data, we show that these faults have total throws of up to 2100 m, and Holocene throw rates of up to 1 mm/yr at their maximum. We demonstrate that geomorphology is effectively recording tectonics, with relief, channel and catchment slopes varying along fault strike as normal fault activity does. Therefore, valuable information about fault growth and interaction can be extracted from their geomorphic expression. We use the spatial distribution of knickpoints on the footwall channels to infer two episodes of base level change, which can be associated with distinct fault interaction events. From our detailed fault throw profiles, we reconstruct the amount of throw accumulated after each of these events, and the segments involved in each, and we use slip rate enhancement factors derived from fault interaction theory to estimate the magnitude of the tectonic perturbation in each case. From this approach, we are able to reconstruct pre-linkage throw rates, and we estimate that fault linkage events likely took place 0.7 ± 0.2 Ma and 1.9 ± 0.6 Ma in the Vallo di Diano fault, and 1.1 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.9 Ma in the East Agri fault. Our study suggests that both faults started their activity at 3.6 ± 0.5 Ma. These fault linkage scenarios are consistent with the knickpoint heights, and may relate to soft-linkage interaction with the Southern Apennines normal fault array, the existence of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Our combined geomorphic and

  8. OSTRACODS ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN WESTERN TETHYS: THE BULLA PARASTRATOTYPE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

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    SYLVIE CRASQUIN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the ostracod fauna of the parastratotype of the Permian-Triassic boundary at Bulla in the Southern Alps produced 62 species belonging to 31 genera. They are all discussed and figured. This paper presents results of the first description of ostracods from this important site. One genus, Bairdiacratia n. gen., and 13 species are new: Glyptopleurina pasinii n. sp., Knoxiella ventrospinosa n. sp., Knightina bullaensis n. sp., Bairdia ortiseiensis n. sp., B. cheni n. sp., B. (Rectobairdia kershawi n. sp., Bairdiacratia qinglai n.gen. n. sp., B. tergilata n. gen. n. sp., Microcheilinella lata n. sp., Parabythocythere chongpani n. sp., Cavellina bellerophonella n. sp., C. alpina n. sp. and C. triassica n. sp. The palaeocecological analysis of each unit is produced. The unconformity-paraconformity U1 is clearly reflected in the ostracod assemblages and is marked by a drop in diversity and abundance of specimens. It was followed by a change in the ostracod faunal composition. The Bulla Member displays maximum ostracod diversity and abundance linked with the trangressive trend reported for this period. The unconformity-paraconformity U2, at the boundary between the Bellerophon and Werfen formations (Bulla and Lower Tesero members is the main extinction level for ostracods. The Lower Tesero, Lower Mazzin and Upper Tesero members have very poor faunas. The lower part of the Upper Mazzin Mb. is characterized by an uneven burst of diversity before the great period of taxonomic paucity observed during the late Griesbachian all over the world. 

  9. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  10. Stability model and risk assessment for the Montescaglioso Landslide (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanti, Marco; Chiessi, Vittorio; Guarino, Paolo Maria; Spizzichino, Daniele; Troccoli, Alessandro; Vizzini, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the final results of a landslide risk assessment evaluation implemented for the recent Montescaglioso landslide emergency occurred on 3rd December 2013 when a large and rapid slope failure, triggered by prolonged and intense rainfall, affected a big portion of the SW slope of the village. The slope failure damaged a main road, private homes and commercial buildings. The Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, Italy) is located on the top of a conglomerate hill overlying a gentle slope constituted by Plio-Pleistocene clays. The area has been affected since ancient time by different landslide typologies and mechanism, as determined by a direct geomorphological survey and from mapping and available technical literature. Phenomena such as rock-falls and rock lateral spreading in the upper part of the hill, and rotational/translational slides and earth flows can be recognized in the area. Landslides are mainly promoted by the geological and structural setting of the area as well as by very low mechanical characteristics of sediments outcropping in the area. After the emergency phase, a detailed program of field survey and laboratory campaign has been implemented during the last year. A detailed topographical analysis has been developed by using the LIDAR survey in order to define morphometric conditions and geometry modifications of the slope affected by the landslide. Based on the studies carried out in the area, the research has been aimed to assessing the stability conditions (residual landslide risk) of the SW slope of the hill trough an extended geological, geomorphological and geotechnical campaign linked with numerical study of present instability mechanism. The geological and geotechnical model of the slope has been defined trough the analysis of the past and recent logs obtained from several boreholes and also through the results of many mechanical test performed on samples taken in the area. The numerical study has been carried out

  11. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  12. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF UPPER CALLOVIAN-LOWER BERRIASIAN SUCCESSIONS FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS, NORTH ITALY

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    CRISTINA EMANUELA CASELLATO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  13. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  14. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.

    2009-04-01

    Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is related to the complex geologic setting resulting in a number of different sources of potentially damaging earthquakes. All these earthquake induced numerous and spectacular coseismic environmental effects overall along the coast where the impact was particularly catastrophic. These earthquakes caused several changes in elevation, due to tectonic deformations, landslides and settlements (i.e along both sides of the Messina Straits, 1908 event), relevant landslides (the February6, 1783 event triggered in Scilla, along the cliff of the M. Pacì a huge rock avalanche estimate of 5 Mm3 in the areal zone and 3 Mm3 in the submarine zone (Bozzano et al 2006), that fell into the sea generating a disastrous tsunamis), ground fractures (in the Capo Vaticano promontory area, 1905 event; in Messina Reggio C., Villa S. Giovanni, 1908 event); liquefaction phenomena (in the area of Messina, Ganzirri and Reggio Calabria, 1908 event), and catastrophic tsunamis (five induced by the 1783 Calabrian seismic sequence, other two by 1905 and 1908 events, Graziani et al 2006). The run-up observed ranging from few cm to tens of m: the highest tsunami wave was about 16 m in Scilla (Feb. 6, 1783 tsunami), 13 m in Pellaro (1908 event) and 1,30 m along the Calabrian coast (1905 tsunami) . Portion of the coast were lost, most of them eroded by the tsunamis with a coastline retreat and flooded the shore for several hundred meters inland depositing a large amount of silt and fish, and in some case killing people (i.e 1500 in Scilla and 28 in Messina during the February 6, 1783 tsunami, Barbano 2008; Porfido et al.,2008). Finally, it is

  15. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy.

    In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of

  16. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations.

  17. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  18. Crustal Stress and Strain Distribution in Sicily (Southern Italy) from Joint Analysis of Seismicity and Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, D.; Neri, G.; Aloisi, M.; Cannavo, F.; Orecchio, B.; Palano, M.; Siligato, G.; Totaro, C.

    2014-12-01

    An updated database of earthquake focal mechanisms is compiled for the Sicilian region (southern Italy) and surrounding off-shore areas where the Nubia-Eurasia convergence coexists with the very-slow residual rollback of the Ionian subducting slab. High-quality solutions selected from literature and catalogs have been integrated with new solutions estimated in the present work using the Cut And Paste (CAP) waveform inversion method. In the CAP algorithm (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994; Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), each waveform is broken up into Pnl and surface wave segments, which are weighted differently during the inversion procedure. Integration of the new solutions with the ones selected from literature and official catalogs led us to collect a database consisting exclusively of waveform inversion data relative to earthquakes with minimum magnitude 2.6. The seismicity and focal mechanism distributions have been compared with crustal motion and strain data coming from GNSS analyses. For this purpose GNSS-based observations collected over the investigated area by episodic measurements (1994-2013) as well as continuous monitoring (since 2006) were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK software packages (Herring et al., 2010) following the approach described in Palano et al. (2011). To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern, the estimated GNSS velocities were aligned to a fixed Eurasian reference frame. The good agreement found between seismic and geodetic information contributes to better define seismotectonic domains characterized by different kinematics. Moving from the available geophysical information and from an early application of FEM algorithms, we have also started to investigate stress/strain fields in the crust of the study area including depth dependence and relationships with rupture of the main seismogenic structures.

  19. Conjunctival cytological examination, bacteriological culture, and antimicrobial resistance proifles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Lamagna; Luisa De Martino; Maria Pia Pasolini; Sandra Nizza; Karina Mallardo; Maurizio Formicola; Alessandro Costagliola; Gerardo Fatone; Filomena Fiorito; Orlando Paciello

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Methods:Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24-36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region (Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the disk-diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates. Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens (114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells (basal, intermediate, columnar and superficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10%and 2%of samples, respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples (98.25%;95%confidence interval (CI):93.18–99.70). Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi (2/114, 1.75%;95% CI:0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured (181/261, 69.35%;95%CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria (80/261, 30.65%;95%CI:25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular microflora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  20. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy) and relationship with other Campania events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy). Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity), mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i) as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii) ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii) a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class) pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15-25 μm), (iv) occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v) higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material) in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  1. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy and relationship with other Campania events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vingiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy. Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15–25 μm, (iv occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  2. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination.

  3. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

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    Riccardo d’Andria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  4. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo d’Andria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  5. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  6. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  7. Occurrence and correlates of HIV and hepatitis B/C virus infections among prisoners of Southern Lazio, Italy

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    Giuseppe La Torre

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV among the prisoners of
    the jails of Southern Latium (Italy.
    Methods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting: Clinical charts of 2653 prisoners, of whom 940 were of the jail of Cassino, 1581 of the jail of Frosinone and 132 of that of Latina, since 1995 to 1999, were reviewed. Measurement: number of people tested for HIV, HCV and HBV infection and prevalence of diagnosed HIV, HCV and HBV infections.
    Results. HCV was the most prevalent infection (28.2 %; HBV showed a lower prevalence (26%. Finally,
    5.4% of inmates were infected by HIV. Multivariate regression analysis indicated drug addiction, civil status,
    smoking habit, age (age group 25-34 and 35-44, in respect with people aged 18-24 and Italian nationality
    as factors mainly associated to HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In particular we found HIV infection associated
    with the status of drug addiction (OR = 15.8, civil status (OR = 12.6 for widowers; and OR = 2.44 for
    cohabitants, smoking habits (OR = 3.09 and Italian nationality (OR = 5.39. Similar risk estimates were
    found for HCV and HBV.
    Conclusion. High prevalence of blood transmitted infections in jails suggests that diagnostic and preventive
    measures, as hepatitis B vaccination, but also information and education programs for inmates, are needed
    to reduce the spreading of such infections, particularly HIV and HCV.

  8. Landslides, floods and sinkholes in a karst environment: the 1-6 September 2014 Gargano event, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Melillo, Massimo; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Trabace, Maria; Parise, Mario; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-03-01

    In karst environments, heavy rainfall is known to cause multiple geohydrological hazards, including inundations, flash floods, landslides and sinkholes. We studied a period of intense rainfall from 1 to 6 September 2014 in the Gargano Promontory, a karst area in Puglia, southern Italy. In the period, a sequence of torrential rainfall events caused severe damage and claimed two fatalities. The amount and accuracy of the geographical and temporal information varied for the different hazards. The temporal information was most accurate for the inundation caused by a major river, less accurate for flash floods caused by minor torrents and even less accurate for landslides. For sinkholes, only generic information on the period of occurrence of the failures was available. Our analysis revealed that in the promontory, rainfall-driven hazards occurred in response to extreme meteorological conditions and that the karst landscape responded to the torrential rainfall with a threshold behaviour. We exploited the rainfall and the landslide information to design the new ensemble-non-exceedance probability (E-NEP) algorithm for the quantitative evaluation of the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides and of related geohydrological hazards. The ensemble of the metrics produced by the E-NEP algorithm provided better diagnostics than the single metrics often used for landslide forecasting, including rainfall duration, cumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. We expect that the E-NEP algorithm will be useful for landslide early warning in karst areas and in other similar environments. We acknowledge that further tests are needed to evaluate the algorithm in different meteorological, geological and physiographical settings.

  9. PrP genotype frequencies and risk evaluation for scrapie in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemucci, Giovanni; Iamartino, Daniela; Blasi, Michele; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Concerns regarding scrapie in sheep breeding have increased in the last few decades. The present study was carried out in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy. In order to find breeding animals resistant to scrapie, the PrP genes of 1,205 animals from entire flocks of dairy native Apulian Leccese and Altamurana breeds, and Sicilian Comisana breed, were analysed for polymorphisms at codons 136, 154, and 171 related to scrapie resistance/susceptibility. The Altamurana breed was considered as two populations (Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe), based on presumed cross-breeding. A total of five alleles and ten different genotypes were found. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds followed by ARR, the most resistant allele to scrapie, which was highly prevalent in Comisana (50%) and in native Alt-Cav (42.4%). The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at not negligeable levels in allocthonous Comisana (3.5%), at a low frequency (0.2%) in native Leccese and Alt-Cra-Zoe, while it was absent in Alt-Cav. The frequencies of PrP genotypes with a very low susceptibility risk to scrapie (R1) was higher in Comisana and Alt-Cav. The most susceptible genotype, ARQ/VRQ, was found only in Comisana. Within the Altamurana breed, there were notable differences between Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe sheep. The Alt-Cav was characterised by the absence of VRQ and AHQ alleles and by the higher frequency of the ARR/ARR genotype (18.7%). Breeding programs, mainly in endangered breeds such as Altamurana, should be conducted gradually, combining resistance to scrapie, maintenance of genetic variability, and production.

  10. Hydrochemical features of groundwater in a coastal gypsum karst (Marina di Lesina, Gargano, Southern Italy) in relation to tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Campana, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    As part of a complex monitoring aimed at collecting suitable data for conceptual and numerical modelling of the coastal gypsum karst of Marina di Lesina (Gargano, Southern Italy), 64 groundwater samples were collected during three surveys at different depths from 9 monitoring wells aligned along two transects. The transects, perpendicular to the Acquarotta canal, are less of 1 Km long. The canal is directly connected to the sea and to the Lesina Lagoon and behaves as an oscillating border following sea tides. The sampling campaigns were carried out concurrently to phases of increasing, decreasing, and low tide and provide different frameworks of the chemical composition of ground waters. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) of ground water samples ranges from 0.2 g/l to 35 g/l and increases generally along the flow lines towards the canal, and downward. The concentrations of the major ions deviate from theoretical ones defined by non-reactive mixing lines, which have as saline end-member either standard seawater or local seawater sampled offshore.Owing to the multi-component character of the hydrochemical system, the cation concentrations are controlled by competition among concurrent water-rock interaction processes that overlap to non-reactive freshwater-saltwater (FW-SW) mixing, being even triggered and/or enhanced by the same mixing, with feedback loops: gypsum and calcite dissolution, ion exchange (with direction depending on hydrodynamic conditions mainly driven by tides, and justified due to the presence of clay in the gypsum bedrock), and dedolomitization. The geochemical study also highlights the involvement of saline ground waters belonging to regional circuits that develop in the huge Mesozoic carbonate basement. The study highlights that in the saturated thickness of the gypsum coastal aquifer closer to the coast, the hydrochemical system is extremely reactive and strongly influenced by the different groundwater hydraulic conditions induced by the tide phases.

  11. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cringoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%. The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4% supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  12. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  13. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  14. Erosion-vegetation dynamics in the Lucciolabella biancane badland cultural landscape (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccherini, Simona; Vergari, Francesca; Santi, Elisa; Marignani, Michela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Torri, Dino; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present the results of multidisciplinary and long-lasting investigations on the complex cause-effect relationship among water erosion processes and vegetation cover on the Lucciolabella Natural Reserve, located in Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany). The area is a Site of Community Importance, where the cultural landscape of biancane badlands - water erosion landforms generated on Plio-Pleistocene marine clay outcrops - is preserved. We explored the direction and rate of change in land use and natural habitats of the biancana badland landscapes over the last 50 years, evaluating the erosion-vegetation dynamics and examining the processes involved in the biancana badland area. Historical information, such as early cadastral documents and diachronically analyzed aerial photographs, has been used to construct a database of the natural trends of modifications relative to habitat and plant species distribution, with the analysis of the consequent variations on the frequency of instability events. Old and recent land use maps were compared by using the TWINSPAN classification. Soil erodibility evaluation on the eroded biancana surfaces, regosols and well-developed vertisols, was carried out together with a decadal erosion monitoring program and the investigation of the physico-chemical properties of parent material. We also considered the effects of a few roots on saturated soil shear strength to introduce direct links between plants and soil processes. Moreover we run the LANDPLANER model in order to deepen the effect of the fragmentation of the vegetation cover on water erosion processes affecting biancana badlands. Long-lasting geomorphological survey and field erosion monitoring highlighted that biancana stations experience a very strong surface lowering rate due to water erosion, attaining an average rate of 2.4 - 2.6 cm/a. Moreover, biancanas in a more juvenile development phase, such as the ones of Lucciolabella Natural Reserve, show the maximum

  15. The Prevalence of Fragility Fractures in a Population of a Region of Southern Italy Affected by Thyroid Disorders

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    Giuseppe Maccagnano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there is no clear evidence of a relationship between thyropathies and fragility fractures. The aim of our study is to define the prevalence of thyroid disease in a study sample made up of subjects with fragility fractures and from the same geographical area. We retrospectively studied the “hospital discharge records” (HDR in the Apulian Database for the period 2008–2013 in order to identify all those patients with fragility fractures that required hospitalization. After detecting the prevalent population, we identified the patients affected by thyroid disease. We observed that, between 2008 and 2013 in Apulia, 16,636 patients were affected by hyperthyroidism. In the same period there were 92,341 subjects with hypothyroidism. The incidence of fragility fractures was 4.5% in the population with hyperthyroidism. As regards the population with hypothyroidism, the incidence of fragility fractures was 3.7%. Furthermore, we assessed the statistical connection between thyroid disease and fragility fractures revealing a higher incidence in patients with hyperthyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Characterization of Essential Oil Components from Aromatic Plants that Grow Wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Vitulano, Manuela; Trifuoggi, Marco; Gallo, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis and Mentha spicata growing wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) have been extracted by hydro-distillation, quantified and characterized by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass-spectrometry (MS). Sixty-nine compounds were identified and classified according to their chemical classes. The results showed that the composition of the essential oils was extremely variable and specific for each botanical species. Hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in all essential oils except for sage where aldehydes and ketones were the most representative compounds. Only for thyme was a higher content of alcohols found.

  17. The perception of difference and the differences of perception: The image of the Norman invaders in southern Italy in contemporary western medieval and Byzantine sources

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    Eleni TOUNTA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the image of the Norman invaders in southern Italy in contemporary western medieval and Byzantine sources. The comparative method and the methodology of linguistic and literary criticism are equally applied. The interest is focussed on the conceptual notions that defined the perception of the Norman invaders by medieval men and, consequently, their cultural representation. In this way, mentalities and social values are revealed, and, thus, historians investigating political developments are offered a research tool for medieval historical sources.

  18. Imaging 2D structures by the CSAMT method: application to the Pantano di S. Gregorio Magno faulted basin (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Patella, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    A controlled source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been undertaken in the Pantano di San Gregorio Magno faulted basin, an earthquake prone area of Southern Apennines in Italy. A dataset from 11 soundings, distributed along a nearly N-S 780 m long profile, was acquired in the basin's easternmost area, where the fewest data are available as to the faulting shallow features. A preliminary skew analysis allowed a prevailing 2D nature of the dataset to be ascertained. Then, using a single-site multi-frequency approach, Dantzig's simplex algorithm was introduced for the first time to estimate the CSAMT decomposition parameters. The simplex algorithm, freely available online, proved to be fast and efficient. By this approach, the TM and TE mode field diagrams were obtained and a N35°W ± 10° 2D strike mean direction was estimated along the profile, in substantial agreement with the fault traces within the basin. A 2D inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase curves at seven almost noise-free sites distributed along the central portion of the profile was finally elaborated, reinforced by a sensitivity analysis, which allowed the best resolved portion of the model to be imaged from the first few meters of depth down to a mean depth of 300 m b.g.l. From the inverted section, the following features have been outlined: (i) a cover layer with resistivity in the range 3-30 Ω m ascribed to the Quaternary lacustrine clayey deposits filling the basin, down to an average depth of about 35 m b.g.l., underlain by a structure with resistivity over 50 Ω m up to about 600 Ω m, ascribed to the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock; (ii) a system of two normal faults within the carbonate basement, extending down to the maximum best resolved depth of the order of 300 m b.g.l.; (iii) two wedge-shaped domains separating the opposite blocks of the faults with resistivity ranging between 30 Ω m and 50 Ω m and horizontal extent of the order of some tens of metres, likely

  19. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  20. The influence of physico-chemical material properties on erosion processes in the badlands of Basilicata, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccarreta, Marco; Faulkner, Hazel; Bentivenga, Mario; Capolongo, Domenico

    2006-11-01

    Piping (tunnelling) appears to be one of the more significant methods of erosion in the badlands in the Plio-Pleistocene marine-sourced clays of the Basilicata area in Southern Italy. A detailed field investigation of the pedological, textural, mineralogical and geochemical properties of the clay-rich terrains widely outcropping in two selected badland field sites (the Fossa Bradanica area and the Bacino di Sant'Arcangelo) was undertaken to further elucidate process variability across the complex site. Paralleling findings from other piped badlands, certain physico-chemical properties of the clays were found to influence the different erosional processes in fundamental ways. The very dispersive nature of the materials enhances pipe enlargement so that subsurface flow rapidly becomes the dominant process, causing pipe enlargement by a process of positive feedback. The paper speculates on the progressive role of surface and subsurface processes in the genesis of all evolutional badland forms (calanchi, calanchi mammellonari and biancane). In an early stage, the calanchi mammellonari are produced, as slope mounds become increasingly separated by a dense network of small inclined pipes in the intermediate part of the slopes, a site which is presumed to favour elevated subsurface flow. When the overburden collapses, many cones are isolated in these portions of the slope. A second stage follows in which overland flow dominates, with the water canalizing into small gullies generated by the collapsed crust. At the base of many slopes, this same mechanism produces biancane as residual cones. Because of the structural weakness of piped materials, mass movements cannot be ruled out. In a few locations, landsliding may be involved, especially in the formation of calanchi mammellonari. In this case the intersection of the vertical pipes with the impermeable substratum focuses subsurface flow, and collapse of the surface along this failure plane. Subsequent remodelling occurs by

  1. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

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    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  2. The structural setting of the Ischia Island (Phlegrean Volcanic District, Southern Italy): Inferences from geophysics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Valeria; D'Antonio, Massimo; Rapolla, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the recent geophysical, geochemical and volcanological studies concerning the island of Ischia within the geological and tectonic framework of Southern Italy. Ischia is an active volcanic field that had a complex volcanic history resulting from dominant explosive and minor effusive activity, several caldera collapses, and renewed volcanism from vents located inside the collapsed area. The island is morphologically dominated by Mt. Epomeo, the result of a prominent resurgence phenomenon taking place since ca. 33 ka BP, and responsible for ca. 900 m of total uplift, one of the largest known compared to the relatively small size of the caldera. The uplift was accompanied by activation of faults, seismic activity and renewal of volcanism, and may be considered a main factor for inducing slope instability. For Ischia, volcanological, petrological and geophysical studies are, at present, limited compared to the other active volcanoes of the Neapolitan Area. Furthermore, the island is characterized by high volcanic, seismic and hydrogeological risks. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting aspects of the knowledge on Ischia that need more investigations, in order to better assess some characteristics of its structural setting. Features such as the precise location of the caldera boundaries and the depth of the magma chamber representing the drive for the resurgence still need to be well defined. A critical analysis of all lines of evidence relevant to the current theories about the island resurgence (resurgent block vs. resurgent dome) has been carried out. Our analysis reveals that the resurgent block model, differently from the resurgent dome model, is consistent with the most significant features, such as tilting of the resurgent block, faults type, dip and distribution at the edges of the block, and occurrence of most of the past 10 ka eruption vents on the eastern sector of the island. However, as both model require an input of

  3. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  4. Volcanological implications of crystal-chemical variations in clinopyroxenes from the Aeolian Arc, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzareni, Sabrina; Molin, Gianmario; Peccerillo, Angelo; Zanazzi, Pier Francesco

    2001-03-01

    Crystal chemistry and structural data for clinopyroxene from the Aeolian islands (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) were determined with the aim of obtaining geobarometric information and exploring implications for the structure of volcanic plumbing systems. Cell and M1 site volumes for clinopyroxenes, which are known to decrease with increasing pressure of crystallization, revealed variable values, both within some single islands and along the entire arc, indicating polybaric conditions of crystallization. The lowest cell and M1 volumes were found at Filicudi, plotting close to values of clinopyroxenes from high-pressure ultramafic xenoliths entrained in alkali basalts. Indications of high-pressure crystallization were also found at Salina and, to a lesser extent, at Alicudi, all situated in the western sector of the Aeolian Arc. The central and eastern islands of Lipari, Vulcano, Panarea and Stromboli generally show higher values of cell parameters, suggesting crystallization in shallow magma chambers. These islands are characterized by the occurrence of large calderas, which are apparently lacking at Salina and Filicudi. Time-related variations were observed for cell and M1 volumes of clinopyroxene for some islands. At Salina, the early-erupted products display low values of cell parameters with respect to later activity, thus indicating a decrease in crystallization pressure with time. A similar, although less striking, pattern is observed at Alicudi and Lipari. An overall increase in cell parameters with time was observed at the scale of the entire arc. The observed variations in clinopyroxene structural parameters highlight the significance of pyroxene crystal chemistry for petrogenetic and volcanological interpretation. Correlation with time and the structural characteristics of volcanoes suggest significant regional and temporal modifications in the plumbing systems of Aeolian volcanoes. Clinopyroxenes from Filicudi and the older Salina crystallized at high

  5. The role of river trajectories and channel recovery potential within sustainable river management: some case studies from southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Most of Italian and European rivers have undergone notable channel adjustments since the last 150-200 years. Major adjustments fall within the second half of the last century and consisted in overall channel narrowing and degradation, accompanied by important pattern changes. In the cases of the six investigated rivers located in southern Italy (namely Trigno, Biferno, Fortore, Volturno, Sinni and Crati), major adjustments occurred from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s. They consisted in channel narrowing up to 98%, bed level lowering from -2 to -10m and extensive changes from multi-thread to single thread pattern that led to the abandonment of extensive channel areas and consistent increase of floodplain and terraced areas. The integrated analysis of river trajectories and potential control factors, both of natural and anthropic origin, showed that human disturbances, especially gravel mining and river control works, are key driving factors of channel adjustments. Furthermore, the presence of major hydraulic structures along the rivers Biferno, Fortore, Sinni and Trigno significantly influenced the amounts of channel adjustments which are sharply higher within the reaches located downstream of such structures. Considering the last 15-20 years, most of the evolutionary trajectories of the investigated reaches highlight ongoing channel stabilization or even some appreciable channel recovery. Particularly, channel widening had occurred in those reaches that are not under the direct influence of major hydraulic structures (check-dams and dams) and in which in-channel interventions had pratically ceased and woody riparian vegetation developed only in a discontinuous manner. Conversely, the reaches that are located immediately downstream of major hydraulic structures, in which control works are placed very close to the actual riverbanks and/or a continuous riparian forest has developed, appear stable, only locally affected by very slight widening, or even affected by

  6. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  7. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  8. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

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    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  9. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy

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    R. Caggiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy. The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6–12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  10. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  11. Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in southern Italy from 2000-2005: molecular typing of isolates from human and non human sources

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    Caterina Mammina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotype Infantis ranks within the top-five Salmonella serotypes in many European countries. An association between this serotype and the poultry ecosystem is apparent in some geographic areas and could account for its persistent or emergent role as causative agent of human salmonellosis. Recently, in southern Italy isolation from eggs and poultry has become increasingly frequent, and in one case the egg yolk also cultured positive. Molecular typing was performed to assess the possible relationship among isolates from human, food and animal sources. Isolates of serotype Infantis identified in southern Italy between 2000 and 2005 rom various sources were submitted to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE by a CHEF-Mapper apparatus fter endonuclease digestion of DNA by XbaI. PFGE patterns of isolates from swine and poultry reservoirs showed distinctive PFGE profiles and human solates shared pulsotypes with isolates from both sources. Moreover, egg isolates from different farms ppeared very similar to each other. Epidemiological investigation and risk assessment can obtain reliable and useful pointers from he pplication of molecular epidemiology techniques.

  12. Systematic hydrogeological study of a hypothermal spring (S. Cesarea Terme, Apulia), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Giuseppe Cesario; Tinelli, Roccaldo

    1995-02-01

    A long series of thermo-saline logging has been carried out in wells drilled through the Mesozoic carbonate aquifer from which the sulfur hypothermal springs of S. Cesarea Terme issue. The logging conducted at various timings (i.e. periodically, rapidly sequenced, synchronized with tides and sea conditions), over about 10 years, provides valuable data on the thermal and hydrological regimen of the area. In particular for the inshore zone, both isotherm and thermal gradient trends could be determined, and a close identification of preferential levels through which groundwater discharge takes place was possible. In fact, flow velocity measurements, made by the point diluition method, showed a mostly impervious aquifer except for evident fissured levels through which low-velocity discharge (5-22 cm day -1) takes place. When the sea is low and calm, all levels are influenced by sulfur waters except for the uppermost unconfined zone. When the sea is rough, also owing to the low permeability of the aquifer, a barrier effect against groundwater flow is triggered. Since groundwater is prevented from discharging, it tends to reach deeper permeable levels, thus markedly altering the hydrological and thermal regimen of the deeper sulfur waters. The lithological character of aquifers and their low permeability are confirmed by 222Rn contents (normally 10-15 pCi l -1), groundwater reaching 200 pCi l -1), only at levels where water starts becoming hot. This phenomenon, as supported by all investigations including those on sulfides, occurs only at temperatures exceeding 23°C. Therefore, according to the above investigation, the S. Cesarea springs represent a unique hydraulic model, matching real hydrodynamic situations occurring when surrounding conditions change.

  13. Geochemical Patterns of Geothermal Elements in Southern Italian Fumaroles and Thermal Springs in Relation with Mantle Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, A. E.; Minissale, A.; Donato, A.; Procesi, M.; Pizzino, L.; Giammanco, S.

    2015-12-01

    The review of published data together with some new data specifically made to fill gaps, to make a database of chemical and isotopic data for thermal emergences (springs, fumaroles and gas vents) in southern Italy, to be used for the publication of a Geothermal Atlas, has hallowed the re-interpretation of all the geochemical data gathered. The main conclusions are as follows. All active volcanic areas (Solfatara, Vesuvius, Ischia Isle, Mt Etna, Aeolian Islands and Pantelleria Isle) have i) high 3He/4He rations coupled with ii) high CO2 emissions and iii) geo-thermometric (isotopic) signatures that suggest the presence of active geothermal systems in all places at shallow depth. In spite of this, no one of these areas, is exploited for geothermal power generation. There are three further Quaternary volcanic areas at: Iblei Mts in Sicily, Vulture volcano in Basilicata region and Logudoro area in Sardinia Island that also have CO2-rich gas emissions, high in 3He/4He ratio, but they are not associated to any relevant thermal emission nearby. In terms of regional patterns, apart from the Calabria subduction arc area (Calabria region), the stable flat cratonic areas of Apulia in SE Italy, the Iblean Platform in SE Sicily, and most of Sardinia, the latter not involved in the Apennine Orogeny, the remaining southern Italy along the Tyrrhenian sector has huge emission of hydrothermally generated CO2 crossed, in counterflow, by descending topographically driven N2 solubilized in recharge meteoric water from the main Apennine belt. Iso-distribution maps of several of the parameters investigated even more clearly show the sectors of southern Italy affected by the intrusion of mantle magma and therefore the areas where the geothermal heat-flow is maximized by active tectonics.

  14. Runoff generation through ephemeral streams in south-east Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.; Giustolisi, O.

    2012-04-01

    , in a partially urbanized catchment located in Apulia (south east of Italy). The analysis is based on full 2D simulation of the behaviour of a network of ephemeral streams. A full 2D approach integrates the hydrological and hydraulic models, in order to account first for the dynamic of catchment response to rainfall and activation of the streams, and then for the hydraulic behaviour of the streams. This analysis entails the simulation of extreme events corresponding to low, medium and high return periods, in order to identify which event presumably activate the ephemeral streams. Camarasa, A.M. and Tilford, K.A. (2002). "Rainfall-runoff modelling of ephemeral streams in the Valencia region (eastern Spain)". Hydrological Processes, 16: 3329-3344. Camarasa Belmonte, A.M, and Segura Beltran, F. (2001). "Flood events in Mediterranean ephemeral stream (ramblas) in Valencia Region, Spain". Catena, 45: 229-249. Cotecchia, V. (2006). "Il disordine idraulico evidenziato in Bari dall'evento pluviometrico dell'Ottobre 2005 e il caso dell' ex cava di Maso". Continuità - Rassegna Tecnica Pugliese, 1-2.2006: 25-76. De Vera M. (1984). "Rainfall-Runoff relationship of some catchments with karstic geomorphology under arid to semi-arid conditions". Journal of Hydrology, 68(1-4): 85-93. Polemio, M., (2010). "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  15. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  16. DMPP-added nitrogen fertilizer affects soil N2O emission and microbial activity in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Luca; De Marco, Anna; Maglione, Giuseppe; Polimeno, Franca; Di Tommasi, Paul; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Arable sites contributes to global N2O emission due to massive utilization of nitrogen fertilizers. N2O derives from the biological processes such as nitrification and denitrification influenced by soil nitrogen availability. The use of nitrogen fertilizers added with nitrification inhibitors represents one among the proposed strategy to reduce soil N2O emission form arable sites. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 3,4-dimethylphyrazole phosphate (DMPP), a nitrification inhibitor, on N2O emission and microbial activity of a soil cropped to potato in Southern Italy. The experiment was a randomized block design with two treatments applied and three replicates: control (C) and DMPP (Entec®, K+S Nitrogen) plots, both supplied with the same amount of ammonium nitrate. The nitrogen fertilizer was supplied in three events: at 0 Day After Sowing (DAS; 100 kg N ha-1), at 57 DAS (30 kg N ha-1), and at 71 DAS (30 kg N ha-1). Soil N2O emission was monitored by both dynamic and static chambers. Static chambers were located both on hills and furrows whereas dynamic chambers were located on furrows. Air samples were collected from chambers at different times and analysed by a gas chromatograph (SRI 8610C, Gas Chromatograph). Fluxes were estimated as a linear interpolation of N2O changes over a 30 min time. Microbial biomass and basal respiration were determined as CO2 evolution, analysed by means of an IRGA (Li6200, Licor), on 2 g of fresh soil over a 4h incubation time. Microbial biomass was determined by Substrate Induced Respiration method. Data show no statistical differences in N2O fluxes measured with either dynamic chambers between C and DMPP plots in studied period. However, after the first fertilization event, when the fertilizer was applied as 100 kg N ha-1, the average N2O fluxes measured with static chambers were higher in DMPP plots compared to C plots. In the same period, the microbial biomass significantly decreased in DMPP plots as compared to C

  17. Efficacy of chemical treatment of the Pietra cantone limestone in the restoration of historic buildings of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Lisci, Carla; Sitzia, Fabio; Buccellato, Giampaolo

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the efficacy of some chemical products in the restoration works of the "Pietra cantone" limestone, a calcarenitic rock belonging to the carbonatic miocenic series (lower Tortonian) of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy), widely used in historic buildings. Such stone, once used in the masonry, if is not protected by plaster or in the presence of aqueous solutions circulating, frequently shows problems of chemical-physical decay, due to their petrophysical characteristics. In fact, being characterized by a highly porous (on average 35-42% vol.) carbonate matrix low-medium cemented, are easily alterable by weathering processes (i.e., dissolution, sulfation, etc.) and by cyclic mechanism of crystallization/solubilisation of salts and hydration/dehydration of hygroscopic phases belonging to the clay component of these calcarenites. These processes induce negative effects on physical-mechanical properties of stone, producing various macroscopic forms of alteration such as decohesion, disintegration, exfoliation, alveolation, etc. Where the decay of the walls is in an advanced stage, there was a strong retreat of the vertical profile of the facade of the building, resulting in critical static-structural. As a case study was taken the historic building of a tobacco manufacture, one of the first industrial establishments in Cagliari, then owned by the Italian State Monopoly. The factory dates back to the early decades of the XVIII century, the walls of which, however, belonged to the convent of the "Frati Minori" built towards the end of the XIV century along the wall that closed the east the historic district of "Marina" in front of the port of Cagliari. In addressing the structural restoration of this building, before selecting chemical products for dealing adequately of limestone, we proceeded at the outset to a thorough analysis of the structures built in "Pietra Cantone", and their physical-mechanical decay. Only thereafter the stone

  18. The MeTIBas project: an example of settlement continuity in a coastal changing landscape of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Di Leo, Paola; Giammatteo, Tonia; Gioia, Dario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The MeTIBas (Italian acronym for Innovative Methods and Technologies for the Cultural Heritage in the Basilicata region) project aims to develop an innovative geoarchaeological investigation approach for large areas. Analyses of environmental dynamics, palaeoclimatic proxies, spatial and temporal evolution of settlements and, more in general, of the relationships between man and landscape have been carried also through the implementation of a Territorial Information System, drawing-up of an experimental digital geoarchaeological map, and creation of an open geoarchaeological database. The project methods have been applied in the coastal area of Metaponto, which roughly coincides with the ancient territory of the Greek settlement of Metapontum and its chora and includes a region of about 400 sq. km in the Ionian sector of the Basilicata region, southern Italy. The backshore area of the Metaponto coastal plain was characterized by the presence of wide limno-palustrine environments, reclaimed during the first decades of the last century. Geomorphological mapping, GIS-supported statistics, and analysis of the topographic features of the landforms represent the key to extract the settlement rules and the site dynamics of the study area. Site distribution and relationships with landscape elements allow us to investigate the settlement patterns and human activities and choices. A wide archive of archaeological data on the whole study area - from Prehistoric times to Roman age - has been therefore used to connect the wandering or persistence of the ancient sites in relation with different landforms and their changes during the last 5000 years. The layout of the site arrangement clearly traces the main geomorphological features of the area (i.e. settlements along fluvial scarps, sites on the flat surfaces of marine and fluvial terraces, main villages in the coastal plain). From a chronological viewpoint, after a progressive increase of the settlements and other

  19. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  20. Bio-chemostratigraphy of the Barremian–Aptian shallow-water carbonates of the southern Apennines (Italy: pinpointing the OAE1a in a Tethyan carbonate platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Di Lucia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Low resolution and lack of chronostratigraphic calibration of carbonate platform biostratigraphy hinder precise correlation with coeval deep-water successions. This is the main obstacle when studying the record of Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events in carbonate platforms. In this paper we use carbon isotope stratigraphy to produce the first chronostratigraphic calibration of the Barremian–Aptian biostratigraphy of the Apenninic carbonate platform of southern Italy. According to our calibration, the "Selli level" black shales of epicontinental and oceanic basins corresponds in the southern Apenninic carbonate platform to the interval between the "Orbitolina level", characterized by the association of Mesorbitolina parva and Mesorbitolina texana, and the second acme of Salpingoporella dinarica. The biocalcification crisis of nannoconids corresponds to the interval going from the first acme of S. dinarica to just above the top of the "Orbitolina level". Since these bioevents have been widely recognized beyond the Apenninic platform, our calibration can be used to pinpoint the interval corresponding to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event in other carbonate platforms of central and southern Tethys.

  1. Bio-chemostratigraphy of the Barremian-Aptian shallow-water carbonates of the southern Apennines (Italy): pinpointing the OAE1a in a Tethyan carbonate platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lucia, M.; Mutti, M.; Parente, M.

    2011-09-01

    Low resolution and lack of chronostratigraphic calibration of carbonate platform biostratigraphy hinder precise correlation with coeval deep-water successions. This is the main obstacle when studying the record of Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events in carbonate platforms. In this paper we use carbon isotope stratigraphy to produce the first chronostratigraphic calibration of the Barremian-Aptian biostratigraphy of the Apenninic carbonate platform of southern Italy. According to our calibration, the "Selli level" black shales of epicontinental and oceanic basins corresponds in the southern Apenninic carbonate platform to the interval between the "Orbitolina level", characterized by the association of Mesorbitolina parva and Mesorbitolina texana, and the second acme of Salpingoporella dinarica. The biocalcification crisis of nannoconids corresponds to the interval going from the first acme of S. dinarica to just above the top of the "Orbitolina level". Since these bioevents have been widely recognized beyond the Apenninic platform, our calibration can be used to pinpoint the interval corresponding to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event in other carbonate platforms of central and southern Tethys.

  2. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  3. Metacercariae of Galactosomum lacteum (Jägerskiöld, 1896) Looss, 1899 (Heterophyidae) from marine teleosts in the Gulf of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; D'Amico, Valeria; Figus, Vincenza

    2007-12-01

    Galactosomum lacteum (Jägerskiöld, 1896) Looss, 1899 metacercariae, encysted on the optic nerve, on the brain and/or on the muscle and the connective of the pharynx and oesophagus, were found in Spicara maena L., S. flexuosa Rafinesque, 1810, S. smaris L. (Centracanthidae), Gobius cruentatus Gmelin, 1789 (Gobiidae), Symphodus tinca L., S. mediterraneus L. (Labridae), Serranus cabrilla L. (Serranidae), Diplodus sargus L. and D. annularis L. (Sparidae) caught in the Gulf of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy). Excysted specimens were identified by some distinctive morphological features: more or less expanded forebody, depending on whether the specimens were living or fixed; tubular excretory bladder extending to the posterior border of the ovary; two-chambered seminal vesicle; asymmetrical and parenchymatous ventral sucker with lines of spines within its cavity; and unarmed gonotyle. Comparison has been made with the congeneric species metacercaria, G. timondavidi Pearson & Prévot, 1971, also registered in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Towards management of coastal erosion problems and human structure impacts using GIS tools: case study in Ragusa Province, Southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    A geomorphologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 90-km long coastal sector in Southern Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosive processes. Applied methodology allowed the creation of a database involving a range of coastal characteristics thereby providing helpful information on coastal processes and general sediment circulation patterns. Coastal erosion, mainly linked to the construction of ports and harbours, has been locally mitigated by the construction of solid structures which themselves generate significant environmental stress in downdrift areas. In recent times, several nourishment projects have been planned to solve existing erosive problems, yet there is still a lack of a general erosion management plan based on the installation of port and harbour by-passing systems and including the phasing out of current beach cleaning and port maintenance procedures that produce a great quantity of sediments.

  5. First compositional evidences on the local production of Dressel 2-4 amphorae in Calabria (Southern Italy): characterization and mixing simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriello, D.; Bloise, A.; De Luca, R.; Apollaro, C.; Crisci, G. M.; Medaglia, S.; Taliano Grasso, A.

    2015-06-01

    Dressel 2-4 amphorae are a type of pottery, which was used to transport wine and produced in the Mediterranean area between the first century BC and the second century AD. This study shows, for the first time, that their production also occurred in Ionian Calabria. These results were achieved by studying 11 samples of archaeological pottery (five samples of Dressel 2-4 and six samples of other ceramic types) taken from Cariati (Calabria—Southern Italy). The composition of the pottery was compared with that of the local raw materials (clays and sands) potentially usable for their production. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy and analysed by XRF, XRPD and Raman spectroscopy. An innovative approach, based on Microsoft Excel optimizer "Solver" add-in on geochemical data, was used to define the provenance of archaeological pottery and to calculate the mixtures of local clay and sand needed for the production of the pottery itself.

  6. ALLOSTRATIGRAPHY AND SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIOCENE SEDIMENTS OF THE SPICCHIAIOLA - POMARANCE AREA, SOUTHERN SIDE OF THE VOLTERRA BASIN (TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO BOSSIO LUCA MARIA FORESI

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the Miocene depositional units of the southern side of the Volterra Basin (Tuscany, Italy utilizing outcrop and seismic data and to establish the major events that led to their formation. Four depositional units have been recognized: Unit 1 is characterized by marine sediments of late Serravallian-early Tortonian age; Unit 2 is characterized by fluvio-lacustrine and brackish deposits of late Tortonian-early Messinian age; Unit 3 is characterized by marine deposits of early Messinian age; Unit 4 is characterized by the lacustrine deposits ("Lago-mare" facies of late Messinian age. The deposition of these four units is associated with an extensional tectonic regime that has been active in Tuscany since the late Tortonian. This regime generated half graben type structures in which deposition occurred. The recognized unconformities between the units are mainly related to uplift as a consequence of the extensional tectonic regime.    

  7. A Study of the Correlation Between Electrical Resistivity and Matric Suction for Unsaturated Ash-Fall Pyroclastic Soils in the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester

    2011-01-01

    In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...

  8. DISCOSIPHONELLA MINIMA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & LINK AND SOLENOLMIA? PARVA N. SP. ("SPHINCTOZOA", PORIFERA FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN OF THE SOUTHERN APPENNINES (NORTHERN CALABRIA/ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in an Area of Hyperendemicity in Southern Italy: a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Alberto R.; Sonzogni, Laura; Cavallini, Aldo; Foti, Luciana; Guerra, Vito; Di Leo, Alfredo; Mondelli, Mario U.; Misciagna, Giovanni; Silini, Enrico M.

    1999-01-01

    In a cohort of subjects from Italy, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV RNA [HCV(+) subgroup] prevalences were 24.6 and 79.6%, respectively. HCV types 1b and 2a/c accounted for 95% of infections. Adjusted alanine aminotransferase levels were higher in males than in females and in RNA-positive subjects than in RNA-negative subjects regardless of HCV type. Genotype distribution was unrelated to demographic variables. PMID:10364620

  10. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  11. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  12. Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Alessandro; Baldanza, Angela; Casella, Sergio; Pino, Paolo; Rasa', Riccardo; Russo, Selma

    2016-08-01

    A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density flows. The chemical classification of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.

  13. New data on the FWF project P20018-N10: The Puez key-section in the Dolomites (Southern Alps; N-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, A.; Mayrhofer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Early Cretaceous ammonoids (n = 424) were collected at the Puez locality in the Dolomites of Southern Tyrol (Lukeneder and Aspmair 2006). The cephalopod fauna from the marly limestones to marls here indicates Late Valanginian to Early Aptian age. The underlying Biancone Formation (Maiolica Formation) is Early Valanginian. The deposition of the marly limestones and marls in this interval occurred during unstable conditions. Ammonoids. The ammonoid fauna comprises 27 different genera, each apparently represented by 1-2 species. The complete occurrence at the Puez section is dominated by the Phylloceratina (30%) and the Ammonitina (34%). Phyllopachyceras (17%) and Phylloceras (13%) from the Phylloceratina are the most frequent components, followed by Lytoceras (12%) from the Lytoceratina, and Barremites (10%) and Melchiorites (8%) from the Ammonitina. Phylloceatidae and Desmoceratidae are dominating the cephalopod-fauna. Some ammonoid zones defined by Hoedemaeker et al. (2003) can be recognized. The following index fossils were examined within the collections of the NHMW (Austria) and the NMB (Italy): for the latest Valanginian Criosarasinella furcillata (C. furcillate Zone and Subzone), for the middle Early Hauterivian Olcostephanus (Jeannoticeras) jeannoti (O.(J.) jeannoti Subzone), and Heinzia sayni for the lowermost Upper Barremian (H. sayni Subzone; Reboulet and Hoedemaeker (reporters) et al., submitted). The ammonoid fauna contains only descendants of the Mediterranean Province (Tethyan Realm). Most affinities of the cephalopod fauna are observed with faunas from the adjacent areas of Italy (Lessini Mountains, Belluno, southern Trento Plateau), the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Bakony, Geresce and Mecsek Mountains of Hungary. This is explained by the neighbouring position of the latter areas during the Early Cretaceous on the Apulian/Adria block and the Alpine-Carpathian microplate. The frequency of the ammonoids and the richness of the fauna make this

  14. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees.

  15. New constraints shed light on strike-slip faulting beneath the southern Apennines (Italy): The 21 August 1962 Irpinia multiple earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoli, Paola; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Palombo, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Console, Rodolfo; Ferrari, Graziano

    2016-11-01

    On 21 August 1962 an earthquake sequence set off near the city of Benevento, in Italy's southern Apennines. Three earthquakes, the largest having Mw 6.1, struck virtually the same area in less than 40 min (at 18:09, 18:19 and 18:44 UTC, respectively). Several historical earthquakes hit this region, and its seismic hazard is accordingly among the highest countrywide. Although poorly understood in the past, the seismotectonics of this region can be revealed by the 1962 sequence, being the only significant earthquake in the area for which modern seismograms are available. We determine location, magnitude, and nodal planes of the first event (18:09 UTC) of the sequence. The focal mechanism exhibits dominant strike-slip rupture along a north-dipping, E-W striking plane or along a west-dipping, N-S striking plane. Either of these solutions is significantly different from the kinematics of the typical large earthquakes occurring along the crest of the Southern Apennines, such as the 23 November 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Mw 6.9), caused by predominant normal faulting along NW-SE-striking planes. The epicentre of the 21 August 1962, 18:09 event is located immediately east of the chain axis, near one of the three north-dipping, E-W striking oblique-slip sources thought to have caused one of the three main events of the December 1456 sequence (Io XI MCS), the most destructive events in the southern Apennines known to date. We maintain that the 21 August 1962, 18:09 earthquake occurred along the E-W striking fault system responsible for the southernmost event of the 1456 sequence and for two smaller but instrumentally documented events that occurred on 6 May 1971 (Mw 5.0) and 27 September 2012 (Mw 4.6), further suggesting that normal faulting is not the dominant tectonic style in this portion of the Italian peninsula.

  16. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  17. [Ecology of Thelazia spp. in cattle and their vectors in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, A; Traversa, D; Otranto, D

    2004-06-01

    The genus Thelazia (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) includes a cosmopolitan group of eyeworm spirurids responsible for ocular infections in domestic and wild animals and transmitted by different species of muscids. Bovine thelaziosis is caused by Thelazia rhodesi Desmarest 1828, Thelazia gulosa Railliet & Henry 1910, and Thelazia skrjabini Erschow 1928, which occur in many countries; T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been reported mainly in the New World, while T. rhodesi is particularly common in the Old World. In Italy, T. rhodesi was reported in southern regions a long time ago and, recently, T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been identified in autochthonous cattle first in Apulia and then in Sardinia. Thirteen species of Musca are listed as intermediate hosts of eyeworms, but only Musca autumnalis and Musca larvipara have been demonstrated to act as vectors of Thelazia in the ex-URSS, North America, ex-Czechoslovakia and more recently in Sweden. In Italy, after the reports of T. gulosa and T. skrjabini in southern regions, the intermediate hosts of bovine eyeworms were initially only suspected as the predominant secretophagous Muscidae collected from the periocular region of cattle with thelaziosis were the face flies, M. autumnalis and M. larvipara, followed by Musca osiris, Musca tempestiva and Musca domestica. The well-known constraints in the identification of immature eyeworms to species by fly dissection and also the time-consuming techniques used constitute important obstacles to epidemiological field studies (i.e. vector identification and/or role, prevalence and pattern of infection in flies, etc.). Molecular studies have recently permitted to further investigations into this area. A PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal ITS-1 sequence was developed to differentiate the 3 species of Thelazia (i.e. T. gulosa, T. rhodesi and T. skrjabini) found in Italy, then a molecular epidemiological survey has recently been carried out in field conditions throughout five seasons of

  18. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from olive orchards in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Francesca; Lazarova, Stela; Troccoli, Alberto; Vovlas, Nicola; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. The first juvenile stage is reported for the first time. Molecular characterisation of this species, using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA and ITS region, was carried out. PCR-RFLP analyses of the ribosomal gene regions determined species-specific patterns that clearly differentiate X. macroacanthum. Sequences of the D2-D3 domains and the partial 18S-ITS1 rRNA genes were analysed using several methods for inferring phylogeny to reconstruct the relationships between X. macroacanthum and other Xiphinema species.

  19. First surveys on genetic variability and structure of field maple (Acer campestre L. in natural and managed populations in the landscape of central and southern Italy

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    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Four Tuscan populations (central Italy and three Italian populations from southern Italy (Campania were sampled to compare their genetic variability and genetic structure. In each geographical area one of the sampled populations is originated naturally in forest and used as a local reference. The remaining populations were originated artificially. Indeed, field maple was traditionally used in Italy to supply fresh fodder to animals in dry summer period as tree twigs or to train up grape trees in the fields edges. This tradition initiated  at the time of Etruscans and continued throughout the Roman partitioning of agriculture landscape. Biochemical markers were used to explore variability in the examined populations (5 enzyme systems by 11 loci. Results showed that the main amount of variation is due to the individual component as for most of the scattered hardwoods in Europe and that differentiation among populations for these neutral  traits is relatively low. On the other hand, the natural populations in both the geographical areas showed a very high level of panmittic equilibrium, whilst the artificial populations were really distant from this condition showing a high probability of “founder effect”. This could be determined by the former system of self-supplying reproductive material carried out by farmers, based on the wild offspring collection growing around few mother trees. Discussion is focused also on how handling the opportunity given by many hundreds kilometers of lines  in the agriculture landscape as a way of managing diversity for this species. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  20. Tracing sources of Listeria contamination in traditional Italian cheese associated with a US outbreak: investigations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V A; Iannetti, L; Gattuso, A; Sonnessa, M; Scavia, G; Montagna, C; Addante, N; Torresi, M; Zocchi, L; Scattolini, S; Centorame, P; Marfoglia, C; Prencipe, V A; Gianfranceschi, M V

    2016-10-01

    In 2012 a US multistate outbreak of listeriosis was linked to ricotta salata imported from Italy, made from pasteurized sheep's milk. Sampling activities were conducted in Italy to trace the source of Listeria monocytogenes contamination. The cheese that caused the outbreak was produced in a plant in Apulia that processed semi-finished cheeses supplied by five plants in Sardinia. During an 'emergency sampling', 179 (23·6%) out of 758 end-products tested positive for L. monocytogenes, with concentrations from source in Italy. Simultaneous surveillance systems at both food and human levels are a necessity for the efficient rapid discovery of the source of an outbreak of L. monocytogenes.

  1. Real-time measurements of Hg0 and H2S at La Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) and Mt. Amiata volcano (Siena, Central Italy): a new geochemical approach to estimate the distribution of air contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Capecchiacci, F.; Di Lonardo, C.; D'Alessandro, W.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of Hg and H2S from natural and anthropogenic sources may have a great environmental impact in urban areas as well as in the surroundings of active and passive degassing volcanoes. Mercury is present in the atmosphere mainly in its elemental form (Hg0~98 %), which has a relatively high volatility, low solubility and chemical inertness. Hydrogen sulfide, one of the most abundant gas species in volcanic fluids, is highly poisoning and corrosive. In this study, an innovative real-time method for the measurements of Hg0 and H2S concentrations in air was carried out at La Solfatara Crater, a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone nested in the town of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy), and at Mt. Amiata volcano (Central Italy), where a world-class Hg mining district abandoned in the seventies and a presently-exploited geothermal field for the production of electrical energy occur. The main aims were (i) to test this new methodological approach and (ii) to investigate Hg0 and H2S concentrations and the chemical-physical parameters regulating their spatial distribution in polluted areas. A portable Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer with high frequency modulation of light polarization (Lumex RA-915M) was used in combination with a pulsed fluorescence gas analyzer (Thermo Scientific Model 450i) to measure Hg0 and H2S, respectively. The instruments were synchronized and set at high-frequency acquisition (10 sec and 1 min, respectively). Measurements were carried out along pathways (up to 12 km long) at an average speed of <10 km/h and coupled with GPS data and meteorological parameters. In selected sites, passive samplers were positioned to determine the time-integrated Hg0 and H2S concentrations to be compared with the real-time measurements. The results indicate that this approach is highly efficient and effective in providing reliable and reproducible Hg0 and H2S concentrations and can be used to identify and characterize gas emitters in different environments.

  2. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  3. Fatal firearm wounds: a retrospective study in Bari (Italy) between 1988 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Biagio; Nicoletti, Emanuele Maria; Di Vella, Giancarlo

    2007-05-24

    Fatal gunshot injuries are routinely encountered by forensic pathologists practicing in Southern Italy. Bari, the capital city of the Italian region known as Apulia, is a leader with regard to the number of firearm deaths in Italy. This is mainly attributable to local organized crime groups which control a variety of illicit activities. This retrospective study analyzes autopsy data related to fatal firearm wounds, handled by the Institute of Legal Medicine [University of Bari], between 1988 and 2003. A total of 717 cases were selected and classified as follows: firearm homicides (634); suicides (82); and accidental death (1). A significant number of variables have been reviewed such as: month in which the violent event took place; the victims' nationalities; gender and age of victims; site and number of entrance wounds; weapon type used; and manner of death (i.e. homicide; suicide; accidental). Analysis has revealed a homicide versus suicide ratio of almost 8:1. Victims were mostly male with a lower mean age than in other similar studies. Homicides with multiple gunshot wounds were more common than ones with single entrance wounds. For example, in one case, 30 entrance wounds were identified in the murder of a gang boss. Four suicides with two entrance gunshot wounds were identified. Handguns were the most frequently used weapon in all groups (i.e. homicide, suicide, and accidental), with 7.65 mm and 9 mm being the most common calibres. This study revealed a very low incidence of suicide among females. Mental and other types of illness, as well as financial stress were the apparent motives which prompted most of the suicide victims. The homicide cases described were most often related to continual, ongoing fights among local criminal gangs (75%).

  4. Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy: the stakeholders’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a regional strategy detailing the key points of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and Italian Bioeconomy Strategy in accordance with local peculiarities. In order to develop a regional strategy for the forest sector it is important to investigate the social demands and needs involving the local stakeholders. The aim of the study is to investigate the stakeholders’ opinions of Calabria Region (Italy about the priorities of forest-wood chain to include in the future regional bioeconomy strategy. The stakeholders’ opinions were collected through the face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire to 99 local stakeholders. The respondents assessed the importance of a set of objectives aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain at local level (economic exploitation of wood products; diffusion of forest certification; orientation of production to market demand; coordination of forest-wood-energy chain’s actors; implementation of environmental and cultural forest values; improvement of the level of mechanization in wood processing; improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers. In addition, the respondents assessed the capacity of some specific activities to achieve the above mentioned objectives. The collected data were used to define two strategies aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain in Calabria Region. The results show that for the interviewed stakeholders the main three objectives are: the implementation of environmental and cultural forest values, the

  5. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  6. Bio-chemostratigraphy of the Barremian-Aptian shallow-water carbonates of the southern Apennines (Italy: pinpointing the OAE1a in a Tethyan carbonate platform

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    M. Di Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low biostratigraphic resolution and lack of chronostratigraphic calibration hinder precise correlations between platform carbonates and coeval deep-water successions. These are the main obstacle when studying the record of Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events in carbonate platforms. In this paper carbon and strontium isotope stratigraphy are used to produce the first chronostratigraphic calibration of the Barremian-Aptian biostratigraphy of the Apenninic carbonate platform of southern Italy. According to this calibration, the segment of decreasing δ13C values, leading to the negative peak that is generally taken as the onset of the Selli event, starts a few metres above the last occurrence of Palorbitolina lenticularis and Voloshinoides murgensis. The following rise of δ13C values, corresponding to the interval of enhanced accumulation of organic matter in deep-water sections, ends just below the first acme of Salpingoporella dinarica, which roughly corresponds to the segment of peak δ13C values. The whole carbon isotope excursion associated with the oceanic anoxic event 1a is bracketed in the Apenninic carbonate platform between the last occurrence of Voloshinoides murgensis and the "Orbitolina level", characterized by the association of Mesorbitolina parva and Mesorbitolina texana. Since these bioevents have been widely recognized beyond the Apenninic platform, the calibration presented in this paper can be used to pinpoint the interval corresponding to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event in other carbonate platforms of central and southern Tethys. This calibration will be particularly useful to interpret the record of the Selli event in carbonate platform sections for which a reliable carbon isotope stratigraphy is not available.

  7. Quantitative precipitation and streamflow forecast for two recent extreme hydro-meteorological events in Southern Italy with a fully-coupled model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Two severe hydro-meteorological events affected Calabria Region (Southern Italy) in the second half of the year 2015. The first event, on August 12th, focused on a relatively small area near the northern Ionian coast, resulted in a rainfall intensity of about 230 mm in 24 hours involving flash flooding with several million Euros of damages. The second event mainly affected the southern Ionian coast, was more persistent (it lasted from October 30th to November 2nd), interested a wider area and led to recorded rainfall values up to 400 mm in 24 hours and 700 mm in 48 hours, resulting in severe flooding, landslides and a human loss. The fully two-way dynamically coupled atmosphere-hydrology modeling system WRF-Hydro is used to reproduce both the events, in order to assess its skill in forecasting both quantitative precipitation and streamflow with initial and lateral atmospheric boundary conditions given by the recently available 0.25° output resolution GFS grid dataset. Precipitation estimates provided by 2 km-resolution atmospheric model are compared with both ground-based data and observations from a National Civil Protection Department single-polarization Doppler radar. Discharge data from the rivers and creeks affected by heavy precipitation are not available, then streamflow results are compared with either official discharge estimates provided by authorities (first event) or recorded river stages (second event). Results show good performances of the fully-coupled hydrometeorological prediction system which allows an improved representation of the coupled atmospheric and terrestrial processes and provides an integrated solution for the regional water cycle modeling, from atmospheric processes to river outlets.

  8. Paleoceanographic Changes in the Lagonegro Basin (Southern Italy) during the Late Triassic Linked to Oceanic Rifting in the Western Tethyan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacci, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Bertinelli, A.; Rigo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lagonegro Basin was part of the southwestern branch of the western Tethys, an actively spreading young ocean during the Late Triassic (Ciarapica and Passeri, 2002, 2005). The sedimentary environment was a deepening-upward basin, bordered to the north by the Apenninic and Apulian carbonate platforms. Paleoseismic activity is evidenced by frequent debris flows on the basin margins (Passeri et al., 2005). The Lagonegro succession is characterized by Permian to Miocene formations deposited in shallow to deep basinal environments. The Upper Triassic is comprised of deep-marine sediments belonging to the Calcari con Selce ("Cherty Limestone") Formation of late Ladinian to late Norian-early Rhaetian age and the Scisti Silicei ("Siliceous Shale") Formation of late Norian-early Rhaetian to Late Jurassic age. The "Transitional Interval" between these two formations is gradational over a 20- to 40-m interval (Miconnet, 1983). The Transitional Interval was investigated in three sections (Pignola-Abriola, Monte Volturino, and Madonna del Sirino) in the Southern Apennines (southern Italy), representing a proximal-to-distal transect across the Lagonegro Basin. The transition from mainly calcareous to mainly siliceous sedimentation may have been influenced by rapid, post-rift subsidence of the Lagonegro Basin. It also coincided with a shift to warmer or more humid conditions around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary, as reflected in a pronounced increase in the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a weathering proxy (Young and Nesbitt, 1998). Redox proxies indicate mainly oxic conditions in the deep basin, although organic-rich shale beds are present at multiple levels in the otherwise organic-poor succession. The abruptness of the transitions between organic-poor and -rich sediment layers suggests major changes in paleoceanographic conditions, possibly related to switches from lagoonal circulation (linked to a net negative water balance) to estuarine circulation (linked to a net

  9. A stochastic ensemble-based model to predict crop water requirements from numerical weather forecasts and VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Anna; Falanga Bolognesi, Salvatore; De Michele, Carlo; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Ensemble numerical weather predictions can be valuable data for developing operational advisory irrigation services. We propose a stochastic ensemble-based model providing spatial and temporal estimates of crop water requirements, implemented within an advisory service offering detailed maps of irrigation water requirements and crop water consumption estimates, to be used by water irrigation managers and farmers. The stochastic model combines estimates of crop potential evapotranspiration retrieved from ensemble numerical weather forecasts (COSMO-LEPS, 16 members, 7 km resolution) and canopy parameters (LAI, albedo, fractional vegetation cover) derived from high resolution satellite images in the visible and near infrared wavelengths. The service provides users with daily estimates of crop water requirements for lead times up to five days. The temporal evolution of the crop potential evapotranspiration is simulated with autoregressive models. An ensemble Kalman filter is employed for updating model states by assimilating both ground based meteorological variables (where available) and numerical weather forecasts. The model has been applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. This work presents the results of the system performance for one year of experimental service. The results suggest that the proposed model can be an effective support for a sustainable use and management of irrigation water, under conditions of water scarcity and drought. Since the evapotranspiration term represents a staple

  10. Damaging Hydrogeological Events: A Procedure for the Assessment of Severity Levels and an Application to Calabria (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A damaging hydrogeological event (DHE is characterized by two components: a rainfall event and a subsequent damage event, which is the result of floods and landslides triggered by rainfall. The characteristics of both events depend on climatic, geomorphological and anthropogenic factors. In this paper, a methodology to classify the severity of DHEs is presented. A chart which considers indicators of both the damage (Dscore and the daily rainfall (Rscore values recorded in the study area is proposed. According to the chart, the events are classified into four types: ordinary events, with low Dscore and Rscore values; extraordinary events, with high Rscore values but low Dscore values; catastrophic events, characterized by non-exceptional rainfall (low Rscore and severe damage (high Dscore; major catastrophic events, obtained by both high Dscore and Rscore values. Using this approach, the 2013 DHE that occurred in Calabria (Italy was classified as an ordinary event, when compared to the previous ones, even though the widespread diffusion of damage data induced the perception of high severity damage. The rainfall that triggered this event confirms the negative trend of heavy daily precipitation detected in Calabria, and the damage can be ascribed more to sub-daily than daily rainfall affecting urbanized flood-prone areas.

  11. ASTROCHRONOLOGICAL CALIBRATION OF THE UPPER SERRAVALLIAN/LOWER TORTONIAN SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE AT TREMITI ISLANDS(ADRIATIC SEA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution cyclostratigraphic study was carried out on a cyclicaly bedded succession of late Middle Miocene deep marine deposits from the Tremiti Islands, Adriatic sea (Italy. Astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provides absolute ages for different calcareous plankton bioevents, widely used for intra Mediterranean correlation, in the interval between 11.12 and 12.60 Ma. The sedimentary record of the S. nicola composite section consists of an alternation of indurated, withish coloured, CaCo3 rich and grey less indurated, CaCo3 poor marly beds, at times replaced by red coloured CaCo3 poor marls. Results of direct correlation between the La 90 (1,1 solution of the insolation curve and the cyclic lithologic patterns occurring in the studied sections, combined with results of spectral methodologies applied on the climate sensitive data (CaCo3 and Globigerinoides showed that the classic Milankovitch periodicity can be represented through the modulation forcing of the studied sedimentary records. 

  12. LCA of the Collection, Transportation, Treatment and Disposal of Source Separated Municipal Waste: A Southern Italy Case Study

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    Giovanni De Feo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study performed a Life Cycle Assessment of the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of source-separated municipal waste (MW in Baronissi, a town of 17,000 inhabitants in the Campania region of Italy. Baronissi is a high-performing town in a region with scarcity of MW facilities. The environmental impacts were assessed with three different methods—IPCC 2007, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008—in order to evaluate how they influence the results as well as how the global warming affects the results, since it is one of the major environmental concerns of people. The obtained results showed how the presence of facilities in the area is fundamental. Their lack means high environmental loads due to the transportation of materials for long distances, particularly for the organic fraction. The presence of a composting plant at 10 km from the municipality would result in a decrease of 65% of the impacts due to the external transport, regardless of the evaluation method. The results obtained with ReCiPe 2008 and Ecological Footprint agreed, while those obtained with IPCC 2007 were very different since global warming is strongly affected by the transport phase. IPCC 2007 does not allow to take into account the advantages obtainable with a good level of separate collection. Considering a single impact evaluation method, there is a high risk of coming to misleading conclusions.

  13. Applications of a synergic analytical strategy to figure out technologies in medieval glazed pottery with "negative decoration" from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Acquaviva, Marianna; Laganara, Caterina; Laviano, Rocco; Mangone, Annarosa

    2014-09-01

    Glazed pottery with "negative decoration" samples, dating back to the twelfth to thirteenth century ad and coming from three sites along the Adriatic coast, Siponto, Egnatia and Trani (Southern Italy) were characterized from physical-chemical, mineralogical and morphological points of view. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations were carried out on ceramic bodies, pigments and glazes of the fragments. We aimed to outline the technological features, define the nature of decorations and coatings—glazes and engobes—and look for clues to hypothesize provenance. Results obtained show clear differences in raw materials and production technology between the impressed ceramic of Islamic tradition and the incised one of Byzantine tradition. Regarding the latter, evidences of a non-local origin can be found in the compositional diversity of raw materials used for the ceramic bodies of fragments decorated with spiral and pseudo-kufic motifs, which stressed the use of clays so far not recorded in Apulia. At the same time, at least in the case of Siponto, the compositional similarity of both ceramic bodies and materials used under the glaze for impressed ceramic and painted polychrome ceramics (RMR and protomaiolica), more likely local production, could suggest that both were produced in the same workshops.

  14. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

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    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  15. A 10,300-year-old permafrost core from the active rock glacier Lazaun, southern Ötztal Alps (South Tyrol, northern Italy)

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    Krainer, Karl; Bressan, David; Dietre, Benjamin; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Hajdas, Irka; Lang, Kathrin; Mair, Volkmar; Nickus, Ulrike; Reidl, Daniel; Thies, Hansjörg; Tonidandel, David

    2015-03-01

    Two cores were drilled on rock glacier Lazaun in the southern Ötztal Alps (N Italy). The average ice content of core Lazaun I is 43 vol.% and of core Lazaun II is 22 vol.%. Radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil remains of core Lazaun I yielded ages ranging from 8960 cal yr BP at a depth of ca. 23.5 m to 2240 cal yr BP at a depth of 2.8 m, indicating that the ice near the base is approximately 10,300 yr old. The rock glacier was intact since that time and the ice persisted even during warm periods of the Holocene. An ice-free debris layer between 16.8 and 14.7 m separates the rock glacier into two frozen bodies. Inclinometer measurements indicate that both frozen bodies are active and that deformation occurs within a shear horizon at a depth of 20-25 m at the base of the lower frozen body and to a minor extent at a depth of approximately 14 m at the base of the upper frozen body. The ice-free debris layer in the middle of the Lazaun rock glacier indicates a more than five centennial long drought period, which dates to about 4300-3740 cal yr BP.

  16. Joint analysis of electric and gravimetric data for volcano monitoring. Application to data acquired at Vulcano Island (southern Italy) from 1993 to 1996

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    Di Maio, Rosa; Berrino, Giovanna

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of volcanic-hydrothermal systems is a key factor for discriminating between magmatic and hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena observed in active volcanic areas. Numerous studies of geophysical data monitoring in volcano-geothermal districts has indeed proven that close relationships exist between the volcanic and hydrothermal fluid circulation and the anomalous geophysical signals observed at the ground surface. In this paper, a simultaneous analysis that integrates resistivity and gravity data is suggested as a useful tool to infer a consistent conceptual model of hydrothermal volcanic systems and their evolution. An application of the proposed analysis to repeated resistivity and gravity measurements performed on Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Sicily, southern Italy) is presented with the aim of gaining information on the dynamics of the volcanic-hydrothermal system. The examined period ranges from December 1993 to September 1996, when significant changes in chemical properties, temperatures and emission rates of La Fossa crater fumaroles were observed, all indicating an increase in the flux of hot deep magmatic gases. The results of our analysis, which refers to a profile located at the foot of the northwest flank of La Fossa cone, suggest that underground cyclic water-to-vapour transformations govern the shallow hydrothermal system dynamics, generally described by a negative correlation between the monitored resistivity and gravity data. The occurrence of positive correlations between the two analysed parameters could be ascribed to volcanic dynamics, which would mask the normal hydrological and hydrothermal system behaviour.

  17. Petrogenesis of tourmaline rocks associated with Fe-carbonate graphite metapelite, metabasite and strata-bound polymetallic sulphide mineralisation, Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Paolo; Meli, Carmelina

    2007-12-01

    Tourmalinite and tourmaline-rich rocks associated with Fe-carbonate-graphite phyllite, strata-bound polymetallic sulphide deposits, metabasite and marble were studied, for information on the mechanism of tourmaline formation in the pre-Hercynian low-grade metamorphic sequence of the Mandanici Unit in the Peloritani Mountains of Sicily, southern Italy. The major and trace element compositions of the tourmaline rocks suggest the existence of a sedimentary protolith with pre-metamorphic black shale and bedded chert. Boron was interpreted to be accumulated in a restricted sedimentary basin, between platform carbonate formations, with abundant organic matter and Fe-Al-Ti-rich laterite-bauxite soil-derived clastic supply, under a continental volcano-tectonic extensional regime accompanied by a local convective hydrothermal system along faults. Petrographic, crystal-chemical and δ11B isotopic data are compatible with a model of marine sediment dewatering at temperatures below 200 °C, which caused the removal of boron from clay. Metamorphism led to the development of tourmaline in an Al-Ti-rich environment, in equilibrium with other minerals such as ilmenite, albite and muscovite. The upper temperature of metamorphism (almost 375 °C), estimated on the basis of δ11B, fits geothermometric results from Δ 13C carbonate-graphite on associated rocks. The estimated value of δ11B in the tourmalinite protolith, - 7.5‰ , is also compatible with continental-derived Al-rich sediments.

  18. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

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    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  19. Buried volcanic structures in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy resulting from high resolution magnetic survey and seismic profiling

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    S. Ruggieri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a correlation between volcanic structures and magnetic anomalies in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea based on high resolution magnetic profiling. A densely spaced grid of magnetic profiles coupled with multichannel seismics (seismic source Watergun 15 cubic inch was recorded in the Gulf of Naples, representing an active volcanic area during the Late Quaternary (volcanic centers of Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia and Procida islands. The dataset was collected during the oceanographic cruise GMS00-05 which took place during October-November 2000 in the South Tyrrhenian Sea onboard of the R/V Urania (National Research Council, Italy. Shallow volcanic structures in the subsurface of the gulf were recognized by seismo-stratigraphic analysis of high resolution profiles; the volcanic nature of some of these structures was inferred identifying the magnetic anomalies on a high resolution magnetic anomaly map of the gulf. Even if qualitative, the correlations between seismic and magnetic profiles allow us to better assess the geological structure of the Gulf of Naples.

  20. Carbon credit accounting: the model CO2FIX v. 3.1 applied to a beech stand under Forest Management in southern Italy

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    Scarfò F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in the mitigation of the effects of climate change thanks to their ability to sequestrate carbon dioxide from atmosphere. The assessment of the carbon fixed by forest ecosystems (stocks and the carbon accumulated over a period of time (sinks is focal for environmental protection scopes, as well as for accessing the carbon credits market. The main purpose of this work was to estimate (using the ecosystem-level model CO2FIX v. 3.1 the equivalent carbon dioxide (Mg CO2 eq ha-1 y-1 fixed by a beech stand located in southern Italy during the First Commitment Period (2008-2012 under Forest Management (art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. The model was applied over a forest district using local data obtained from both literature and field analysis. Over the simulated period, sink values of 9.77 Mg C ha-1 (1.95 ± 0.91 Mg C ha-1 y-1 on average were obtained, corresponding to an accountable value of 5.36 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 and according to the possibility to accredit only the 15% of the real value (Decision 16/CMP.1 UNFCCC. Sink values estimated with the model applied barely diverge from those obtained by similar studies on beech forests, that have been briefly reviewed and discussed here.

  1. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

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    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth.

  2. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by popular herbal remedies used in southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NFκB activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200 µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NFκB activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50 =49.5 µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50 =147.8 µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50 s=9.6, 20.3 and 68 µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii and pre-treatment protocols for polymerase chain reaction analysis of milk samples: a field trial in sheep from Southern Italy

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    Alice Vismarra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.

  4. Retrospective assessment of macrophytic communities in southern Lake Garda (Italy from in situ and MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer data

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    Claudia Giardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ and hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer images acquired over a period of 13 years are used to assess changes in macrophyte colonization patterns in the coastal zones of the Sirmione Peninsula in the southern part of Lake Garda (Italy. In situ data (abundance, cover density and diversity of macrophyte communities and MIVIS-derived maps of colonized substrates are analyzed by considering the variability of the main hydrological and physicochemical variables in order to indicate the main factors that explain the spatiotemporal variability of macrophyte communities. The results show a considerable modification in terms of macrophyte structural complexity and colonized areas. Almost 98% of macrophyte meadows (in particular communities with a density of over 70% are lost and subsequently replaced by moderate to extremely rare communities with density from 10% to 40%. Well-established submerged macrophytes are replaced by de-structured communities characterized by moderate to scarce density: on average lower than 30%. The study indicates that macrophyte distribution along the littoral zone of the Sirmione Peninsula is certainly linked to water transparency and water level fluctuation. The results also indicate that the worsening of eutrophication may be associated with the gradual disappearance of macrophyte meadows, but may also be accelerated by herbivorous aquatic birds grazing there. Lastly, the increasing frequency and number of catamaran tours could be considered a threat for the stability of these valuable communities.

  5. Floristic diversity analysis along a fragmentation gradients: a case study of beech forests in the Molisean Appenines (southern Italy

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    Frate L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of fragmentation of natural habitats is increasing exponentially worldwide and represents one of the foremost threats to biological diversity. Forest fragmentation is considered to heavily affect the demographic and genetic structure of forest plant populations. Habitat fragmentation is a landscape process occurring when areas of continuous habitat are broken into smaller and discontinuous patches. In this paper we analyzed the effects of fragmentation on vascular plant diversity of Fagus sylvatica forest in central Italy (habitat of Community interest -92/43/ECC- “Appenine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex” - cod. 9210*. First, by integrating five parameters that describe beech forest patches structure (patch area, perimeter, shape index, corea area, euclidean nearest neighbor we identified three levels of fragmentation: high, medium and absent. Then the vascular plants of each level of fragmentation were sampled following a random stratified design. The diversity of vascular plant species was analyzed considering two species groups: all sampled species and “diagnostic” species of the habitat 9210* (sensu Directive 92/43/ECC. We compared the biodiversity patterns of the different fragmentation levels by using rarefaction curves and Rényi’s profiles. We also tested the significance of the founded differences by a bootstrapping procedure. The diversity pattern of the two species groups (diagnostics and all species showed two opposite trends. As the diversity of the entire pool of species increased on fragmented beech forests the diversity of the diagnostic group decreased. The differences between diversity values of high and low fragmentation levels resulted significant. Our results emphasize the existence of two diagnostic species: Cardamine kitaibelii and Paris quadrifolia that are indicators of not fragmented beech forests. Additionally the diversity pattern of the diagnostics species allow us to propose them as

  6. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

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    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  7. FIRST RECORD OF DUGONGIDAE (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM THE FLORESTA CALCARENITES FORMATION (LATE BURDIGALIAN – EARLY LANGHIAN, REGGIO CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    GIUSEPPE CARONE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sirenian rib has been recovered at Motta San Giovanni (Reggio Calabria in the “Floresta Calcarenites”, a Formation cropping out in Sicily and Calabria and dated late Burdigalian-Langhian. Although the rib is not a diagnostic bone for taxonomy, its presence in southern Calabria extends the knowledge about the paleobiogeography of the Family Dugongidae in the Mediterranean basin. The find is hitherto the only record of sirenians in the Floresta calcarenites. Moreover, the specimen extends back to the Early-Middle Miocene (late Burdigalian-Langhian the occurrence of sirenians in Calabria, previously determined thanks to substantial material from the Late Miocene (Tortonian of the Monte Poro area (Vibo Valentia.  The paleoenvironment of the Floresta calcarenites was a warm and shallow sea, consistent with the paleoecology of Dugongidae.

  8. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

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    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Italy) and its archaeobotanical implications. J. Archaeol. Sci. 37, 2365-2375. [4] Russo Ermolli E., Romano P., Ruello M.R., Barone Lumaga M.R, in press. The natural and cultural landscape of Naples (southern Italy) during the Graeco-Roman and Late Antique periods. J. Archaeol. Sci. [5] Amato, V., Aucelli, P.,D'Argenio, B., Da Prato, S., Ferraro, L., Pappone, G., Petrosino, P., Rosskopf, C.M., Russo Ermolli, E., 2012. Holocene environmental evolution of the coastal sector before the Poseidonia-Paestum archaeological area (Sele plain, southern Italy). Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei. doi:10.1007/s12210-011-0161-1 [6] Amato V., Bisogno G., Cicala L., Cinque A., Romano P., Ruello MR., Russo Ermolli E., 2010. Palaeo-environmental changes in the archaeological settlement of Elea-Velia: climatic and/or human impact signatures? In Ciarallo A., Senatore M.R. (2010) Scienze naturali ed archeologia. Il paesaggio antico: interazione uomo/ambiente ed eventi catastrofici. Aracne Editrice, Roma, pag 13-16. ISBN 978-88-548-3525-2 [7] Russo Ermolli E., Romano P., Ruello M.R., 2013. Human-environment interactions in the southern Tyrrhenian coastal area: hypothesis from Neapolis and Elea-Velia. In: Harris W.V. (Ed.) The ancient Mediterranean environment between science and history Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition 39, BRILL Leiden-Boston, ISBN 978-90-04-25343-8, pp. 213-232. [8] Büntgen, U., Tegel, W., Nicolussi, K., McCormick, M., Frank, D., Trouet, V., Kaplan, J.O., Herzig, F., Heussner, K-U., Wanner, H., Luterbacher, J., Esper, J., 2011. 2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility. Science 331, 578-582.

  9. Metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents from Southern Italy: contribution from the Calabrian Sierras Community Study (CSCS).

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    Martino, Francesco; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Colantoni, Chiara; Zanoni, Cristina; Martino, Eliana; Barillà, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Among 1657 children and adolescents aged 6 to 14 years (787, 47% girls and 870, 53% boys) from primary and secondary schools in a 14-town Southern Italian community, HDL cholesterol (54 ± 15 mg/dl), triglycerides (61 ± 29 mg/dl), blood glucose (78 ± 10 mg/dl), systolic (101 ± 11 mm Hg) and diastolic (62 ± 10 mm Hg) blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) (66 ± 10 cm) and WC/height (0.46 ± 0.006) and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol (1.31 ± 0.99) ratios were measured. The distributions were similar in both genders. Age did not affect triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio, whereas there was a slightly positive correlation (pchildren or adolescents with low HDL cholesterol, 162 (9.77%) with high triglycerides, 178 (10.74%) with high blood glucose, 178 (10.74%) with high WC, 244 (20.76%) with high systolic or diastolic BP and 126 (7.6%) with high systolic and diastolic BP. Abnormally high BP was seen in 470 (28.36%) children or adolescents. Using abnormal percentile values of 3 of 5 of its components, metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed in 70 (4.2%) subjects, similarly in both genders. To assess out-of-limit distributions of all 5 individual MS components in children and adolescents gender- and age-distributions derived from local epidemiological data should be used: these distributions are presented and they might now be used both for comparative and applicative purposes at least in Southern Europe.

  10. On the tracks of Nitrogen deposition effects on temperate forests at their southern European range - an observational study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marco; Marchetto, Aldo; Arisci, Silvia; Bussotti, Filippo; Calderisi, Marco; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cecchini, Guia; Fabbio, Gianfranco; Bertini, Giada; Matteucci, Giorgio; de Cinti, Bruno; Salvati, Luca; Pompei, Enrico

    2014-11-01

    We studied forest monitoring data collected at permanent plots in Italy over the period 2000-2009 to identify the possible impact of nitrogen (N) deposition on soil chemistry, tree nutrition and growth. Average N throughfall (N-NO3 +N-NH4 ) ranged between 4 and 29 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) , with Critical Loads (CLs) for nutrient N exceeded at several sites. Evidence is consistent in pointing out effects of N deposition on soil and tree nutrition: topsoil exchangeable base cations (BCE) and pH decreased with increasing N deposition, and foliar nutrient N ratios (especially N : P and N : K) increased. Comparison between bulk openfield and throughfall data suggested possible canopy uptake of N, levelling out for bulk deposition >4-6 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) . Partial Least Square (PLS) regression revealed that - although stand and meteorological variables explained the largest portion of variance in relative basal area increment (BAIrel 2000-2009) - N-related predictors (topsoil BCE, C : N, pH; foliar N-ratios; N deposition) nearly always improved the BAIrel model in terms of variance explained (from 78.2 to 93.5%) and error (from 2.98 to 1.50%). N deposition was the strongest predictor even when stand, management and atmosphere-related variables (meteorology and tropospheric ozone) were accounted for. The maximal annual response of BAIrel was estimated at 0.074-0.085% for every additional kgN. This corresponds to an annual maximal relative increase of 0.13-0.14% of carbon sequestered in the above-ground woody biomass for every additional kgN, i.e. a median value of 159 kgC per kgN ha(-1)  yr(-1) (range: 50-504 kgC per kgN, depending on the site). Positive growth response occurred also at sites where signals of possible, perhaps recent N saturation were detected. This may suggest a time lag for detrimental N effects, but also that, under continuous high N input, the reported positive growth response may be not sustainable in the long-term.

  11. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree

  12. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy

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    di Tizio Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian, a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions. Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7 were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of

  13. Effect of antecedent-hydrological conditions on rainfall triggering of debris flows in ash-fall pyroclastic mantled slopes of Campania (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, E.; Fusco, F; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mountainous areas surrounding the Campanian Plain and the Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy) are among the most risky areas of Italy due to the repeated occurrence of rainfallinduced debris flows along ash-fall pyroclastic soil-mantled slopes. In this geomorphological framework, rainfall patterns, hydrological processes taking place within multi-layered ash-fall pyroclastic deposits and soil antecedent moisture status are the principal factors to be taken into account to assess triggering rainfall conditions and the related hazard. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental study based on integrated analyses consisting of the reconstruction of physical models of landslides, in situ hydrological monitoring, and hydrological and slope stability modeling, carried out on four representative source areas of debris flows that occurred in May 1998 in the Sarno Mountain Range. The hydrological monitoring was carried out during 2011 using nests of tensiometers and Watermark pressure head sensors and also through a rainfall and air temperature recording station. Time series of measured pressure head were used to calibrate a hydrological numerical model of the pyroclastic soil mantle for 2011, which was re-run for a 12-year period beginning in 2000, given the availability of rainfall and air temperature monitoring data. Such an approach allowed us to reconstruct the regime of pressure head at a daily time scale for a long period, which is representative of about 11 hydrologic years with different meteorological conditions. Based on this simulated time series, average winter and summer hydrological conditions were chosen to carry out hydrological and stability modeling of sample slopes and to identify Intensity- Duration rainfall thresholds by a deterministic approach. Among principal results, the opposing winter and summer antecedent pressure head (soil moisture) conditions were found to exert a significant control on intensity and duration of rainfall

  14. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

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    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  15. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or "memes"), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  16. Decoding the role of tectonics, incision and lithology on drainage divide migration in the Mt. Alpi region, southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, J. T.; Ascione, A.; Valente, E.

    2017-01-01

    The proclivity of river networks to progressively carve mountain surfaces and preserve markers of landscape adjustments has made analyses of fluvial systems fundamental for understanding the topographic development of orogens. However, the transient nature of uplift and erosion has posed a challenge for inferring the roles that tectonics and/or climate have played on generating topographic relief. The Mt. Alpi region in the southern Apennines has a heterogeneous distribution of elevated topography, erosionally-resistant lithology and uplift, making the area optimal for conducting topographic and river analyses to better understand the landscape development of a transient orogen. Stream length-gradient, normalized channel steepness, stream convexity and first-order channel gradient indices from 10 m digital elevation data from the region exhibit stream profile inconsistencies along the current drainage divide and a dominance of high values subparallel but inboard of the primary chain axis irrespective of known transient landscape factors, suggesting that the current river network may be in a state of transition. The location of these stream profile anomalies both near the modern drainage divide and subparallel to an isolated swath of high topography away from catchment boundaries is thought to be the topographic expression of an imminent drainage divide migration driven primarily by the northeast-vergent extension of the western chain axis.

  17. Structural settings of the carbonatic "basament" and its relationship with magma uprising in the gulf of Naples (Southern Italy

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    N. Fusi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbonatic "basement" of the Gulf of Naples, a peri-tyrrhenian basin located on the western side of the Southern Apenninic chain, was studied in detail by means of seismic reflection profiles both on the mainland and in the sea. The carbonatic "basement" dips toward the north-west with an angle of 100 and is affected by brittle extensional tectonics. This structural setting is related to the extension of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which caused the development of horst and graben-like structure along the western margin of the Apennines. Some normal faults with a regional relevance were recognised: 1 a N 110° trending fault responsible for the sinking of the carbonic "basement" below Mount Somma-Vesuvius; 2 a N 1O° trending fault, along which five sub- marine volcanoes are aligned; 3 a N70° fault, which separates the Gulf of Naples from the Gulf of Salerno. The first two faults, arranged radially with respect to the shallow magmatic chamber of Phlegraean Fields, are interpreted as the main uprising route for magma in this area. The carbonatic "basement"cannot be recognized in seismic profiles in the Phlegraean area; a tectonic feature responsible for this is hypothesised.

  18. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetta, P.

    2010-09-01

    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  19. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF UPPER TRIASSIC-LOWER JURASSIC CARBONATE PLATFORM SEDIMENTS OF THE CENTRAL-SOUTHERN APENNINES (ITALY

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    ANNA MANCINELLI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of a biostratigraphic study on the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic carbonate platform sediments are outlined. Three stratigraphic successions cropping out in different areas were analysed: Monte Cefalo, (Aurunci Mts, southern Latium, Costa dei Frascari (Matese, northern Campania and Monte Meta (Gran Sasso d’Italia, Abruzzi. The study of microfossil assemblages composed of benthic foraminifers and calcareous algae allowed identification of four biozones and one subzone. From the bottom upwards, the biostratigraphic units are: the Triasina hantkeni and Griphoporella curvata Zone; the Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera Zone; the Palaeodasycladus mediterraneus Zone; the Valvulinidae and Rivulariaceae Zone; and the Orbitopsella Subzone. Besides, the lower part of the Costa dei Frascari section was referred to the portion of the Norian below the first occurrence of the Triasina hantkeni and Griphoporella curvata. These sediments are characterized by a rich assemblages mostly composed of pseudoudoteaceans algae, echinoderm remains, chaetetids and large gastropods. Microbiostratigraphic study of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic sediments highlighted a similar succession of bioevents in all the sections analysed allowing precise bio- and chronostratigraphic correlations to be made. In contrast, the paleoecological data obtained from biofacies analysis combined with lithological features observed in coeval units point to different depositional environments, reflecting time and space variation within the context of a single, large carbonate platform. In fact, both sedimentation, and the observed associations of organisms, were controlled by chemical-physical factors connected to variations in water energy and water circulation. Instead, in other cases tectonics and subsidence seem to have played an essential role.

  20. Weakening mechanisms along Low-Angle Normal Faults in pelagic limestones (Southern Apennine, Italy): insights from microstructural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, R.; Prosser, G.; Viti, C.; Spiess, R.; Agosta, F.; Tavarnelli, E.; Bucci, F.

    2013-12-01

    Low-Angle Normal Faults (LANFs) consist of shallowly-dipping extensional tectonic structures, whose origin relates to a mechanical paradox currently debated by a number of researches. The easy slip along these faults suggests a strain-weakening process active during fault nucleation and growth. Weakening mechanisms may include: i) presence of weak minerals; ii) high fluid pressure which, causing a drastic reduction of the effective stress, and iii) dynamic fault weakening during coseismic rupture. In the Basilicata portion of Southern Apennines, LANFs have been extensively studied by geological mapping and field structural analysis. Differently, a detailed microstructural observations are not hitherto available in the geological literature. For this reason, in this note, we summarize the results of microstructural analysis carried out on fault rock samples collected from a well-exposed mesoscopic LANFs. The present work is aimed at analyzing the weakening mechanisms that took place along the study faults. The incipient study LANFs are characterized by a narrow and discontinuous damage zone surrounding a very thin fault core that include a discrete slip-surface. The offset is in the range of tens of centimeters to few meters. At the microscope scale, the sampled rocks reveal the coexistence of different structural features such as: i) pervasive shape preferred orientation defined by elongated grains of calcite, producing a distinct foliation; ii) Crush Microbreccia (CM), formed of angular clasts locally in contact with each other; iii) several Ultracataclastic Veins (UV), departing from the slip-surfaces and cutting across the slip-zone. TEM investigation reveal the presence of ultrafine to calcite-nanoparticles (dynamic recrystallization. At least, two generation of calcite veins, approximately orthogonal to the slip-surface, show systematic cross-cutting relationships with the above illustrated structural features. Overall, the investigated features form a complex

  1. EVIDENCE OF A "MID-CARNIAN" TRANSGRESSION IN THE WESTERN SOUTHERN ALPS (LOMBARDY, ITALY: STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEOGEOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS

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    FABRIZIO BERRA

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A "mid-Carnian" transgressive succession, developed between the Breno carbonate platform and the semiarid coastal carbonates-sabkhas facies of the S. Giovanni Bianco Fm., is recorded in the northern Bergamasc Alps. This episode is characterized by the presence of two stratigraphic markers:  a Dark grey shales and siltstones ("Black Pelites", considered previously as the northern closure of the Gorno-Lower S. Giovanni Bianco Fms., but re-interpreted as the western pinch-out of the Lozio Shale depositional system. The Early Carnian Lozio Shale was deposited first in the Valle di Scalve-Lozio trough and later covered the carbonate platform (Breno Fm..b Fossiliferous, open subtidal limestones, marls and burrowed marly limestones ("Bioclastic Horizon" of the northern Bergamasc Alps. The spreading of shales and siltstones represents the first transgressive stage of the last Carnian sequence in Lombardy, after the "mid- Carnian" (Julian substage regional carbonate platform crisis (top of the Valcamonica Breno Fm.. The "Bioclastic Horizon" records the mfs represented by normal, open marine facies, identified and correlated throughout the Bergamasc Alps. Different petrographic and chemical characters between the Lozio Shale - "Black Pelites" and the Gorno-San Giovanni Bianco Fms. suggest different source areas: the former units are characterized by clasts derived from a metamorphic-intrusive area (placed northward and westward, whereas the latter units are characterized by prevailing volcaniclastic material. A climatic change (from arid to relatively humid conditions may be invoked to explain the crisis of the "mid-Carnian" carbonate platforms in the western Southern Alps and the regional spreading of fine-grained terrigenous material. 

  2. Geometric Reconstruction of Bedrock and Overlying Recent Deposits In An Intra-mountain Basin: The Clusone Basin (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caielli, G.; Berra, F.

    Regione Lombardia (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica) and the National Research Council (CNR-IDPA Milano) acquired seismic reflection profiles in the Clu- sone basin (Middle Val Seriana, Southern Alps). In the study area, the bedrock is rep- resented by late Triassic carbonate units (Formazione di Castro, Dolomia Principale and coeval basinal facies, bordered northward by an important alpine fault) covered by a large amount of recent deposits that covers an area of more than 10 km2, with a maximum thickness of more than two hundreds meters, as documented by available well data. The aim of the seismic prospecting was to identify the sediments layering and the rock basement depth. The acquisition parameters were as follows: group in- terval 10 m; shot interval 5 m; geophone frequency 14 Hz; sample rate 1 ms; record length 2 s, energy source hydrapulse. The cable, with 120 channels, remained dur- ing all the experiment allowing reflection/refraction events acquisition. The data were processed by a standard procedure using PROMAX and SUNT5 processing codes. The statics were calculated starting from the refracted first arrivals using a two layer inversion based on least square optimisation. Standard seismic reflection processing was applied to obtain reflection images and it was integrated with seismic refraction data inversion. Seismic profiles allow to reconstruct both the main reflectors in the recent deposits and the geometry of the bedrock. The first results document a complex history in the drainage patterns of the Clusone basin, allowing to identify, in an intra- mountain basin, drainage directions that in some cases are different from the ones that can be observed today. The integration of well data and seismic profiles in this study of an intra-mountain basin allows on one side the identification of the bedrock geome- tries and, on the other, gives constrains for the reconstruction of the geomorphologic evolution of a sector of a mountain chain.

  3. Growth of a Pleistocene giant carbonate vein and nearby thermogene travertine deposits at Semproniano, southern Tuscany, Italy: Estimate of CO2 leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Billi, Andrea; Rossetti, Federico; Soligo, Michele; Kele, Sándor; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Castorina, Francesca; Tecce, Francesca; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-10-01

    A giant carbonate vein (≥ 50 m thick; fissure ridge travertines) and nearby travertine plateaus in the Semproniano area (Mt. Amiata geothermal field, southern Tuscany, Italy) are investigated through a multidisciplinary approach, including field and laboratory geochemical analyses (U/Th geochronology, C, Nd, O and Sr isotope systematics, REE abundances, and fluid inclusion microthermometry). The main aim of this work is to understand: (1) modes and rates for the growth of the giant vein and nearby travertine deposits within a Quaternary volcano-tectonic domain; (2) implications in terms of the CO2 leakage; and (3) possible relationships with Quaternary paleoclimate and hydrological oscillations. Results show that the giant vein was the inner portion of a large fissure ridge travertine and grew asymmetrically and ataxially through repeated shallow fluid injections between > 650 and 85 ka, with growth rates in the 10- 2-10- 3 mm/a order. The giant vein developed mainly during warm humid (interglacial) periods, partially overlapping with the growth of nearby travertine plateaus. Estimated values of CO2 leakage connected with the vein precipitation are between about 5 × 106 and 3 × 107 mol a- 1 km- 2, approximately representing one millionth of the present global CO2 leakage from volcanic areas. Temperature estimates obtained from O-isotopes and fluid inclusion microthermometry indicate epithermal conditions (90-50 °C) for the circulating fluid during the giant vein growth, with only slight evidence of cooling with time. Geochemical and isotope data document that the travertine deposits formed mainly during Pleistocene warm humid periods, within a tectonically-controlled convective fluid circuit fed by meteoric infiltration and maintained by the regional geothermal anomaly hosted by the carbonate reservoir of the Mt. Amiata field.

  4. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy) in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, E.; Pece, R.; Porfido, S.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2009-04-01

    The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7) in the Southern Apennines (Italy) was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrographic Survey (IHS) set up from 1925 to 1929. For this earthquake we analysed the initial IHS hydrometric and pluviometric data, looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. Hydrological data relative to rivers, springs and water wells indicate that some changes can be correlated with the earthquake: a post-seismic excess discharge in some streams, pre- and co-seismic decreases in stream flows and water levels in wells, pre- and post-seismic increases in discharges. The pre- and co-seismic stresses and the tectonic deformations were studied in order to find a possible model of interaction between stress state and hydrological variations. The anomalies found in this work can be considered "rebound anomalies", which are the most common precursor reported by many authors and related to increases in porosity and permeability caused by the fracturing that precedes an earthquake. An estimation of the total excess discharge (0.035 km3) caused by the MS=6.7 Irpinia earthquake is consistent with the excess discharge of about 0.01 km3 determined for the Mw=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake.

  5. Deformation mechanisms and petrophysical properties of chert and limestone fault rocks within slope-to-basin succession (Gargano Promontory, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Irina; Tondi, Emanuele; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Agosta, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine faults that crosscut limestone and chert rocks pertaining to a slope-to-basin succession of the eastern Gargano Promontory (southern Italy). Based on field data, microstructural observations, and quantitative analysis of cataclastic fabric, two stages of faulting are recognized. The first one, the pre-lithification faulting stage, took place within partially lithified sediments prior to their complete lithification. Differently, the second one, the post-lithification faulting stage, occurred within cohesive, well-lithified rocks. The structural properties of pre-lithification faults were likely controlled by the competence contrast between limestone and chert sediments. In fact, due to their different lithification stages, faulting occurred when chert was still not completely lithified, and hence was dragged along the fault planes. As a consequence, the pre-lithification fault cores are mainly composed of chert clasts. On the contrary, post-lithification fault cores are mostly made up of limestone clasts. The results of both microstructural and image analyses show that the carbonate fault rock includes a higher percentage of bigger clasts with lower values of angularity than the chert fault rock. Mercury-intrusion porosimetry indicates that the chert fault rock is characterized by larger pore throats and a lower amount of total porosity with respect to the limestone fault rock. The permeability values obtained for the limestone fault rock are lower than those for the chert fault rock, probably because of the lower amount of pore connectivity within the former fault rock. Results of this multidisciplinary work highlight the role played by cherty layers present within well-layered, slope-to-basin carbonate successions on both microtextural and petrophysical fault rock properties. Furthermore, these results increase our ability to predict how lithological heterogeneities and amount of lithification influence the deformation mechanisms, hence

  6. The magmatic system of Ischia island: another piece in the puzzle of the fluid-saturated, CO2-sustained, Neapolitan volcanism (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, R.; Arienzo, I.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.; D'Antonio, M.

    2012-04-01

    Melt inclusions in phenocrysts from some shoshonite to latite eruptive products of Ischia Island (Southern Italy) provide a window on the deep magmatic feeding system. Together with similar products from the other Neapolitan volcanoes (Procida, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius), they probe the deep physico-chemical conditions of magmas generated in a mantle contaminated by slab derived fluids/melts largely dominated by CO2. The analyzed melt inclusions bear clear evidence for CO2 dominated gas fluxing and consequent dehydration of magma portions stagnating at major crustal discontinuities. In general, magma differentiation at Ischia takes place under very oxidized conditions determined by an unusual, nearly equimolar, proportion of divalent and trivalent iron in the melt. Budgets of magma degassing show that at Ischia there is much less magma than that needed to directly supply the amount of magmatic fluids released at surface, thus constraining the role of CO2 rich deep fluids in originating the volcanism and generating caldera resurgence. The acquired data, together with those from the other Neapolitan volcanoes, show that, despite the compositional and eruptive style differences within the poorly extended Neapolitan Volcanic area, the different kinds of volcanism are linked by supercritical CO2 fluids produced by devolatilization of subducted terrigenous-carbonatic metasediment, that infiltrate the mantle wedge, generate magmas and control their ascent up to eruption. In particular, fluid upraise and accumulation at crustal levels beneath Neapolitan volcanoes occurs with different flow-rates that depend on the major geological structures, particularly NW-SE normal and NE-SW transfer regional fault systems.

  7. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tranfaglia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7 in the Southern Apennines (Italy was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrographic Survey (IHS set up from 1925 to 1929. For this earthquake we analysed the initial IHS hydrometric and pluviometric data, looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. Hydrological data relative to rivers, springs and water wells indicate that some changes can be correlated with the earthquake: a post-seismic excess discharge in some streams, pre- and co-seismic decreases in stream flows and water levels in wells, pre- and post-seismic increases in discharges. The pre- and co-seismic stresses and the tectonic deformations were studied in order to find a possible model of interaction between stress state and hydrological variations. The anomalies found in this work can be considered "rebound anomalies", which are the most common precursor reported by many authors and related to increases in porosity and permeability caused by the fracturing that precedes an earthquake. An estimation of the total excess discharge (0.035 km3 caused by the MS=6.7 Irpinia earthquake is consistent with the excess discharge of about 0.01 km3 determined for the Mw=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake.

  8. Growth and erosion: The volcanic geology and morphological evolution of La Fossa (Island of Vulcano, Southern Italy) in the last 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, F.; Pistolesi, M.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.; Fusillo, R.; Roverato, M.

    2013-07-01

    The Island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy) consists of several volcanic edifices whose formation overlapped in time and space beginning 120 ka ago. The most recent volcano is the La Fossa cone, a 391 m-high active composite cone that began to erupt 5.5 ka ago. Eruptive activity at the La Fossa cone occurred in several cyclic phases separated by prolonged periods of erosion. The last 1000 years of eruptive activity and morphological variations in the cone and its surrounding area were investigated through a stratigraphic reconstruction. This was based on 139 natural cuts, 26 machine-excavated and 5 hand-dug trenches in the volcaniclastic succession. The revised stratigraphy of the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence was compared with geological maps based on the Unconformity-bounded Stratigraphic Units criteria compiled in 2006-2010. It was found that the last 1000-year period can be divided into (in hierarchical order) Eruptive Clusters and Units. Several unconformities of different hierarchical order were also identified (erosional surfaces and/or palaeosols). Stratigraphic relationships with the Vulcanello products and with rhyolitic tephras related to the eruptions of Mt. Pilato (the last-formed volcanic edifice of the Island of Lipari) were fundamental in assigning a calendar age to most of the tephra units in the studied sequence. The morphological evolution of the upper part of the cone was also reconstructed in order to assess the average cone growth rate. This work suggests a new stratigraphic and chronological interpretation of the evolution and "cyclic" activity of the La Fossa cone in the last 1000 years. Several eruptions occurred in two main clusters. The stratigraphic record and morphological features reveal that the areas around the cone were affected by the deposition of reworked materials, with large amounts of tephra deposited on the steep slopes and within the major streams.

  9. Combining caesium-137 measurements and suspended sediment load data to investigate the sediment response of a small catchment in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, P.; Walling, D. E.; La Spada, C.; Mallimo, N.

    2015-03-01

    A long-term measurement programme was operated in southern Italy during the 1960s and 1970s, to provide information on the suspended sediment yields from the main river basins. Information obtained for the rivers of Calabria suggests that suspended sediment yields in this area are relatively low. However, there is evidence that the intensity of land degradation within the upstream catchments is substantially higher than suggested by the values of specific sediment yield and there is a need to explore the relationship between on-site soil loss and downstream sediment yield more closely. Monitoring time-integrated erosion rates over large areas has traditionally required extensive long-term measurement programmes employing experimental plots. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) offers an alternative means of documenting medium-term rates of soil loss. This paper describes the use of 137Cs measurements and the available sediment load data to explore the links between soil erosion, sediment redistribution and storage, and sediment output for a medium-scale (41.3 km2) catchment in Calabria. Data available from a sediment load monitoring programme undertaken at the catchment outlet during 1962-1977 have been used to estimate the longer-term catchment sediment yield. This estimate has been combined with information provided by the 137Cs measurements, to establish a medium-term sediment budget for the catchment. The results provided by the 137Cs measurements indicate that the catchment is subject to much higher rates of soil loss and land degradation than suggested by its specific sediment yield. These findings are consistent with the results obtained for other catchments in Calabria for which both 137Cs derived erosion rates and measured sediment yields are available.

  10. Re-deposited rhodoliths in the Middle Miocene hemipelagic deposits of Vitulano (Southern Apennines, Italy): Coralline assemblage characterization and related trace fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checconi, Alessio; Bassi, Davide; Carannante, Gabriele; Monaco, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    An integrated analysis of rhodolith assemblages and associated trace fossils (borings) found in hemipelagic Middle Miocene Orbulina marls (Vitulano area, Taburno-Camposauro area, Southern Apennines, Italy) has revealed that both the biodiversity of the constituent components and taphonomic signatures represent important aspects which allow a detailed palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. On the basis of shape, inner arrangement, growth forms and taxonomic coralline algal composition, two rhodolith growth stages were distinguished: (1) nucleation and growth of the rhodoliths, and (2) a final growth stage before burial. Nucleation is characterized by melobesioids and subordinately mastophoroids, with rare sporolithaceans and lithophylloids. The rhodolith growth (main increase in size) is represented by abundant melobesioids and rare to common mastophoroids; very rare sporolithaceans are also present. The final growth stage is dominated by melobesioids with rare mastophoroids and very rare sporolithaceans. Each rhodolith growth stage is characterized by a distinct suite of inner arrangement and growth form successions. Well diversified ichnocoenoeses ( Gastrochaenolites, Trypanites, Meandropolydora and/or Caulostrepsis, Entobia, Uniglobites, micro-borings) related to bivalves, sponges, polychaetes, barnacles, algae, fungi, and bacteria are distinguished in the inner/intermediate rhodolith growth stage, while mainly algal, fungal and bacterial micro-borings are present in the outer final growth stage. Rhodolith growth stages and associated ichnocoenoeses indicate significant change in the depositional setting during the rhodolith growth. In the Vitulano area, the Middle Miocene rhodolith assemblages formed in a shallow-water open-shelf carbonate platform, were susceptible to exportation from their production area and then to sedimentation down to deeper-water hemipelagic settings, where the rhodoliths shortly kept growth and were finally buried. Such

  11. Lateglacial-Holocene abrupt vegetation changes at Lago Trifoglietti in Calabria, Southern Italy: The setting of ecosystems in a refugial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis de; Brugiapaglia, Elisabetta; Joannin, Sébastien; Guiter, Frédéric; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wulf, Sabine; Peyron, Odile; Bernardo, Liliana; Didier, Julien; Stock, Agnès; Rius, Damien; Magny, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Retrospective science such as palaeoecology deeply depends on the preservation of archives in sensitive places. As an example, mountains of medium altitude from Mediterranean peninsulas have long been identified by biogeographers as refuges zones allowing the survival of European temperate taxa during the ice ages, but archives to validate this hypothesis are scarce, especially in Southern Italy. Here we present a new sequence from Lago Trifoglietti (1048 m a.s.l.) in the Calabrian Mountains, which covers the Late Glacial Interstadial (LGI, corresponding to the Bölling-Alleröd period in northern-central Europe) and the transition to the Holocene. The independent chronology based on seven radiocarbon dates is supported by the evidence of three tephra layers already identified in other regional sequences. During the LGI, besides the high diversity of non arboreal pollen grains, a great number of pollens of temperate forest trees are present or abundant (mostly deciduous oaks and fir). These assemblages suggest that the site was above but not far from the upper limit of diversified woodland stands. They confirm a local survival during the last glacial. The Younger Dryas is not marked by major changes, and oak percentages are even higher, suggesting a resilient expansion at lower altitude. Surprisingly the site remains above the timberline until an aridity crisis centered at 11,100 cal 14C yr PB, which is correlated with the Preboreal Oscillation (PBO). This event is immediately followed by the local settlement of a dense fir and beech forest around the lake. A comparison with other Italian key sequences aims at explaining the climate forcing factors that governed this original vegetation dynamic. Further investigations using additional proxies are needed for a more robust climate reconstruction.

  12. Conjunctival cytological examination,bacteriological culture,and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Lamagna; Maria; Pia; Pasolini; Sandra; Nizza; Karina; Mallardo; Maurizio; Formicola; Alessandro; Costagliola; Gerardo; Fatone; Filomena; Fiorito; Orlando; Paciello; Luisa; De; Martino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo(Bubalus bubalis).Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region(Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis.The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates.Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens(114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells(basal, intermediate, columnar and super ficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples,respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% con fidence interval(CI): 93.18–99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi(2/114, 1.75%;95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured(181/261,69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria(80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular micro flora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  13. SELECTED AMMONOID FAUNA FROM PRATI DI STUORES/STUORES WIESEN AND RELATED SECTIONS ACROSS THE LADINIAN-CARNIAN BOUNDARY (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

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    PAOLO MIETTO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna of the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section (Dolomites, north-eastern Italy was studied in detail. This section was proposed as stratotype for the Carnian GSSP, with the first appearance of Daxatina cf. canadensis as primary marker, based on preliminary data. The validity of this proposal is confirmed by the present study, which integrates collections from the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section and from others, particularly Bec de Roces (Passo Campolongo and Antersass (Badia Valley. Ammonoids collected in these localities belong to three biostratigraphic units: regoledanus, canadensis and aon subzones. These subzones constitute, in the Southern Alps, the Ladinian/Carnian boundary interval. Regoledanus Subzone: the north American species Zestoceras enode is most probably documented in this biostratigraphic interval. Canadensis Subzone: the base is marked by the first appearance of Daxatina canadensis, and at least, another north American species, Daxatina laubei, seems to be present. Two species of Zestoceras were found: Z. barwicki e Z. lorigae sp.n. Two species of Trachyceras, distinct from T. aon, are represented in the canadensis Subzone: T. muensteri and T. bipunctatum. These species predate the first appearance of Trachyceras, justifying the canadensis Subzone to be included in the Carnian also on the basis of nomenclatural stability. Other significant taxa of this subzone are Rossiceras? armatum and Sirenotrachyceras thusneldae. Aon Subzone: the ammonoid fauna of this subzone is extensively treated in existing literature and thus not further discussed. Taxonomical notes and stratigraphic consequences: the new subfamily Anolcitinae (family Trachyceratidae is erected. At present, Frankites regoledanus, F. apertus and F. sp. A have been recognized in the Southern Alps. The lectotype of Ammonites (Trachyceras ? Regoledanus was defined. The latter species is exclusive of the regoledanus Subzone, whereas the

  14. Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (southern Italy

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    G. G. R. Iovine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On 28 January 2009, a large debris slide was triggered by prolonged rainfalls at the southern suburbs of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria. The slope movement affected fractured and weathered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist, and included a pre-existing landslide. A detailed geomorphologic field survey, carried out during the whole phase of mobilization, allowed to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A set of datum points was located along the borders of the landslide and frequent hand-made measurements of surface displacements were performed. Since 11 February, a basic real-time monitoring system of meteoric parameters and of surface displacements, measured by means of high-precision extensometers, was also implemented.

    Based on the data gained through the monitoring system, and on field surveying, a basic support system for emergency management could be defined since the first phases of activation of the phenomenon. The evolution of the landslide was monitored during the following months: as a consequence, evidence of retrogressive distribution could be recognized, with initial activation in the middle sector of the slope, where new temporary springs were observed. During early May, the activity reduced to displacements of a few millimetres per month and the geo-hydrological crisis seemed to be concluded.

    Afterwards, the geological scheme of the slope was refined based on the data collected through a set of explorative boreholes, equipped with inclinometers and piezometers: according to the stratigraphic and inclinometric data, the depth of the mobilized body resulted in varying between 15 and 35 m along a longitudinal section. A parametric limit equilibrium analysis was carried out to explore the stability conditions of the slope affected by the landslide as well as to quantify the role of the water table in destabilizing the slope. The interpretation of the process based on field observations was confirmed

  15. Multi-scale characterization of the seismogenic Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy): methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Smith, S. A.; Di Toro, G.; Jones, R.; Griffith, W. A.; Mittempergher, S.; Mitchell, T. M.; Spagnuolo, E.; Rempe, M.; Nielsen, S.; Niemeijer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) in the Italian Southern Alps is characterized by the occurrence of cataclasites and pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts) formed along pre-existing magmatic cooling joints over a fault zone width of ca. 500 m, under ambient conditions of 9-11 km depth and 250-300°C (the "base" of the seismogenic zone in the crust). The fault zone is seamlessly exposed in glacier-polished outcrops both parallel and perpendicular to fault strike. We have studied in a very detailed way these outcrops, which are considered as a world-class natural laboratory for seismic faulting, combining two complementary strategies: (1) areal imaging/mapping and (2) linear transects. A considerable attention has been paid in order to make the results of these different strategies always coherent and consistent, thanks to a 3D spatial database where the entire dataset is stored. Areal imaging and mapping of structures like individual fault traces was performed over almost five orders of magnitude (from km to mm scale) using high-resolution orthophotos, aerial and terrestrial laser-scanning, photogrammetry and 3D mosaics of high-resolution rectified digital photographs. LIDAR scans and imagery were georeferenced in 3D using a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), allowing centimetric precision. The analysis of these data has been performed in 3D with Gocad® and custom Matlab® toolboxes. DGPS has been also used to collect linear transects across the fault zone, along which conventional structural measurements have been carried out. The particularity of these transects is that they allow an unprecedented > 100% coverage of the fault zone. In other words, each individual structure (visible with naked eyes), occurring along a continuous transect across the fault zone, has been measured, geolocated, and recorded in the database. In addition, 44 samples collected along the linear transect have been characterized for petrophysical parameters and much

  16. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution is of paramount importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation along faults at depth. Here we present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). This workflow has been developed on a real case of study: the strike-slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). It consists of a fault zone exhumed from ca. 10 km depth, hosted in granitoid rocks of Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). Individual seismogenic slip surfaces generally show green cataclasites (cemented by the precipitation of epidote and K-feldspar from hydrothermal fluids) and more or less well preserved pseudotachylytes (black when well preserved, greenish to white when altered). First of all, a digital model for the outcrop is reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs, processed with VisualSFM software. By using high resolution photographs the DOM can have a much higher resolution than with LIDAR surveys, up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Then, image processing is performed to map the fault-rock distribution with the ImageJ-Fiji package. Green cataclasites and epidote/K-feldspar veins can be quite easily separated from the host rock (tonalite) using spectral analysis. Particularly, band ratio and principal component analysis have been tested successfully. The mapping of black pseudotachylyte veins is more tricky because the differences between the pseudotachylyte and biotite spectral signature are not appreciable. For this reason we have tested different morphological processing tools aimed at identifying (and subtracting) the tiny biotite grains. We propose a solution based on binary images involving a combination of size and circularity thresholds. Comparing the results with manually segmented images, we noticed that major problems occur only when pseudotachylyte veins are very thin and discontinuous. After

  17. Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy)

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    Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy

    2009-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree

  18. Lateral propagation of active normal faults throughout pre-existing fault zones: an example from the Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo; Ivo Giano, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The main active structures in the Southern Apennines are represented by a set of NW-trending normal faults, which are mainly located in the axial sector of the chain. Evidences arising from neotectonics and seismology show activity of a composite seismic source, the Irpinia - Agri Valley, located across the Campania-Basilicata border. This seismic source is made up of two right-stepping, individual seismic sources forming a relay ramp. Each individual seismic source consists of a series of nearly parallel normal fault segments. The relay ramp area, located around the Vietri di Potenza town, is bounded by two seismic segments, the San Gregorio Magno Fault, to the NW, and the Pergola-Melandro Fault, to the SE. The possible interaction between the two right-stepping fault segments has not been proven yet, since the fault system of the area has never been analyzed in detail. This work is aimed at assessing the geometry of such fault system, inferring the relative age of the different fault sets by studying the crosscutting relationships, characterizing the micromechanics of fault rocks associated to the various fault sets, and understanding the modalities of lateral propagation of the two bounding fault segments. Crosscutting relationships are recognized by combining classical geological mapping with morphotectonic methods. This latter approach, which include the analysis of aerial photographs and field inspection of quaternary slope deposits, is used to identify the most recent structures among those cropping out in the field area. In the relay ramp area, normal faults crosscut different tectonic units of the Apennine chain piled up, essentially, during the Middle to Late Miocene. The topmost unit (only few tens of meter-thick) consists of a mélange containing blocks of different lithologies in a clayish matrix. The intermediate thrust sheet consists of 1-1.5 km-thick platform carbonates of late Triassic-Jurassic age, with dolomites at the base and limestones at the

  19. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  20. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution in outcrops of exhumed fault zones is of fundamental importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation. We present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM), developed on the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ), a well exposed strike-slip fault in the Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). The GLFZ has been exhumed from ca. 8-10 km depth, and consists of hundreds of individual seismogenic slip surfaces lined by green cataclasites (crushed wall rocks cemented by the hydrothermal epidote and K-feldspar) and black pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts, considered as a marker for seismic slip). A digital model of selected outcrop exposures was reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs processed with VisualSFM software. The resulting DOM has a resolution up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Most of the outcrop was imaged using images each one covering a 1 x 1 m2 area, while selected structural features, such as sidewall ripouts or stepovers, were covered with higher-resolution images covering 30 x 40 cm2 areas.Image processing algorithms were preliminarily tested using the ImageJ-Fiji package, then a workflow in Matlab was developed to process a large collection of images sequentially. Particularly in detailed 30 x 40 cm images, cataclasites and hydrothermal veins were successfully identified using spectral analysis in RGB and HSV color spaces. This allows mapping the network of cataclasites and veins which provided the pathway for hydrothermal fluid circulation, and also the volume of mineralization, since we are able to measure the thickness of cataclasites and veins on the outcrop surface. The spectral signature of pseudotachylyte veins is indistinguishable from that of biotite grains in the wall rock (tonalite), so we tested morphological analysis tools to discriminate

  1. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    phenolic profile of ten autochthonous vines grown in two different areas of South Italy. By spectrophotometric analysis it has been possible to analyze quali-quantitive characteristics of such substances, while by ORAC method (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity we have measured, in vitro, the antioxidant action. The oenological potential has been evaluated, in relation to polyphenols content, of ten Vitis Vinifera varieties belonging to autochthonous vines of Basilicata, grown in espalier and tent in two areas: in the vineyard of Val d'Agri (PZ, in Basilicata, and in South-East Bari area, in Rutigliano (Ba, in Puglia. The ten varieties belonging to Southern Italy autochthonous vines include four black grapes and six white grapes. Data obtained on total polyphenols content, view of the considerable variability encountered, allow us to affirm that the polyphenolic ripening of wine grapes, thus the reaching of the maximum level, is very influenced by the “terroir”, defined as the cultivation area or environment, by season trend, by cultivation techniques and by the different vines nutritional conditions. The same holds true for the antioxidant activity of the 10 wine grapes varieties of this study, since it is closely related to the polyphenol

  2. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  3. TIMING OF FALSE RING FORMATION IN PINUS HALEPENSIS AND ARBUTUS UNEDO IN SOUTHERN ITALY: OUTLOOK FROM AN ANALYSIS OF XYLOGENESIS AND TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES

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    Veronica eDe Micco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean tree rings are characterized by Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs due to partly climate-driven cambial activity. IADFs are used as structural signals to gain information on relations between environmental conditions and eco-physiological processes during xylogenesis, with intra-annual resolution.To reach an unbiased synchronization of the IADF position within tree rings and seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the timing of cambial activity and wood formation, which are species- and site-specific processes.We applied the microcoring technique to analyze xylogenesis in Pinus halepensis and Arbutus unedo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study xylogenesis in a hardwood species forming frequent IADFs. Both species co-occur at a site in southern Italy characterized by a Mediterranean climate. To facilitate tree-ring dating and identification of IADFs, we performed traditional dendroecological analysis. We analyzed xylogenesis during summer, which is considered a constraint for xylogenesis and a trigger for IADF formation. We followed the different phases of cell development in the current wood increment with the aim of evaluating whether and which type of IADFs were formed. We additionally analyzed the same phases again in September and in winter to verify the possible formation of IADFs in fall and whether cell production and differentiation was completed by the end of the calendar year.Both species formed the same type of IADFs (earlywood-like cells within latewood, due to temporary growth restoration triggered by rain events during the period of summer drought. At the end of the calendar year, no cells in the phases of enlargement and secondary cell wall deposition occurred. A. unedo was more sensitive than P. halepensis because IADFs were formed earlier in the season and were more frequent in the tree-ring series.The dendro-anatomical approach, combining

  4. Use of a hydrological model to evaluate the effects of climate change on adaptative capacity of a maize and fennel cultivation in an area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; de Lorenzi, Francesca; Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Menenti, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Crop production depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions. The evolution of climate may thus endanger not only yield (IPCC, 2007), but, more significantly, the sustainability of the cultivation of current varieties. Adaptation of current production systems may be feasible, but requires a timely evaluation of weather adaptation to climate evolution might be limited to improving crop and soil management or should involve replacement of varieties or species altogether. This study addressed this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of a flat area of 22.000 ha "Destra Sele" (Campania Region, Southern Italy) where the main crops are is maize for livestock and fennel. Two climate scenarios have been considered at + 5 and + 30 years, generated by a regional climate model applied to Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. For each climate scenario the hydro-thermal regime of the soils of the selected study area has been calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). Synthetic indicators of the regimes (e.g., crop water stress index, available water content, soil temperature) have been calculated and compared with the thermal and water requirements of a set of maize and fennel varieties, including the ones currently cultivated in the area. The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (20 soil units): their soil hydraulic properties were derived applying the pedo-transfer function HYPRES which reliability was tested and validated on three soils of the same area. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the regional climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower boundary condition. Crop-specific input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. This applies to Leaf Area Index (LAI), crop coefficient (Kc) and the root water uptake function parameters. From the comparison

  5. Weathering profiles in granitoid rocks of the Sila Massif uplands, Calabria, southern Italy: New insights into their formation processes and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Critelli, Salvatore; Borrelli, Luigi; Coniglio, Sabrina; Muto, Francesco; Perri, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we characterized several weathering profiles developed on granitoid rocks in the Sila Massif upland (Calabria, southern Italy), integrating detailed macro- and micromorphological observations with physico-mechanical field tests and petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analyses. We focused our attention on the main weathering and pedogenetic processes, trying to understand apparent discrepancies between weathering grade classes based on field description and geomechanical properties, and two common weathering indices, such as the micropetrographic index (Ip) and the chemical index of alteration (CIA). Our results showed that sericite on plagioclase and biotite chloritization, that represent inherited features formed during late-stage hydrothermal alteration of granitoid rocks, may cause an overestimation of the real degree of weathering of primary mineral grains under meteoric conditions, especially in lower weathering grade classes. Moreover, the frequent identification of Fe-Mn oxides and clay coatings of illuvial origin (rather than or in addition to those formed in situ), both at the macro- and microscale, may also explain an overestimation of the weathering degree with respect to field-based classifications. Finally, some apparent inconsistencies between field geomechanical responses and chemical weathering were interpreted as related to physical weathering processes (cryoclastism and thermoclastism), that lead to rock breakdown even when chemical weathering is not well developed. Hence, our study showed that particular caution is needed for evaluating weathering grades, because traditional field and geochemical-petrographic tools may be biased by inherited hydrothermal alteration, physical weathering and illuvial processes. On the basis of chronological constraints to soil formation obtained from a 42 ka-old volcanic input (mixed to granite parent materials) detected in the soil cover of the Sila Massif upland, a first attempt to estimate

  6. Inferring LGM sedimentary and climatic changes in the southern Eastern Alps foreland through the analysis of a 14C ages database (Brenta megafan, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Sandro; Mozzi, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of a database of radiocarbon ages is proposed as a tool for investigating major glaciofluvial systems of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alpine foreland, and their relations with glacier dynamics and climatic fluctuations. Our research concerns the Brenta megafan (NE Italy), where 110 radiocarbon dates integrate a robust regional stratigraphic and palaeoclimatic framework. Age-depth models allowed us to calculate sedimentation rates, while the time distribution of peat layers, which recurrently formed in this region during the LGM, were estimated through meta-analysis. The reliability of statistical results was carefully evaluated using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Sedimentation rates in the Brenta megafan markedly fluctuated during LGM: ≈1.8 m/ka between 40 and 26.7 ka cal BP; ≈3 m/ka between 26.7 and 23.8 ka cal BP and ≈1.4 m/ka from 23.8 to 17.5 ka cal BP, when the distributary system deactivated due to fan-head trenching. This is evidence that sediment input and routing in the glaciofluvial distributary system was particularly efficient during the central part of LGM, when glaciers were stable at their outermost position. Meta-analysis indicates an increase in peat formation in correspondence with global (Heinrich Event 3 and/or the Greenland Interstadial 5.1 and 4 for the 30.5, 29.6 and 28.8 ka cal BP peaks) and regional (23.5 ka cal BP) wet events. Other peaks at 22.2, 21.8, 20.2 and 19 ka cal BP correlate with fluctuations of south-eastern Alpine glaciers. Significant peat formation continued until ≈18 ka cal BP, when the last peak occurred. A marked decrease in peat formation is recorded concomitantly with the onset of Heinrich Event 2 (i.e. the 26 ka cal BP trough). The good correspondence of sedimentary events in the Brenta glaciofluvial system with the dynamics of glaciers and glaciofluvial and lacustrine systems in the southern Eastern Alps suggests a common climatic forcing on the whole region during the LGM. Peat layer

  7. Use of a (137)Cs re-sampling technique to investigate temporal changes in soil erosion and sediment mobilisation for a small forested catchment in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E; Alewell, Christine; Callegari, Giovanni; Mabit, Lionel; Mallimo, Nicola; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion and both its on-site and off-site impacts are increasingly seen as a serious environmental problem across the world. The need for an improved evidence base on soil loss and soil redistribution rates has directed attention to the use of fallout radionuclides, and particularly (137)Cs, for documenting soil redistribution rates. This approach possesses important advantages over more traditional means of documenting soil erosion and soil redistribution. However, one key limitation of the approach is the time-averaged or lumped nature of the estimated erosion rates. In nearly all cases, these will relate to the period extending from the main period of bomb fallout to the time of sampling. Increasing concern for the impact of global change, particularly that related to changing land use and climate change, has frequently directed attention to the need to document changes in soil redistribution rates within this period. Re-sampling techniques, which should be distinguished from repeat-sampling techniques, have the potential to meet this requirement. As an example, the use of a re-sampling technique to derive estimates of the mean annual net soil loss from a small (1.38 ha) forested catchment in southern Italy is reported. The catchment was originally sampled in 1998 and samples were collected from points very close to the original sampling points again in 2013. This made it possible to compare the estimate of mean annual erosion for the period 1954-1998 with that for the period 1999-2013. The availability of measurements of sediment yield from the catchment for parts of the overall period made it possible to compare the results provided by the (137)Cs re-sampling study with the estimates of sediment yield for the same periods. In order to compare the estimates of soil loss and sediment yield for the two different periods, it was necessary to establish the uncertainty associated with the individual estimates. In the absence of a generally accepted procedure

  8. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-06-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), mineralogical and micromorphological analyses were carried out for three soil profiles selected in two of the main head scarps. The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties at the interface with a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon), that was only marginally involved in the sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. When compared to the overlying horizons, 2C showed (i) fine grey ash that is almost pumice free, with the silt content increasing by 20 %; (ii) ks values 1 order of magnitude lower; (iii) a pore distribution concentrated into small (15-30 μm modal class) pores characterised by a very low percolation threshold (approximately 15-25 μm); (iv) the presence of expandable clay minerals; and (v) increasing Na content in the exchange complex. Most of these properties indicated that 2C was a lower permeability horizon compared to the overlying ones. Nevertheless, it was possible to assume this interface to be an impeding layer to vertical water fluxes only by the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer, on top of 2C, and of the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on top of the layer. Although Mt. Vezzi's soil environment has many properties in common with those of other Campania debris-mudflows (e.g. high gradient, north-facing slope, similar forestry, and volcanic origin of the parent material), the results of this study suggest a more complex relationship between soil

  9. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15–16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iovine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On 15–16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy, triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000. Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI –Hydrogeological setting plan, in press, an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones". Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3–hex – a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966, specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002. In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices; moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3–hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial

  10. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15Â 16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, G.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, V.

    On 15-16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy), triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000). Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI -Hydrogeological setting plan, in press), an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones"). Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3-hex - a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966), specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002). In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices); moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3-hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial volume for these new cases

  11. Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Central-Southern Italy: Sero-molecular survey and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé Del Pino, Leticia Elisa; Nardini, Roberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Iacoponi, Francesca; Cersini, Antonella; Autorino, Gian Luca; Buono, Francesco; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are tick-borne pathogens, etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis that affect different species of Equidae causing relevantly important direct and indirect losses. A field study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of the equine piroplasms in an area of Central-Southern Italy and to identify correlated risk factors. Serum samples of 673 asymptomatic horses were collected during spring-summer of 2013 to estimate the seroprevalence of the parasites within the study area using T. equi and B. caballi Antibody test kit (VMRD(®), Inc, Pullman, WA, USA). The 273 seropositive samples were subsequently tested by real time PCR to verify the presence of the genome of the piroplasms, indicative of the carrier status of the subjects. The variables chosen to identify which were the risk factors associated with the serological and PCR-positivity for each of the equine piroplasms were the following: gender, age, breed, access to pasture, altitude, land cover, climatic zone, soil type and province location (coastal/inland). The resulting overall seroprevalence for T. equi was 39.8% (268/673) and for B. caballi was 8.9% (60/673) while 70.3% of the PCR tested samples (185/263) were positive for T. equi and 10.3% (27/263) for B. caballi. The univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association of the risk factors with the different outcomes. The risk factors found to be associated with T. equi seropositivity were gender, age, breed, access to pasture, land cover, soil type and province location, while those associated with PCR-positivity were age, soil type and province location. As the number of B. caballi seropositive subjects was limited, the multiple logistic regression model was performed only for the PCR-positive status, identifying climatic zone and soil type as the sole risk factors. In the study area, a major diffusion of T. equi, in terms of seroprevalence and PCR-positivity was present when

  12. Climate, environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Giraudi, Carlo; Masi, Alessia; Magny, Michel; Ortu, Elena; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the interrelationship between the natural and human history of Sicily over the last 2000 years. It presents a close comparison of the data from the key multi-proxy site of Lago di Pergusa - located inland in the eastern part of Sicily - with the existing archaeological and textual evidence on the socio-economic processes. The article also includes a review of the available natural proxy archives from the Central Mediterranean. On the basis of the isotope and pollen data from the Lago di Pergusa core PRG2, we identified two humid periods (ca. 450-750 AD and ca. 1400-1800 AD) as well as a dry one (ca. 1100-1350 AD); our evidence corresponds closely with other environmental palaeoclimate proxies from the Mediterranean region. In our synthesis of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence from southern Italy, we argue that during both periods of increased humidity - that is during the late antique-Byzantine times and during the late medieval and early modern periods - intense agricultural use of the Sicilian landscape developed on an unprecedented scale. This in turn contributed to the impressive demographic and economic expansion visible during these periods. A sudden period of aridity followed the first of these eras of humidity-related agricultural growth. This climatic shift, dated to around 750 AD, corresponds to a decrease in synanthropic taxa and a recovery of arboreal vegetation. We argue that in this case a climatic change contributed to socio-economic decline. Moreover, as this change occurred prior to the Arab invasion of Sicily in AD 827, the environmental processes may help to explain the collapse of Byzantine society on Sicily which, in turn made the Muslim conquest possible. After this event, there occurred a longer period of agricultural decline, lasting until around 1000 AD, after which we see the first signs of a slow recovery. Ongoing research in nearby archaeological sites will help defining if it was a local

  13. Forecasting landslide activations by means of GA-SAKe. An example of application to three case studies in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; De Rango, Alessio; Gariano, Stefano L.; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2016-04-01

    GA-SAKe - the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel) - allows to forecast the timing of activation of landslides [1, 2], based on dates of landslide activations and rainfall series. The model can be applied to either single or set of similar landslides in a homogeneous context. Calibration of the model is performed through Genetic-Algorithm, and provides families of optimal, discretized solutions (kernels) that maximize the fitness function. The mobility functions are obtained through convolution of the optimal kernels with rain series. The shape of the kernel, including its base time, is related to magnitude of the landslide and hydro-geological complexity of the slope. Once validated, the model can be applied to estimate the timing of future landslide activations in the same study area, by employing measured or forecasted rainfall. GA-SAKe is here employed to analyse the historical activations of three rock slides in Calabria (Southern Italy), threatening villages and main infrastructures. In particular: 1) the Acri-Serra di Buda case, developed within a Sackung, involving weathered crystalline and metamorphic rocks; for this case study, 6 dates of activation are available; 2) the San Fili-Uncino case, developed in clay and conglomerate overlaying gneiss and biotitic schist; for this case study, 7 dates of activation are available [2]; 3) the San Benedetto Ullano-San Rocco case, developed in weathered metamorphic rocks; for this case study, 3 dates of activation are available [1, 3, 4, 5]. The obtained results are quite promising, given the high performance of the model against slope movements characterized by numerous historical activations. Obtained results, in terms of shape and base time of the kernels, are compared by taking into account types and sizes of the considered case studies, and involved rock types. References [1] Terranova O.G., Iaquinta P., Gariano S.L., Greco R. & Iovine G. (2013) In: Landslide

  14. Pre-metamorphic melt infiltration in metasediments: geochemical, isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb), and field evidence from Serie dei Laghi (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinarelli, L.; Bergomi, M. A.; Boriani, A.; Giobbi, E.

    2008-07-01

    Gradual transitions from K-feldspar free gneisses to K-feldspar bearing augengneisses are sometimes observed in metamorphic terranes. They have been explained with metasomatic porphyroblastic growth connected with regional metamorphism, or with pre-metamorphic presence of magmatic megacrysts. A transition of this kind can be observed in the Serie dei Laghi (Southern Alps, Italy), where coarse-grained meta-arenites ( Cenerigneiss) grade into Ceneri augengneisses with large K-feldspar porphyroclasts, and banded amphibolites of the “Strona Ceneri Border Zone” grade into Hbl augengneisses rich in K-feldspar. The Ceneri augengneisses are chemically indistinguishable from the Cenerigneiss, but have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7256 0.7258 vs. 0.7215 0.7233), similar to those of the Ordovician granites that were intruded, before the regional metamorphism, into the protoliths of both Cenerigneiss and amphibolites. The Cenerigneiss contains two types of zircons: (1) highly luminescent, rounded grains or fragments, yielding U Pb SHRIMP ages from 0.43 to 1.0 Ga; (2) euhedral grains with oscillatory zoning (magmatic), with U Pb SHRIMP concordant ages of 466 ± 13 Ma. This age coincides with the Rb Sr whole rock emplacement age of the Ordovician granitoids (466 ± 5 Ma). The Hbl augengneisses form three groups with distinct geochemical patterns, whose distributions on inter-element diagrams trend towards the Ordovician metagranites and meta-aplites. In addition, the Hbl augengneisses have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7132 0.7147 vs. 0.7031 0.7046) and lower 143Nd/144Nd (0.51214 0.51219 vs. 0.51273 0.51297) than the amphibolites, suggesting the addition of an isotopically evolved component. The observed chemical and isotope patterns, as well as the vicinity of the augen gneisses to the Ordovician intrusions, lead us to conclude that the Ceneri augengneisses and Hbl augengneisses are the result of infiltration of residual hydrous magmas into the pr