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Sample records for aprotic li-air battery

  1. Communications: Elementary oxygen electrode reactions in the aprotic Li-air battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Blomquist, Jakob; Datta, Soumendu; Vegge, Tejs; Rossmeisl, Jan; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Luntz, A. C.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the electrochemical reactions at the oxygen electrode of an aprotic Li-air battery. Using density functional theory to estimate the free energy of intermediates during the discharge and charge of the battery, we introduce a reaction free energy diagram and identify possible origins of...

  2. Ambient operation of Li/Air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, R.E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of {proportional_to}20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg{sup -1}, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte ({proportional_to}70%). Lithium metal anodes and KB-carbon account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only {proportional_to}20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products. (author)

  3. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  4. Oxygen Selective Membranes for Li-Air (O2) Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Salomon; Owen Crowther

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) batteries have a much higher theoretical energy density than conventional lithium batteries and other metal air batteries, so they are being developed for applications that require long life. Water vapor from air must be prevented from corroding the lithium (Li) metal negative electrode during discharge under ambient conditions, i.e., in humid air. One method of protecting the Li metal from corrosion is to use an oxygen selective membrane (OSM) that a...

  5. Computational Modeling of Transport Limitations in Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-02-22

    In this paper we investigate transport limitations in the electrodes of lithium-air batteries through computational modeling. We use meso-scale models to consider the effects of dendrites on the current and potential at the anode surface, and to investigate the effects of reaction and transport parameters on the formation of precipitates in the cathode. The formation of dendrites on the anode surface during cycling reduces the transport of ions and can lead to short circuits in the cell. Growth of precipitates in the cathode reduces the specific capacity of the cell due to surface passivation and pore clogging. Both of these degradation mechanisms depend on meso-scale phenomena, such as the pore-scale reactive transport in the cathode. To understand the effects of the meso-scale transport and precipitation on the performance and lifetime of Li-air batteries, meso-scale modeling is needed that is able to resolve the electrodes and their microstructures.

  6. Selective poisoning of Li-air batteries for increased discharge capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    The main discharge product at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries is insulating Li2O2 and its poor electronic conduction is a main limiting factor in the battery performance. Here, we apply density functional theory calculations (DFT) to investigate the potential of circumventing this...... accessible battery capacity at the expense of a limited increase in the overpotentials....

  7. Oxygen Selective Membranes for Li-Air (O2 Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Salomon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-air (Li-air batteries have a much higher theoretical energy density than conventional lithium batteries and other metal air batteries, so they are being developed for applications that require long life. Water vapor from air must be prevented from corroding the lithium (Li metal negative electrode during discharge under ambient conditions, i.e., in humid air. One method of protecting the Li metal from corrosion is to use an oxygen selective membrane (OSM that allows oxygen into the cell while stopping or slowing the ingress of water vapor. The desired properties and some potential materials for OSMs for Li-air batteries are discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  8. Fundamental mechanisms in Li-air battery electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan

    The lithium-air (or Li-O2) batteries have received wide attention as an enabling technology for a mass market entry of electric vehicles due to a potential capacity much higher than current Li-ion technology. The technology is a relatively new battery concept proposed in 1996, and the current...... research still focuses on developing an understanding of the reactions inside the battery. This thesis is dedicated to increase this understanding and use the knowledge to improve the performance of the battery, and the work span from detailed investigation of the atom positions to the proposal of a system...... used to manage a full size electric vehicle battery. An automated differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (DEMS) was built to investigate the relationship between current and the consumption and release of gases, which is important to identify and quantify degradation reactions. The setup was...

  9. Understanding oxygen reactions in aprotic Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunchao, Ma; Yelong, Zhang; Qinghua, Cui; Jing, Zhao; Zhangquan, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in many aspects of the emerging aprotic Li-O2 battery system, an in-depth understanding of the oxygen reactions is still underway. The oxygen reactions occurring in the positive electrode distinguish Li-O2 batteries from the conventional Li-ion cells and play a crucial role in the Li-O2 cell’s performance (capacity, rate capability, and cycle life). Recent advances in fundamental studies of oxygen reactions in aprotic Li-O2 batteries are reviewed, including the reaction route, kinetics, morphological evolution of Li2O2, and charge transport within Li2O2. Prospects are also provided for future fundamental investigations of Li-O2 chemistry. Project supported by the Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts of China, the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010401), the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150623002TC), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131139).

  10. Nb-doped TiO2 air-electrode for advanced Li-air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Dae Lim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As new substrate materials to replace a conventional carbon substrate, TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 air-electrodes for Li-air batteries were investigated. Through a simple two-step process, we successfully synthesized anatase Nb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and demonstrated the potential applicability of TiO2-based materials for use in Li-air battery electrode. An air-electrode with Nb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles could deliver a higher discharge capacity than a bare TiO2 electrode due to the enhanced conductivity, which implies the importance of facile electron transport during the discharge process.

  11. Electrochemical evaluation of carbon nanotubes and carbon black for the cathode of Li-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Roderick E.; Colón-Mercado, Héctor R.; Fox, Elise B.

    2014-06-01

    Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) was used to screen carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance as electrodes for the Li-air battery. Lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTF2N) in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) was used as the electrolyte during testing. The effect of manganese/manganese oxide addition on the performance of the carbons was compared to that of the bare carbons in a cycling study. From CV results, it was found that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) had the highest peak current density per gram for ORR and OER than the other types of carbon studied. The SWCNT ORR peak decreased 49% after 100 cycles and only 36% when manganese/manganese oxide was added. The high activity of SWCNT with manganese/manganese oxide spheres make it a desirable material to use as the cathode for Li-air batteries.

  12. Li-air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-03-03

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  13. 3-D Nanofilm Primary Li Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires a new primary battery capable of providing specific energy exceeding 2000Wh/kg over an operating temperature range of 0oC to 35oC with a shelf life...

  14. Sulfamides and glymes as aprotic solvents for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, Y. [IREQ, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Brisard, G.; Parent, M. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Brouillette, D.; Perron, G.; Desnoyers, J.E. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Armand, M.; Gravel, D.; Slougui, N. [Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-10-01

    In view of the high reactivity of the lithium metal, lithium batteries must operate in an aprotic environment, which can either be a conducting polymer, a liquid solvent, or a mixture of them. Two families of aprotic liquids were considered as solvents for lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfone)imide (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3} or LiTFSI). The first one is the substituted sulfamides, R{sub 1}R{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}NR{sub 3}R{sub 4}, where the R groups are either methyl, ethyl, or methoxyethyl (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}), and the second one is the glymes, CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n}CH{sub 3}, for n up to 10. The phase diagrams, potential windows, conductivities, and the lithium interfacial resistances of the solutions were investigated, often as a function of temperature. The potential use of these solvents for different types of batteries is discussed.

  15. CsI as Multifunctional Redox Mediator for Enhanced Li-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Kyu; Park, Yong Joon

    2016-04-01

    We introduce CsI as a multifunctional redox mediator to enhance the performance of Li-air batteries. CsI dissolved in the electrolyte is ionized into Cs(+) and I(-), which perform their roles in the Li anode and air electrode, respectively. The I(-) ions in the electrolyte facilitate the dissolution of Li2O2 in the air electrode as a redox mediator, which reduces the overpotential of the cell. The low overpotential also leads to the suppression of parasitic reactions occurring in the high-voltage range, such as the decomposition of the electrolyte and the reaction between Li2O2 and carbon. At the same time, the Cs(+) ions act as an electrostatic shield at the sharp points of the Li anode, hindering the growth of Li dendrite. The combined effects of reduced parasitic reactions and hindered Li-dendrite growth successfully improve the cyclic performance of Li-air cells. PMID:26999060

  16. Capillary based Li-air batteries for in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza;

    2015-01-01

    For Li-air batteries to reach their full potential as energy storage system, a complete understanding of the conditions and reactions in the battery during operation is needed. To follow the reactions in situ a capillary-based Li-O2 battery has been developed for synchrotron-based in situ X...

  17. Catalytic properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles for rechargeable Li/air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwan Su; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    Three types of Co3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized and characterized as a catalyst for the air electrode of a Li/air battery. The shape and size of the nanoparticles are observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The formation of the Co3O4 phase is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical property of the air electrodes containing Co3O4 nanoparticles is significantly associated with the shape and size of the nanoparticles. It appears t...

  18. Novel smart catalysts for the next generation of PEM fuel cells and Li-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, S.; Abraham, K.M.T.A.; Trahan, M.; Ramaswamy, N. [Northeastern Univ. Center for Renewable Energy Technology, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2010-07-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an important component for most fuel cells and in some industrial electrolysis processes such as chlorine generation and emerging technologies such as lithium (Li)-air batteries. The interaction of the active reaction center with molecular oxygen in the context of competing surface processes plays a pivotal role in determining the overpotential and kinetics of the reaction. This paper presented a comparison of ORR in conventional platinum (Pt) and Pt alloy nano-particles in aqueous acid systems to more complex environments such as chalcogenides, metal polymer composites and enzymatic reaction centers. The paper described results from a mix of electrochemical measurements and in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption methods. Latest results on metal organic composite electrocatalysts and laccase enzymatic reaction centers in the context of aqueous acid, alkaline and bio-fuel cells as well as electrocatalysis in non aqueous environments in the context of metal organic systems for Li-air battery applications were provided. It was concluded that the newly developed method referred to as the delta technique provided the ability to map the adsorption of different species on an electrochemical interface as a function of operating cell conditions. 5 refs.

  19. Protocol of Electrochemical Test and Characterization of Aprotic Li-O2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangyi; Wu, Tianpin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for electrochemical testing of an aprotic Li-O2 battery. An aprotic Li-O2 battery is made of a Li-metal anode, an aprotic electrolyte, and an O2-breathing cathode. The aprotic electrolyte is a solution of lithium salt with aprotic solvent; and porous carbon is commonly used as the cathode substrate. To improve the performance, an electrocatalyst is deposited onto the porous carbon substrate by certain deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and wet-chemistry reaction. The as-prepared cathode materials are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A Swagelok-type cell, sealed in a glass chamber filled with pure O2, is used for the electrochemical test on a battery test system. The cells are tested under either capacity-controlled mode or voltage controlled mode. The reaction products are investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to study the possible pathway of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This protocol demonstrates a systematic and efficient arrangement of routine tests of the aprotic Li-O2 battery, including the electrochemical test and characterization of battery materials. PMID:27501292

  20. Catalytic activity trends of oxygen reduction reaction for nonaqueous Li-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Chun; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-11-30

    We report the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline palladium, platinum, ruthenium, gold, and glassy carbon surfaces in 0.1 M LiClO(4) 1,2-dimethoxyethane via rotating disk electrode measurements. The nonaqueous Li(+)-ORR activity of these surfaces primarily correlates to oxygen adsorption energy, forming a "volcano-type" trend. The activity trend found on the polycrystalline surfaces was in good agreement with the trend in the discharge voltage of Li-O(2) cells catalyzed by nanoparticle catalysts. Our findings provide insights into Li(+)-ORR mechanisms in nonaqueous media and design of efficient air electrodes for Li-air battery applications. PMID:22044022

  1. The Importance of Nanometric Passivating Films on Cathodes forLi - Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian D.; Black, Robert; Radtke, Claudio; Williams, Zach; Mehdi, Beata L.; Browning, Nigel D.; Nazar, Linda F.

    2014-12-23

    Recently, there has been a transition from fully carbonaceous positive electrodes for the aprotic lithium oxygen battery to alternative materials and the use of redox mediator additives, in an attempt to lower the large electrochemical overpotentials associated with the charge reaction. However, the stabilizing or catalytic effect of these materials can become complicated due to the presence of major side-reactions observed during dis(charge). Here, we isolate the charge reaction from the discharge by utilizing electrodes prefilled with commercial lithium peroxide with a crystallite size of about 200-800 nm. Using a combination of S/TEM, online mass spectrometry, XPS, and electrochemical methods to probe the nature of surface films on carbon and conductive Ti-based nanoparticles, we show that oxygen evolution from lithium peroxide is strongly dependent on their surface properties. Insulating TiO2 surface layers on TiC and TiN - even as thin as 3 nm*can completely inhibit the charge reaction under these conditions. On the other hand, TiC, which lacks this oxide film, readily facilitates oxidation of the bulk Li2O2 crystallites, at a much lower overpotential relative to carbon. Since oxidation of lithium oxygen battery cathodes is inevitable in these systems, precise control of the surface chemistry at the nanoscale becomes of upmost importance.

  2. Theoretical Exploration of Various Lithium Peroxide Crystal Structures in a Li-Air Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Chun Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a series of metastable Li2O2 crystal structures involving different orientations and displacements of the O22− peroxy ions based on the known Li2O2 crystal structure. Within the vicinity of the chemical potential ΔG ~ 0.20 eV/Li from the thermodynamic ground state of the Li2O2 crystal structure (i.e., Föppl structure, all of these newly found metastable Li2O2 crystal structures are found to be insulating and high-k materials, and they have a common unique signature of an O22− O-O vibration mode (ω ~ 799–865 cm−1, which is in the range of that commonly observed in Li-air battery experiments, regardless of the random O22− orientations and the symmetry in the crystal lattice. From XRD patterns analysis, the commercially available Li2O2 powder is confirmed to be the thermodynamic ground state Föppl-like structure. However, for Li2O2 compounds that are grown electrochemically under the environment of Li-O2 cells, we found that the XRD patterns alone are not sufficient for structural identification of these metastable Li2O2 crystalline phases due to the poor crystallinity of the sample. In addition, the commonly known Raman signal of O22− vibration mode is also found to be insufficient to validate the possible existence of these newly predicted Li2O2 crystal structures, as all of them similarly share the similar O22− vibration mode. However considering that the discharge voltage in most Li-O2 cells are typically several tenths of an eV below the thermodynamic equilibrium for the formation of ground state Föppl structure, the formation of these metastable Li2O2 crystal structures appears to be thermodynamically feasible.

  3. Life of superoxide in aprotic Li-O₂ battery electrolytes: simulated solvent and counter-ion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, J; Lidberg, D; Sodeyama, K; Futera, Z; Tateyama, Y

    2016-04-21

    Li-air batteries ideally make use of oxygen from the atmosphere and metallic lithium to reversibly drive the reaction 2Li + O2↔ Li2O2. Conceptually, energy throughput is high and material use is efficient, but practically many material challenges still remain. It is of particular interest to control the electrolyte environment of superoxide (O2*(-)) to promote or hinder specific reaction mechanisms. By combining density functional theory based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) and DFT simulations we probe the bond length and the electronic properties of O2*(-) in three aprotic solvents - in the presence of Li(+) or the much larger cation alternative tetrabutylammonium (TBA(+)). Contact ion pairs, LiO2*, are favoured over solvent-separated ion pairs in all solvents, but particularly in low permittivity dimethoxyethane (DME), which makes O2*(-) more prone to further reduction. The Li(+)-O2*(-) interactions are dampened in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in relation to those in DME and propylene carbonate (PC), which is reflected by smaller changes in the electronic properties of O2*(-) in DMSO. The additive TBA(+) offers an alternative, more weakly interacting partner to O2*(-), which makes it easier to remove the unpaired electron and oxidation more feasible. In DMSO, TBA(+) has close to no effect on O2*(-), which behaves as if no cation is present. This is contrasted by a much stronger influence of TBA(+) on O2*(-) in DME - comparable to that of Li(+) in DMSO. An important future goal is to compare and rank the effects of different additives beyond TBA(+). Here, the results of DFT calculations for small-sized cluster models are in qualitative agreement with those of the DFT-MD simulations, which suggests the cluster approach to be a cost-effective alternative to the DFT-MD simulations for a more extensive comparison of additive effects in future studies. PMID:26947132

  4. Cluster size matters: Size-driven performance of subnanometer clusters in catalysis, electrocatalysis and Li-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the strongly size-dependent performance of subnanometer cluster based catalysts in 1) heterogeneous catalysis, 2) electrocatalysis and 3) Li-air batteries. The experimental studies are based on I. fabrication of ultrasmall clusters with atomic precision control of particle size and their deposition on oxide and carbon based supports; II. test of performance, III. in situand ex situ X-ray characterization of cluster size, shape and oxidation state; and IV.electron microscopies. Heterogeneous catalysis. The pronounced effect of cluster size and support on the performance of the catalyst (catalyst activity and the yield of Cn products) will be illustrated on the example of nickel and cobalt clusters in Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Electrocatalysis. The study of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on size-selected palladium clusters supported on ultrananocrystalline diamond show pronounced size effects. While Pd4 clusters show no reaction, Pd6 and Pd17 clusters are among the most active catalysts known (in in terms of turnover rate per Pd atom). The system (soft-landed Pd4, Pd6, or Pd17 clusters on an UNCD Si coated electrode) shows stable electrochemical potentials over several cycles, and the characterization of the electrodes show no evidence for evolution or dissolution of either the support Theoretical calculations suggest that this striking difference may be a demonstration that bridging Pd-Pd sites, which are only present in three-dimensional clusters, are active for the oxygen evolution reaction in Pd6O6. Li-air batteries. The studies show that sub-nm silver clusters have dramatic size-dependent effect on the lowering of the overpotential, charge capacity, morphology of the discharge products, as well as on the morphology of the nm size building blocks of the discharge products. The results suggest that by precise control of the active surface sites on the cathode, the performance of Li-air cells can be significantly improved

  5. DFT Study On Effects of CO2 Contamination in Non-Aqueous Li-Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Vegge, Tejs

    2013-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) contamination at the cathode of rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, where the insulating material Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is the main discharge product. The Li2O2 growth mechanism and overpotentials are investig......Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) contamination at the cathode of rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, where the insulating material Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is the main discharge product. The Li2O2 growth mechanism and overpotentials are...... surfaces, forming a type of Lithium coordinated carbonate species (LinCO3), which reduces the effective equilibrium potential by 0.2 V. Small amounts of CO2 can also affects the morphological growth directions of Li2O2 due to blocking of nucleation centers; why may enhance the electronic conduction and...... result in an increased battery capacity. However, CO2 contamination on the Li2O2 surface confirms an asymmetric increase in the overpotentials; particularly the charging overvoltage exhibits sustantial increase, which would reduce the efficiency of the Li-air battery....

  6. Review on mechanisms and continuum models of multi-phase transport phenomena in porous structures of non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-03-01

    During recent years intensive research activities involving both experimental and modeling approaches have appeared for different aspects of Lithium-air (Li-air) battery. Multi-phase transport phenomena including dissolved oxygen and lithium ions (Li+) in the liquid electrolyte, as well as electrons in the solid materials, are strongly coupled with the porous structures and various reactions, particularly the solid product grown in the porous cathode during battery discharge. Understanding the mechanisms of transport phenomena and accurate evaluation of effective transport properties are significant for improving the battery capacities and design, especially at high rate conditions. In this paper, the transport governing equations commonly used for macroscopic continuum models at porous-average level are outlined and highlighted, with a purpose to provide a general overview of the validity and the limitation of these approaches. The most often used models in the open literature are reviewed and discussed focusing on the effective properties involving tortuosity factors, solid product morphologies, as well as effects on the void space clogging, surface area reduction and passivation. Comments and suggestions are also provided for better understanding of multi-phase transport phenomena and implementation of the detailed models for solid product generation and morphology growth in Li-air battery cathodes.

  7. Carbon-Free CoO Mesoporous Nanowire Array Cathode for High-Performance Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoshan; Zhang, Hongzhang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-10-21

    Although various kinds of catalysts have been developed for aprotic Li-O2 battery application, the carbon-based cathodes are still vulnerable to attacks from the discharge intermediates or products, as well as the accompanying electrolyte decomposition. To ameliorate this problem, the free-standing and carbon-free CoO nanowire array cathode was purposely designed for Li-O2 batteries. The single CoO nanowire formed as a special mesoporous structure, owing even comparable specific surface area and pore volume to the typical Super-P carbon particles. In addition to the highly selective oxygen reduction/evolution reactions catalytic activity of CoO cathodes, both excellent discharge specific capacity and cycling efficiency of Li-O2 batteries were obtained, with 4888 mAh gCoO(-1) and 50 cycles during 500 h period. Owing to the synergistic effect between elaborate porous structure and selective intermediate absorption on CoO crystal, a unique bimodal growth phenomenon of discharge products was occasionally observed, which further offers a novel mechanism to control the formation/decomposition morphology of discharge products in nanoscale. This research work is believed to shed light on the future development of high-performance aprotic Li-O2 batteries. PMID:26400109

  8. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson;

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped (1...... Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally...... already at 1% CO2. Large capacity losses and overvoltages are seen at higher CO2 concentrations. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC....

  9. Research progress on the cathode catalysts for Li-air batteries%锂-空气电池正极催化剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月艳; 王莉; 何向明; 金云学; 李建军

    2014-01-01

    具有超高比能量的锂-空气电池是近年来的研究热点,电解质和空气电极催化剂是锂-空气电池的重要研究内容。介绍了有机体系锂-空气电池空气电极催化剂的研究进展,分析了碳、贵金属、氧化物三类催化剂材料的特征及性能,进而提出了新型、高效、兼具催化氧还原/氧析出功能的纳米催化剂的发展方向。%Lithium-air battery becomes a research hotspot in recent years due to its ultra-high ener-gy density.To develop lithium-air batteries of practical value,plenty of investigation on corre-sponding electrolytes and cathode catalysts have been explored.Air electrode catalysts in lithium-air batteries of aprotic electrolyte architecture are reviewed in this paper.In addition,the charac-teristics and electrochemical performances of carbon material,transition metal oxide catalysts,as well as noble metal based catalysts were introduced,along with a perspective of future research for efficient oxygen reduction/evolution bifunctional cathode nanocatalysts.

  10. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Younesi, Reza; Højberg, Jonathan; Hjelm, Johan; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped (1......‾100) Li2O2 surface were determined and even a low concentration of CO2 effectively blocks the step nucleation site and alters the Li2O2 shape due to Li2CO3 formation. Nudged elastic band calculations show that once CO2 is adsorbed on a step valley site, it is effectively unable to diffuse and impacts the...... Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally...

  11. A multi-layered Fe2O3/graphene composite with mesopores as a catalyst for rechargeable aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ningning; Mu, Xiaowei; Zheng, Mingbo; Wang, Chaoqiang; Lin, Zixia; Zhang, Xueping; Shi, Yi; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-09-01

    Aprotic Li–O2 batteries have attracted a huge amount of interest in the past decade owing to their extremely high energy density. However, identifying a desirable cathodic catalyst for this promising battery system is one of the biggest challenges at present. In this work, a multi-layered Fe2O3/graphene nanosheets (Fe2O3/GNS) composite with sandwich structure was synthesized using an easy thermal casting method, and served as a cathodic catalyst for aprotic Li–O2 batteries. The aprotic Li–O2 cell with the Fe2O3/GNS catalyst demonstrated a better reversibility, lower overpotential for oxygen evolution, and a higher Coulombic efficiency (close to 100%) than those of pure GNS. An excellent rate performance and good cycle stability were also confirmed. The results, characterized by ex and in situ methods, revealed that the dominant discharge product Li2O2 was decomposed below 4.35 V. This superior electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the unique sandwich structure of the Fe2O3/GNS catalyst with mesopores, which can provide substantially more catalytic sites and prevent direct contact between carbon and Li2O2.

  12. Capillary based Li-air batteries for in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    -ray powder diffraction (XRPD). In this article, we present the results for the analysis of 1st and 2nd deep discharge and charge for a cathode being cycled between 2 and 4.6 V. The crystalline precipitation of Li2O2 only is observed in the capillary battery. However, there are indications of side reactions...... effect of constant exposure of X-ray radiation to the electrolyte and cathode during charge of the battery was also investigated. X-ray exposure during charge leads to changes in the development of the intensity and the FWHM of the Li2O2 diffraction peaks. The X-ray diffraction results are supported by...

  13. Implications of the Formation of Small Polarons in Li2O2 for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J.; Jung, Y. S.; Wei, S. H.; Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-15

    Lithium-air batteries (LABs) are an intriguing next-generation technology due to their high theoretical energy density of {approx}11 kWh/kg. However, LABs are hindered by both poor rate capability and significant polarization in cell voltage, primarily due to the formation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the air cathode. Here, by employing hybrid density functional theory, we show that the formation of small polarons in Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} limits electron transport. Consequently, the low electron mobility {mu} = 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/V s contributes to both the poor rate capability and the polarization that limit the LAB power and energy densities. The self-trapping of electrons in the small polarons arises from the molecular nature of the conduction band states of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the strong spin polarization of the O 2p state. Our understanding of the polaronic electron transport in Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} suggests that designing alternative carrier conduction paths for the cathode reaction could significantly improve the performance of LABs at high current densities.

  14. Catalytic effect of heat-treated iron and copper phthalocyanines in non-aqueous electrolyte Li/air batteries. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Ren, Xiaoming; Tran, Dat T.; Read, Jeffrey [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, RDRL-SED-C, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In this review, we summarize our research on the characterization of FeCu/C catalyst and its effect in non-aqueous electrolyte Li/air cells. The catalyst is synthesized by impregnating metal phthalocyanine complex into a high surface area carbon, followed by pyrolyzing the complex-loaded carbon under argon atmosphere. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) results indicate that the metals in the catalyst are present in the form of a mixture of metal-nitrogen complexes (MN) and metal oxides (MO). Using coin-type Li/air cells as the testing vehicle, the FeCu/C is determined to affect the Li/air cells in three manners: (1) It catalyzes two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to form Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which reduces discharge polarization of the Li/air cells, (2) It promotes chemical disproportionation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which leads to an apparent four-electron ORR, and (3) It induces reduction of electrolyte solvents, which adds a second lower discharge voltage plateau at {proportional_to} 1.7 V. In addition, the FeCu/C catalyst increases the open circle voltage (OCV) recovery rate of the Li/air cells as a result of the chemical disproportionation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which releases oxygen and the resulting oxygen participates in OCV recovery. (orig.)

  15. Hierarchical mesoporous perovskite La0.5Sr0.5CoO2.91 nanowires with ultrahigh capacity for Li-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yunlong; Xu, Lin; Mai, Liqiang; Han, Chunhua; An, Qinyou; Xu, Xu; Liu, Xue; Zhang, Qingjie

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-air batteries have captured worldwide attention due to their highest energy density among the chemical batteries. To provide continuous oxygen channels, here, we synthesized hierarchical mesoporous perovskite La0.5Sr0.5CoO2.91 (LSCO) nanowires. We tested the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in both aqueous electrolytes and nonaqueous electrolytes via rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements and demonstrated that the hierarchical ...

  16. Mechanistic study on the activity of manganese oxide catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in an aprotic electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large effort in catalyst research over the past decade, the benefit of electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and especially the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the aprotic Li/air battery system has not yet been clarified. Here, three nanostructured manganese oxide catalysts – namely Mn3O4, Mn5O8 and α-Mn2O3 – are investigated with regard to their activity for the ORR in a LiTFSI/DMSO electrolyte. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements an overall decrease of potential gaps and an increase of re-oxidation efficiencies on carbon powder-based electrodes in comparison to glassy carbon (GC) was observed, which is attributed to the presence of more active centers, e.g. edges and kinks. Increased ORR potentials and the kinetic evaluation of the rate-determining step, namely the one-electron reduction of oxygen, point to a significantly enhanced activity of α-Mn2O3/C compared to pure carbon powder, Mn3O4/C and Mn5O8/C electrodes. This is discussed in terms of the electrocatalytic effect of α-Mn2O3 for aprotic ORR processes. The ORR activity is proposed to originate from a different reaction pathway due to coordinatively unsaturated Mn3+ ions on the surface of α-Mn2O3, which act as active centers for associative adsorption and reduction of molecular O2

  17. Aprotic gel polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.; Krejza, O.

    Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2008, s. 71-72. ISBN 978-80-214-3659-6. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /9./. Brno (CZ), 29.06.2008-03.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB208130604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : gel polymer electrolytes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. Rectification of nanopores in aprotic solvents - transport properties of nanopores with surface dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Timothy; Shi, Wenqing; Zeng, Yuhan; Mann, William; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Baker, Lane A.; Siwy, Zuzanna S.

    2015-11-01

    Nanopores have become a model system to understand transport properties at the nanoscale. We report experiments and modeling of ionic current in aprotic solvents with different dipole moments through conically shaped nanopores in a polycarbonate film and through glass nanopipettes. We focus on solutions of the salt LiClO4, which is of great importance in modeling lithium based batteries. Results presented suggest ion current rectification observed results from two effects: (i) adsorption of Li+ ions to the pore walls, and (ii) a finite dipole moment rendered by adsorbed solvent molecules. Properties of surfaces in various solvents were probed by means of scanning ion conductance microscopy, which confirmed existence of an effectively positive surface potential in aprotic solvents with high dipole moments.Nanopores have become a model system to understand transport properties at the nanoscale. We report experiments and modeling of ionic current in aprotic solvents with different dipole moments through conically shaped nanopores in a polycarbonate film and through glass nanopipettes. We focus on solutions of the salt LiClO4, which is of great importance in modeling lithium based batteries. Results presented suggest ion current rectification observed results from two effects: (i) adsorption of Li+ ions to the pore walls, and (ii) a finite dipole moment rendered by adsorbed solvent molecules. Properties of surfaces in various solvents were probed by means of scanning ion conductance microscopy, which confirmed existence of an effectively positive surface potential in aprotic solvents with high dipole moments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06340j

  19. Recent Research Progress on Non-aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries from Argonne National Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Lu; Khalil Amine

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air battery technology offers potential advantages over other existing battery systems in terms of specific energy and energy density, which could enable the driving range of an electric vehicle to be comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. Development of efficient cathode catalysts and stable electrolytes for the Li-air battery has been intensively investigated for the past several years, and a number of review articles covering different topics are already avail...

  20. Lithium-air batteries: survey on the current status and perspectives towards automotive applications from a battery industry standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Myounggu; Sun, Heeyoung; Lee, Hyungbok; Lee, Junesoo [Battery R and D, SK Innovation, Wonchon-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Li-air rechargeable batteries theoretically have advantages from both secondary batteries and fuel cells, which can be viewed as the best technological blends for automotive applications resolving the so called mileage anxiety problem due to the limited driving range of electrical vehicles based upon Li-ion batteries; this problem is rooted in the intrinsically small energy density of Li-ion batteries. This very scientific trait of Li-air batteries, which is apparently suited to the requirements of batteries for future electric vehicles, has induced quite a strong surge of research recently. This occurrence has motivated the authors to undertake a thorough review in an effort to understand the current status of Li-air battery related technologies. A comprehensive survey from a battery industry standpoint has been conducted on the fundamentals of chemistry, utilized Li-air cell configurations (or types) vs. performance, and major components comprising Li-air batteries using various sources of previously published peer-reviewed journal papers, book chapters, patents, and industrial reports. The survey results are presented here. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Proton solvation in protic and aprotic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Emanuele; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2016-05-01

    Protonation pattern strongly affects the properties of molecular systems. To determine protonation equilibria, proton solvation free energy, which is a central quantity in solution chemistry, needs to be known. In this study, proton affinities (PAs), electrostatic energies of solvation, and pKA values were computed in protic and aprotic solvents. The proton solvation energy in acetonitrile (MeCN), methanol (MeOH), water, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was determined from computed and measured pKA values for a specially selected set of organic compounds. pKA values were computed with high accuracy using a combination of quantum chemical and electrostatic approaches. Quantum chemical density functional theory computations were performed evaluating PA in the gas-phase. The electrostatic contributions of solvation were computed solving the Poisson equation. The computations yield proton solvation free energies with high accuracy, which are in MeCN, MeOH, water, and DMSO -255.1, -265.9, -266.3, and -266.4 kcal/mol, respectively, where the value for water is close to the consensus value of -265.9 kcal/mol. The pKA values of MeCN, MeOH, and DMSO in water correlates well with the corresponding proton solvation energies in these liquids, indicating that the solvated proton was attached to a single solvent molecule. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26786747

  2. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  3. Influence of lithium salts on the discharge chemistry of Li-air cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this work we show that the use of a high boiling point ether solvent (tetraglyme) promotes the formation of Li2O2 in a lithium-air cell. In addition, another major constituent in the discharge product of a Li-air cell contains halides, from the lithium salt, and the tetraglyme used as the solvent. This information is critical to the development of Li-air electrolytes which are stable and promote the formation of the desired Li2O2 products.

  4. Recent Research Progress on Non-aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries from Argonne National Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air battery technology offers potential advantages over other existing battery systems in terms of specific energy and energy density, which could enable the driving range of an electric vehicle to be comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. Development of efficient cathode catalysts and stable electrolytes for the Li-air battery has been intensively investigated for the past several years, and a number of review articles covering different topics are already available. This review mainly focuses on the research activities on rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air batteries at Argonne National Laboratory, with the emphasis on the gains in understanding of electrolyte decomposition, the structure and magnetic properties of lithium peroxide (Li2O2, development of an air-breathing cathode, and the effect of oxygen crossover on the lithium anode. Insights from this research have led to the improvement of the electrochemical performance of Li-air batteries. Promising paths for future work on rechargeable Li-air batteries are also discussed.

  5. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza; Norby, Poul

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold the...... key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5], but...... no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist of a...

  6. A SnO2-Based Cathode Catalyst for Lithium-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Delong; Yuan, Xianxia; Ma, Zhong; Wei, Ping; Yu, Xuebin; Yang, Jun; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2016-05-25

    SnO2 and SnO2@C have been successfully synthesized with a simple hydrothermal procedure combined with heat treatment, and their performance as cathode catalysts of Li-air batteries has been comparatively evaluated and discussed. The results show that both SnO2 and SnO2@C are capable of catalyzing oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER) at the cathode of Li-air batteries, but the battery with SnO2@C displays better performance due to its unique higher conductivity, larger surface area, complex pore distribution, and huge internal space. PMID:27152996

  7. Cellulose decomposition behavior in hot-compressed aprotic solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO GuiRong; Shiro SAKA; WANG Hua

    2008-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (avicel) is treated in hot-compressed aprotic solvents, sulfolane and 1,4-dioxane, using a batch-type reaction system with a molten tin bath in a range from 290 to 390℃. The corresponding densities of the solvent are 0.25-1.26 g/cm3 and 0.21-1.03 g/cm3 for sulfolane and 1,4-dioxane, respectively. As a result, in both solvents, more than 90% of cellulose is found to be de-composed to the solvent-soluble portion in which levoglucosan is the main component with the high-est yield of about 35% on original cellulose basis. The decomposition rate to levoglucosan is, however, faster in sulfolane than in 1,4-dioxane, while levoglucosan is more stable in 1,4-dioxane. In addition, its yield is found to be solvent-density dependent to be highest around 0.4-0.5 g/cm3 for both solvents. To elucidate these decomposition behaviors, the results obtained in this study with aprotic solvents are compared with protic solvents such as water and methanol in previous works.

  8. Cellulose decomposition behavior in hot-compressed aprotic solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro; SAKA

    2008-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (avicel) is treated in hot-compressed aprotic solvents,sulfolane and 1,4-dioxane,using a batch-type reaction system with a molten tin bath in a range from 290 to 390℃. The corresponding densities of the solvent are 0.25-1.26 g/cm3 and 0.21-1.03 g/cm3 for sulfolane and 1,4-dioxane,respectively. As a result,in both solvents,more than 90% of cellulose is found to be de-composed to the solvent-soluble portion in which levoglucosan is the main component with the high-est yield of about 35% on original cellulose basis. The decomposition rate to levoglucosan is,however,faster in sulfolane than in 1,4-dioxane,while levoglucosan is more stable in 1,4-dioxane. In addition,its yield is found to be solvent-density dependent to be highest around 0.4-0.5 g/cm3 for both solvents. To elucidate these decomposition behaviors,the results obtained in this study with aprotic solvents are compared with protic solvents such as water and methanol in previous works.

  9. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide for Li–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Overgaard, Marc; Younesi, Reza;

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has shown great promise as an air-cathode for Li-air batteries with high capacity. In this article we demonstrate how the oxidation time of graphene oxide (GO) affects the ratio of different functional groups and how trends of these in GO are extended to chemically...

  11. Reaction and Transport in Gas Diffusion Electrodes of Li-O2 batteries: Experiments and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Timo; Horstmann, Birger; Wittmaier, Dennis; Wagner, Norbert; Bessler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are a potential alternative to conventional combustion technologies in the mobility sector. Two possible solvent systems are in the focus of extensive research at the moment. Namely, systems with aprotic and aqueous electrolyte. Major challenges in the development of Li-O2 systems arise from the formation of solid discharge products. In the cathode of aprotic Li-O2 batteries Li2O2 is formed during discharge. Li2O2 has a low electric conductivity and passiva...

  12. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  13. Study of Stable Cathodes and Electrolytes for High Specific Density Lithium-Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne M.; Wu, James; Bennett, William; Ming, Yu; Zhu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Future NASA missions require high specific energy battery technologies, greater than 400 Wh/kg. Current NASA missions are using "state-of-the-art" (SOA) Li-ion batteries (LIB), which consist of a metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the physical and electrochemical properties of the anode-electrolyte interface for ionic liquid based Li-air batteries. The voltage-time profiles for Pyr13FSI and Pyr14TFSI ionic liquids electrolytes studies on symmetric cells show low over-potentials and no dendritic lithium morphology. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that these ionic liquids have a wide electrochemical window. As a continuation of this work, sp2 carbon cathode and these low flammability electrolytes were paired and the physical and electrochemical properties were studied in a Li-air battery system under an oxygen environment.

  14. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  15. Graphene supported heterogeneous catalysts for Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaf, M.; Tocoglu, U.; Kartal, M.; Akbulut, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this study production and characterization of free-standing and flexible (i) graphene, (ii) α-MnO2/graphene, (iii) Pt/graphene (iv) α-MnO2/Pt/graphene composite cathodes for Li-air batteries were reported. Graphene supported heterogeneous catalysts were produced by a facile method. In order to prevent aggregation of graphene sheets and increase not only interlayer distance but also surface area, a trace amount multi-wall carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was introduced to the composite structure. The obtained composite catalysts were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption analyze and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical characterization tests including galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement of catalyst were carried out by using an ECC-Air test cell. These highly active graphene supported heterogeneous composite catalysts provide competitive properties relative to other catalyst materials for Li-air batteries.

  16. Reactivity of cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic and 2-methylcyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids with diazodiphenylmethane in aprotic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA V. KRSTIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Rate constants for the reaction of diazodiphenylmethane with cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acid and 2-methylcyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acid were determined in nine aprotic solvents, as well as in seven protic solvents, at 30°C using the appropriate UV-spectroscopic method. In protic solvents the unsubsituted acid displayed higher reaction rates than the methyl-substituted one. The results in aprotic solvents showed quite the opposite, and the reaction rates were considerably lower. In order to explain the obtained results through solvent effects, reaction rate constants (k of the examined acids were correlated using the total solvatochromic equation of the form: log k=logk0+sp*+aa+bb, where p* is the measure of the solvent polarity, a represents the scale of the solvent hydrogen bond donor acidities (HBD and b represents the scale of the solvent hydrogen bond acceptor basicities (HBA. The correlation of the kinetic data were carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis and the opposite effects of aprotic solvents, as well as the difference in the influence of protic and aprotic solvents on the reaction of the two examined acids with DDM were discussed. The results presented in this paper for cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic and 2-methylcyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids were compared with the kinetic data for benzoic acid obtained in the same chemical reaction, under the same experimental conditions.

  17. Determination of solvation and specific interaction enthalpies of adamantane derivatives in aprotic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution and solvation enthalpies at infinite dilution of 1-bromoadamantane, 1-adamantanol, and 2-adamantanone are reported at 298.15 K in a set of 14 aprotic solvents. The specific interaction enthalpies of the solid solutes are calculated using a methodology recently published by other authors. 1-Adamantanol's specific interaction enthalpies show a good correlation with the Kamlet-Taft β scale

  18. Decontamination of Oils Contaminated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzyl Disulfide Using Polar Aprotic Solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Matějková, Martina; Spáčilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, P.; Šolcová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2015), s. 41-48. ISSN 2319-5967 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04020151 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : corrosive sulfur * dibenzyl disulfide * polar aprotic solvents Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ijesit.com/Volume%204/Issue%202/IJESIT201502_06.pdf

  19. Progress in research of aprotic gel polymer electrolytes in Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.; Krejza, O.; Velická, Jana

    Brno: University of Technology Brno, 2007, s. 59-62. ISBN 978-80-214-3424-0. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /8./. Brno (CZ), 03.06.2007-07.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB208130604; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471; GA MŽP SN/3/171/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : solid and polymeric conductors Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Electrochemical and electron microscopic characterization of Super-P based cathodes for Li–O2 batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Marinaro; Eswara Moorthy, Santhana K; Jörg Bernhard; Ludwig Jörissen; Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens; Ute Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Aprotic rechargeable Li–O2 batteries are currently receiving considerable interest because they can possibly offer significantly higher energy densities than conventional Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical behavior of Li–O2 batteries containing bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI)/tetraglyme electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to...

  1. Electrochemical and electron microscopic characterization of Super-P based cathodes for Li–O2 batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Marinaro, Mario; Eswara Moorthy, Santhana K; Bernhard, Jörg; Jörissen, Ludwig; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Kaiser, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Aprotic rechargeable Li–O2 batteries are currently receiving considerable interest because they can possibly offer significantly higher energy densities than conventional Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical behavior of Li–O2 batteries containing bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI)/tetraglyme electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to...

  2. A study of lithium air rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium air battery system electro-chemically couples lithium metal anode to atmospheric oxygen through an air cathode. Due to the fact that the only electrolyte composition aprotic (proton donor) of lithium-air battery has shown the best refillable electric power, has attracted the electrical system in all parts of the world even more effort now. Aprotic electrolytes which are used include organic carbonates (e.g. ethylene carbonate. dimethyl carbonate, propylene carbonate), or ethers (tetrahydrofuran (THF), dioxolane) or esters (γ-butyrolactone), Manganese dioxide catalyzed porous carbon cathode. PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) binder. Teflon (PTFE) membrane is normally deposited on air side of cathode to control moisture penetration in it. Lithium salts, such as LiN (SO/sub 2/CF/sub 3/),/sub 2/, LiSO/sub 3/CF/sub 3/, LiPF/sub 6/, LiAsF/sub 6/ can be used in electrolyte to improve their conductivity. Polyethylene terephthalate layers or polypropylene layer are normally used as casing material whereas Nickel foam is used as current collector material. It is noted from the literature that Gold and Platinum enhance the charge discharge efficiency as catalysts. Most of the research on lithium air batteries has its focus on developing lithium air batteries for hybrid transportation vehicles. High reactivity of pure metallic lithium anode creates the major safety concerns. Nowadays research is mainly focused on developing certain protective mechanism to overcome this hindrance in the commercialization of lithium air batteries. (author)

  3. Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Characterization of Post Li-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Norbert; Wittmaier, Dennis; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the investigation of new secondary cells has been increased considerably. Very promising battery systems are the so called “Post Li-ion batteries” with metal anodes: metal-sulfur and metal-air (oxygen) batteries, in particular Li-sulfur and Li-air batteries. Li-sulfur battery is a promising system, due to its high theoretical capacity (1675 mAh/gsulfur), energy density (2500 Wh/kg), the low cost and non-toxicity of sulfur. Nevertheless, some of the drawbacks of lithium...

  4. Chemical modification of the electrolytes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern approaches to chemical modification of lithium battery electrolytes intended for optimization of charge transport in liquid-phase and solid (polymeric) media are reviewed and generalized. The main regularities of transport properties of lithium electrolyte solutions containing complex (capsulated) ions in aprotic solvents and polymers and future prospect in research and development of electrolyte solvosystems with relay (ionotropic) mechanism of conductivity of lithium ions are surveyed

  5. Reversible Electro-Optic Device Employing Aprotic Molten Salts And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Hall, Simon B.

    2005-03-01

    A single-compartment reversible mirror device having a solution of aprotic molten salt, at least one soluble metal-containing species comprising metal capable of being electrodeposited, and at least one anodic compound capable of being oxidized was prepared. The aprotic molten salt is liquid at room temperature and includes lithium and/or quaternary ammonium cations, and anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 CF.sub.2 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). A method for preparing substantially pure molten salts is also described.

  6. Chemistry and Applications of Polysaccharide Solutions in Strong Electrolytes/Dipolar Aprotic Solvents: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Arêas, Elizabeth P. G.; Omar A. El Seoud; Haq Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers and their derivatives are being actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum-based polymers. This has generated an intense interest in investigating new solvents, in particular for cellulose, chitin/chitosan, and starch. This overview focuses on recent advances in the dissolution and derivatization of these polysaccharides in solutions of strong electrolytes in dipolar aprotic solvents. A brief description of the molecular structures of these biopolymers is given, with empha...

  7. Nitration of phenolic compounds and oxidation of hydroquinones using tetrabutylammonium chromate and dichromate under aprotic conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Reza Pourali; Arezou Goli

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have reported a mild, efficient and selective method for the mononitration of phenolic compounds using sodium nitrite in the presence of tetrabutylammonium dichromate (TBAD) and oxidation of hydroquinones to quinones with TBAD in CH2Cl2. Using this method, high yields of nitrophenols and quinones were obtained under neutral aprotic conditions. Tetrabutylammonium chromate (TBAC) can also be used as oxidant at same conditions.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of solvation effects on acid dissociation in aprotic media

    OpenAIRE

    Laria, Daniel; Kapral, Raymond; Estrin, Dario; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    Acid ionization in aprotic media is studied using Molecular Dynamics techniques. In particular, models for HCl ionization in acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide are investigated. The proton is treated quantum mechanically using Feynman path integral methods and the remaining molecules are treated classically. Quantum effects are shown to be essential for the proper treatment of the ionization. The potential of mean force is computed as a function of the ion pair separation and the local solven...

  9. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R.; Lu, Wenquan

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  10. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of Zn/Zn(II) couples in aprotic ionic liquids based on pyrrolidinium and imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and dicyanamide anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Four RTILs were studied in terms of Zn redox. ► The exchange current density for Zn(II) was higher for the [Im]+ cation based RTIL. ► A single-step, two-electron transfer process occurs for [TFSI]− anion based RTILs. ► A two-step, single-electron transfer process occurs for the [DCA]− anion based RTIL. ► Guidelines are provided for selecting RTIL-based electrolytes for Zn batteries. -- Abstract: Motivated by the potential of using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as electrolytes to replace traditional aqueous electrolytes for Zn-anode secondary batteries, Zn/Zn(II) redox reactions have been studied in four aprotic RTILs based on pyrrolidinium ([Pyrr]+) and imidazolium ([Im]+) cations, and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]−) and dicyanamide ([DCA]−) anions. Cyclic voltammetry results suggest a smaller overpotential for Zn redox in [Im]+ cation based and [DCA]− anion based RTILs than in [Pyrr]+ and [TFSI]− based RTILs. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments indicate a strong dependence of the electrode reaction mechanism for the Zn species on the RTIL anions. In [TFSI]− based RTILs, Zn2+ ions are the electroactive species, with the electrode reaction being a single-step, two-electron transfer process. In [DCA]− based RTILs, two-step, single-electron reactions account for the electrode mechanism. The exchange current densities derived from Tafel analysis for the Zn species in the four RTILs are greater than 10−3 mA/cm2, with the [Im]+ cation based RTIL possessing the highest value of 9.9 × 10−3 mA/cm2. The results obtained will assist in obtaining a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of Zn in RTILs, shedding light on the development of RTILs for Zn-anode secondary batteries

  12. Method for selectively preparing 5-hydroxymethylfurfual (HMF) from biomass in polar aprotic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Huber, George W.; Weingarten, Ronen

    2016-01-26

    A method to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is described in which a reactant including cellulose, lignocellulose, or a combination thereof, in a reaction mixture of a polar, aprotic solvent and an acid is reacted for a time, at a temperature, and at a hydrogen ion concentration wherein at least a portion of the cellulose or lignocellulose present in the reactant is converted to HMF. The reaction mixture is initially substantially devoid of water. As the reaction proceeds, dehydration of intermediates causes the water concentration in the reaction mixture to rise to no more than about 0.2 wt % water.

  13. Analysis of electrolyte level change in a lithium air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Faghri, Amir

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional physical model that employs the deformed mesh method to track the electrolyte level in a Li-air coin cell battery is presented and used to investigate the effects of electrolyte level drop during cell discharge. The electrolyte level drop is caused by solid phase volume decrease and electrolyte solvent evaporation. Simulation results show that by neglecting the drop in electrolyte level, a Li-air battery model would under-estimate cell discharge capacity by as much as 22.5% in the parameter range studied. This counter-intuitive result is explained by an in-depth analysis of simulation results. A more realistic prediction of Li2O2 deposit distribution is obtained, with the peak value of Li2O2 volume fraction in the middle of the cathode instead of on the top surface, as predicted by previous studies. The interaction between the battery and its surroundings is considered by incorporating the air chamber into the computation domain. The diffusion of solvent vapor and oxygen in this chamber is included. For batteries using volatile solvents such as DMF, increasing the air chamber radius from 5 cm to 15 cm would result in a 72% increase of discharge capacity at the cost of losing a large amount of electrolyte.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller

    A possible future battery type is the Li-air battery which theoretically has the potential of reaching gravimetric energy densities close to those of gasoline. The Li-airbattery is discharged by the reaction of Li-ions and oxygen, drawn from the air, reacting at the battery cathode to form Li2O2....... The type of cathode material affects the battery discharge capacity and charging potential and with a carbon based cathode many questions are still unanswered. The focus of this Ph.D. project has been the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide as well as the investigation of the effect of reduced...... discharge capacity of the battery as well as the charging potential. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on carbon black cathodes in a capillary battery showed the formation of crystalline Li2O2 on the first discharge cycle, the intensity of Li2O2 on the second discharge cycle was however diminished. The...

  15. Temperature Effects on Conductivities and Association Constants of Lithium and Tetra-Ethylammonium Salts in Six Aprotic Solvents of Medium to High Permittivities from - 30 ºC to + 10 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A.N. Viana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A few non-aqueous dipolar aprotic solvents of medium to high permittivities, low viscosities and large temperature intervals between freezing and boiling points have been used to prepare electrolyte solutions applicable to primary and rechargeable high energy batteries. Lithium perchlorate is a salt often chosen to obtain those systems. In this work low temperature effects on conductivities and association constants of LiClO4 and Et4NBr in six different solvents have been analyzed, using the tetraethylammonium bromide salt for comparative reasons. The temperature interval was -30 ºC to 10 ºC. A few thermodynamic functions resulting from K A, T variations were determined being the results discussed on this basis. The accuracy and precision of results are high; whenever possible they are compared with others previously published.

  16. Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: Comparison with aprotic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization energies for the formation (Eform) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G** level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The Eform for the [dema][CF3SO3] and [dmpa][CF3SO3] complexes (−95.6 and −96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF3SO3] complex (−81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl−, BF4−, TFSA− anions. The anion has contact with the N–H bond of the dema+ or dmpa+ cations in the most stable geometries of the dema+ and dmpa+ complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0–18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The Eform for the less stable geometries for the dema+ and dmpa+ complexes are close to those for the most stable etma+ complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N–H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA− anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation of the [etma][CF3SO3] ionic liquid

  17. Pt and Pd catalyzed oxidation of Li2O2 and DMSO during Li-O2 battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Ryu, Won-Hee; Schwab, Mark; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable Li-O2 and Li-air batteries require electrode and electrolyte materials that synergistically promote long-term cell operation. In this study, we investigate the role of noble metals Pt and Pd as catalysts in the Li-O2 oxidation process and their compatibility with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) based electrolytes. We identify a basis for low potential Li2O2 evolution followed by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte to form carbonate side products. PMID:27111589

  18. Chemistry and Applications of Polysaccharide Solutions in Strong Electrolytes/Dipolar Aprotic Solvents: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. G. Arêas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and their derivatives are being actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum-based polymers. This has generated an intense interest in investigating new solvents, in particular for cellulose, chitin/chitosan, and starch. This overview focuses on recent advances in the dissolution and derivatization of these polysaccharides in solutions of strong electrolytes in dipolar aprotic solvents. A brief description of the molecular structures of these biopolymers is given, with emphases on the properties that are relevant to derivatization, namely crystallinity and accessibility. The mechanism of cellulose dissolution is then discussed, followed by a description of the strategies employed for the synthesis of cellulose derivatives (carboxylic acid esters, and ethers under homogeneous reaction conditions. The same sequence of presentation has been followed for chitin/chitosan and starch. Future perspectives for this subject are summarized, in particular with regard to compliance with the principles of green chemistry.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of solvation effects on acid dissociation in aprotic media

    CERN Document Server

    Laria, D; Estrin, D A; Ciccotti, G; Laria, Daniel; Kapral, Raymond; Estrin, Dario; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    Acid ionization in aprotic media is studied using Molecular Dynamics techniques. In particular, models for HCl ionization in acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide are investigated. The proton is treated quantum mechanically using Feynman path integral methods and the remaining molecules are treated classically. Quantum effects are shown to be essential for the proper treatment of the ionization. The potential of mean force is computed as a function of the ion pair separation and the local solvent structure is examined. The computed dissociation constants in both solvents differ by several orders of magnitude which are in reasonable agreement with experimental results. Solvent separated ion pairs are found to exist in dimethylsulfoxide but not in acetonitrile. Dissociation mechanisms in small clusters are also investigated. Solvent separated ion pairs persist even in aggregates composed of rather few molecules, for instance, as few as thirty molecules. For smaller clusters or for large ion pair separations cluste...

  20. Computational Design and Characterization of New Battery Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    This thesis is dedicated to the investigation and design of new functional materials for energy storage. The focus of the presented work is on components for the successful Li-ion and the promising Li-air batteries. First principle density function theory calculations are applied to screening...... studies for new materials, as well as to more detailed investigations on interesting properties of different battery components. In the screening studies simple predictors are used to search for desired material properties and reduce the number of materials that need to be studied in more detail. Solid...... electrolytes are believed to increase safety in Li based batteries as they would prevent metallic growth in the electrolyte. LiBH4 has a solid superionic conducting HT phase that is stable above 390 K. The HT phase can be stabilized at room temperature with substitution of I into the LiBH4 structure. Here we...

  1. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  2. Electrochemical and electron microscopic characterization of Super-P based cathodes for Li–O2 batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marinaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aprotic rechargeable Li–O2 batteries are currently receiving considerable interest because they can possibly offer significantly higher energy densities than conventional Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical behavior of Li–O2 batteries containing bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI/tetraglyme electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the formation/dissolution of Li2O2 particles at the cathode side during the operation of Li–O2 cells.

  3. The lithium/air battery: still an emerging system or a practical reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Yung-Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook; Passerini, Stefano; Scrosati, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Lithium/air is a fascinating energy storage system. The effective exploitation of air as a battery electrode has been the long-time dream of the battery community. Air is, in principle, a no-cost material characterized by a very high specific capacity value. In the particular case of the lithium/air system, energy levels approaching that of gasoline have been postulated. It is then not surprising that, in the course of the last decade, great attention has been devoted to this battery by various top academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. This intense investigation, however, has soon highlighted a series of issues that prevent a rapid development of the Li/air electrochemical system. Although several breakthroughs have been achieved recently, the question on whether this battery will have an effective economic and societal impact remains. In this review, a critical evaluation of the progress achieved so far is made, together with an attempt to propose future R&D trends. A forecast on whether Li/air may have a role in the next years' battery technology is also postulated. PMID:25645073

  4. Study of surface of yttrium, erbium and holmium by diffuse reflection IR-spectroscopy. 2. Aprotic centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprotic centers, formed during dehydroxylation of the surface of Y2O3, Er2O3 and Ho2O3 were studied by IR spectra of CO and H2 adsorbed molecules. It is ascertained that two types of acid-base couples (M-O), able at low temperatures to adsorb CO in molecular form and pronouncing electron acceptor or electron-donor properties as regards it, are present on the oxides trained in vacuum at 873-1073 K. Electron donor couples M-O polarize greatly H2 molecules adsorbed at 77 K and manifest high reactivity at the temperatures ≥ 195 K in the formation of diverse surface compounds from CO. Besides, two types of aprotic centers, presenting highly basic coordination -unsaturated ions O2- are present on the surface of the oxides

  5. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  6. Computational Analysis and Design of New Materials for Metal-Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    In the last decade, great effort has been paid to the development of next generation batteries. Metal-O2 /Air batteries (Li-, Na-, Mg-, Al-, Fe- and Zn-O2 batteries) in both aqueous and nonaqueous (aprotic) electrolytes have gained much attention. Metal-air batteries have high theoretical specific...... transport at room temperature is restricted to hole polarons, whereas electron polarons display very high hopping barriers (> 1.0 eV). By contrast, it is possible to have good mobilities for electron polarons at the Li2O2@Li2CO3 interface. Finally, our studies on the reaction mechanism of Li2O2 revealed...... that the CO2 poisoning, even at low concentrations of CO2 effectively blocks the step nucleation site and remarkably increases overpotentials and decreases the capacity of the battery....

  7. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-07-07

    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  8. Physical Absorption Of CO2 in Protic and Aprotic Ionic Liquids: An Interaction Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgorodina, Ekaterina I; Hodgson, Jennifer L; Weis, Derick C; Pas, Steven J; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The physical absorption of CO2 by protic and aprotic ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate was examined at the molecular level using symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and density functional techniques through comparison of interaction energies of noncovalently bound complexes between the CO2 molecule and a series of ionic liquid ions and ion pairs. These energies were contrasted with those for complexes with model amines such as methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine. Detailed analysis of the five fundamental forces that are responsible for stabilization of the complexes is discussed. It was confirmed that the nature of the anion had a greater effect upon the physical interaction energy in non functionalized ionic liquids, with dispersion forces playing an important role in CO2 solubility. Hydrogen bonding with protic cations was shown to impart additional stability to the noncovalently bound CO2···IL complex through inductive forces. Two solvation models, the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and the universal solvation model (SMD), were used to estimate the impact of solvent effects on the CO2 binding. Both solvent models reduced interaction energies for all types of ions. These interaction energies appeared to favor imidazolium cations and carboxylic and sulfonic groups as well as bulky groups (e.g., NTf2) in anions for the physical absorption of CO2. The structure-reactivity relationships determined in this study may help in the optimization of the physical absorption process by means of ionic liquids. PMID:26267781

  9. Cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry and electron spin resonance as combined tools to study thymoquinone in aprotic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigella sativa has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for a number of chronic and age-related diseases. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of its extracts, has recently received particular attention and has been tested for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in the biological activities of this natural quinone and, among these, in its antioxidant properties, the redox-system of TQ and its interaction with superoxide was studied in aprotic medium by cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The electrochemical behavior of dithymoquinone (DTQ), the photodimer of TQ, was also studied in the same medium. Experimental data evidenced the formation of the radical anion TQ·− by cathodic reduction of TQ at potential values very close to coenzymes Q ones, by electron transfer (ET) between TQ and superoxide, as KO2 or electrogenerated, by chemical comproportionation between TQ and the dianion TQ−− and by fast cleavage of the electrogenerated radical anion DTQ·−. Spectroelectrochemical data evidenced that TQ·−, in the presence of TQ, evolves to the hydroquinone monoanion TQH−, suggesting that an H-atom transfer (HT) may occur, likely from the isopropylic side-chain of TQ to TQ·− The H-atom donating ability of TQ may be also supported by Bond Dissociation Energy values and ESR data.

  10. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous Lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Husch, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    The Li-Air battery is a very promising candidate for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-Air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-Air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li+ and O2- solubilities, but about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compoun...

  11. Oxygen electrocatalysts in metal-air batteries: from aqueous to nonaqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2014-11-21

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more important in the future than it has ever been in the past. Although lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are traditionally considered to be the most likeliest candidate thanks to their relatively long cycle life and high energy efficiency, their limited energy density as well as cost are still causing a bottleneck for their long-term application. Alternatively, metal-air batteries have been proposed as a very promising large-scale electricity storage technology with the replacement of the intercalation reaction mechanism by the catalytic redox reaction of a light weight metal-oxygen couple. Generally, based on the electrolyte, these metal-air batteries can be divided into aqueous and nonaqueous systems, corresponding to two typical batteries of Zn-air and Li-air, respectively. The prominent feature of both batteries are their extremely high theoretical energy density, especially for nonaqueous Li-air batteries, which far exceeds the best that can be achieved with LIBs. In this review, we focus on the major obstacle of sluggish kinetics of the cathode in both batteries, and summarize the fundamentals and recent advances related to the oxygen catalyst materials. According to the electrolyte, the aqueous and nonaqueous electrocatalytic mechanisms of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are discussed. Subsequently, seven groups of oxygen catalysts, which have played catalytic roles in both systems, are selectively reviewed, including transition metal oxides (single-metal oxides and mixed-metal oxides), functional carbon materials (nanostructured carbons and doped carbons), metal oxide-nanocarbon hybrid materials, metal-nitrogen complexes (non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed), transition metal nitrides, conductive polymers, and precious metals (alloys). Nonaqueous systems have the advantages of energy density and rechargeability over aqueous systems and have

  12. Determination of Hydrogen Bond Structure in Water versus Aprotic Environments To Test the Relationship Between Length and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigala, Paul A.; Ruben, Eliza A.; Liu, Corey W.; Piccoli, Paula M. B.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Martinez, Todd J.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Herschiag, Daniel

    2015-05-06

    Hydrogen bonds profoundly influence the architecture and activity of biological macromolecules. Deep appreciation of hydrogen bond contributions to biomolecular function thus requires a detailed understanding of hydrogen bond structure and energetics and the relationship between these properties. Hydrogen bond formation energies (Delta G(f)) are enormously more favorable in aprotic solvents than in water, and two classes of contributing factors have been proposed to explain this energetic difference, focusing respectively on the isolated and hydrogen-bonded species: (I) water stabilizes the dissociated donor and acceptor groups much better than aprotic solvents, thereby reducing the driving force for hydrogen bond formation; and (II) water lengthens hydrogen bonds compared to aprotic environments, thereby decreasing the potential energy within the hydrogen bond. Each model has been proposed to provide a dominant contribution to Delta G(f), but incisive tests that distinguish the importance of these contributions are lacking. Here we directly test the structural basis of model II. Neutron crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds in crystals, chloroform, acetone, and water have nearly identical lengths and very similar potential energy surfaces despite Delta G(f) differences >8 kcal/mol across these solvents. These results rule out a substantial contribution from solvent-dependent differences in hydrogen bond structure and potential energy after association (model II) and thus support the conclusion that differences in hydrogen bond Delta G(f) are predominantly determined by solvent interactions with the dissociated groups (model I). These findings advance our understanding of universal hydrogen-bonding interactions and have important implications for biology and engineering.

  13. Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However, with these models one can only compute lifetimes for specific discharge profiles, and not for workloads in general. In this paper, we give an overview of the different battery models that are availabl...

  14. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Park, Seh Kyu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2012-05-04

    Li-air battery has recently emerged as a potentially transformational energy storage technology for both transportation and stationary energy storage applications due to its very high specific energy. However, its practical application is currently limited by the poor power capability, poor cyclability and low energy efficiency, all of which are largely determined by interfacial reactions on oxygen electrocatalysts in air electrode. In this article, we review the fundamental understanding of oxygen electrocatalysis in nonaqueous electrolytes, the status and challenges of oxygen electrocatalysts, and provide a perspective on new electrocatalysts design and development.

  15. Capacity Enhancement of a Lithium Oxygen Flow Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional model is developed for an aprotic lithium oxygen (Li–O2) flow battery, in which the organic electrolyte is recirculated through the cathode to enhance oxygen supply. The conventional Li–O2 battery model is extended to incorporate convection effects. In contrast to the classic flow battery models, the pore structure change caused by the insoluble discharge product of Li–O2 batteries is considered. A parametric study is performed to study the influence of model parameters on cathode specific capacity. Results show that contrary to conventional Li–O2 cells, electrolyte with a lower conductivity would increase the specific capacity of the Li–O2 flow cell. The results also reveal those parameters that are influential to battery capacity. Based on the analysis, two methods, dual layer cathode and alternating electrolyte flow, are proposed to enhance battery capacity. The dual layer cathode has 105% higher capacity than a single layer cathode at the current density of 1.5 mA cm−2. Alternating electrolyte flow can increase the cathode capacity by 3.7% at the current density of 0.2 mA cm−2

  16. Water-in-ionic liquid microemulsion formation in solvent mixture of aprotic and protic imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Takumi; Fujii, Kenta; Hashimoto, Kei; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-14

    We report that water-in-ionic liquid microemulsions (MEs) are stably formed in an organic solvent-free system, i.e., a mixture of aprotic (aIL) and protic (pIL) imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) containing the anionic surfactant dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Structural investigations using dynamic light, small-angle X-ray, and small-angle neutron scatterings were performed for MEs formed in mixtures of aprotic 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8mIm(+)]) and protic 1-alkylimidazolium ([CnImH(+)], n = 4 or 8) IL with a common anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TFSA(-)]). It was found that the ME structure strongly depends on the mixing composition of the aIL/pIL in the medium. The ME size appreciably increases with increasing pIL content in both [C8mIm(+)][TFSA(-)]/[C8ImH(+)][TFSA(-)] and [C8mIm(+)][TFSA(-)]/[C4ImH(+)][TFSA(-)] mixtures. The size is larger for the n = 8 system than that for the n = 4 system. These results indicate that the shell part of MEs is composed of both AOT and pIL cation, and the ME size can be tuned by pIL content in the aIL/pIL mixtures. PMID:25226398

  17. Diffuse reflection IR spectra study of the surface of yttrium, erbium and holmium oxides. II. Aprotic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IR spectra of adsorbed CO and H2 molecules were used to study the aprotic sites formed upon dehydroxylation of Y2O3, Er2O3, and Ho2O3 surfaces. Two types of acid-base pairs (M-O) are found in the oxides aged at 873-1073 K, which are capable of adsorbing CO in the molecular form at low temperatures and displaying either electron-withdrawing or electron-donor properties. The electron donor M-O pairs strongly polarize H2 molecules adsorbed at 77 K and display high reactivity of ≥ 195 K in the formation of various surface compounds (ketenes, conjugated five- and six-membered (CO)n2- species, and carbonates). Furthermore, the oxide surfaces feature two types of aprotic sites, which are highly basic, incompletely coordinated O2- anions. Two types of dioxoketenes differing in the frequencies of the asymmetrical C=C=O vibrations and reactivity toward CO molecules are formed from CO on these sites

  18. Paintable Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials...

  19. Extraction of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dibenzyl Disulfide from Transformer Oils using Polar Aprotic Solvents andReductive Dehalogenation of Extracted PCBs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, Petr; Kaštánek, František; Maléterová, Ywetta; Matějková, Martina; Spáčilová, Lucie; Šolcová, Olga

    Thessaloniki : Grafima Publ, 2014 - (Liakopoulos, A.; Kungolos, A.; Christodoulatos, C.; Koutsospyros, A.), s. 604-609 ISBN 978-960-88490-5-1. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos island (GR), 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : extraction * polychlorinated biphenyls * polar aprotic solvent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  1. Increased Stability Toward Oxygen Reduction Products for Lithium-Air Batteries with Oligoether-Functionalized Silane Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Lu, Jun; Assary, Rajeev S.; Du, Peng; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qin, Yan; Lau, Kah Chun; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Redfern, Paul C.; Iddir, Hakim; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2011-12-29

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  2. Experimental and Computational Analysis of the Solvent-Dependent O2 /Li(+) -O2 (-) Redox Couple: Standard Potentials, Coupling Strength, and Implications for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabi, David G; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Batcho, Thomas P; Itkis, Daniil M; Thompson, Carl V; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and controlling the kinetics of O2 reduction in the presence of Li(+) -containing aprotic solvents, to either Li(+) -O2 (-) by one-electron reduction or Li2 O2 by two-electron reduction, is instrumental to enhance the discharge voltage and capacity of aprotic Li-O2 batteries. Standard potentials of O2 /Li(+) -O2 (-) and O2 /O2 (-) were experimentally measured and computed using a mixed cluster-continuum model of ion solvation. Increasing combined solvation of Li(+) and O2 (-) was found to lower the coupling of Li(+) -O2 (-) and the difference between O2 /Li(+) -O2 (-) and O2 /O2 (-) potentials. The solvation energy of Li(+) trended with donor number (DN), and varied greater than that of O2 (-) ions, which correlated with acceptor number (AN), explaining a previously reported correlation between Li(+) -O2 (-) solubility and DN. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions for manipulating the energetics of intermediate species produced in aprotic metal-oxygen batteries. PMID:26822277

  3. Electrochemical investigation of actinide ions for redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four actinide elements (An: U, Np, Pu, Am) having the unique nature that the single element possesses two redox couples with identical structures (AnO2+/AnO22+, An3+/An4+) provide the possibility of making redox flow batteries for the electric power storage, in view of utilization of radioactive wastes as chemical resources. In the present paper redox flow battery using neptunium was investigated electrochemically to find suitable carbon materials as the battery electrode and also investigated to find suitable active materials for the uranium redox flow battery. The cyclic voltammetry of the neptunium aqueous solutions were carried out in nitric acid solutions with several carbon electrodes, e.g. the glassy, the pyrolitic, and the plastic formed. The plastic formed carbon (PFC) and the pyrolitic graphite with a-surface (aPG) were found to have especially large standard electrode rate constants exceeding 10-2 cm s-1 and to be regarded as the candidate for the battery electrodes. For the uranium system, the polar aprotic solvents were studied since the aqueous solution is suffered from the instability of U(V) due to disproportionation. The solubilities of uranium β-diketone complexes in various solvents were measured with the finding that the solubility of more than 0.8 mol dm-3 for U(VI) complexes and more than 0.4 mol dm-3 for a U(IV) complex being attained (i.e., in DMSO and DMF) while the desirable solubility for active materials in the battery being 1 mol dm-3 and thus requiring further investigations. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry lead to the conclusion that a larger electromotive force is expected when a more basic ligand is used in the battery. (S. Ohno)

  4. Redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Wang, Qingzheng

    2010-12-14

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. The redox shuttles are capable of thousands hours of overcharge tolerance and have a redox potential at about 3-5.5 V vs. Li and particularly about 4.4-4.8 V vs. Li. Accordingly, in one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive that is an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring with four or more electronegative substituents, two or more oxygen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring, and no hydrogen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  5. Electrical conductivity in Li2O2 and its role in determining capacity limitations in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, V.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Hummelshøj, J.S.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Girishkumar, G.; McCloskey, B.D.; Luntz, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air or Li-O2 cells show considerable promise as a very high energy density battery couple. Such cells, however, show sudden death at capacities far below their theoretical capacity and this, among other problems, limits their practicality. In this paper, we show that this sudden death arises from limited charge transport through the growing Li 2O2 film to the Li2O2-electrolyte interface, and this limitation defines a critical film thickness, above which it is not possible to su...

  6. Physical Properties and CO2 Reaction Pathway of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ionic Liquids with Aprotic Heterocyclic Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, S; DeSilva, MA; Brennecke, JF

    2014-12-25

    Ionic liquids (ILs) with aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHA) are attractive candidates for CO2 capture technologies. In this study, a series of AHA ILs with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([emim](+)) cations were synthesized, and their physical properties (density, viscosity, and ionic conductivity) were measured. In addition, CO2 solubility in each IL was determined at room temperature using a volumetric method at pressures between 0 and 1 bar. The AHAs are basic anions that are capable of reacting stoichiometrically with CO2 to form carbamate species. An interesting CO2 uptake isotherm behavior was observed, and this may be attributed to a parallel, equilibrium proton exchange process between the imidazolium cation and the basic AHA in the presence of CO2, followed by the formation of "transient" carbene species that react rapidly with CO2. The presence of the imidazolium-carboxylate species and carbamate anion species was verified using H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. While the reaction between CO2 and the proposed transient carbene resulted in cation-CO2 binding that is stronger than the anion-CO2 reaction, the reactions of the imidazolium AHA ILs were fully reversible upon regeneration at 80 degrees C with nitrogen purging. The presence of water decreased the CO2 uptake due to the inhibiting effect of the neutral species (protonated form of AHA) that is formed.

  7. RuO2 nanoparticles decorated MnOOH/C as effective bifunctional electrocatalysts for lithium-air battery cathodes with long-cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil-Pyo; Lim, Dongwook; Park, Inyeong; Park, Hyelee; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    Manganite (MnOOH) is one of the most effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and RuO2 nanoparticles exhibit high activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We herein report a facile means of producing well dispersed RuO2/MnOOH on Ketjen black (RuO2/MnOOH/C) as a bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air (Li-air) batteries. RuO2/MnOOH/C was simply synthesized using a hydrothermal/precipitation based method, and was used as a cathode for a Li-air battery using a Swagelok-type cell. The importance of dispersing active catalysts on a carbon support was clearly demonstrated by textural, charge-discharge voltammetric, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses, comparing results with a catalyst produced by physically mixing RuO2/MnOOH with carbon (RuO2/MnOOH + C). RuO2/MnOOH/C showed low overpotential and stable cycleability up to 170th cycles with 1000 mAh g-1 of charge-discharge capacity, which was attributed to its enhanced active surface area and low charge-transfer resistance. The results obtained suggest that this strategy can be widely applied to bifunctional electrocatalysis, such as secondary batteries and regenerative fuel cell (RFC).

  8. Thermoelectric battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery for the power supply of heart pacemakers consists of a cylindrical case with a thermoelectric module consisting of thermoelectric elements which are fastened to each other in the form of a thermal column and a heat source made of PU-238. In order to reduce the radial sensitivity to shocks of the battery, a spring cage is arranged around the heat source at the free end of the module. Cushioning against longitudinal shocks is provided by another spring. (DG)

  9. Recent progress in non-precious catalysts for metal-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Lee, Jang-Soo; Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, NW Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Electrical energy storage and conversion is vital to a clean, sustainable, and secure energy future. Among all electrochemical energy storage devices, metal-air batteries have potential to offer the highest energy density, representing the most promising systems for portable (electronics), mobile (electrical vehicles), and stationary (micro-grids) applications. To date, however, many fundamental issues are yet to be overcome to realize this potential. For example, efficient catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the air-electrode are yet to be developed to significantly reduce the polarization loss in metal-air batteries, which severely hinders the rate capability, energy efficiency, and operational life. In this progress report, a brief overview is first presented of the critical issues relevant to air-electrodes in metal-air batteries. Some recent advancements in the development of non-precious catalysts for ORR in Li-air and Zn-air batteries are then highlighted, including transition metal oxides, low-dimensional carbon-based structures, and other catalysts such as transition-metal macrocycles and metal nitrides. New directions and future perspectives for metal-air batteries are also outlined. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electrochemical/chemical oxidation of bisphenol A in a four-electron/two-proton process in aprotic organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bisphenol A undergoes a chemically irreversible voltammetric oxidation process. • Chemical oxidation was performed to overcome adsorption effects that cause electrode fouling. • A new product was isolated from chemical oxidation with 4 mol equiv. of the one-electron oxidant, NO+. • The oxidative mechanism was proposed to be a four-electron/two-proton process. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A (BPA) was examined using cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis and chemical oxidation in aprotic organic solvents. It was found that BPA undergoes a chemically irreversible voltammetric oxidation process to form compounds that cannot be electrochemically converted back to the starting materials on the voltammetric timescale. To overcome the effects of electrode fouling during controlled potential electrolysis experiments, NO+ was used as a one-electron chemical oxidant. A new product, hydroxylated bisdienone was isolated from the chemical oxidation of BPA with 4 mol equiv of NO+SbF6− in low water content CH3CN. The structure of the cation intermediate species was deduced and it was proposed that BPA is oxidized in a four-electron/two-proton process to form a relatively unstable dication which reacts quickly in the presence of water in acetonitrile (in a mechanism that is similar to phenols in general). However, as the water content of the solvent increased it was found that the chemical oxidation mechanism produced a nitration product in high yield. The findings from this study provide useful insights into the reactions that can occur during oxidative metabolism of BPA and highlight the possibility of the role of a bisdienone cation as a reactive metabolite in biological systems

  11. Memel's Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Mitrofanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history and equipment of the coastal and antiaircraft artillery batteries of German Navy (Kriegsmarine constructed in Memel area before and during the World War. There is given the brief description of the Soviet Navy stationed in the area in the postwar years.

  12. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  13. Cathode based on molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Liu, Cong; Phillips, Patrick; Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Zapol, Peter; Klie, Robert F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O-2) batteries have been recognized as an emerging technology for energy storage systems owing to their high theoretical specific energy. One challenge is to find an electrolyte/cathode system that is efficient, stable, and cost-effective. We present such a system based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes combined with an ionic liquid (IL) that work together as an effective cocatalyst for discharge and charge in a Li-O-2 battery. Cyclic voltammetry results show superior catalytic performance for this cocatalyst for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions compared to Au and Pt catalysts. It also performs remarkably well in the Li-O-2 battery system with 85% round-trip efficiency and reversibility up to 50 cycles. Density functional calculations provide a mechanistic understanding of the MoS2 nanoflakes/IL system. cocatalyst reported in this work could open the way for exploiting the unique properties of ionic liquids in Li-air batteries in combination with nanostructured MoS2 as a cathode material.

  14. Cathode Based on Molybdenum Disulfide Nanoflakes for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Liu, Cong; Phillips, Patrick; Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Zapol, Peter; Klie, Robert F; Curtiss, Larry A; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2016-02-23

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have been recognized as an emerging technology for energy storage systems owing to their high theoretical specific energy. One challenge is to find an electrolyte/cathode system that is efficient, stable, and cost-effective. We present such a system based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes combined with an ionic liquid (IL) that work together as an effective cocatalyst for discharge and charge in a Li-O2 battery. Cyclic voltammetry results show superior catalytic performance for this cocatalyst for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions compared to Au and Pt catalysts. It also performs remarkably well in the Li-O2 battery system with 85% round-trip efficiency and reversibility up to 50 cycles. Density functional calculations provide a mechanistic understanding of the MoS2 nanoflakes/IL system. The cocatalyst reported in this work could open the way for exploiting the unique properties of ionic liquids in Li-air batteries in combination with nanostructured MoS2 as a cathode material. PMID:26789516

  15. Battery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Mounika* , M.Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The project of BMS (Battery Monitoring System gives online and offline status of batteries which are monitored by the bank so that we can prevent the batteries prior to failure However, Battery Monitoring System specifically measure, record and analyze the individual cell and battery module parameters in detail.Continuous monitoring and analysis of these parameters can be used to identify battery or cell deterioration, hence prompting action to avoid unplanned power interruption.Battery Monitoring System (BMS is a microprocessor based intelligent system capable of monitoring the health of battery bank. BMS calculates the battery’s capacity, deterioration of batteries in battery bank during the charge / discharge cycles and actual efficiency of the batteries.It continuously monitors each cell in the battery bank to identify deterioration in the cell prior to failure,identifies the net charge in the battery bank by monitoring charging and discharging currents.

  16. Electrocatalytic performances of LaNi1-xMgxO3 perovskite oxides as bi-functional catalysts for lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenzhen; Yang, Peng; Wang, Long; Lu, Yuhao; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-11-01

    Mg-doped perovskite oxides LaNi1-xMgxO3 (x = 0, 0.08, 0.15) electrocatalysts are synthesized by a sol-gel method using citric acid as complex agent and ethylene glycol as thickening agent. The intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of as-prepared perovskite oxides in aqueous electrolyte are examined on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) set up. Li-air primary batteries on the basis of Mg-doped perovskite oxides LaNi1-xMgxO3 (x = 0, 0.08, 0.15) and nonaqueous electrolyte are also fabricated and tested. In terms of the ORR current densities and OER current densities, the performance is enhanced in the order of LaNiO3, LaNi0.92Mg0.08O3 and LaNi0.85Mg0.15O3. Most notably, partially substituting nickel with magnesium suppresses formation of Ni2+ and ensures high concentration of both OER and ORR reaction energy favorable Ni3+ (eg = 1) on the surface of perovskite catalysts. Nonaqueous Li-air primary battery using LaNi0.92Mg0.08O3 and LaNi0.85Mg0.15O3 as the cathode catalysts exhibit improved performances compared with LaNiO3 catalyst, which are consistent with the ORR current densities.

  17. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. Research progresses of metal/air batteries%金属/空气电池的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明骏; 袁振善; 桑林; 丁飞; 刘浩杰

    2012-01-01

    The metal/air battery use the light metal as negative active material and the oxygen in the air as positive active material, and the oxygen reacts with metal to produce electric energy when oxygen gets to gas-liquid-solid interface through gas diffusion electrode. There are many advantages in the metal/air battery, such as high specific energy, steady discharge voltage, low cost, non-toxic, little pollute, simple structure and so on, so it is believed to be the promising battery. According to the different metals, metal/air batteries are divided into four kinds: Zn/air battery, Al/ air battery,Mg air battery and Li air battery.The research progress of metal/air batteries was described in this paper.%金属/空气电池是以轻质金属作为负极活性物质,以空气中的氧气作为正极活性物质,氧气通过气体扩散电极到达气-液-固三相界面与金属负极反应而放出电能.它具有高比能量、放电电压平稳、低成本、无毒、污染小、结构简单等优点,被认为是未来很有发展和应用前景的新能源.按金属负极种类的不同,目前金属空气电池大致分为4类:锌/空气电池、铝/空气电池、镁/空气电池、锂/空气电池,介绍了这4种电池的研究进展.

  20. Collecting battery data with Open Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth L.; Harrison, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have collected so far and make some observations. We then introduce the fluid queue model which we hope may prove a useful tool in future work to describe mobile phone battery traces.

  1. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  2. Alkaline quinone flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise Ann; Valle, Alvaro West; Hardee, D.; Gordon, Roy Gerald; Aziz, Michael J.; Marshak, M

    2015-01-01

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe f...

  3. A High Power Density Dual-electrolyte Lithium-Silver Battery with Celgard® 2325 Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a dual-electrolyte lithium-silver battery by using Celgard® to separate organic electrolyte and aqueous electrolyte. Such type of battery can output a maximum power density of 29.9 mW cm−2 (or denoted as 915 W kg−1), and can also deliver high energy density (650 Wh kg−1) at 1 mA cm−2. The power density obtained is about 2 times higher than that of dual-electrolyte Li-air battery with the NASICON-type lithium-ion conducting solid electrolyte. The high power density performance is main attributed to the low area-specific impedance of Celgard® 2325 (5.6 Ω cm−2) which soaked in 1 M LiClO4 in PC/DMC. The infrared spectra results of fresh Celgard® 2325 sample and with above-mentioned organic electrolyte and aqueous electrolyte treatment, respectively, indicate that Celgard® 2325 is chemically stable in used electrolyte condition. In addition, the capacity utilization efficiency of the battery active materials is about 93%, indicating the Celgard® 2325 possesses obvious water-proof property at all of used discharge operation condition

  4. Lithium Air Batteries: Non-Aqueous and Hybrid Systems%基于有机和组合电解液的锂空气电池研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童圣富; 何平; 张雪苹; 赵世勇; 周豪慎

    2015-01-01

    Developing energy storage devices and new materials,which match the requirements in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs),is an effective way to balance the contradiction between the social development and the shortage of fossil energy and environment pollution.Rechargeable lithium-air (Li-air) batteries consisting of Li and oxygen as the anodic and cathodic reactants,respectively,have attracted much attention during the past decade due to their high theoretical specific energy.According to work conditions,the most studied types of Li-air batteries are non-aqueous,hybrid,and solid state electrolyte Li-air batteries.Challenges still exist in cathodes,anodes,electrolytes and performances (life time),though efforts have been dedicated during the past years.Based on the achievements in non-aqueous and hybrid Li-air batteries fiom our group,the history,research progress and future developing trend of Li-air batteries will be briefly introduced in this review.%发展纯电动汽车与混合动力汽车是解决能源危机与环境问题的有效途径,这对新能源材料及储能设备提出了更高的要求.其中以金属锂作为负极、以空气中的氧气作为正极活性物质组成的锂-空气二次电池具有很高的理论比能量,因在纯电动汽车、混合动力汽车方面有很好的应用前景而受到人们的广泛关注.根据工作环境及介质条件,目前研究最多的锂-空气电池主要包括有机电解液、有机一水组合电解液及全固态电解质三种类型.由于锂-空气电池的发展历史较短,目前仍处于起步阶段,在电池的正极、负极、电解液(质)及综合性能等方面均存在诸多的困难与挑战.本文从作者课题组对有机电解液及组合电解液型锂一空气电池方面的研究出发,向读者简单介绍锂一空气电池的发展历史,研究现状及未来努力的方向.

  5. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  6. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase

  7. Capacity-limiting mechanisms in Li/O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Khaleghi Rahimian, Saeed; Monroe, Charles W

    2016-08-17

    A continuum model of an aprotic lithium/oxygen battery is validated against experimental first-discharge data and used to examine how the apparent cell capacity is affected by macroscopic multicomponent mass transfer, interfacial kinetics, and electronic conduction or tunneling through the discharge product. The model accounts for the three-phase nature of the positive electrode in detail, including an explicit discharge-product layer whose properties and volume distribution generally depend on the local discharge depth. Several hypothetical positive-electrode reaction mechanisms involving different product morphologies and electron-transfer sites are explored within the theoretical framework. To match experimental discharge-voltage vs. capacity and capacity vs. discharge-current trends qualitatively, the discharge-product layer must be assumed to have electronic resistivity several orders of magnitude lower than typical insulators, supporting the notion that the presence of lithium peroxide does not wholly prevent electrons from reaching dissolved reactants. The discharge product also appears to allow charge transport over length scales longer than electron tunneling permits. 'Sudden death' of voltage in lithium/oxygen cells is explained by macroscopic oxygen-diffusion limitations in the positive electrode at high rates, and by pore clogging associated with discharge-product formation at low rates. PMID:27459368

  8. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  9. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  10. Battery Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  12. Effect of water on the transport properties of protic and aprotic imidazolium ionic liquids - an analysis of self-diffusivity, conductivity, and proton exchange mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, N; Nordstierna, L; Martinelli, A

    2014-05-28

    In this paper we report on the transport properties of protic and aprotic ionic liquids of the imidazolium cation (C2C1Im(+) or C2HIm(+)) and the TFSI(-) or TfO(-) anion as a function of added water. We observe that the self-diffusion coefficient of the ionic species increases upon addition of water, and that the cation diffuses faster than the anion in the entire water concentration range investigated. We also observe that the overall increase of anionic and cationic diffusion coefficients is significant for C2HImTfO while it is rather weak for C2C1ImTFSI, the former being more hydrophilic. Moreover, the difference between cationic and anionic self-diffusivity specifically depends on the structure of the ionic liquid's ions. The degree of ion-ion association has been investigated by comparing the molar conductivity obtained by impedance measurements with the molar conductivity calculated from NMR data using the Nernst-Einstein equation. Our data indicate that the ions are partly dissociated (Λimp/ΛNMR in the range 0.45-0.75) but also that the degree of association decreases in the order C2HImTfO > C2HImTFSI ≈ C2C1ImTfO > C2C1ImTFSI. From these results, it seems that water finds different sites of interaction in the protic and aprotic ionic liquids, with a strong preference for hydrogen bonding to the -NH group (when available) and a stronger affinity to the TfO anion as compared to the TFSI. For the protic ionic liquids, the analysis of (1)H NMR chemical shifts (upon addition of H2O and D2O, respectively) indicates a water-cation interaction of hydrogen bonding nature. In addition, we could probe proton exchange between the -NH group and deuterated water for the protic cation, which occurs at a significantly faster rate if associated with the TfO anion as compared to the TFSI. PMID:24714867

  13. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongyang [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Shuanjin, E-mail: wangshj@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiao Min [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Meng Yuezhong, E-mail: mengyzh@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed.

  14. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong [The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed. (author)

  15. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO2+ permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed.

  16. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  17. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1... areas. (2) Ventilation shall be provided to ensure diffusion of the gases from the battery and...

  18. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  19. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  20. Review on Lithium-Air Batteries%锂空气电池研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 张存中; 穆道斌; 吴伯荣; 吴锋

    2012-01-01

    由于锂空气电池具有很高的理论能量密度因而引起了广泛关注和研究。本文较为全面地论述了各种电解质体系中的锂空气电池的进展,包括:有机体系、水体系、离子液体体系、有机.水双电解质体系和全固态体系的锂空气电池;详细阐述和归纳了它们的工作原理和最新研究现状。对最新提出的锂一空气.超级电容电池的原理和特点进行了较详细的论述。结合氧气在有机电解质中的电化学还原行为指出单一有机电解质锂空气电池存在的问题以及可能的解决办法;同时展示了这类电池中空气电极催化剂的发展现状。结合双电解质锂空气电池、固态电解质锂空气电池、锂-空气一超级电容电池的结构阐述了它们各自的优缺点。本文还展示了一些可望用于单一有机电解质锂空电池、有机.水双电解质体系锂空电池的新型碳材料。最后对锂空气电池的研究发展进行了总结与展望,提出新型电解液、催化剂以及改进锂空气电池构造将会成为今后的发展趋势。%Lithium-air battery has been a focus of study for the past two decades extensively because of its excellent properties of energy and power densities. The performance, operation mechanism and state-of-the-art of Li-air batteries, operated in all of electrolytes, such as non-aqueous electrolytes, aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquids electrolytes, aqueous-nonaqueous dual-electrolytes and all solid electrolytes, are collected and discussed in detail in this paper. In special, the performance, principle and potential practical possibility of lithium-air-super-capacitor battery, which was just mentioned last year, is also reviewed in detail. Combined with the electrochemical behavior and research results of oxygen reduction reaction on different electrodes in different non-aqueous electrolytes, the defect and problem of nonaqueous electrolyte lithium

  1. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Batteries for Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkat

    2008-09-01

    This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

  3. Thin layers elaborated from new anodic and cathodic materials for lithium-ions micro-batteries; Nouveaux materiaux d'electrodes elabores sous forme de couches minces pour batteries lithium-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjelloun, N.

    2002-12-01

    Thin layers elaborated by R.F. sputtering from new anodic and cathodic materials were investigated as electrodes for lithium-ion micro-batteries. Anodic thin films based on the Tin Composite Oxides (TCOs) were found to exhibit interesting electrochemical characteristics. However, the irreversible capacity loss occurring during the first charge and due to the reduction of tin oxide remains a drawback. According to the gold collector contribution to the faradic yield, electrochemical behavior of metallic thin films (Au, Ag, Cu, Zn, etc...) was studied. AuCuAg and Ag based thin films were associated via an aprotic or solid electrolyte (LiPON) to Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 1,5}Ni{sub 0,5}O{sub 4} thin layers in order to build up mini or micro batteries with an average voltage close to 4,7 V. However, all solid state micro-batteries were found to present high ohmic drop. (author)

  4. Lithium ion battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ► Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ► Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ► Production capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality products. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale production of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example production of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual production capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime

  5. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  6. Batteries in PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohedano Martínez, Javier Bernabé

    2011-01-01

    This report presents fundamentals of battery technology and charge control strategies commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) Systems,with an introduction on the PV Systems itself. This project is a compilation of information from several sources, including research reports and data from component manufacturers. Comparisons are given for various battery technologies, and considerations for battery subsystem design, auxiliary systems, maintenance and safety are discussed. Daily operatio...

  7. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  8. Nanotubes for Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlinder, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years, and are now also being considered for battery applications. Reducing the particle size of some electrode materials can increase battery performance considerably, especially with regard to capacity, power and rate capability. This thesis presents a study focused on the performance of such a material, vanadium oxide nanotubes, as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. These nanotubes were synthesized by a sol-gel process...

  9. Electrochemical investigation of uranium β-diketonates for all-uranium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox flow battery using uranium as the negative and the positive active materials in polar aprotic solvents was proposed. In order to establish the guiding principle for the uranium compounds as the active materials, the investigation of uranium β-diketonate complexes was conducted on (i) the solubility of active materials, (ii) the electrode reaction of U(VI) and U(IV) β-diketonate complexes and (iii) the estimation of the open circuit voltage of the battery. The solubilities of higher than 0.8 mol dm-3 of U(VI) complexes and higher than 0.4 mol dm-3 of a U(IV) complex were obtained in the solvents. The electrode reactions of U(pta)4, UO2(dpm)2, UO2(fod)2 and UO2(pta)2 were first studied and the redox potentials of uranium β-diketonates were thermodynamically discussed. The open circuit voltage is estimated more than 1 V by using Hacac or Hdpm. The larger open circuit voltage is expected when a ligand with the larger basicity is used

  10. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  11. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  12. Batteries: Charging ahead rationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-06-01

    Redox mediators facilitate the oxidation of the highly insulating discharge product in metal–oxygen batteries during recharge and offer opportunities to achieve high reversible capacities. Now a design principle for selecting redox mediators that can recharge the batteries more efficiently is suggested.

  13. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  14. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  15. Isotope heated thermal batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deferred action thermal battery is described that includes a quantity of radioactive isotope normally positioned so that only a small part of the thermal energy generated by the isotope is received by the battery, but adapted, when the battery is rendered active, to be moved automatically to a position where a large part of the thermal energy is received. The battery may comprise a chamber containing its cells and a second chamber part of which is remote from the cells for normal storage of the isotope and part of which is adjacent to the cells; the isotope is moved to the latter part when the battery is activated. The cell chamber is preferably toroidal and surrounds the second portion of the isotope chamber. The isotope may be contained in a carriage held by a retaining means adapted for release when the battery is activated, resilient means then moving the carriage to the active position. The retaining means may be a wire that disintegrates on the passage of electric current, the current also igniting a combustible composition to activate the battery. The object is to provide thermal batteries having an extended life. (U.K.)

  16. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  17. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  18. The Progress of Studies of Lithium-air Batteries%锂-空气电池研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明波; 邱旦峰; 庞欢; 潘力佳; 濮林; 施毅; 郑有炓

    2011-01-01

    锂-空气电池是通过金属锂与空气中的O2反应产生电能,它的理论比容量高达3828mAh/g,在电动汽车等领域展现出重要的应用前景.本文综述了近年来锂-空气电池领域的最新研究进展,对有机体系、有机-水混合体系与固态体系三类锂-空气电池的结构与原理进行了分析.总结了有机体系的多孔碳空气电极、催化剂、电解液等方面的研究工作.多孔碳的孔容是决定空气电极比容量最重要的结构参数,具有高孔容的多孔碳可以为放电过程中生成的氧化锂提供更多的储存空间,从而表现出高的比容量,多孔碳的比表面积与平均孔径对比容量也有重要的影响;合适的电催化剂可以有效的降低氧还原反应与析氧反应的过电压,从而提高能量效率;具有高极性、低黏度、低吸湿性、高溶解氧的电解液有利于改善电池的相关性能.总结了有机-水混合体系的隔膜、电解液等方面的研究工作.对有机相与水相电解液均具有良好抗化学腐蚀性的超级锂离子导通玻璃膜是目前有机-水混合体系研究的关键.总结了固态体系最新的研究进展.此外,展望了锂-空气电池领域今后的发展方向.%Lithium-air batteries,based on the reaction of lithium with oxygen from air,have very high theoreticl specific capacit of3828 mAh/g and have important potential applications for electric vehicles.This paper reviews the new progress of studies of lithium-air batteries.The structure and operation mechanism of the aprotic system,hybrid aprotic-aqueous system,and slid state system are analzed.The air electrode,catalyst,and electrolyte of the aprotic system are discussed in detail.The pore volume of the porous carbon is an important structural parameter for the specific capacity of the air electrode.The porous carbon with a larfe pore volume would possess a high specific capacity because it can provide a large space for lithium oxides formed

  19. Nanostructured porous RuO2/MnO2 as a highly efficient catalyst for high-rate Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Huang, Liliang; Huang, Wei; Xie, Jian; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advancements in Li-O2 (or Li-air) batteries, great challenges still remain to realize high-rate, long-term cycling. In this work, a binder-free, nanostructured RuO2/MnO2 catalytic cathode was designed to realize the operation of Li-O2 batteries at high rates. At a current density as high as 3200 mA g-1 (or ~1.3 mA cm-2), the RuO2/MnO2 catalyzed Li-O2 batteries with LiI can sustain stable cycling of 170 and 800 times at limited capacities of 1000 and 500 mA h g-1, respectively, with low charge cutoff potentials of ~4.0 and crystallize into a thin-sheet form and realize a conformal growth on sheet-like δ-MnO2 at a current density up to 3200 mA g-1, constructing a sheet-on-sheet structure. This crystallization behavior of Li2O2 not only defers the electrode passivation upon discharge but also renders easy decomposition of Li2O2 upon charge, leading to low polarizations and reduced side reactions. This work provides a unique design of catalytic cathodes capable of controlling Li2O2 growth and sheds light on the design of high-rate, long-life Li-O2 batteries with potential applications in electric vehicles.Despite the recent advancements in Li-O2 (or Li-air) batteries, great challenges still remain to realize high-rate, long-term cycling. In this work, a binder-free, nanostructured RuO2/MnO2 catalytic cathode was designed to realize the operation of Li-O2 batteries at high rates. At a current density as high as 3200 mA g-1 (or ~1.3 mA cm-2), the RuO2/MnO2 catalyzed Li-O2 batteries with LiI can sustain stable cycling of 170 and 800 times at limited capacities of 1000 and 500 mA h g-1, respectively, with low charge cutoff potentials of ~4.0 and crystallize into a thin-sheet form and realize a conformal growth on sheet-like δ-MnO2 at a current density up to 3200 mA g-1, constructing a sheet-on-sheet structure. This crystallization behavior of Li2O2 not only defers the electrode passivation upon discharge but also renders easy decomposition of Li2O2

  20. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  1. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery... (h) of this section and in §§ 173.220 and 173.222; and any battery or battery-powered device must be..., but not limited to: (i) Packaging each battery or each battery-powered device when practicable,...

  2. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics Traction Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Szumanowski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The assumed method and effective model are very accurate according to error checking results of the NiMH and Li-Ion batteries. The modeling method is valid for different types of batteries. The model can be conveniently used for vehicle simulation because the battery model is accurately approximated by mathematical equations. The model provides the methodology for designing a battery management system and calculating the SOC. The influence of temperature on battery performance is analyzed acc...

  4. Bipolar battery construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  7. Battery packaging - Technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production

  8. A Bio-Inspired, Heavy-Metal-Free, Dual-Electrolyte Liquid Battery towards Sustainable Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2016-04-01

    Wide-scale exploitation of renewable energy requires low-cost efficient energy storage devices. The use of metal-free, inexpensive redox-active organic materials represents a promising direction for environmental-friendly, cost-effective sustainable energy storage. To this end, a liquid battery is designed using hydroquinone (H2 BQ) aqueous solution as catholyte and graphite in aprotic electrolyte as anode. The working potential can reach 3.4 V, with specific capacity of 395 mA h g(-1) and stable capacity retention about 99.7 % per cycle. Such high potential and capacity is achieved using only C, H and O atoms as building blocks for redox species, and the replacement of Li metal with graphite anode can circumvent potential safety issues. As H2 BQ can be extracted from biomass directly and its redox reaction mimics the bio-electrochemical process of quinones in nature, using such a bio-inspired organic compound in batteries enables access to greener and more sustainable energy-storage technology. PMID:26958787

  9. Understanding the fundamentals of redox mediators in Li-O2 batteries: a case study on nitroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Benjamin J; Hofmann, Christine; Schürmann, Adrian; Schröder, Daniel; Peppler, Klaus; Schreiner, Peter R; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-12-21

    The development of aprotic lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries suffers from high charging overvoltages. Dissolved redox mediators, like nitroxides, providing increased energy efficiency and longer lifetime are promising tools to overcome this challenge. Since this auspicious concept is still in its infancy, the underlying chemical reactions as well as the impact of the different (electro)chemical parameters are poorly understood. Herein, we derive an electrochemical model for the charging reactions, which is validated by potentiostatic measurements. The model elucidates the impact of the major factors including basic cell parameters and the chemical properties of the redox mediator. The model is applied to the promising class of nitroxides, which is systematically investigated by using derivatives of TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy), AZADO (2-azaadamantane-N-oxyl), and an azaphenalene based nitroxide. The nitroxides are electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry and their performance as redox mediators is studied in Li-O2 batteries with an ether-based electrolyte. Based on the presented model, the charging profiles of the different nitroxide redox mediators are correlated with their molecular structures. PMID:26563563

  10. How To Improve Capacity and Cycling Stability for Next Generation Li-O2 Batteries: Approach with a Solid Electrolyte and Elevated Redox Mediator Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Benjamin J; Busche, Martin R; Pinedo, Ricardo; Berkes, Balázs B; Schröder, Daniel; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-03-30

    Because of their exceptionally high specific energy, aprotic lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are considered as potential future energy stores. Their practical application is, however, still hindered by the high charging overvoltages and detrimental side reactions. Recently, the use of redox mediators dissolved in the electrolyte emerged as a promising tool to enable charging at moderate voltages. The presented work advances this concept and distinctly improves capacity and cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries by combining high redox mediator concentrations with a solid electrolyte (SE). The use of high redox mediator concentrations significantly increases the discharge capacity by including the oxidation and reduction of the redox mediator into charge cycling. Highly efficient cycling is achieved by protecting the lithium anode with a solid electrolyte, which completely inhibits unfavored deactivation of oxidized species at the anode. Surprisingly, the SE also suppresses detrimental side reactions at the carbon electrode to a large extent and enables stable charging completely below 4.0 V over a prolonged period. It is demonstrated that anode and cathode communicate deleteriously via the liquid electrolyte, which induces degradation reactions at the carbon electrode. The separation of cathode and anode with a SE is therefore considered as a key step toward stable Li-O2 batteries, in conjunction with a concentrated redox mediator electrolyte. PMID:26942895

  11. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Intelligent Battery Management System Analyzing & Optimizing of Multicell Battery Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthi, C; P.M.Sarma; M. Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a batt...

  13. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  14. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  15. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  16. Developments in redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tangirala, Ravichandra

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the electrochemistry principles, technology, construction and composition of the electrode materials, electrolyte and additives used in redox flow batteries. The aim was to study a flow battery system with an appreciable working performance. The study explores and compares mainly three different redox flow battery technologies; all-vanadium, soluble lead-acid and a novel copper-lead dioxide flow batteries. The first system is based in sulfuric acid e...

  17. Battery Monitoring Unit Using SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Pandya; Vikas Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Battery Management System (BMS) means different things to different people. To some it is simply battery monitoring, keeping a check on the key operational parameters during charging and discharging such as voltages and currents and the battery internal and ambient temperature. The monitoring circuits would normally provide inputs to protection device which would generate alarms or disconnects the battery from the load or charger should any of the parameters be...

  18. Rechargeable Battery Capacity Level Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Technology on rechargeable batteries has advanced over the years as a result of the need to power portable devices that have risen in numbers in the last decade. Just like primary cells, rechargeable batteries work in the same way, only their chemical reactions are reversible. This project aimed at building a system that would indicate the capacity level of a Nickel Metal Hydride battery upon charging and discharging. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery was selected in this project due to it...

  19. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  20. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as an increasingly important technology. They are used almost ubiquitously in laptops and cell phones because of their relatively high energy densities when compared to other battery chemistries. More recently, lithium-ion batteries have been employed in the automotive sector in both pure electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. However, one of the major barriers in the widespread adoption of lithium-ion batteries in electric ...

  1. Intelligent battery charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  2. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  3. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  4. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  5. Water as a solute in aprotic dipolar solvents. 2. D2O-H2O solute isotope effects on the enthalpy of water dissolution in nitromethane, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enthalpies of solution of ordinary (H2O) and heavy (D2O) water in nitromethane (NM), acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC) were measured calorimetrically at 298.15 K. Standard (at the infinite dilution) enthalpies of solution and solvation, along with D2O-H2O solute isotope effects on the quantities in question, were calculated. The enthalpies of solution of water H/D isotopologues were found to be positive by sign and substantially increasing in magnitude on going from ACN and PC to NM, whereas the corresponding positive solute H/D isotope effect changes in a consequence: NM > ACN > PC. The qualitative interrelations between the enthalpy-isotopic effect of dissolution (solvation) of water and the electron-accepting/donating ability of aprotic dipolar solvent (within a series considered) were found.

  6. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  7. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  8. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  9. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  10. A morphology, porosity and surface conductive layer optimized MnCo2O4 microsphere for compatible superior Li(+) ion/air rechargeable battery electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Jun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Ju, Ji Young; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Lee, Sun Sook; Kang, Yongku; Jung, Ha-Kyun; Park, Jin-Seong; Im, Won Bin; Choi, Sungho

    2016-03-15

    Uniform surface conductive layers with porous morphology-conserved MnCo2O4 microspheres are successfully synthesized, and their electrochemical performances are thoroughly investigated. It is found that the microwave-assisted hydrothermally grown MnCo2O4 using citric acid as the carbon source shows a maximum Li(+) ion lithiation/delithiation capacity of 501 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) with stable capacity retention. Besides, the given microsphere compounds are effectively activated as air cathode catalysts in Li-O2 batteries with reduced charge overpotentials and improved cycling performance. We believe that such an affordable enhanced performance results from the appropriate quasi-hollow nature of MnCo2O4 microspheres, which can effectively mitigate the large volume change of electrodes during Li(+) migration and/or enhance the surface transport of the LiOx species in Li-air batteries. Thus, the rationally designed porous media for the improved Li(+) electrochemical reaction highlight the importance of the 3D macropores, the high specific area and uniformly overcoated conductive layer for the promising Li(+) redox reaction platforms. PMID:26877264

  11. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  12. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  13. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  14. Study on lithium/air secondary batteries - Stability of NASICON-type lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Jian; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    The water stability of the fast lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic electrolyte, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATP), has been examined in distilled water, and aqueous solutions of LiNO{sub 3}, LiCl, LiOH, and HCl. This glass-ceramics are stable in aqueous LiNO{sub 3} and aqueous LiCl, and unstable in aqueous 0.1 M HCl and 1 M LiOH. In distilled water, the electrical conductivity slightly increases as a function of immersion time in water. The Li-Al/Li{sub 3-x}PO{sub 4-y}N{sub y}/LATP/aqueous 1 M LiCl/Pt cell, where lithium phosphors oxynitrides Li{sub 3-x}PO{sub 4-y}N{sub y} (LiPON) are used to protect the direct reaction of Li and LATP, shows a stable open circuit voltage (OCV) of 3.64 V at 25 C, and no cell resistance change for 1 week. Lithium phosphors oxynitride is effectively used as a protective layer to suppress the reaction between the LATP and Li metal. The water-stable Li/LiPON/LATP system can be used in Li/air secondary batteries with the air electrode containing water. (author)

  15. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  16. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  17. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  18. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  19. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  20. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  1. Photoelectrochemical solar battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the field of solar energy conversion and can be used to the elaboration of photoelectrochemical solar batteries. Summary of the invention consists in the fact that in the photoelectrochemical solar battery comprising of a photo electrode and a counter-electrode, placed into an electrolyte solution, comprising the oxidation-reduction system, the photo electrode is made of a semiconductor of n-type ZnIn2S4 and as electrolyte is used aqueous solution Na2S4 - Na2S2. The technical result of the invention consists in the sulphur ions inter exchange from the photo electrode surface and from the electrolyte solution that leads to the reduction of photo electrode photo corrosion

  2. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  3. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  4. Composite battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A composite battery separator comprises a support element (10) having an open pore structure such as a ribbed lattice and at least one liquid permeable sheet (20,22) to distribute the compressive force evenly onto the surfaces of the layers (24, 26) of negative active material and positive active material. In a non-flooded battery cell the compressible, porous material (18), such as a glass mat which absorbs the electrolyte, is compressed into a major portion of the pores or openings (16) in the support element. The unfilled pores in the material (18) form a gas diffusion path as the channels (41) formed between adjacent ribs in the lattice element (30,36). Facing two lattice elements (30, 31) with acute angled cross-ribs (34, 38) facing each other prevents the elements from interlocking and distorting a porous, separator (42) disposed between the lattice elements.

  5. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  6. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a β-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case

  7. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem i...

  8. Waste battery collection and handling

    OpenAIRE

    Degenek, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the following thesis, we focused on waste battery collection and handling. Since batteries are known for their possible containing of dangerous substances, it seems sensible to collect and reuse them - not only from the perspective of economy, but also when it comes to regaining some valuable raw materials. That is why the battery issue is not only topical, but also in need of thorough analysis and discussion. Wrongly disposed batterries are a huge environmental issue, since they pollute g...

  9. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  10. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Hou; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separa...

  11. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  12. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  13. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  14. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  15. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  16. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  17. Advanced Battery Diagnosis for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Chudamani

    2008-01-01

    Summary Literatures on battery technologies and diagnosis of its parameters were studied. The innovative battery technologies from basic knowledge to world standard testing procedures were analysed and discussed in the report. The established battery test station and flowchart was followed during the battery test preparation and testing. In order to understand and verify the battery performance, the well established test procedures developed by USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consorti...

  18. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Joeri Van Mierlo; Peter Van den Bossche; Noshin Omar; Mailier Antoine; Mohamed Daowd

    2013-01-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, ...

  19. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  20. Doping effects on structure and electrode performance of K-birnessite-type manganese dioxides for rechargeable lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potassium birnessites doped with Al, Ni, and Co were prepared by calcination and aqueous treatment, which showed that single phase products were obtained with Ni and Al up to 5 at.% and Co up to 25 at.% addition to strating KMnO4. The discharge-recharge capacities and capacity retentions in an aprotic Li cell were not improved by the Ni and Al dopings, but those of the cobalt doped birnessite were improved. The initial discharge capacities of the undoped and cobalt doped birnessites were 170 and 200 mAh g-1 with capacity retentions of 56 and 80% during the initial 20 cycles, respectively. The reasons for the improvement of the battery performance by Co doping were considered as follows: (i) a change in the stacking structure, (ii) a decrease in the charge transfer resistance, and (iii) improved structural stability of the oxide. Their micro structures were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies, and electron microscopy. Also, potassium birnessite synthesized by adding about 3 times excess potassium indicated that the stacking structure was similar to the 30 at.% cobalt doping sample, furthermore, the better capacity retention was achieved as cathode in a Li cell

  1. 锂空气电池的研究进展%Research Progress of Lithium-air Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 梁春生; 徐大亮; 曹慧群; 孙宏元; 罗仲宽

    2012-01-01

    随着动力电池和电网储能等对高性能电池需求的增大,具有超高比能量的锂空气电池受到了越来越多的关注.为了开发出循环性能好、安全实用的锂空气电池,各国研究者对相应的正极材料、电解质、催化剂和防水透氧膜等都做了大量的探索性工作,并取得了一系列的进展.其中,找到稳定的电解质、设法减小放电产物的钝化,对锂空气电池的真正可逆循环最为关键.本文以惰性有机电解质体系的锂空气电池为主,总结了近年来在空气正极、催化剂、电解质和防水透氧膜等方面的最新研究成果,同时简单介绍了其它体系的锂空气电池,并提出了对锂空气电池未来的努力和发展方向.%With the increasing demand for high-performance battery by electric vehicle and the energy storage of power grid, the lithium-air battery with ultra-high specific energy has received more and more attention. To develop safe and practical lithium-air battery with good cycle performance, researchers have done plenty of exploratory work on the corresponding cathode materials, electrolyte, catalyst and waterproof oxygen permeation membrane, etc. Among all the work, finding stable electrolyte and minimizing discharge products' passivation are the most critical issues. In this paper, based on the aprotic electrolyte architecture, the latest researches on the mentioned respects of the lithium-air battery are reviewed. In addition, the general development of other three architectures is introduced. At last, the future challenges in development of lithium-air battery are proposed.

  2. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  3. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  4. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  5. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a hi

  6. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  7. A Nation-Sized Battery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intermittency Challenge and the approaching need for massive storage of rapidly dispatchable energy has led the concept of the National Battery, a unified facility that holds the aggregated outputs from an array of intrinsically episodic renewable sources, releasing energy as demand requires. In this contribution, the original demonstration of Murphy that lead-acid batteries are inappropriate is first reviewed and then extended to show that no commercially available battery technology is at present appropriate. However, prospectively, underground pumped hydro storage could suffice, and at a lesser cost than suitable batteries. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy poses an Intermittency Challenge requiring massive storage. ► This challenge will force the USA to store at least 5 TWd of dispatchable energy. ► No commercially available type of battery is demonstrably up to this task. ► Underground pumped hydro seems capable of meeting this need.

  8. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  9. Investigation of High-Energy-Density Lithium Battery with Aqueous Electrolyte Solution%高比能水体系锂电池研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴江; 杨同欢; 桑林; 丁飞

    2012-01-01

    实现水溶液锂电池的关键技术是如何保护金属锂电极不与水反应。提出了一种保护金属锂电极,其不仅在有机电解液体系稳定而且在水溶液中也可稳定工作,这种锂电极可以用于水体系锂电池。该研究制备了双层锂离子电解质保护的金属锂电极,其外层采用的LAGP(Li1+x+yAlxGe2-x SiyP3-yO12)玻璃陶瓷电解质相对于包括水溶液等电解液是稳定的,该玻璃陶瓷电解质的电导率达到0.57 mS cm^-1。通过交流阻抗评估发现不同电解质间的界面阻抗是水体系锂电池内阻的主要来源。最终采用双层保护金属锂电极制备的水体系锂空气电池和锂水电池可以稳定工作。%The key technology for aqueous lithium battery is protecting lithium from water.A protected lithium electrode which is stable not only in organic electrolyte but also in aqueous solutions and which can be used in aqueous lithium battery is proposed.The double layer Li-ion conductive electrolyte protected lithium electrode has been prepared.The front layer of LAGP(Li1+x+y AlxGe2-x SiyP3-yO12) glass-ceramic with ionic conductivity of 0.57 mS cm^-1 which is stable to electrolyte including aqueous solution.It is found that the impedance of interface of LAGP/liquid electrolyte is the major one for aqueous lithium battery.Finally,Li-Air battery and Li-Water battery have been assembled,and the two types of aqueous lithium battery are capable of work by using double layer protected lithium electrode.

  10. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  11. Research Progress and the Limiting Factors that Affect Performance of the Lithium Air Batteries%锂-空气电池性能的影响因素及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大明; 张传明; 顾硕; 张音; 王余; 强亮生

    2012-01-01

    lithium air battery with other advanced batteries, i.e. lithium air battery, lithium ion battery, lead-acid battery, nickel-hydride battery and fuel cells electrochemical properties, such as specific capacity, specific energy, specific power and open circuit voltage; summarized the effect of the composition and structure of the cathode materials on its performance; discussed the merits and demerits of aqueous electrolyte, non-aqueous electrolyte and dual-electrolyte for Li-air batteries; analyzed the effect of solubility coefficient, conductivity and viscosity of various components non-aqueous electrolytes, established the heterogeneous reaction model of cathode in organic electrolyte and aqueous electrolyte and reviewed state-of-the-art characterization techniques of the materials for lithium air batteries and the application prospect of lithium air battery.

  12. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  13. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  14. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  15. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  16. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  17. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  18. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  19. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  20. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  1. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Mailable Mailable No more than 3 (individual batteries). batteries. 3. Each secondary cell must not contain.... In addition, the Postal Service has moved the lithium battery standards as it relates to... than 1.0 gram (g) of lithium content per cell. 2. Each battery must contain no more than 2.0...

  2. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or gasoline engine. (c) If compliance with paragraph (b) of this section is not practicable, the battery must...

  3. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  4. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5...

  5. Etched colloidal LiFePO4 nanoplatelets toward high-rate capable Li-ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Dilena, Enrico; Colombo, Massimo; Prato, Mirko; Riedinger, Andreas; Povia, Mauro; Ansaldo, Alberto; Zaghib, Karim; Manna, Liberato; George, Chandramohan

    2014-12-10

    LiFePO4 has been intensively investigated as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries, as it can in principle enable the development of high power electrodes. LiFePO4, on the other hand, is inherently "plagued" by poor electronic and ionic conductivity. While the problems with low electron conductivity are partially solved by carbon coating and further by doping or by downsizing the active particles to nanoscale dimensions, poor ionic conductivity is still an issue. To develop colloidally synthesized LiFePO4 nanocrystals (NCs) optimized for high rate applications, we propose here a surface treatment of the NCs. The particles as delivered from the synthesis have a surface passivated with long chain organic surfactants, and therefore can be dispersed only in aprotic solvents such as chloroform or toluene. Glucose that is commonly used as carbon source for carbon-coating procedure is not soluble in these solvents, but it can be dissolved in water. In order to make the NCs hydrophilic, we treated them with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), which removes the surfactant ligand shell while preserving the structural and morphological properties of the NCs. Only a roughening of the edges of NCs was observed due to a partial etching of their surface. Electrodes prepared from these platelet NCs (after carbon coating) delivered a capacity of ∼ 155 mAh/g, ∼ 135 mAh/g, and ∼ 125 mAh/g, at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C, respectively, with significant capacity retention and remarkable rate capability. For example, at 61 C (10.3 A/g), a capacity of ∼ 70 mAh/g was obtained, and at 122 C (20.7 A/g), the capacity was ∼ 30 mAh/g. The rate capability and the ease of scalability in the preparation of these surface-treated nanoplatelets make them highly suitable as electrodes in Li-ion batteries. PMID:25372361

  6. Storage battery market: profiles and trade opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonfer, D.

    1985-04-01

    The export market for domestically produced storage batteries is a modest one, typically averaging 6 to 7% of domestic industry shipments. Exports in 1984 totalled about $167 million. Canada and Mexico were the largest export markets for US storage batteries in 1984, accounting for slightly more than half of the total. The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands round out the top five export markets. Combined, these five markets accounted for two-thirds of all US exports of storage batteries in 1984. On a regional basis, the North American (Canada), Central American, and European markets accounted for three-quarters of total storage battery exports. Lead-acid batteries accounted for 42% of total battery exports. Battery parts followed lead-acid batteries with a 29% share. Nicad batteries accounted for 16% of the total while other batteries accounted for 13%.

  7. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-time Markov model, with a well-known battery model. For this combined model, we provide new algorithms to efficiently compute the expected lifetime and the distribution and expected value of the deli...

  8. Models of novel battery architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Talin, Alec

    2013-03-01

    We use a 1-dimensional model of electronic and ionic transport, coupled with experimental data, to extract the interfacial electrochemical parameters for LiCoO2-LIPON-Si thin film batteries. TEM imaging of batteries has shown that charge/discharge cycles can lead to breakdown of the interfaces, which reduces the effective area through which further Li ion transfer can occur. This is modeled phenomenologically by changing the effective cross sectional area, in order to correlate this structural change with the change in charge/discharge I-V curves. Finally, by adopting the model to radial coordinates, the geometrical effect of nanowire architectures for batteries is investigated.

  9. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  10. Photoelectrochemical solar battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to the field of solar-to electric energy conservation and may be used for the creation of photoelectrochemical regenerating converters. Summary of the invention consists in that the photoelectrochemical solar battery includes a semiconducting photo-electrodes and a counter-electrode , placed into the electrolyte solution. The photo-electrode is made of the compounds A3B5, and in the capacity of electrolyte solution is used an aqueoua solution Na2SiO3. The result of the invention consists in the absorbtion from the electrtolyte solution of the ions SiO3 and HSiO3 on the photo-electrode working surface, that leads to a decrease in the corrosion of the latter

  11. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  12. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  13. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  14. Neutron Scattering for battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteries are a key technology in today’s society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Since the “lithium-ion” configuration has been widely accepted, significant efforts have been devoted to attain high energy and power densities to produce an excellent energy storage system without any safety issues. To improve battery characteristics, deep insights into the structure of the materials during the battery reactions are necessary. Neutron Scatteringclarifies a wide range of structures for battery materials; from local to long range structures, and these structure characteristics are related to the battery properties. New materials with high electrochemical properties are necessary to improve future battery systems. Structure and property relationships for the battery electrodes and electrolytes are important information for designing new energy storage systems. An example of new materials is solid electrolytes. An all solid-state configuration is the most promising for future devices to improve the reliability of batteries. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes, promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of batteries. The material, Li10GeP2S12 shows high ionic conductivity, which exceeds the conductivity value of liquid electrolyte. Neutron Scatteringis one of the best methods to provide information of structure containing lithium and conduction mechanism determined by Neutron Scattering makes the materials design concept clear. In-situ and perando experimental techniques are another important subjects for clarifying battery reactions. An in situ technique for directly observing surface structural changes has been developed that employs thin-film model electrodes and surface X-ray and Neutron Scattering techniques. The surface structural changes commence with the formation of an electrical double layer

  15. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structu...

  16. Gate-controllable spin battery

    OpenAIRE

    Long, W.; Sun, QF; H. Guo; J. Wang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing)

    2003-01-01

    We propose a gate-controllable spin-battery for spin current. The spin battery consists of a lateral double quantum dot under a uniform magnetic field. A finite dc spin current is driven out of the device by controlling a set of gate voltages. Spin current can also be delivered in the absence of charge current. The proposed device should be realizable using present technology at low temperature. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  18. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  19. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  20. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  1. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  2. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  3. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  4. Redox-flow battery of actinide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Np battery and U battery were developed. We suggested that Np redox-flow battery should be (-)|Np3+,Np4+||NpO2+,NpO22+|(+), and U battery (-)|[UIIIT2]-,[UIVT2]0||[UVO2T]-,[UVIO2T]0|(+). The electromotive force at 50 % charge of Np and U battery is 1.10 V and 1.04 V, respectively. The energy efficiency of 70 mA/cm2 of Np and U battery shows 99 % and 98 %, respectively. V redox-flow battery, electrode reactions of An battery, Np battery, U battery and future of U battery are described. The concept of V redox-flow battery, comparison of energy efficiency of Np, U and V battery, oxidation state and ionic species of 3d transition metals and main An, Purbe diagram of Np and U aqueous solution, shift of redox potential of β-diketones by pKa, and specifications of three redox-flow batteries are reported. (S.Y.)

  5. The development and prospects of advanced batteries in the post-lithium battery era%后锂电池时代新型电池的开发与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周豪慎; 何平; 王永刚; 李德

    2012-01-01

    Due the limited supply of fossil fuels and environmental degradation arising from flue gas emissions, it is imperative to discover clean and sustainable energy, and to develop effective and green energy storage devices. Conventional lithium ion batteries cannot meet the requirements of future large scale electrical applications such as electrical automobiles which need higher energy density. We present here an overview of our recent work,beginning with an introduction to the concept and principle of hybrid electro- lytes, and followed by a detailed discussion of the design and electrochemical performance of hybrid electro- lyte-based post-lithium batteries such as Li-Cu and Li-air batteries. The hybrid electrolyte technology is considered to be a promising method to develop electrochemical high energy storage devices.%石油、天然气等化石能源的枯竭及人类生存环境的进一步恶化,迫使人们寻求和开发清洁可再生能源和高效绿色的储能装置.传统的锂离子电池等已难以满足将来电动汽车等大规模使用的电器对于大容量蓄电装置的要求.文章综述了日本产业技术综合研究所周豪慎教授课题组近年来的研究成果,介绍了组合型电解液的概念及原理,并重点讨论了锂-铜电池和锂-空气电池等基于组合型电解液的后锂离子电池的设计方法和电化学性能.文章指出,组合电解液技术将是开发高能量电化学储能装置的重要思路和有效方法.

  6. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  7. Vehicles testing of near-term batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. C.; Hardy, K. S.; Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Vehicles test results are reported for nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and improved lead-acid batteries developed under the Near-Term Battery Program sponsored by the Department of Energy. The batteries have demonstrated a range improvement of up to 90% over current lead-acid batteries due to improved energy density and ampere-hour capacity, combined with relatively small weight and volume. However, the nickel-iron battery requires a substantial development effort in packaging the circulating electrolyte system and handling the generated hydrogen volume, while the nickel-zinc batteries tested suffer from short cycle life.

  8. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O2), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes

  9. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  10. Nature of Li2O2 oxidation in a Li-O2 battery revealed by operando X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Swapna; Adams, Brian D; Stenou, Georgiana; Anastasaki, Maria S; Goubitz, Kees; Miao, Xue-Fei; Nazar, Linda F; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2014-11-19

    Fundamental research into the Li-O2 battery system has gone into high gear, gaining momentum because of its very high theoretical specific energy. Much progress has been made toward understanding the discharge mechanism, but the mechanism of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on charge (i.e., oxidation) remains less understood. Here, using operando X-ray diffraction, we show that oxidation of electrochemically generated Li2O2 occurs in two stages, but in one step for bulk crystalline (commercial) Li2O2, revealing a fundamental difference in the OER process depending on the nature of the peroxide. For electrochemically generated Li2O2, oxidation proceeds first through a noncrystalline lithium peroxide component, followed at higher potential by the crystalline peroxide via a Li deficient solid solution (Li(2-x)O2) phase. Anisotropic broadening of the X-ray Li2O2 reflections confirms a platelet crystallite shape. On the basis of the evolution of the broadening during charge, we speculate that the toroid particles are deconstructed one platelet at a time, starting with the smallest sizes that expose more peroxide surface. In the case of in situ charged bulk crystalline Li2O2, the Li vacancies preferentially form on the interlayer position (Li1), which is supported by first-principle calculations and consistent with their lower energy compared to those located next to oxygen (Li2). The small actively oxidizing fraction results in a gradual reduction of the Li2O2 crystallites. The fundamental insight gained in the OER charge mechanism and its relation to the nature of the Li2O2 particles is essential for the design of future electrodes with lower overpotentials, one of the key challenges for high performance Li-air batteries. PMID:25341076

  11. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  12. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  13. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. PMID:22609660

  14. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver;

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of...... wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  15. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  16. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  17. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  18. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  20. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  1. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  2. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  3. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  4. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  5. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Aishwarya Parasuraman; Tuti Mariana Lim; Suminto Winardi; Helen Prifti

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  6. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin;

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  7. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  9. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  10. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  11. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing interest in high specific energy lithium rechargeable batteries with improved discharge/charge cycles. Some of the promising battery systems under development are Li/CoO2, Li/V2O5 and Li/MnO2. A major factor that controls the specific performance of these batteries is the electrolyte. Recent advances made in the liquid electrolyte area for lithium high energy cathode systems are reviewed. Experimental work on the processing of solid thin film polymer electrolytes using plasticizers such as polyethylene glycol dimethoxy ether (PEGDME) and the properties such as conductivity and differential scanning calorimetry of polymer film electrolytes are presented. The advantages and the disadvantages of polymer thin film electrolytes are discussed

  12. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  13. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  14. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  15. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  16. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Each installed battery must not move more than one inch in any direction when a pulling force of 90 pounds or twice the battery weight, whichever is less, is applied through the center of gravity of the battery as follows: (1) Vertically for a duration of one minute. (2) Horizontally and parallel...

  17. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  18. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources... installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries... batteries. Each small battery installation must be located in a well ventilated space and protected...

  19. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  20. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  1. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  2. Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhar, Kaihan; Hastings, Erin; Butson, Christopher R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Zeilman, Pam; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. Background Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator). Methods A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002–2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Sta...

  3. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  4. Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaihan Fakhar; Erin Hastings; Butson, Christopher R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Pam Zeilman; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator). METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. ...

  5. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  6. Status of life cycle inventories for batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cradle-to-gate (ctg) energy and emissions compared among five battery systems. ► Calculate material production values fall well within observed ranges. ► Values based on recycled materials in poor agreement with observed ranges. ► Material production data needed for recycled and some virgin battery materials. ► Battery manufacturing data range widely and hence also need updating. - Abstract: This study reviews existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) results for cradle-to-gate (ctg) environmental assessments of lead-acid (PbA), nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), sodium-sulfur (Na/S), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. LCI data are evaluated for the two stages of cradle-to-gate performance: battery material production and component fabrication and assembly into purchase ready batteries. Using existing production data on battery constituent materials, overall battery material production values were calculated and contrasted with published values for the five battery technologies. The comparison reveals a more prevalent absence of material production data for lithium ion batteries, though such data are also missing or dated for a few important constituent materials in nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, and sodium sulfur batteries (mischmetal hydrides, cadmium, β-alumina). Despite the overall availability of material production data for lead acid batteries, updated results for lead and lead peroxide are also needed. On the other hand, LCI data for the commodity materials common to most batteries (steel, aluminum, plastics) are up to date and of high quality, though there is a need for comparable quality data for copper. Further, there is an almost total absence of published LCI data on recycled battery materials, an unfortunate state of affairs given the potential benefit of battery recycling. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and

  7. Solid-state lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  8. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to charac...

  9. Dielectric properties of battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    An effort was made to determine the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the terminal properties of electrochemical cells. Various constituents of the battery were measured to determine basic electromagnetic properties. These properties were used to predict how much radiation would be absorbed by a battery in a particular field configuration. The frequency range covered from 0 to 40 GHz with the greatest emphasis on the microwave range from 2.6 to 40 GHz. The measurements were made on NiCd, AgZn, and Pb acid cells. Results from observation show nothing which suggested any interaction between radiation and cells, and no incidence of any peaks of energy absorption was observed.

  10. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  11. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  12. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  13. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  15. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  16. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Budhi Anto; Edy Hamdani; Rizki Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power ...

  17. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  18. Testing batteries for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, A. E.; Butler, P. C.; Bush, D. M.; Miller, D. W.

    A battery evaluation laboratory was established to investigate the application of various battery technologies for energy storage in a photovoltaic power system. The evaluation laboratory provides a controlled test environment in which batteries can be exposed to any one or all of the following: (1) long term performance testing; (2) accelerated life testing; (3) simulated photovoltaic power system operational testing. Several battery systems are being tested. A description is presented of the laboratory and the tests currently being conducted and a brief description of the battery systems under test.

  19. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Wu; Guifang Qiao; Jian Ge; Hongtao Sun; Guangming Song

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap stati...

  20. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  1. Certification Process for Commercial Batteries for Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the use of electric batteries in space applications. Batteries are high energy devices that are used to power hardware for space applications The applications include IVA (Intra-Vehicular Activity) and EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) use. High energy batteries pose hazards such as cell/battery venting leading to electrolyte (liquid or gas) leakage, high temperatures, fire and explosion (shrapnel). It reviews the process of certifying of Commercial batteries for space applications in view of the multi-national purchasing for the International Space Station. The documentation used in the certification is reviewed.

  2. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  3. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 an...

  4. Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

  5. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  6. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  7. Cardiac pacemakers and nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the introduction giving the indications for cardiac pacemaker therapy with special regard to the use of pacemakers powered by nuclear batteries, reference is made to the resulting radiation exposure of the patient. The activities of the Federal Health Office in this field such as recommendations and surveys including the entire Federal Republic are outlined. (orig.)

  8. Batteries for implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special requirements of power cells for a variety of medical applications and the technical means by which the needs have been met are taken up in 11 contributed chapters. Both chemicals (lithium/halogen, nickel/cadmium, etc.) and nuclear batteries are considered

  9. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses. The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough. Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security.

  10. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  11. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  12. Analysis of an electric Equivalent Circuit Model of a Li-Ion battery to develop algorithms for battery states estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Mohammad Haris

    2016-01-01

    Batteries have imparted momentum to the process of transition towards a green future. However, mass application of batteries is obstructed due to their explosive nature, a trait specific to Li-Ion batteries. To cater to an efficient battery utilization, an introduction of a battery management system would provide an ultimate solution. This thesis deals with different aspects crucial in designing a battery management system for high energy as well as high power applications. To build a battery...

  13. PMMA-based aprotic gel electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Reiter, Jakub; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 170, 1-2 (2004), s. 79-82. ISSN 0167-2738 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/0731; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : polymer electrolytes * methylmethacrylate * cadmium salts Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.862, year: 2004

  14. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  15. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  16. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  17. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  18. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  19. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  20. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... aggregate lithium content must not exceed 2 g per battery. e. The batteries installed in the equipment must... (Wh) per cell. d. The total aggregate lithium content must not exceed 100 Wh per battery. e. Each battery must bear the ``Watt-hour'' or ``Wh'' marking on the battery to determine if it is within...

  1. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... the final rule published on May 14, 2012, (77 FR 28259-28261), the Postal Service implemented new.... d. The total aggregate lithium content must not exceed 2 g per battery. e. The batteries installed... per battery. e. Each battery must bear the Wh marking on the battery to determine if it is within...

  2. The sodium-sulphur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I. W.

    1981-09-01

    The sodium-sulphur battery is considered as a candidate for electric vehicle and bulk storage applications markets estimated to exceed one billion pounds sterling globally by the turn of the century. The sodium-sulphur device offers five times the energy density of conventional batteries, potential cost reductions due to the use of cheap and readily available construction materials, and operates at the relatively low temperatures of 300-400 C. The cells have a solid electrolyte, made by sintering alumina containing 10% sodium oxide, while the electrodes are liquid at operating temperatures. Ceramic element lives in excess of 1000 cycles have been achieved. Attention is given such design details as the thermal and physical properties of glass/ceramic seals and current collector materials and structure.

  3. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  4. Organic active materials for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2016-08-16

    A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R.sup.1 and R.sup.2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions M.sup.a+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and "a" is 1, 2, or 3.

  5. Flow batteries : Status and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dumancic, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    New ideas and solutions are necessary to face challenges in the electricity industry. The application of electricity storage systems (ESS) can improve the quality and stability of the existing electricity network. ESS can be used for peak shaving, instead of installing new generation or transmission units, renewable energy time-shift and many other services. There are few ESS technologies existing today: mechanical, electrical and electrochemical storage systems. Flow batteries are electroche...

  6. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  7. Analysis of diffusion battery data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the use of diffusion batteries to obtain size information about ultrafine aerosol particles. Accurate formulas are included for the penetration functions of circular tube and parallel plate diffusion cells. After noting the usefulness of some previously suggested data inversion techniques, a new method for obtaining a 'complete' solution, is outlined. The techniques are illustrated by the analysis of some experimental data. (author)

  8. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  9. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  10. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  11. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  12. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  13. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the battery SoC, and even more important the remaining time of use, becomes more and more important. Therefore, many leading semiconductor companies, e.g. NXP Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, Microch...

  14. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  15. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  16. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  17. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Heather; Park Haram; Paolini Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  18. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical-chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation. The model takes into account the thermodynamics, kinetics and diffusion processes occurring at/in both electrodes and in the electrolyte

  19. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A; Notten, P. H. L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation. The model takes into account the thermodynamics, kinetics and diffusion processes occurring at/in both electrodes and in the electrolyte.

  20. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  1. On electric vehicle battery charger modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José; Balcells Sendra, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) battery chargers connected to electric networks could lead to future harmonic problems in power systems. These loads are nonlinear devices that inject harmonic currents and pollute network voltages. Thus, battery charger modeling must be studied in detail to determine their harmonic emissions and prevent future problems. This paper investigates EV battery charger behavior, analyzes its equivalent circuit and reports a model for each ...

  2. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  3. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  4. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  5. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  6. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  7. Batteries used to power implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  8. RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Lova

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current fl...

  9. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  10. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. PMID:26404647

  11. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  12. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  13. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  14. Advanced lithium battery chemistries for sustainable transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is today 200 Wh/kg, a value not sufficient to power fully electric vehicles with a driving range of 400 km which requires a battery pack of 90 kWh. To deliver such energy the battery weight should be higher than 400 kg and the corresponding increase of vehicle mass would narrow the driving range to 280 km. Two main strategies are pursued to improve the energy of the rechargeable lithium batteries up to the transportation targets. The first i...

  15. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  16. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  17. Research on Activators for Lead-Acid Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Michio; Kozawa, Akiya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract : The ITE Battery Research group has developed a new organic battery activator for new and used lead-acid batteries. Ten years of investigation have established the validity of the ITE activator that prolongs the useful life of lead-acid batteries. It has been shown that the specific gravity of spent batteries can be restored to the original level in automotive, motive power; uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and stationary energy storage batteries. Our results show that the disca...

  18. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  19. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  20. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  1. Battery performance monitoring by internal ohmic measurements: Application guidelines for stationary batteries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various routine inspections and checks offer a general indication of a battery's health and its state of charge. However, none of these routine checks provide definitive information about a battery's actual capacity. Consequently, capacity discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery capacity is confirmed. Although technically prudent, the time and expense associated with capacity discharge testing is increasingly at odds with pressures to reduce operating and maintenance budgets. These pressures, in combination with new battery types that cannot be inspected by conventional mans, spurred development efforts for more cost-effective battery test techniques. Resulting advancements in battery monitoring equipment have produced new methods of evaluating battery health and reliability. The results presented here are based on a detailed research program to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. For each evaluated battery, internal ohmic measurements were recorded for individual cells prior to conducting a capacity discharge test of the battery. The discharge test results were then evaluated with respect to the internal ohmic measurements to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. The project goal was to obtain the necessary data to demonstrate the technology's value while also providing users with practical information about (1) the relationship between battery capacity and internal ohmic measurements, (2) how to use the test equipment in the field for best results, and (3) suggested guidelines for interpreting the measurements

  2. Battery diagnosis and battery monitoring in hybrid electric vehicles; Batteriediagnostik und Batteriemonitoring in Hybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.; Kowal, J.; Waag, W.; Gerschler, J.B.; Sauer, D.U. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA)

    2007-07-01

    Even in conventional passenger cars the load on the batteries is at its limit due to the increasing number of electrical loads. It is therefore of special importance to know the status and the power capability of the battery at any time. To fulfil these requirements it is necessary that the battery diagnostics has a precise current measurement available in addition to the voltage and temperature measurements. Battery diagnosis is most successful of different algorithms are combined and errors from the measurements and the algorithms are taken actively into account. The general structure of battery diagnosis algorithms can be used for lead-acid, lithium-ion and NiMH batteries. However, the complexity is highest for lead-acid batteries. (orig.)

  3. Integrated multilevel converter and battery management

    OpenAIRE

    K. Wilkie; Stone, D.; Bingham, C.; Foster, M.

    2008-01-01

    A cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter is proposed as a BLDC drive incorporating real-time battery management. Intelligent H-bridges are used to monitor battery cells whilst simultaneously increasing their performance by reducing the variation between cells and controlling their discharge profiles.

  4. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  5. Battery. [improved plates with magnetic flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello, D.

    1977-08-16

    A battery is described in which, to improve its discharging performance, the liquid electrolyte is maintained at a specific gravity that is optimum for electrical conductivity, a magnetic flux is imposed upon the battery plates, and other such conditions which also favor electrical conductivity, saturation, storage, and desaturation are maintained. 2 figures.

  6. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  7. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  8. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  9. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.

  10. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  11. A Micro-Grid Battery Storage Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Escribano Jiménez, Jorge; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez;

    2013-01-01

    systems under its administration. This paper presents an optimized scheduling of a micro-grid battery storage system that takes into account the next-day forecasted load and generation profiles and spot electricity prices. Simulation results show that the battery system can be scheduled close to optimal...

  12. The Ball Aptitude Battery (Test Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alfred E.

    1985-01-01

    The 12 subtests of the Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB) listed in the administration manual were described. The reviewer believes this aptitude battery, designed for use with high school students and adults in job selection and placement, needs major improvements. It is suggested that the BAB be used solely for research purposes. (DWH)

  13. Sodium-Oxygen Battery: Steps Toward Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Li, Chunmei; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Carrasco, Javier; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-04-01

    Rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries are receiving significant interest as a possible alternative to current state of the art lithium ion batteries due to their potential to provide higher gravimetric energies, giving significantly lighter or longer-lasting batteries. Recent advances suggest that the Na-O2 battery, in many ways analogous to Li-O2 yet based on the reversible formation of sodium superoxide (NaO2), has many advantages such as a low charge overpotential (∼100 mV) resulting in improved efficiency. In this Perspective, we discuss the current state of knowledge in Na-O2 battery technology, with an emphasis on the latest experimental studies, as well as theoretical models. We offer special focus on the principle outstanding challenges and issues and address the advantages/disadvantages of the technology when compared with Li-O2 batteries as well as other state-of-the-art battery technologies. We finish by detailing the direction required to make Na-O2 batteries both commercially and technologically viable. PMID:26961215

  14. Planar high density sodium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, John P.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.

    2016-03-01

    A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

  15. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  16. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  17. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  18. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  19. Impacts of EV battery production and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

    1996-06-01

    Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  20. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  1. Comparison study on the battery models used for the energy management of batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The seven representative battery models are summarized. ► The model equations are built and the model parameters are identified with an online method. ► An evaluation is performed on the battery models by an experiment approach. ► The equivalent circuit model with two RC networks has an optimal performance. - Abstract: Battery model plays an important role in the simulation of electric vehicles (EVs) and states estimation of the batteries in the development of the model-based battery management system. To build a battery model with enough precision and suitable complexity, firstly this paper summarizes the seven representative battery models, which belong to the simplified electrochemical models or the equivalent circuit models. Then the model equations are built and the model parameters are identified with an online parameter identification method. The battery test bench is built and the experiment schedule is designed. Finally an evaluation is performed on the seven battery models by an experiment approach from the aspects of the estimation accuracy of the terminal voltages. To evaluate the effect of the number of RC networks on the model’s precision, the battery general equivalent circuit models (GECMs) with different RC networks are also discussed further. The results indicate the equivalent circuit model with two RC networks, the DP model, has an optimal performance.

  2. Brazilian policy on battery disposal and its practical effects on battery recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocce Romano Espinosa, Denise; Moura Bernardes, Andréa; Alberto Soares Tenório, Jorge

    The disposal of batteries is a problem that has grown in the last few years, due to the increase in the use of portable devices. Batteries may contain toxic metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead, so their disposal must be controlled. Brazil was the first country in Latin America to regulate the disposal and treatment of batteries. Limits were established on the concentration of heavy metals within batteries, so that they could be disposed along with domestic waste. Since batteries are products used broadly, it is very difficult to control their disposal. In order to have an efficient collection, the population must be engaged, and that can only happen if they are informed about the laws and regulations regarding the subject, as well as the importance of disposing of batteries with higher concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances separately from domestic garbage. Around the world, there are some long-established recycling processes for batteries. In Brazil, automotive (lead-acid) batteries have been recycled for several years, whereas the recycling of other types of batteries is just starting. This work does an analysis of the Brazilian law for battery recycling and presents some suggestions and examples of the initiatives of other countries, in order to manage of this kind of dangerous waste.

  3. Environmental consequences of the use of batteries in low carbon systems: The impact of battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Lithium based batteries show the most significant GHG and metal depletion impacts. ► Nickel metal hydride batteries perform worst in terms of cumulative energy demand. ► Charge and discharge cycles will have significant effect on the environmental impact. ► Limited data on the life cycle impacts of some types of batteries is available. - Abstract: Adoption of small scale micro-generation is sometimes coupled with the use of batteries in order to overcome daily variability in the supply and demand of energy. For example, photovoltaic cells and small wind turbines can be coupled with energy storage systems such as batteries. When used effectively with renewable energy production, batteries can increase the versatility of an energy system by providing energy storage that enables the systems to satisfy the highly variable electrical load of an individual dwelling, therefore changing usage patterns on the national grid. A significant shift towards electric or hybrid cars would also increase the number of batteries required. However, batteries can be inefficient and comprise of materials that have high environmental and energy impacts. In addition, some materials, such as lithium, are scarce natural resources. As a result, the overall impact of increasing our reliance on such “sustainable or “low carbon” systems may in fact have an additional detrimental impact. This paper reviews the currently available data and calculated and highlights the impact of the production of several types of battery in terms of energy, raw materials and greenhouse gases. The impact of the production of batteries is examined and presented in order that future studies may be able to include the impact of batteries more easily within any system. It is shown that lithium based batteries have the most significant impact in many environmental areas in terms of production. As the use phases of batteries are extremely variable within different situations this has not been

  4. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jumper battery is connected to a battery in a vehicle, the ground lead shall connect to ground away from the vehicle's battery. Ignition, lights and accessories on the vehicle shall be turned off before... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery charging and changing. 1917.157 Section...

  5. SMS/GOES cell and battery data analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The nickel-cadmium battery design developed for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) provided background and guidelines for future development, manufacture, and application of spacecraft batteries. SMS/GOES battery design, development, qualification testing, acceptance testing, and life testing/mission performance characteristics were evaluated for correlation with battery cell manufacturing process variables.

  6. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  7. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  8. B#: A battery emulator and power-profiling instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Park, C. S.; Liu, J. F.; Chou, P H

    2005-01-01

    B# (B sharp) is a programmable power supply that emulates battery behavior. It measures current load, calls a battery simulation program to compute voltage in real time, and controls a linear regulator to mimic a battery's voltage output. The instrument enables validation of battery-aware power optimization techniques with accurate, controllable, reproducible results.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  10. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all... time specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the potential of the storage battery must be at...

  11. 46 CFR 120.350 - Batteries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each battery must be located as high above the bilge as practicable, secured to protect against...) Batteries must be accessible for maintenance and removal. (d) Connections must be made to battery terminals... the electrolyte. (f) Battery chargers must have an ammeter connected in the charging circuit. (g)...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  13. BATTERIES. Topological defect dynamics in operando battery nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, A; Singer, A; Clark, J N; Cho, H M; Kim, J W; Harder, R; Maser, J; Meng, Y S; Shpyrko, O G

    2015-06-19

    Topological defects can markedly alter nanomaterial properties. This presents opportunities for "defect engineering," where desired functionalities are generated through defect manipulation. However, imaging defects in working devices with nanoscale resolution remains elusive. We report three-dimensional imaging of dislocation dynamics in individual battery cathode nanoparticles under operando conditions using Bragg coherent diffractive imaging. Dislocations are static at room temperature and mobile during charge transport. During the structural phase transformation, the lithium-rich phase nucleates near the dislocation and spreads inhomogeneously. The dislocation field is a local probe of elastic properties, and we find that a region of the material exhibits a negative Poisson's ratio at high voltage. Operando dislocation imaging thus opens a powerful avenue for facilitating improvement and rational design of nanostructured materials. PMID:26089511

  14. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  15. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  16. Mapping the Challenges of Magnesium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaehee; Sahadeo, Emily; Noked, Malachi; Lee, Sang Bok

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable Mg battery has been considered a major candidate as a beyond lithium ion battery technology, which is apparent through the tremendous works done in the field over the past decades. The challenges for realization of Mg battery are complicated, multidisciplinary, and the tremendous work done to overcome these challenges is very hard to organize in a regular review paper. Additionally, we claim that organization of the huge amount of information accumulated by the great scientific progress achieved by various groups in the field will shed the light on the unexplored research domains and give clear perspectives and guidelines for next breakthrough to take place. In this Perspective, we provide a convenient map of Mg battery research in a form of radar chart of Mg electrolytes, which evaluates the electrolyte under the important components of Mg batteries. The presented radar charts visualize the accumulated knowledge on Mg battery and allow for navigation of not only the current research state but also future perspective of Mg battery at a glance. PMID:27088555

  17. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  18. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  19. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)

  20. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg−1), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  1. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-10-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg-1), new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  2. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  3. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996-2013: method development and detailed accounting by battery type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E O; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows - due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996-2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%. PMID:25782361

  4. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise...

  5. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  6. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  7. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, S; Jeyakumar, A Ebenezer

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space applications. This study is indented to develop ANN model for about 25000 cycles, cycled under various temperature, Depth Of Discharge (DOD) settings with constant charge voltage limit to predict the retained capacity and End of Discharge Voltage (EODV). To extract firm conclusion and distinguish the capability of ANN method, the predicted values are compared with experimental result by statistical method and Bland Altman plot.

  8. Lightweight lead acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This report presents architectures, designs and chemistries for novel static soluble lead acid batteries, with the objective of producing a lightweight lead acid battery for improved specific energy. The demands for lightweight lead-acid batteries come from an expanding hybrid electric vehicle market demanding improved battery specific energy. There are several avenues for improving battery specific energy; the main two are improved active material utilisation efficiency and grid weight reduc...

  9. Ageing study of a supercapacitor-battery storage system

    OpenAIRE

    VULTURESCU, B; BUTTERBACH, S; Coquery, G.; FORGEZ, C; Friedrich, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study about a battery ageing methodology of a storage system formed by supercapacitors and lead-acid battery. The design of the hybrid system, based on a simple power flow management – the battery current clipping – is briefly summarized in order to outline the main benefit of the hybridization: the reduction of losses within the battery. The experimental setup will allow quantifying the impact of the hybridization on the battery lifetime by means...

  10. Constructing Battery-Aware Virtual Backbones in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Ma; Yuanyuan Yang; Zhenghao Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A critical issue in battery-powered sensor networks is to construct energy efficient virtual backbones for network routing. Recent study in battery technology reveals that batteries tend to discharge more power than needed and reimburse the over-discharged power if they are recovered. In this paper we first provide a mathematical battery model suitable for implementation in sensor networks. We then introduce the concept of battery-aware connected dominating set (BACDS) and show that in gener...

  11. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation of...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  12. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  13. Battery Health Estimation in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Klass, Verena

    2015-01-01

    For the broad commercial success of electric vehicles (EVs), it is essential to deeply understand how batteries behave in this challenging application. This thesis has therefore been focused on studying automotive lithium-ion batteries in respect of their performance under EV operation. Particularly, the  need  for  simple  methods  estimating  the  state-of-health  (SOH)  of batteries during EV operation has been addressed in order to ensure safe, reliable, and cost-effective EV operation. W...

  14. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.;

    2005-01-01

    , therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies withspecific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery...... been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by theEuropean Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this...

  15. Fuzzy logic-based battery charge controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic power system are generally classified according to their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations, and how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads, photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems. Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). The lead acid battery, although know for more than one hundred years, has currently offered the best response in terms of price, energetic efficiency and lifetime. The main function of controller or regulator in PV system is too fully charge the battery without permitting overcharge while preventing reverse current flow at night. If a no-self-regulating solar array is connected to lead acid batteries with no overcharge protection, battery life will be compromised. Simple controllers contain a transistor that disconnects or reconnects the PV in the charging circuit once a pre-set voltage is reached. More sophisticated controllers utilize pulse with modulation (PWM) to assure the battery is being fully charged. The first 70% to 80% of battery capacity is easily replaced, but the last 20% to 30% requires more attention and therefore more complexity. This complexity is avoided by using a skilled operators experience in the form of the rules. Thus a fuzzy control system seeks to control the battery that cannot be controlled well by a conventional control such as PID, PD, PI etc., due to the unavailability of an accurate mathematical model of the battery. In this paper design of an intelligent battery charger, in which the control algorithm is implemented with fuzzy logic is discussed. The digital architecture is implemented with

  16. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  17. All silicon lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used as power supplies for portable electronic devices due to their higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities compared to other electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as lead-acid, Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries. Developing a novel battery chemistry, ‘‘all silicon lithium-ion batteries’’, using lithium iron silicate as the cathode and silicon as the anode, is the primary aim of this Ph.D project. This licentiate thesis is focused on improv...

  18. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  19. Solar batteries based on nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, 90 percent of the solar cells based on silicon are single batteries. The main factors preventing the photoenergetics extensive operation can be applied as follows: 1) the high cost of silicon production for solar cells, which is the main material; 2) the production of solar cells requires increased financial charges; 3) the relatively low efficiency of silicon solar cells (12-18 percent) and finally the last reason - there is no enough effective investment mechanism to solve the problem in most countries. One of the most promising ways to reduce the cost of solar electrical power is the creation of a new generation of solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures. There are huge amount of research works being done in the field of constant theoretical and practical consequences of implementation of nanostructures

  20. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today...... was developed. The parameters milling time, milling intensity, number of balls and form of the alloying metals were investigated. Based on this a final alloying technique for the subsequent preparation of electrode materials was established. The technique comprises milling for 4 hours twice possibly...... followed by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was...

  1. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  2. Optimized batteries for cars with dual electrical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douady, J. P.; Pascon, C.; Dugast, A.; Fossati, G.

    During recent years, the increase in car electrical equipment has led to many problems with traditional starter batteries (such as cranking failure due to flat batteries, battery cycling etc.). The main causes of these problems are the double function of the automotive battery (starter and service functions) and the difficulties in designing batteries well adapted to these two functions. In order to solve these problems a new concept — the dual-concept — has been developed with two separate batteries: one battery is dedicated to the starter function and the other is dedicated to the service function. Only one alternator charges the two batteries with a separation device between the two electrical circuits. The starter battery is located in the engine compartment while the service battery is located at the rear of the car. From the analysis of new requirements, battery designs have been optimized regarding the two types of functions: (i) a small battery with high specific power for the starting function; for this function a flooded battery with lead-calcium alloy grids and thin plates is proposed; (ii) for the service function, modified sealed gas-recombinant batteries with cycling and deep-discharge ability have been developed. The various advantages of the dual-concept are studied in terms of starting reliability, battery weight, and voltage supply. The operating conditions of the system and several dual electrical architectures have also been studied in the laboratory and the car. The feasibility of the concept is proved.

  3. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  4. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Haegyeom Kim; Kyu-Young Park; Jihyun Hong; Kisuk Kang

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg−1 total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg−1 total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring th...

  5. Modelling Thermal Effects of Battery Cells inside Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The poster presents a methodology to account for thermal effects on battery cells to improve the typical thermal performances in a pack through heating calculations generally performed under the operating condition assumption. The aim is to analyze the issues based on battery thermo......-physical characteristics and their impact on the electrical state of battery cells(Khan, Mulder et al. 2013, Khan, Andreasen et al. 2014, Khan et al. 2014, Khan, Mulder et al. 2014, Khan, Nielsen et al. 2014). Based on this analysis, we derive strategies in achieving the goal, and then propose a battery thermal management...

  6. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.;

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries. Three parallel strategies will be followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC materials will allow the performance, stability and cyclability of state of the art cells to be improved. (ii) Understanding...

  7. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  8. Quantum and Classical Molecular Dynamics of Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Na/Li-based Batteries: Molecular Origins of the Conductivity Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent-Luna, Jose Manuel; Ortiz-Roldan, Jose Manuel; Hamad, Said; Tena-Zaera, Ramon; Calero, Sofia; Anta, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-18

    Compositional effects on the charge-transport properties of electrolytes for batteries based on room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are well-known. However, further understanding is required about the molecular origins of these effects, in particular regarding the replacement of Li by Na. In this work, we investigate the use of RTILs in batteries, by means of both classical molecular dynamics (MD), which provides information about structure and molecular transport, and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), which provides information about structure. The focus has been placed on the effect of adding either Na(+) or Li(+) to 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium [C4 PYR](+) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [Tf2 N](-) . Radial distribution functions show excellent agreement between MD and AIMD, which ensures the validity of the force fields used in the MD. This is corroborated by the MD results for the density, the diffusion coefficients, and the total conductivity of the electrolytes, which reproduce remarkably well the experimental observations for all studied Na/Li concentrations. By extracting partial conductivities, it is demonstrated that the main contribution to the conductivity is that of [C4 PYR](+) and [Tf2 N](-) . However, addition of Na(+) /Li(+) , although not significant on its own, produces a dramatic decrease in the partial conductivities of the RTIL ions. The origin of this indirect effect can be traced to the modification of the microscopic structure of the liquid as observed from the radial distribution functions, owing to the formation of [Na(Tf2 N)n ]((n-1)-) and [Li(Tf2 N)n ]((n-1)-) clusters at high concentrations. This formation hinders the motion of the large ions, hence reducing the total conductivity. We demonstrate that this clustering effect is common to both Li and Na, showing that both ions behave in a similar manner at a microscopic level in spite of their distinct ionic radii. This is an interesting finding for extending Li-ion and Li-air

  9. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  10. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang;

    2013-01-01

    propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  11. Sealed Cylindrical Silver/Zinc Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RBC Technologies has significanly improved the cycle life and wet life of silver/zinc battery technology through novel separator and anode formulations. This...

  12. Electrochemistry-based Battery Modeling for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications. In recent years, they have become popular as a source of power for electric vehicles such as cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and commericial passenger aircraft. In such application domains, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. To implement such technologies, it is crucial to understand how batteries work and to capture that knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis algorithms. In this work, we develop electrochemistry-based models of lithium-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of usage profiles. This paper reports on the progress of such a model, with results demonstrating the model validity and accurate EOD predictions.

  13. Predicting Battery Life for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a novel battery health management technology for the new generation of electric unmanned aerial vehicles powered by long-life, high-density,...

  14. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    CERN Document Server

    Braff, W A; Buie, C R

    2014-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less, hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm$^{-2}$ at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92\\% at 25\\% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  15. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  16. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  17. 5 KV low-induction capactitor battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1.2 MJ capacitor battery is developed and constructed for creating strong magnetic fields for thermonuclear facilities, pumping of laser active media. The capacitor battery is assembled of 512 IMU5-150 and 128 IS5-200 capacitors. The design is based on division of the capacitor battery in 40 sections. The energy commutation is performed by air spark gaps of the trigatron type with 24 to 60 nH inductance. Electromagnetic switches are made on the base of the EP 41V-33 relay. A low-induction generator is developed for spark gap ignition. The capacitor sections, each of them comprising 16 capacitors, and loadings are switched-in either by means of cables or flat lines. Accidents were not observed during operation of 20 sections of the capacitor battery (capacitors break-down, break of polyethylene isolation, deformation of tyre-wires)

  18. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  19. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  20. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  1. 400 Wh/kg Secondary Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Summary Lithium-ion battery technology will not provide significant breakthroughs beyond 200 Wh/kg. It will not provide adequate specific energy and cycle life for...

  2. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  3. Regulatory trends in the battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of regulations in the battery industry is extensive and also complex. In the future, regulations will become more demanding and will encompass issues not currently considered. Increased focus on environmental issues by government bodies, environmental groups, local communities will result in more strict compliance standards. The USA is currently leading the world's battery industries in the scope and compliance level of regulations. By studying trends in the USA, the rest of the battery industry can prepare itself for the future operating environment. This paper reviews the most critical areas of air pollution, blood-lead levels and recycling. The paper concludes that the battery industry must adopt a culture of exceeding current compliance standards. (orig.)

  4. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  5. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  6. Methods testing electrodes for advanced batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, V.; Vondrák, Jiří

    Vol. 2. Brno: Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2000 - (Vondrák, J.; Sedlaříková, M.), s. 13.1-13.4 ISBN 80-214-1615-7. [Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /1./. Brno (CZ), 28.08.2000-01.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrodes * batteries * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  7. The Electric Vehicle Lithium Battery Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lin; Yuankai Liu; Wang Ping; Fang Hong

    2013-01-01

    With the global increase in the number of vehicles, environmental protection and energy issues had become increasingly prominent. People paid more and more attention to the electric vehicle as the future direction of the vehicle, but because the battery technology was relatively backward, it had become the bottleneck in the development of electric vehicles. So in the existing conditions, a perfect battery Monitoring technology had become more and more important. This paper firstly analyzed th...

  8. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  9. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  10. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  11. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Babatunde; M. B. Shitta

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC) is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: batter...

  12. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  13. Overview of battery technology for HEV

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, S; Debal, P.; Conte, V; Alaküla, M.; D. Santini; Duvall, M.; Van Winkel, R.; Badin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Several electric energy storage systems exist with different principles and characteristics. On the other hand, there are also various hybrid electric vehicles with specific requirements. This paper gives an overview of the advantages/disadvantages and practical aspects of battery technologies and ultracapacitors which can be used in hybrid electric vehicle applications. The summary is limited to only likely candidates. This paper is not aimed at specialists of battery technology, but should ...

  14. Battery and Power Consumption of Pocket PCs

    OpenAIRE

    Assim Sagahyroon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increased functionality in today’s portable devices, battery life and energy consumption continue to be a major concern for both designers and users. Unfortunately battery technology is not keeping pace with the energy requirements of these devices and therefore energy-efficient hardware design techniques, software optimization, energy management, and the design of efficient communication protocols continue to be explored by researches as viable means that would assist in the...

  15. Nye materialer til fremtidens genopladelige batterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Kolle; Henriksen, Christian; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe Bomholdt

    2015-01-01

    Udnyttelse af genopladelige batterier i el-biler og til opbevaring af vedvarende energi sætter nye krav til batteriets ydeevne, effektivitet, sikkerhed og ikke mindst pris. I udviklingen af nye batterimaterialer er detaljeret forståelse af de processer, der sker på atomar skala, når batteriet af......- og oplades, essentielt for udviklingen af designkriterier for fremtidens forbedrede batterier....

  16. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  17. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  18. Upgrading Li-battery performance via nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Lithium batteries,as a main or back-up power source for mobile communication devices,portable electronic devices and the like,have attracted much attention in the scientific and industrial fields due to their high electromotive force and high energy density.To meet the demand for batteries with higher energy density and improved cycle characteristics in recent years,many attempts have been made to develop new electrode materials or design new structures of electrode materials.

  19. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  20. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-01

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics. PMID:26083530

  1. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Mierlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery management systems (BMS are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, such as shunt resistor, shuttling capacitor, inductor/transformer based and DC energy converters. The shuttling capacitor balancing systems in particular have not been subject to much research efforts however, due to their perceived low balancing speed and high cost. This paper tries to fill this gap by briefly discussing the shuttling capacitor cell balancing topologies, focusing on the single switched capacitor (SSC cell balancing and proposing a novel procedure to improve the SSC balancing system performance. This leads to a new control strategy for the SSC system that can decrease the balancing system size, cost, balancing time and that can improve the SSC balancing system efficiency.

  2. Preparation of organic rechargeable battery using phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenols are antioxidant compounds and have the property of electrochemical oxidation. Exploiting the antioxidant properties of the phenol a rechargeable battery was prepared by coupling phenol with resorcinol through salt bridge. The voltage power and stability of this battery was found to depend upon the concentration of the phenols, concentration of the electrolyte, power/voltage of charger and porosity of the salt bridge which connects the two solutions. The salt bridges used for this battery include piece of card board and wicks made of the loose and tightly woven cotton threads i.e. the wick of spirit lamp and the wick used in lantern. Sodium hydroxide solution was used as electrolyte and conductivity improving medium. The concentration of the electrolyte was investigated using its solutions of various concentrations in separate experiments. The voltage of the charger was investigated by using charger/transformers of 6.15 and 3 volt. This five cell phenol battery gives a maximum voltage of 8000 milli volt at the optimum conditions. This battery was recharged using a 15 volt Dc power supply. The charging and theoretical aspects of the battery are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  3. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-12-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  4. Performance Comparison of Commercial Mobile Phone Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Azrulnizam; Buniran, Surani; Sulaiman, Mohd Ali

    2002-12-01

    Mobile phone is not only accepted as a communication apparatus, but also as a contemporary life style. Multifunctional mobile phone requires high energy density battery and at the same time, the miniaturization of the device requires slimmer and lighter battery. There are many brands of lithium-ion battery manufactured by different companies available in the market. In order to focus on the perspective of the battery performance, a study on the performance of the commercial battery was conducted. Various brands and designs of lithium-ion batteries manufactured by different companies from different countries were purchased from open market. Samples were analyzed based on the cycle life and discharging rate. The cycle life tests were performed with 1C current discharge, whereas the discharge rate was performed using discharge current at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C. Recovery capacity at high rate discharge, 2C is about 90 to 96% of 0.2C capacity. Cycle life performance is above 300 cycles and some good sample can achieve more than 500 cycles.

  5. Dynamic battery cell model and state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, S.; Vepa, R.; Shaheed, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    Mathematical modelling and the dynamic simulation of battery storage systems can be challenging and demanding due to the nonlinear nature of the battery chemistry. This paper introduces a new dynamic battery model, with application to state of charge estimation, considering all possible aspects of environmental conditions and variables. The aim of this paper is to present a suitable convenient, generic dynamic representation of rechargeable battery dynamics that can be used to model any Lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The proposed representation is used to develop a dynamic model considering the thermal balance of heat generation mechanism of the battery cell and the ambient temperature effect including other variables such as storage effects, cyclic charging, battery internal resistance, state of charge etc. The results of the simulations have been used to study the characteristics of a Lithium-ion battery and the proposed battery model is shown to produce responses within 98% of known experimental measurements.

  6. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  7. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  8. Battery-powered transport systems. Possible methods of automatically charging drive batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    In modern driverless transport systems, not only easy maintenance of the drive battery is important but also automatic charging during times of standstill. Some systems are presented; one system is pointed out in particular in which 100 batteries can be charged at the same time.

  9. High Threshold for Lead Accumulators Helps the Battery Industry to Recover in Q2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Along with release of relevant access conditions of the lead acid accumulator industry and increasing popularity of new-type batteries including lithium battery and lead-carbon battery, etc., the battery industry recovered in the first

  10. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  11. Standby battery requirements for telecommunications power

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. J.

    The requirements for standby power for telecommunications are changing as the network moves from conventional systems to Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. These new systems require higher power levels closer to the user but the level of availability and reliability cannot be compromised if the network is to provide service in the event of a failure of the public utility. Many parts of these new networks are ac rather than dc powered with UPS systems for back-up power. These generally have lower levels of reliability than dc systems and the network needs to be designed such that overall reliability is not reduced through appropriate levels of redundancy. Mobile networks have different power requirements. Where there is a high density of nodes, continuity of service can be reasonably assured with short autonomy times. Furthermore, there is generally no requirement that these networks are the provider of last resort and therefore, specifications for continuity of power are directed towards revenue protection and overall reliability targets. As a result of these changes, battery requirements for reserve power are evolving. Shorter autonomy times are specified for parts of the network although a large part will continue to need support for hours rather minutes. Operational temperatures are increasing and battery solutions that provide longer life in extreme conditions are becoming important. Different battery technologies will be discussed in the context of these requirements. Conventional large flooded lead/acid cells both with pasted and tubular plates are used in larger central office applications but the majority of requirements are met with valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries. The different types of VRLA battery will be described and their suitability for various applications outlined. New developments in battery construction and battery materials have improved both performance and reliability in recent years. Alternative technologies are also being proposed

  12. Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Toksoz, Tuna; Redding, Joshua; Michini, Matthew; Vavrina, Matthew; Vian, John; Michini, Bernard J.; How, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a hardware platform for automated battery changing and charging for multiple UAV agents. The automated station holds a bu er of 8 batteries in a novel dual-drum structure that enables a "hot" battery swap, thus allowing the vehicle to remain powered on throughout the battery changing process. Each drum consists of four battery bays, each of which is connected to a smart-charger for proper battery maintenance and charging. The hot-swap capability in combination with local...

  13. Solar Battery Charger in CMOS 0.25 um Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wang; Chang-Ching Huang; Tian-Jen Wang

    2014-01-01

    A solar cell powered Li-ion battery charger in CMOS 0.25um is proposed. The solar battery charger consists of a DC/DC boost converter and a battery charger. The voltage generated by a solar cell is up converted from 0.65V to 1.8V, which is used as the VDD of the battery charger.  In this way, the solar battery charger automatically converts solar energy to electricity and stores it directly to a Li-ion rechargeable battery. In this system, a super capacitor is needed as a charge buffer betwee...

  14. Ensure the electric power system's durability through battery monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Battery monitoring is used to acquire information about battery conditions. It’s a regular technology that most of us uses on daily bases. The charge gauge in a cellphone, consisting of bars which indicate the degree of charge left in the battery is an example. Battery monitoring gives the cellphone user information about the battery. The background to the thesis work is that this technology is requested for vehicles because empty or broken batteries are one of the most common causes for invo...

  15. Sodium-sulfur batteries for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueber, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Power levels for future space missions will be much higher than are presently attainable using nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries. Development of a high energy density rechargeable battery is essential in being able to provide these higher power levels without tremendous weight penalties. Studies conducted by both the Air Force and private industry have identified the sodium-sulfur battery as the best candidate for a next generation battery system. The advantages of the sodium-sulfur battery over the nickel-cadmium battery are discussed.

  16. Factors on Storage Performance of MH-Ni Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong; Jia Chunming; Xing Zhiqiang; Li Li; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The open voltage of batteries shows different status after MH-Ni batteries are stored for a period of time.Some batteries with 0, 0.9 ~ 1.1V and above 1.1 V were chosen to study their corresponding internal resistances, open voltages and the reduction of capacities, etc.On the basis of battery reaction principle, battery samples were analyzed,and factors causing different storage performance were found out.Therefore, some references on the improvement of battery storage performance were provided.

  17. Efficient and powerful batteries for driverless transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In driverless transportation systems batteries are playing an essential role. The capacitive operation or cycling of driverless systems require the use of different battery systems. Energy supply concepts have to be based on the perspective functional descriptions. The required data comprise full details on discharging processes (temporal current flows), intermediate and complete charging, ambient temperature ranges (which determine the type of battery to be used), and the minimum discharge voltage. Data on the exchange of batteries as well as on the maximum weight and volume of batteries complete the list of data. Any systems evaluation of the batteries to be used has to take account of the operating conditions.

  18. A Thermal Runaway Simulation on a Lithium Titanate Battery and the Battery Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electrochemical and thermal model, a coupled electro-thermal runaway model was developed and implemented using finite element methods. The thermal decomposition reactions when the battery temperature exceeds the material decomposition temperature were embedded into the model. The temperature variations of a lithium titanate battery during a series of charge-discharge cycles under different current rates were simulated. The results of temperature and heat generation rate demonstrate that the greater the current, the faster the battery temperature is rising. Furthermore, the thermal influence of the overheated cell on surrounding batteries in the module was simulated, and the variation of temperature and heat generation during thermal runaway was obtained. It was found that the overheated cell can induce thermal runaway in other adjacent cells within 3 mm distance in the battery module if the accumulated heat is not dissipated rapidly.

  19. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  20. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.