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Sample records for apricots

  1. 21 CFR 145.115 - Canned apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv) Apricot pits... brown sugar and honey, an appropriate statement would be “___ sirup of brown sugar and honey” the...

  2. Studies on cloud stability of apricot nectar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siliha, H.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cloud loss behaviour in pasteurized apricot nectar was found to be different from that of other fruit juices. The cloud particles settled slowly on standing and a gel formed. On standing for a longer period the gel contracts and a clear supernatant layer which can be considered partly as syneresis w

  3. S-Genotype Profiles of Turkish Apricot Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ugurtan YILMAZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, gametophytic self-incompatibility, controlled by a single locus with several allelic variants, is one of the major problems preventing self-fertilization. Among fruit trees, apricots show to a high degree self-incompatibility, especially in Middle-Asian and Iranian-Caucasian eco-geographical groups. In the present study, self-(incompatibility characteristics of a total of 236 apricot genotypes (218 Turkish and 18 foreign found within the National Apricot Germplasms of Apricot Research Institute in Malatya, Turkey was studied. Analyses were carried out by using four primer pairs (SRc-F and SRc-R, EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD, AprSC8-R and PaConsI-F, AprFBC8-F and AprFBC8-R. A total of 11 S-RNase alleles (S2, S3, S6, S7, S8, S9, S11, S12, S13, S20 and Sc were determined in the 236 apricot genotypes. As Turkish and foreign apricot genotypes are determined mostly self-incompatible, the data obtained hereby might be of good use for apricot breeding programs and more practically, for apricot new plantations; thus pollinator cultivars should be considered when self-incompatible apricot cultivars are being used.

  4. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  5. 78 FR 62963 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... channels, thereby fostering consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and improving returns to growers... been to ensure that only acceptable quality apricots enter fresh market channels to foster consumer satisfaction, increase sales, and improve returns to growers. The Washington apricot industry recognizes...

  6. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

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    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  7. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  8. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots.

  9. Application of Photothermal Methods for Quantification of Carotenoids in Apricot Jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Stéger-Máté, M.; Végvári, Gy

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes, found in a diversity of fruit-containing foods, are important sources of antioxidants; a good example is apricot jam. In the study described in this paper, both the total carotenoid content (TCC) as well as the content of $$\\\\upbeta $$β-carotene in six different apricot jams were quant

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

    2011-07-01

    Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

  11. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  12. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

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    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  13. Volatile Compounds of New Promising Dried Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. Genotypes

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    Burhanettin IMRAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has rich wild apricot populations and all Turkish apricot cultivars were previously selected among wild apricots. On this background for apricot breeding, six new late flowering dried apricot genotypes were taken under study, along with wide spread cv. ‘Hacihaliloglu’; all genotypes were examined in terms of volatile compounds using Headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction - Mass Spectrometry (HSSPME/GC/MS techniques. The most important volatiles of apricot genotypes were aldehydes, alcohols, esters, terpenes, ketones and acids. Among these compounds, ethanol, hexanal, 3-carene, squalene, acetic acid, tetradecaonic acid, pentadecaonic acid, octadecaonic acid, n- hexadecaonic acid and 1-hdroxy-2-propanone were present in all genotypes studied at certain levels. In general, total concentrations of aroma compounds were higher in some promising genotypes under study than within ‘Hacihaliloglu’ cultivar, except total alcohol compound (53.33%. Volatile compounds, particularly esters, were the major contributors to fruity, floral and pleasant fruit flavours. The highest esters’ compound contents were detected in ‘N95’ (9.2% and ‘N57’ (2.18% genotypes, while ‘Hacihaliloglu’ had 1.61% ester compounds. Lacton (γ-decalactone was a key aroma compound of apricot. γ-decalactone was detected ranging between 0.4-1.13% in all genotypes, except cv. ‘Hacihaliloglu’. The hereby obtained results showed that the volatile composition depended largely upon the apricot genotypes, moment of harvest, growing conditions and cultural applications that may all affect fruit quality. These results represent valuable starting points for apricot breeding programs.

  14. 78 FR 1127 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... apricots enter fresh market channels, thereby ensuring consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and... fresh market channels, thereby ensuring consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and improving returns... shipped to fresh markets, thereby affecting consumer demand. There is also concern that if overall...

  15. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  16. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.

  17. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United... importation into the continental United States of fresh apricot, sweet cherry, and plumcot fruit from South... (Prunus armeniaca L.), sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L., and plumcot (Prunus domestica x...

  18. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh apricot, sweet...

  19. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  20. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  1. Scientific opinion : Acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot kernels and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. Cyanide is of high acute toxicity in humans. The lethal dose is reported to be 0.5–3.5 mg/kg body weight (bw). An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg bw was derived from an e

  2. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-01-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  3. Determination of self-(incompatibility in some Turkish cultivated and wild apricots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, self-(in compatibility of 34 wild apricot genotypes, called as Sakit apricots, sampled from Sakit valley located in east Mediterranean region of Turkey and 9 well known Turkish apricot cultivars were determined by using molecular methods. Genomic PCR with S-RNase and SFB-specific primers was conducted using the degenerate primers EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD for the amplification of the second intron region of the S-RNase gene. To amplify the first intron, the fluorescently labelled (JOE forward primer SRc-F was used in combination with the reverse primer SRc-R. According to the results, Sc (self-compatible allele is not present in all wild and cultivated materials. All wild genotypes had same S allele (S6S19 composition indicating they do not carry the SC-haplotype. These wild materials previously reported self-compatible by fruit set studies on field. Mutations rendering the S-locus non-functional in these genotypes can be supposed and checked in the future. The most important dried apricot cultivars of Turkey such as Hacihaliloglu, Kabaasi, and Cataloglu were observed to be self-incompatible cultivars.

  4. Inheritance of S-genotypes in Paviot × Kabaasi apricot F1 progenies

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    Zehra Tuğba Murathan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility plays an important role in the fertilization of fruit species such as apricot. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shows gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. In this study, S-alleles of 77 F1 progenies derived from Paviot, which is one of the French local cultivars, and Kabaasi, one of the most important Turkish dried apricot cultivars, parents were identified by S-RNase intron regions polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The results from the S-allele PCR analysis revealed that the Paviot female parent had an ScS2 genotype and the Kabaasi male parent had S1S9 alleles. Forty-three of the F1 progenies showed self-compatibility allele (Sc by having either ScS9 or ScS1 alleles. Thirty-four of the F1 progenies were self-incompatible by having either S2S1 or S2S9 alleles. The distributions of detected alleles in F1 progenies were determined as follows: ScS1 31.2%, S1S2 27.3%, ScS9 24.7% and S2S9 16.8%. The results from the study are relevant for the data obtained in apricot breeding programmes in the selection of crossing combinations and in the establishment of commercial orchards.

  5. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  6. Effect on effective diffusion coefficients and investigation of shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apricot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togrul, Inci Turk; Ispir, Ayse [Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This article represents the results of the variation in density and shrinkage of apricots during its osmotic dehydration. Shrinkage was investigated by means of dimensionless volume, diameter and length. Various osmotic agents such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltodextrin and sorbitol were used. It was found that the shrinkage of apricots could be well correlated with the moisture content of the sample during osmotic dehydration. The relationship between dimensionless parameters and moisture content was investigated by using eight non-linear models for each osmotic agent. It was find that the following proposed model can be confidently use for explaining the effect of shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apricots.V/V{sub 0},D/D{sub 0},L/L{sub 0},{rho}/{rho}{sub 0}=a+b. exp (cX)+d. exp (e.X{sup f})In addition, the osmotic dehydration kinetics of apricots with and without shrinkage was studied. The effective diffusivities calculated from the diffusional model with and without shrinkage varied from 10.342 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s to 5.139 x 10{sup -9} and from 1.755 x 10{sup -10} and 0.767 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. (author)

  7. Status of Apricot Industry in France%法国杏产业现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙猛; 刘威生

    2012-01-01

    杏是法国最重要的核果类果树,目前总产量仅次于意大利,在欧盟国家中排名第二。该文对当前法国杏的产区分布、经营模式、品种结构、砧木类型、栽培模式、主要病虫害等产业环节进行了较为详细的介绍,以期为我国杏产业的发展提供思路和借鉴。%Apricot is the most important stone fruit trees in France,Apricot total output is second in the EU countries. In the article, the writer introduces in detail the distribution of production area, the mode of pro- duction, the structure of varieties, the type of rootstocks, cultivation patterns, major pests and diseases on apricot in current france, in order to provide directions and experience in the future apricot industry.

  8. Organoleptic and Nutritional evaluation of Apricot products developed for Hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mundeja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. Dietary modifications include DASH diet with less sodium and high potassium and fiber intake. Aim: Development of value added products using dried apricots for hypertensive patients. Methodology: Dried apricot was selected based on its nutritional quality and high potassium content and was incorporated at different % levels in the formulation of two basic tea time snacks i.e. muffins and cookies. The products were studied for their organoleptic and nutritional parameters. Results: Products incorporated with 15% of apricots were most acceptable by the panel members having potassium content of 4.9 ± 0.07 and 4.2 ± 0.05 %, in muffins and cookies respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of muffin was found to be 6.96 ± 1.17, 10.79 ± 0.11 and 0.84 ± 0.05% respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of cookies were found to be 5.86± 0.09, 10.02 ±0.12 and 1.41 ±0.07% respectively. Conclusion: Considering the potassium content and nutritional and organoleptic evaluation it was concluded that apricot incorporated products developed were acceptable by people and inclusion of such fortified common daily use snacks will help community to maintain a healthy life.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  10. 78 FR 62961 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Asadi, M; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in male Wistar rats. Treatments were started 6 h after colitis induction and continued every 24 h for 5 days. Apricot kernel extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o. and 100, 400 mg/kg i.p.) and apricot kernel extract/oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o.) were used as experimental treatments and prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) was used as reference drug. On the day 6, colon tissue was removed and macroscopic and pathologic parameters were evaluated. Ulcer index and total colitis index as representative of macroscopic and histologic parameters respectively showed ameliorating effects in experimental groups especially those treated by intraperitoneal administration route. Results also demonstrated that oil fraction was not able to potentiate the effects of extract. These data suggest that apricot kernel extracts (with or without oil) can be introduced for further mechanistic and clinical studies as a complementary medicine for inflammatory bowel disorders.

  12. Protective Effects of Prunus armeniaca L (Apricot on Low Dose Radiation-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KURUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate radiation-induced kidney damage and the protective effect of apricot against it using histological parameters. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups each containing 10 Sprague Dawley rats as follows: Regc: Rats on a regular diet (control diet for 28 weeks; control group. Regx: Rats on a regular diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Aprc: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks; control for no XRE. Aprx: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Reg+Aprc: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, followed by an apricot diet for the following 20 weeks; control. Reg + Aprx: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week, followed by an apricot diet for 20 weeks. RESULTS: The kidneys of the control groups showed normal kidney histology, whereas Regx group showed major histopathological changes, such as glomerular collapse, hemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. The Aprx and Reg+Aprx groups showed smaller amounts of degeneration. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we suggest that agents with antioxidant properties such as apricot may have a positive effect in the treatment of renal diseases.

  13. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  14. Study on Supercooling Point and Freezing Point in Floral Organs of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under the environment of an artificial climate chamber, supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP) in flower and young fruit at different development stages and freezing injuries of floral organs were studied. The apricot cultivars tested were Kety, Golden Sun and Honghebao. With the development of flower buds, SCP and FP increased, which indicated that their cold resistance decreased. SCP and FP varied with different floral organs. For different apricot cultivars, it was found that, the lower SCP or FP in floral organs was, the more resistant capacity the cultivar had, and the larger the temperature interval from SCP to FP was. SCP was not a constant value, but a range. Frequency distribution of SCP in petals was more dispersing than that in stamens and pistils. Floral organs could maintain a supercooling state to avoid ice formation, but they were sensitive to freezing. Once floral organs froze, they turned brown after thawing.

  15. Antioxidant and Sensorial Properties of Polyfloral Honey with Dried Apricots after One Year of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vulić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenol (TPh and flavonoid (TFd contents, antioxidant and sensorial properties of polyfloral (PH, and polyfloral honey after one year of storage (PHs with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40% were evaluated. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 1.86 times for PH40. After storage time, TPh of PH40s increased slightly lower (1.77 times, compared to PHs. TFd slightly increased, approximately 3.23-fold, from PH to PH40, while PHs showed increase of 5.15-fold for PH40s. Antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. EC50OH varied from 3.36 for PH to 2.29 mg/mL for PH40 and from 3.48 for PHs to 2.68 mg/mL for PH40s; EC50DPPH ranged from 30.60 for PH to 14.95 mg/mL for PH40 and from 31.22 for PHs to 17.43 mg/mL for PH40s; RP0.5 ranged from 66.37 for PH to 31.83 mg/mL for PH40 and from 67.99 for PHs to 35.03 mg/mL for PH40s. Statistical analysis suggested that TPh and TFd were associated with antioxidant activity and colour. Sensory parameters, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory qualities. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory properties were promoted after addition of dried apricots and these parameters stayed improved, since antioxidant compounds present in dried apricots aided in maintenance of honey properties along one year of storage.

  16. Improvement of efficiency of oil extraction from wild apricot kernels by using enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Tejpal Singh; Sharma, Satish Kumar; Sati, Ramesh Chandra; Rao, Virendra Kumar; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Chopra, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate and standardize the protocol for enhancing recovery of oil and quality from cold pressed wild apricot kernels by using various enzymes. Wild apricot kernels were ground into powder in a grinder. Different lots of 3 kg powdered kernel were prepared and treated with different concentrations of enzyme solutions viz. Pectazyme (Pectinase), Mashzyme (Cellulase) and Pectazyme + Mashzyme. Kernel powder mixed with enzyme solutions were kept for 2 h at 50(±2) °C temperature for enzymatic treatment before its use for oil extraction through oil expeller. Results indicate that use of enzymes resulted in enhancement of oil recovery by 9.00-14.22 %. Maximum oil recovery was observed at 0.3-0.4 % enzyme concentration for both the enzymes individually, as well as in combination. All the three enzymatic treatments resulted in increasing oil yield. However, with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination, maximum oil recovery of 47.33 % could be observed against were 33.11 % in control. The oil content left (wasted) in the cake and residue were reduced from 11.67 and 11.60 % to 7.31 and 2.72 % respectively, thus showing a high increase in efficiency of oil recovery from wild apricot kernels. Quality characteristics indicate that the oil quality was not adversely affected by enzymatic treatment. It was concluded treatment of powdered wild apricot kernels with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination was highly effective in increasing oil recovery by 14.22 % without adversely affecting the quality and thus may be commercially used by the industry for reducing wastage of highly precious oil in the cake.

  17. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  18. Technical Regulations for Cultivating Seedlings of Shushanggan apricot%“树上干”杏育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛桂芝; 王瑾; 尚振江; 林德胜

    2014-01-01

    “树上干”杏是一种营养丰富、经济价值高的经济林树种,既可鲜食也可制干,是杏仁、杏肉兼用的优良品种。从“树上干”杏圃地选择、种子处理、播种及土肥水管理等方面对“树上干”杏育苗技术进行归纳总结,为“树上干”杏的科学发展提供理论依据。%As an economic tree, Shushanggan apricot has abundant nutrients and high economic value which can be eat as fresh fruit as well as drying treatment, is a combination variety of almond and apricot meat. The paper summarized the cultivation technologies of seedlings of Shushanggan apricot from some aspects such as selection of apricot nursery, seed treatment, sowing, soil fertilizer and water management, aiming at providing theoretical basis for the scientific development of Shushanggan apricot.

  19. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these glycoside

  20. Simple and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricots (prunus armeniaca L.) by means of reflectance colorimetry and photoacoustic spectrometry spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Buijnsters, J.; Vegvari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performan

  1. Application of carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Oe, Takaaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Japanese apricot liqueur manufacturers are required to control the quality and authenticity of their liqueur products. Citric acid made from corn is the main acidulant used in commercial liqueurs. In this study, we conducted spiking experiments and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid used as an acidulant in Japanese apricot liqueurs. Our results showed that the δ(13)C values detected exogenous citric acid originating from C4 plants but not from C3 plants. The δ(2)H values of citric acid decreased as the amount of citric acid added increased, whether the citric acid originated from C3 or C4 plants. Commercial liqueurs with declared added acidulant provided higher δ(13)C values and lower δ(2)H values than did authentic liqueurs and commercial liqueurs with no declared added acidulant. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses are suitable as routine methods for detecting exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

  2. Method for the isolation of citric acid and malic acid in Japanese apricot liqueur for carbon stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Oe, Takaaki; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-02-15

    A method for detecting the undeclared addition of acidic ingredients is required to control the authenticity of Japanese apricot liqueur. We developed an analytical procedure that minimizes carbon isotope discrimination for measurement of the δ(13)C values of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur. Our results demonstrated that freeze-drying is preferable to nitrogen spray-drying, because it does not significantly affect the δ(13)C values of citric acid and results in smaller isotope discrimination for malic acid. Both 0.1% formic acid and 0.2% phosphoric acid are acceptable HPLC mobile phases for the isolation of citric and malic acid, although the δ(13)C values of malic acid exhibited relatively large variation compared with citric acid following isolation using either mobile phase. The developed procedure allows precise δ(13)C measurements of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur.

  3. Research progress on pharmacological value of Japanese apricot%梅的药理学作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵静; 高志红; 章镇; 王培培; 罗晓燕

    2011-01-01

    With the accelerating pace of life,and increasing the pressure of life,the environmental problem,unhealthy diet and bad lifestyle are leading to emerging diseases.The pharmacological effects of many food products are widely concerned.This paper reviewed the antibacterial and anticancer effects of Japanese apricot and addressed the research focus on Japanese apricot in the future.%该文主要从抑菌和抗癌作用2个方面对医食同源食品梅的药理学作用进行综述,并提出了今后的研究重点。

  4. UFGT: The Key Enzyme Associated with the Petals Variegation in Japanese Apricot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Gong, Qinghua; Ni, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.) is an important ornamental plant in China. One of the traits of petals color variegation is attractive, but its formation mechanism is unclear. In our study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome response to the mutation of “Fuban Tiaozhi” associated with petals variegation in Japanese apricot. As a result, 4,579,040 (white-flowered, WF) and 7,269,883 (red-flowered, RF) reads were mapped to P. persica genes, while 5,006,676 (WF) and 7,907,436 (RF) were mapped to P. persica genomes. There were 960 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified. Gene ontology analysis showed that these genes involved in 37 functional groups including 19 biological processes, 10 cellular components and eight molecular functions. Pathway enrichment annotation demonstrated that highly ranked genes were associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanins transports, plant hormone signal transduction, and transcriptional factors. The expression patterns part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. We found that UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene showed differential expression pattern. The UFGT enzyme activities in RF had a significantly higher than that of WF and lower in the initial stage and increased when the red appeared in the petals, which is identical to the accumulation of anthocyanins. And we also validated the SNPs, leading to the nonsynonymous mutations, in the UFGT by Sanger sequencing which may affect the enzyme activity. In summary, our results provide molecular candidates for better understanding the mechanisms of the variegation in Japanese Apricot. PMID:28223989

  5. Mechanical property evaluation of apricot fruits under quasi-static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some forces and impacts that occur during transporting and handling can reduce the apricot quality. Bruise damage is a major cause of fruit quality loss. Bruises occur under dynamic and static loading when stress induced in the fruit exceeds the failure stress of the fruit tissue. Needless to say that physical and mechanical properties of fruits in the design and optimization of systems related to production, processing and packaging of the products are important. Harvesting, transport, packaging and transportation of fruits and vegetables, result in their bruising which can cause loss of marketability of the fruit by consumers. The term of ‘absorbed energy’ could be used to express the quantity of damage done on the fruit and the high the absorbed energy, the higher the damage on the fruit. The object of this research was due to the importance of apricot fruit and lack of information about the mechanical behavior. Materials and Methods: In this study, apricot fruit variety “Ziaolmolki” was examined to determine some physical and mechanical properties. In order avoid any damage, the fruits were carefully harvested from trees and gathered in plastic boxes in a row, to prevent damage to the apricots. For determination of mechanical properties and levels of impact energy used test axial machine and pendulum device, respectively. Dependent variables (acoustics stiffness, radius of curvature, color characteristic a* and b*, Brix percentage, penetration force, penetration work and penetration deformation and independent variables (impact energy in three levels, temperature and color in 2 levels each were selected and analyzed by block designs with factorial structure. In the experimental design, the fruits were stored in two temperature levels, 3oC and 25oC. Two areas of any fruit (red and yellow areas were subjected to 3 impact energy levels. For each of the 8 levels, 8 fruit samples were selected. Overall, 96 fruits {8 (number

  6. Evaluation of trace element contents of dried apricot samples from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Sibel; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-08-15

    The trace and toxic elements (TEs) were determined in apricot samples by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. Among all determined TEs, iron was found to be the dominant elemental ion as compared with other TEs in apricots followed by zinc and manganese ions. The concentration of essential TEs were observed in the range of 10.4-80.1, 0.92-6.49, 0.97-8.27, 2.96-12.0 microg g(-1), 4.76-28.9 microg kg(-1) and 0.32-0.64 microg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese, zinc, chromium and selenium ions, respectively. While the toxic elemental contents were observed in the range of 0.02-0.72, 0.72-3.77, 2.30-5.83 and 0.08-0.22 microg g(-1) for cadmium, lead, nickel and aluminium ions, respectively. The results were compared with the literature reported values.

  7. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  8. Extraction and characterization of pectin methylesterase from Alyanak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, M Ümit; Şener, Aysun

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine some of the biochemical properties of pectin methylesterase (PME) from Alyanak apricot which is an important variety grown in Malatya region of Turkey. The enzyme had high activity in a pH range of 7.0-8.0 with the maximal activity occurring at pH 7.5. However, the enzyme activity at high and low pH values was very low. The optimum temperature for maximal PME activity was found to be 60 °C. The activity of PME has been enhanced by NaCl, particularly at 0.15 M. Km and Vmax values for Alyanak apricot PME using apple pectin as substrate were found to be 1.69 mg/mL (r(2) = 0.992) and 3.41 units/mL, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 30-45 °C/10 min whereas it lost nearly all of its activity at 80 °C/10 min. Ea and Z values were found to be 206.1 kJ/mol (r(2) = 0.993) and 10.62 °C (r(2) = 0.992), respectively.

  9. Origin and dissemination of the pollen-part mutated SC haplotype which confers self-compatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Júlia; Pedryc, Andrzej; Hegedus, Attila

    2007-01-01

    In China, its centre of origin, apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is self-incompatible. However, most European cultivars are self-compatible. In most cases, self-compatibility is a result of a loss-of-function mutation within the pollen gene (SFB) in the SC haplotype. Controlled pollinations performed in this work revealed that the cross 'Ceglédi óriás' (S8S9)x'Ceglédi arany' (SCS9) set well, as expected, but the reciprocal cross did not. Apricot S8, S9 and SC haplotypes were analysed using a multilevel approach including fruit set evaluation, pollen tube growth analysis, RNase activity assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and DNA sequencing of the S-RNase and SFB alleles. SFB8 was revealed to be the first known progenitor allele of a naturally occurring self-compatibility allele in Prunus, and consequently SC=The first intron of SC-RNase is a phase one intron, indicating its more recent evolutionary origin compared with the second intron. Sequence analysis of different cultivars revealed that more single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulated in SC-RNase than in SFBC. New methods were designed to allow high-throughput analysis of S genotypes of apricot cultivars and selections. S-RNase sequence data from various sources helped to elucidate the putative origin and dissemination of self-compatibility in apricot conferred by the SC haplotype.

  10. Production and anti-diabetic activity of soluble dietary fiber from apricot pulp by Trichoderma viride fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Qiaohui; Ou, Yangjie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared by Trichoderma viride fermentation by using apricot pulp as the raw material. A four-factor and three-level response surface methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation conditions affecting the extraction rate of SDF. The optimum fermentation conditions were listed: crude enzyme volume, 9.59 mL g(-1); fermentation temperature, 43 °C; initial pH, 5.36; fermentation time, 6.47 h. Under these conditions, 15.69% yield was obtained and its relative error with the predicted theoretical value (15.87%) was 1.14%. The dietary fiber content of SDF was 84.0% whereas it was found to be 43.1% in apricot pulp flour. The anti-diabetic effect of apricot pulp SDF on rat models of diabetes was investigated. Both the blood glucose level and body weight were significantly changed in apricot pulp SDF-treated groups compared with the diabetic group (p pulp SDF relieved the symptoms of diabetic rats.

  11. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  12. An S-locus independent pollen factor confers self-compatibility in 'Katy' apricot.

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    Elena Zuriaga

    Full Text Available Loss of pollen-S function in Prunus self-compatible cultivars has been mostly associated with deletions or insertions in the S-haplotype-specific F-box (SFB genes. However, self-compatible pollen-part mutants defective for non-S-locus factors have also been found, for instance, in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca cv. 'Canino'. In the present study, we report the genetic and molecular analysis of another self-compatible apricot cv. termed 'Katy'. S-genotype of 'Katy' was determined as S(1S(2 and S-RNase PCR-typing of selfing and outcrossing populations from 'Katy' showed that pollen gametes bearing either the S(1- or the S(2-haplotype were able to overcome self-incompatibility (SI barriers. Sequence analyses showed no SNP or indel affecting the SFB(1 and SFB(2 alleles from 'Katy' and, moreover, no evidence of pollen-S duplication was found. As a whole, the obtained results are compatible with the hypothesis that the loss-of-function of a S-locus unlinked factor gametophytically expressed in pollen (M'-locus leads to SI breakdown in 'Katy'. A mapping strategy based on segregation distortion loci mapped the M'-locus within an interval of 9.4 cM at the distal end of chr.3 corresponding to ∼1.29 Mb in the peach (Prunus persica genome. Interestingly, pollen-part mutations (PPMs causing self-compatibility (SC in the apricot cvs. 'Canino' and 'Katy' are located within an overlapping region of ∼273 Kb in chr.3. No evidence is yet available to discern if they affect the same gene or not, but molecular markers seem to indicate that both cultivars are genetically unrelated suggesting that every PPM may have arisen independently. Further research will be necessary to reveal the precise nature of 'Katy' PPM, but fine-mapping already enables SC marker-assisted selection and paves the way for future positional cloning of the underlying gene.

  13. An S-locus independent pollen factor confers self-compatibility in 'Katy' apricot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Molina, Laura; Gisbert, Ana D; Badenes, María L; Romero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Loss of pollen-S function in Prunus self-compatible cultivars has been mostly associated with deletions or insertions in the S-haplotype-specific F-box (SFB) genes. However, self-compatible pollen-part mutants defective for non-S-locus factors have also been found, for instance, in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) cv. 'Canino'. In the present study, we report the genetic and molecular analysis of another self-compatible apricot cv. termed 'Katy'. S-genotype of 'Katy' was determined as S(1)S(2) and S-RNase PCR-typing of selfing and outcrossing populations from 'Katy' showed that pollen gametes bearing either the S(1)- or the S(2)-haplotype were able to overcome self-incompatibility (SI) barriers. Sequence analyses showed no SNP or indel affecting the SFB(1) and SFB(2) alleles from 'Katy' and, moreover, no evidence of pollen-S duplication was found. As a whole, the obtained results are compatible with the hypothesis that the loss-of-function of a S-locus unlinked factor gametophytically expressed in pollen (M'-locus) leads to SI breakdown in 'Katy'. A mapping strategy based on segregation distortion loci mapped the M'-locus within an interval of 9.4 cM at the distal end of chr.3 corresponding to ∼1.29 Mb in the peach (Prunus persica) genome. Interestingly, pollen-part mutations (PPMs) causing self-compatibility (SC) in the apricot cvs. 'Canino' and 'Katy' are located within an overlapping region of ∼273 Kb in chr.3. No evidence is yet available to discern if they affect the same gene or not, but molecular markers seem to indicate that both cultivars are genetically unrelated suggesting that every PPM may have arisen independently. Further research will be necessary to reveal the precise nature of 'Katy' PPM, but fine-mapping already enables SC marker-assisted selection and paves the way for future positional cloning of the underlying gene.

  14. Effects of Low Temperature Stress and INA Bacteria on Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Induction Kinetics in Young Fruit of Two Apricot Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-min; MENG Qing-rui; PENG Wei-xiu; WANG Xue-dong; ZHANG Yuan-hui; SUN Fu-zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; LI Shao-hua

    2002-01-01

    Effects of low temperature and INA bacteria on the change of chlorophyll a fluorescence inyoung fruit from two apricot cultivars were investigated. Low temperature decreased the potential activity(Fv/Fo) ,conversion efficiency of primary light energy (Fv/Fm)of PS Ⅱ and photochemical quenching (qP) inyoung fruit of two apricot cultivars. Low temperature enhanced non-photochemical quenching qN, decreasingthe quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transfer. The presence of ice nucleating active (INA) bacteria in-tensified the effects of low temperature, raised the injury temperature threshold from - 4℃ to - 2 - - 3℃.INA bacteria can be a factor to induce frost susceptibility of apricot fruit. The amount of damaged PS Ⅱ activi-ty center was related to apricot fruit size and cultivar.

  15. Protein kinase Darkener of apricot and its substrate EF1γ regulate organelle transport along microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpinskaya, Anna S; Tuphile, Karine; Rabinow, Leonard; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of organelle transport along microtubules is important for proper distribution of membrane organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm. RNAi-mediated knockdown in cultured Drosophila S2 cells demonstrates that two microtubule-binding proteins, a unique isoform of Darkener of apricot (DOA) protein kinase, and its substrate, translational elongation factor EF1γ, negatively regulate transport of several classes of membrane organelles along microtubules. Inhibition of transport by EF1γ requires its phosphorylation by DOA on serine 294. Together, our results indicate a new role for two proteins that have not previously been implicated in regulation of the cytoskeleton. These results further suggest that the biological role of some of the proteins binding to the microtubule track is to regulate cargo transport along these tracks.

  16. Apricot juice as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprael S. Yaro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of mild steel in 1 M H3PO4 solution by apricot juice was studied at different temperatures by weight loss technique. Adsorption, activation and statistical studies were addressed in this work. Adsorption studies showed that inhibitor adsorbed on metal surface according to Langmuir isotherm. Average value of heat of adsorption was −14.93 kJ/mol indicates a spontaneous physical adsorption on metal surface. Activation parameters did not changed with addition of inhibitor indicates that there is no change in reaction mechanism. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was also applied. This analysis showed that the corrosion rate influenced by temperature, inhibitor concentration and combined interaction of them.

  17. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

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    Rosanna Zivoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  18. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-19

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  19. The effects of mulch types on earliness, fruit set ratios, and yield for apricot

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    Burcu YAMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to enhance earliness and fruit set, which is a crucial factor in apricot production. The study was conducted on an apricot orchard located in Serinyol town of Antakya between 2010 and 2011. In the experiment, ‘Ninfa’, ‘Bebeco’, ‘Aurora’ and ‘Roksana’ cultivars were used. The experimental cultivars were planted on 3 x 6 m in 2006 as one-year-old plants budded on seedling rootstocks. The plants have been irrigated by drip irrigation since their transplantation. In the experiment, there were four treatments as follows: control, transparent polyethylene mulch, organic mulch, and transparent polyethylene mulch + organic mulch. As plastic mulch, a 0.02 mm (UV+AB transparent plastic 1.60 cm in width; and, wheat straw as organic mulch was used. The experiment was designed as split-plot experimental design with 5 replications having 1 tree in each replication. The mulch was applied based on the physiological stages of the trees; prior to break of dormancy and opening of the buds. In the study, phenological observations (first flowering, full flowering and the end of the flowering as well as fruit set ratios, the status of vegetative development and yield were determined. As a result, in the both years, the flowering and fruit set ratios of control trees were found lower than the organic mulch or plastic mulch treated trees. Mulching treatments were enhanced 2-4 days earliness compared to control treatment for fruit maturity; and transparent polyethylene mulch + organic mulch was found partially better than the others two mulching treatments.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  1. Adsorption of gold ions from industrial wastewater using activated carbon derived from hard shell of apricot stones - an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mansooreh; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2008-09-01

    In this study, hard shell of apricot stones was selected from agricultural solid wastes to prepare effective and low cost adsorbent for the gold separation from gold-plating wastewater. Different adsorption parameters like adsorbent dose, particle size of activated carbon, pH and agitation speed of mixing on the gold adsorption were studied. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions, more than 98% of gold was adsorbed onto activated carbon after only 3h. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Isotherms have been used to obtain thermodynamic parameters. Gold desorption studies were performed with aqueous solution mixture of sodium hydroxide and organic solvents at ambient temperatures. Quantitative recovery of gold ions is possible by this method. As hard shell of apricot stones is a discarded as waste from agricultural and food industries, the prepared activated carbon is expected to be an economical product for gold ion recovery from wastewater.

  2. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves in ruminant using in situ method

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    S. Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chemical composition and in situ rumen dry matter degradability (DMD of some tree species (cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves were determined. Crude protein (CP concentration varied from 6.76% for almond tree to 2.76% for cherry tree, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, from 29.2, 20.8% for apricot tree to 20.8 and 15.8% for almond tree leaves respectively. Polyphenol and tannin composition measured from 3.49, 1.2% for almond tree to 1.51 and 0.61% for apricot tree, respectively. In situ rumen degradability was carried out in three fistulaed Taleshi native male cattle which were incubated at times of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hour. Almond leaves had higher potential degradation (a+b for dry matter (92.37% and cherry leaves showed lower potential degradation (84.12%, respectively. Effective rumen degradable dry matter at rate of 0.05/h varied from 69.86% for almond tree to 52.20% for cherry leaves. Results showed that the almond leaves were higher in nutritive value than cherry and apricot leaves. Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant’s nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of these resources.

  3. Development of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Determination of Apricot in Marzipan Using the Plexor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelm, Stefanie; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Christin; Fischer, Markus

    2017-01-18

    Marzipan is a confectionary which is mostly offered in form of filled chocolate, pralines, or pure. According to the German guidelines for oil seeds only almonds, sugar and water are admitted ingredients of marzipan. A product very similar in taste is persipan which is used in the confectionary industry because of its stronger flavor. For persipan production almonds are replaced by debittered apricot or peach kernels. To guarantee high quality products for consumers, German raw paste producers have agreed a limit of apricot kernels in marzipan raw paste of 0.5%. Different DNA-based methods for quantitation of persipan contaminations in marzipan are already published. To increase the detection specificity compared to published intercalation dye-based assays, the present work demonstrate the utilization of a multiplex real-time PCR based on the Plexor technology. Thus, the present work enables the detection of at least 0.1% apricot DNA in almond DNA or less. By analyzing DNA mixtures, the theoretical limit of quantification of the duplex PCR for the quantitation of persipan raw paste DNA in marzipan raw paste DNA was determined as 0.05%.

  4. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

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    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  5. Impact of different drying parameters on color, β-carotene, antioxidant activity and minerals of apricot (Prunus armeniacaL.

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    Bige İNCEDAYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apricot is one of the fruits dried by using different methods, such as sun, convective or microwave drying. The effects of drying methods on the components of this fruit differ depending upon the temperature or time parameters. In this research, the impacts of convective, microwave and microwave–convective drying techniques on color, β-carotene, minerals and antioxidant activity of apricots were investigated. The color values (L*, b*,ΔEab, h° and C*ab of dried fruit were decreased, while the a* values increased. Compared with a fresh sample, the dried apricots showed a 1.4-3.9-fold proportional increase in β-carotene based on the increment of dry matter. The samples dried at high temperature and microwave levels, at 75 °C+90 watt and 75 °C+160 watt, showed lower antioxidant activity. Of the different drying treatments, the microwave-convective method (50 °C+160 watt obtained a higher β-carotene content while maintaining antioxidant activity with a short drying time.

  6. Species of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Apricot and the Relationship Between Their Activity and Flower Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fu-Zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; YANG Jian-min; CAO Xiao-yu; TANG Chao-rong; MENG Qing-rui

    2001-01-01

    During 1996- 1997, sixty samples were collected from apricot in Hebei Province, from which nineteen ice nucleation active bacterial strains were isolated. Nine stains were identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae by bacteriological determination, while the others were Erwinia uredovora. Assay of ice nucleation activity (INA) showed the activity of the Pseudomonas strains was higher than that of the Erwinia.According to the number of bacterial cells required to produce one ice nucleus active at - 3℃, four stains was classified as strong ones, three as medium-strong, the remainder as weak. In general, the INA of these strains were regarded as medium-strong. Under stress of Iow temperatures, treatment of INA bacteria can greatly raised relative electric conductivity of petals and permeability of cell membrane. The treated petals showed symptoms of serious frost at - 3 - - 4℃ and had supercooling points of 2 - 3℃ higher than controls. Our results demon strated that INA bacteria are one major factor to incite frost damage to apricot flowers. We may reduce frost injury to apricot during flowering phage through control of INA bacteria.

  7. Comparison of Various Easy-to-Use Procedures for Extraction of Phenols from Apricot Fruits

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    Vojtech Adam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM, quercitrin (4 µM and quercetin (4 µM. Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was

  8. 世界杏研究态势分析%Analysis of Situation and Tendency of Apricot Research in World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立娟; 苑兆和; 尹燕雷; 招雪晴; 李英朋

    2014-01-01

    基于Web of Science数据库,利用文献计量学方法,分析了2001~2012年世界发表杏文献的类型、年度发文量,居世界前20名国家、机构、作者、期刊和学科归属等情况。结果表明:检索到2001~2012年间全球共发表杏文献1617篇,文献类型以学术论文为主;论文产出量逐年升高,2011年文献量最高(202篇),约是2001年的3.48倍;土耳其、西班牙、意大利、美国和法国文献量居世界前5位;西班牙国家土壤和应用生物学研究委员会、法国农业科学研究院、土耳其伊诺努大学、土耳其阿塔图克大学和意大利博洛尼亚大学杏文献数量位居前列,南京农业大学和中国农业大学分别位居世界第十和第十九位;最有学术影响力的作者来自西班牙;主要的核心期刊是《Scientia Horticulturae》《Hortscience》《Journal of Horticultural Science Biotechnology》《Food Chemistry》和《Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry》;主要的研究学科是农业、食品科学与技术、植物科学、化学和工程学。%The published apricot literatures in the world from 2001 to 2012 were studied by using bibliometric method based on Web of Science database .The published apricot literature type , the number of annual literature , and the top 20 countries , research institutes, core authors, key journals and disciplines in the world were analyzed .The results indicated that a total of 1617 apricot literatures in the world during 2001~2012 were searched .The literature type of apricot was mainly academic paper .The output of apricot literature increased year by year in the world .The number of apricot literature was the highest (202) in the year 2011, which was about 3.48 times of that in the year 2001.The top five literature-prolific countries were Turkey , Spain, Italy, the Unit-ed States and France .The top institutions with high academic achievement were CEBAS CSIC , INRA, Inonu

  9. Growth and Evaluation of Almond-Apricot in Baiyushan Hilly Area%白于山区仁用杏生长状况与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白岗栓; 杜社妮; 侯喜录

    2004-01-01

    In Baiyushan hilly area, the roots system of almond-apricot mainly distributes vertically in the subsoil from 30 cm to 80 cm and horizontally distributes from 50 cm to 180 cm around the trunk. There are three growing peaks of the roots in a year and July-peak is the tallest one. From March to July is water losing period in subsoil of almond-apricot orchard, water losing is mainly from the aubsoil above 200 cm. There are three growing peaks for extending shoots and only one peak for fruit shoots in a vear. Fruit set percentage of almond-apricot is 15.61 %, of which short fruit branches are 22.62%, long fruit branches are 8.56%. Although there are differences in the growth of almond-apricot trees gown in slope lands with different elevation,aspects, and slopes, all trees grow well. Except frostbite harming, Baiyushan hilly area could be a better commodity production base of almond-apricot.

  10. Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: Catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-03-15

    For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd(2+) ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  11. Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette

    2014-02-15

    Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5 °C than 25 °C and 37 °C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile.

  12. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  13. Chemical Composition of Apricot Pit Shells and Effect of Hot-Water Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Corbett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, wheat straw, and nut shells show promise as feedstocks for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their relatively high polysaccharide content and low or no nutritional value for human consumption. Apricot pit shells (APS were studied in this work to assess their potential for use in a biorefinery. Hot water extraction (HWE; 160 °C, 2 h, proposed to remove easily accessible hemicelluloses, was performed to evaluate the susceptibility of APS to this mild pretreatment process. The chemical composition of APS before and after HWE (EAPS was analyzed by standard methods and 1H-NMR. A low yield of the remaining HW-extracted APS (~59% indicated that APS are highly susceptible to this pretreatment method. 1H-NMR analysis of EAPS revealed that ~77% of xylan present in raw APS was removed along with ~24% of lignin. The energy of combustion of APS was measured before and after HWE showing a slight increase due to HWE (1.61% increase. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS, proposed as a quick non-invasive method of biomass analysis, was performed. NIRS corroborated results of traditional analysis and 1H-NMR. Determination of antioxidizing activity (AOA of APS extracts was also undertaken. AOA of organic APS extracts were shown to be more than 20 times higher than that of a synthetic antioxidizing agent.

  14. Characterization of Prunus-infecting apricot latent virus-like Foveaviruses: evolutionary and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Fater; Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Barone, Maria; Gentit, Pascal; Candresse, Thierry

    2011-02-01

    The complete genomic sequences of four Prunus-infecting Apricot latent virus (ApLV) like isolates were determined and used to analyze the taxonomic position and variability of these viruses. The results indicate that all isolates show a typical Foveavirus genetic organization. Despite an average 23% nucleotide divergence, they show strong colinearity with only three regions of significant indel variability, in the internal and 3' non-coding regions and variable N-terminal half of the coat protein (CP). Sequence comparisons using the polymerase (Pol) and CP genes provide a conflicting taxonomic picture, with divergence level in the Pol and CP genes suggesting the existence of a single or of two species, respectively. However, a range of considerations argue that all four isolates should likely be considered as belonging to the ApLV species. ApLV is closely related to Apple stem pitting virus and could be considered a sister species to it, with ASPV being specialized to infect members of the Maloideae family and ApLV members of the Prunoideae. Analysis of selection pressures affecting the five open reading frames of ApLV and ASPV identified two regions under strong purifying selection, that coding for the conserved C-terminal half of the CP and the gene coding for the first protein of the triple gene block (TGBp1).

  15. Stability of astaxanthin in yogurt used to simulate apricot color, under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cerezal Mezquita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate astaxanthin to yogurts with different fat content to match apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. color. The samples containing astaxanthin were stored at 5 ± 3 °C, and color stability and astaxanthin content were determined by colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Yogurt samples were analyzed in triplicate every 24 hours for one week and subsequently every week for 3 more weeks There were no significant differences (p < 0.05 between astaxanthin concentration values at 0 and 28 days for both samples; therefore, it can be said that the fat content in the yogurt had not effect on the stability of pigment. The low dispersion of the data showed uniformity in the three chromaticity coordinates L*, a*, b* throughout the storage period for both types of yogurt. Values of ∆E ≥ 5.0 were not obtained at any time during storage, indicating high stability of the pigment.

  16. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fenpyrazamine in almonds, grapes, apricots, peaches and strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Austria, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Sumitomo Chemical Agro Europe SAS to set import tolerances for the active substance fenpyrazamine in almonds, grapes and strawberries from the United States of America (USA. Austria received a second application from the above cited company to modify the existing MRLs for fenpyrazamine in peaches, including nectarines, apricots and strawberries reflecting the intended uses in the EU. Austria proposed the MRL of 3 mg/kg in strawberries, peaches and apricots, 0.01 mg/kg in almonds, which corresponds to the limit of quantification (LOQ, whereas no amendment of the existing MRL of 3 mg/kg for grapes was required. Austria drafted two separate evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive the following MRL proposal: 0.01*mg/kg for almonds, 3 mg/kg for strawberries and 4 mg/kg for peaches, including nectarines and similar hybrids. An amendment of the existing MRL on grapes is not necessary, while the data are not sufficient to propose a MRL for the intended uses on apricots. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of fenpyrazamine in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of fenpyrazamine on almonds, grapes, peaches and strawberries will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  17. 杏果糕的加工工艺研究%Study on Processing Technology of Apricot Fruit Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯智德; 林银巧; 王陈强; 江英

    2014-01-01

    以杏为原料生产杏果糕,选用卡拉胶、果胶复配型胶凝剂,并确定了杏糕的最佳配方为:原杏果浆45%、麦芽糖浆30%、复合胶2.5%、蔗糖20%。杏糕的工艺参数为:熬煮温度为95~100℃,熬煮后可固含量为45%~50%,烘烤条件为第一阶段,65℃烘烤4h,第二阶段,50℃,正面干燥18h,反面干燥6h,所制得的杏果糕色泽金黄,表面光滑,富有弹性,柔韧、爽滑可口、风味浓厚。%Apricot was chosen to prepare fruit jelly by pectin and carrageenan complex. The optimum conditions were as follows:the original apricot puree 45%, maltose syrup 30%, carrageenan and pectin (1:1) 2.5%, sugar 20%. Apricot jelly processing parameters were as follows:solids content of 45%to 50%at boiling temperature of 95~100℃;and the fruit jelly at 65℃baked for 4h in the first stage, as well as the second stage, the fruit jelly at 50℃was dried for 18h, then opposite dried for 6h. The fruit jelly was in golden color, smooth, flexible, slippery and delicious.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 degree centigrade 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 degree centigrade), 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil), 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell), 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O{sub 2}/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97%) followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%), palmitic (3.35-5.93%), linolenic (0.73-1.03%) and stearic (1.10-1.68%) acids. The contents of {alpha}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleo chemical applications. (Author) 55 refs.

  19. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the analysis of D-amygdalin and its epimer in apricot kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S H; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, D H; Chung, D S

    2000-01-14

    We have developed a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the determination of D-amygdalin and its epimer by using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Separation of D-amygdalin was performed in a 20 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.5) containing 300 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate using a bare fused-silica capillary. The eluates were monitored by the absorbance at 210 nm. The applied electric field was 278 V/cm, and the time needed for the separation of D-amygdalin did not exceed 6 min. The calibration curve for D-amygdalin showed excellent linearity in the concentration range of 5-500 microg/ml. The migration time and the corrected peak area show relative standard deviations (n=6) of 0.86% and 1.48%, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for D-amygdalin was 2 microg/ml. Under acidic and neutral conditions, amygdalin exists only as the D-form; however, under basic conditions, it shows both the D- and L-forms with a concentration ratio of 1:1.3 (D-amygdalin/L-amygdalin). Results of HPLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry reconfirmed the identification of D-amygdalin and its epimer. The number of theoretical plates of D-amygdalin is about 100,000 in MEKC, which is significantly higher than approximately 8,000 of HPLC. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of amygdalin epimers in various apricot kernel extracts and pharmaceutical products.

  20. [Seasonal variations of wild apricot seed dispersal and hoarding by rodents in rehabilitated land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing-liang; Zhao, Xue-feng; Sun, Ming-yang; Lu, Ji-qi; Kong, Mao-cai

    2010-05-01

    Rodents feed with and disperse plant seeds, which may thereby affect the seed spatiotemporal distribution, germination, and seedling establishment, and eventually play an important role in the restoration of deforested area. Taking the State-owned Yugong Forest Farm in Jiyuan of Henan, China as study site, the tagged seeds of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) were artificially released in rehabilitated land in the spring, summer, and autumn 2008, aimed to investigate their dispersal and hoarding by rodents in different seasons. It was found that Apodemus peninsulae, Niviventer confucianus, and Apodemus agrarius were the main rodent species acting on the seed dispersal and hoarding. The dispersal rate of the seeds was significantly lower in spring than in summer, and also, lower in summer than in autumn. The amount of removed seeds was affected by the interaction of season and seed status, being significantly lesser in spring than in summer, and lesser in summer than in autumn. The mean transportation distance differed with seasons, which was longer in autumn than in spring and summer. The cache size in majority caches was 1 seed, but in a few caches, each cache contained 2 or 3 seeds. The cache number was affected by the interaction of season and seed status, i.e., one seed cache was lesser in spring than in summer and autumn, while the caches containing 2 or 3 seeds were more in summer and autumn. Among the 1800 seeds released, there were five seeds hoarded in summer and autumn respectively established seedlings in the next year of the experiment.

  1. Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. by HPLC with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei-Feng; Ding, Ming-Yu; Zheng, Rui

    2005-08-01

    Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. are traditional Chinese herb medicines that contain amygdalin as their major effective ingredient. In this report, three methods for the extraction of amygdalin from the medicinal materials are compared: ultrasonic extraction by methanol, Soxhlet extraction by methanol, and reflux extraction by water. The results show that reflux extraction water containing 0.1% citric acid is the best option. The optimal reflux is 2.5 h and water bath temperature is 60 degrees C. The solid-phase extraction method using C18 and multiwalled carbon nanotube as adsorbents is established the pretreatment of reflux extract, and the result shows that the two adsorbents have greater adsorptive capacity for amygdalin and good separation effect. In order to quantitate amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb., a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using methanol-water (15:85, for 30 min and pure methanol after 30 min) as mobile phase is developed and a good result is obtained.

  2. Fate of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and potential surrogate bacteria on apricot fruit following UV-C light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some soft fruit, such as tree-ripened apricots, cannot be washed with aqueous sanitizers, due to their innate softness and delicate surfaces. In this study, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light was investigated for its efficacy in inactivating 4-5 individual strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella...

  3. Effects of various sulphuring methods and storage temperatures on the physical and chemical quality of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Ali Levent; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Aksu, Özge Turfan; Koç, Betül Erkan; Yemiş, Oktay; Özkan, Mehmet

    2013-12-15

    The effects of different sulphuring methods, i.e. sulphuring by "burning the elemental sulphites (BES)," "SO2 gas from liquified SO2 tank (SG)" and "dipping into sodium metabisulphite solution (DSM)" on the colour (brown colour formation and carotenoid degradation) and the loss of SO2 in apricots from Hacıhaliloğlu and Kabaaşı varieties stored at 5, 20 and 30 °C for a year were investigated. There were significant effects of variety, sulphuring method and especially storage at 30 °C on the brown colour formation and loss of SO2 (P0.05). The changes in L(*), b(*) and C(*) values were directly associated with β-carotene content and browning values. The most suitable method for all samples, except for Hacıhaliloğlu variety stored at 30 °C (BES), is SG, because the samples retained their attractive golden yellow colour during storage.

  4. Optimization of cDNA amplification of Apricot Latent Virus (ApLV) from various plant tissues sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, M; Sipahioğlu, H M; Paylan, I C; Erkan, S

    2007-03-15

    Although the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure is basically simple operation, often it is not possible to achieve optimum results without optimizing the protocols. An RT-PCR method targeting a 200 bp sequence of the CP gene of Apricot Latent Virus (ApLV) was used as a model to improve the detection limit and to compare the behavior of three different plant tissues in a RT-PCR assay. A number of factors should be considered when selecting the optimal system for RT-PCR. Important considerations include the optimal concentrations of MgCl2, dNTP, Taq DNA polymerase enzyme, specific primer and the amount of cDNA for the downstream applications. This study therefore discusses a series of critical PCR parameters and feasible strategies for optimization of RT-PCR detection of ApLV.

  5. Physical mapping of a pollen modifier locus controlling self-incompatibility in apricot and synteny analysis within the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Molina, Laura; Badenes, María Luisa; Romero, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    S-locus products (S-RNase and F-box proteins) are essential for the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) specific recognition in Prunus. However, accumulated genetic evidence suggests that other S-locus unlinked factors are also required for GSI. For instance, GSI breakdown was associated with a pollen-part mutation unlinked to the S-locus in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Canino'. Fine-mapping of this mutated modifier gene (M-locus) and the synteny analysis of the M-locus within the Rosaceae are here reported. A segregation distortion loci mapping strategy, based on a selectively genotyped population, was used to map the M-locus. In addition, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig was constructed for this region using overlapping oligonucleotides probes, and BAC-end sequences (BES) were blasted against Rosaceae genomes to perform micro-synteny analysis. The M-locus was mapped to the distal part of chr.3 flanked by two SSR markers within an interval of 1.8 cM corresponding to ~364 Kb in the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome. In the integrated genetic-physical map of this region, BES were mapped against the peach scaffold_3 and BACs were anchored to the apricot map. Micro-syntenic blocks were detected in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) LG17/9 and strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) FG6 chromosomes. The M-locus fine-scale mapping provides a solid basis for self-compatibility marker-assisted selection and for positional cloning of the underlying gene, a necessary goal to elucidate the pollen rejection mechanism in Prunus. In a wider context, the syntenic regions identified in peach, apple and strawberry might be useful to interpret GSI evolution in Rosaceae.

  6. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium (q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG 0), enthalpy (ΔH 0) and entropy (ΔS 0) were determined and the positive value of (ΔH) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  7. Study on Preservability of the Low-sugar Preserved Apricots%低糖杏脯保藏性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖亮; 许建; 李瑾瑜; 朱正兰; 李焕荣

    2013-01-01

    Taking saimaiti apricots in Kuche Xinjiang as raw material,the preservability of low-sugar preserved apricots was researched.Sensory quality,color stability,microbiological stabilization as evaluation index,the influences of water content of preserved apricots,different color fixative,color fixative dosage,and water activity of preserved apricots on preservability of products were studied.The resuits showed that the effect of water content was significant on microbiological stabilization but not on the color stability.0.1% sulfite addition level of protection was available to good color effect.The storage stability of low-sugar apricot was good and had the best taste and good color when the moisture content of low-sugar apricot was in the range of 19% to 21% with vacuum packaging low-temperature storage.%以新疆库车赛买提杏为原料制作低糖杏脯,并研究其保藏性.以低糖杏脯的感官品质、色泽稳定性、微生物稳定性为评价指标,研究杏脯水分含量、护色剂种类及添加量、杏脯水分活度等因素对制品保藏性的影响.试验结果表明,低糖杏脯在贮藏过程中,水分含量对其色泽稳定性影响不显著,但对其微生物稳定性影响显著.低糖杏脯在加工过程中采用0.1%亚硫酸盐护色,控制水分含量(20±1)%左右,采用真空包装,在常温贮藏条件下能够保证低糖杏脯品质的稳定性.

  8. Studies on Diversity of Arthropod Community in Orchards of Apricot-wheat Intercropping System%不同树龄杏麦间作园节肢动物群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滋林; 赵莉; 范毅; 张鲁豫; 贾晓江

    2011-01-01

    The series dynamics were systematically studied to reveal the composition structure and species diversity of arthropods community in different aged apricot orchard under apricot-wheat intercropping system. The survey uncovered that 189 species in 61 families from 13 orders were obtained from young apricot orchards intercropped with wheat,and 192 species in 59 families from 13 orders of old apricot orchards intercropped with wheat,and 120 species in 46 families from 12 orders of old apricot orchards intercropped without wheat. Homoptera insects were the dominant herbivorous groups. There are more arthropod species in old apricot orchards than young apricot orchards intercropped with wheat. The result showed that species diversity related to the phenological period of the apricots and were affected by the intercropping plants and environment coditions. The related correlations between different subunit systems were analyzed with Jaccard similarity indexes and cluster methodology. The result showed that apricot orchards intercropped with wheat can increase the arthropod species and improve the stability of the apricot system.%为揭示在杏麦间作模式下不同树龄杏园节肢动物群落的组成结构及多样性时序动态,调查发现在幼龄的杏麦间作园有节肢动物13目61科189种,老龄杏麦间作园有节肢动物13目59科192种,老龄不间作杏园有节肢动物12目46科120种,同翅目昆虫为优势种,是主要的植食性类群,间作小麦的老龄杏园比幼龄杏园聚集着较为丰富的物种.杏园节肢动物群落的物种多样性与杏树的物候期有关,并受间作物和环境条件的影响,用Jaccard 相似性系数和系统聚类法分析了各亚系统之间的相关关系,结果表明杏园间作小麦可以增加杏园节肢动物的物种数和提高系统的稳定性.

  9. Detection of plum pox virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in some apricot and peach varieties and hybrids in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, S; Isac, M; Balan, V; Ivascu, A

    1998-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a potyvirus widely spread in many species of the Prunus genus such as plum, apricot, peach, sweet cherry and others. This potyvirus causes great damage to stone fruit trees in Romania and other European countries as Hungary, Italy, Czech Republic, France, Spain, Greece, Turkey, and Slovak Republic. The Research Station for Fruit Tree Growing Baneasa in Bucharest has realized many studies on the epidemiology and spread of PPV and also on the disease symptomatology and detection possibilities. The control of sharka disease by sanitary selection measures requires corresponding detection techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of PPV in some apricot and peach varieties and hybrids in 1995-1997 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to verify if some of our biological materials evaluated as symptom-free under field conditions for many years are also virus-free and can be considered healthy.

  10. Quantitative trait loci meta-analysis of Plum pox virus resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.): new insights on the organization and the identification of genomic resistance factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandel, Grégoire; Salava, Jaroslav; Abbott, Albert; Candresse, Thierry; Decroocq, Véronique

    2009-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is responsible for sharka disease, one of the most detrimental stone fruit diseases affecting Prunus trees worldwide. Only a few apricot cultivars have been described as resistant, most originating from North American breeding programmes. Several PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been mapped in various progenies, consistently highlighting the contribution to the resistance of the upper part of linkage group 1 (LG1). However, to date, no consensus has been reached on the precise number of QTLs linked to the resistance to PPV in apricot and P. davidiana or on their accurate position on the genetic linkage map. In the present study, the quantitative resistance of cultivar 'Harlayne' was analysed over five growth periods in a large F1 population. Four QTLs were identified, three mapping on LG1, explaining between 5% and 39% of the observed phenotypic variance. In an effort to further this analysis of PPV resistance in apricot, these results were merged in a single QTL meta-analysis with those of five other PPV resistance analyses available in the literature. Three consensus QTL regions were identified on LG1 and a putative fourth region on LG3. QTL meta-analysis also revealed the contribution of each resistant cultivar to metaQTLs, providing interesting comparative data on the resistance factors shared between the resistance sources used in the various studies. Finally, it was shown that one of the metaQTLs co-localizes with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E, thus providing new hypotheses on the mechanisms of PPV resistance in apricot.

  11. Insecticidal Effect of Labramin, a Lectin—Like Protein Isolated from Seeds of the Beach Apricot Tree, Labramia bojeri, on the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez D.S.T.; Freire M.D.G.M.; Mazzafera P.; Araujo-Jnior R.T.; Bueno R.D.; MacEdo M.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the insecticidal effect of labramin, a protein that shows lectinlike properties. Labramin was isolated from seeds of the Beach Apricot tree, Labramia bojeri A. DC ex Dubard (Ericales: Sapotaceae), and assessed against the development of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of stored products such as corn, wheat, rice, and flour. Results showed that labramin caused 90% larval mortality when i...

  12. 乌鲁木齐南山杏树种植气候条件分析%Analysis on Cultivation Climate Conditions of Apricot Trees in Nanshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉萍

    2012-01-01

    Based on the climate data from Urumqi Nanshan mountains, the climate conditions for planting apricot trees were analyzed. The results showed that heat, frost-free period, precipitation, sunshine intensity and other weather conditions in Urumqi Nanshan mountains are fit for the growth of apricots. In order to avoid freezing disaster in winter, apricot trees should be planted in a strong temperature inversion area. Frost Damage rate was 19.6% which was within mild risk degree during the flowering and fruiting period in spring. This study provides reference for the reasonable adjustment of cropping industry in local area.%利用乌鲁木齐南山山区历史气象资料,进行了杏树种植的气候条件分析。结果表明:乌鲁木齐南山的热量、无霜期、降水、光照等气候条件基本可以满足杏树的生长需求;为了避免冬季冻害,应选择在逆温强的地带发展杏树;春季花果期霜冻灾损率为19.6%,处于中轻度风险区。

  13. Studies on the Stability of Apricot Nectar Beverage%新疆小白杏果汁饮料的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岳成; 鲍若晗; 陈杰; 叶安丹

    2012-01-01

    The stability of apricot nectar beverage made from concentrated apricot pulp produced in Sinkiang was studied. Single factor test and rotation-regression-orthogonal experiments were carried out to investigated the effect of different stabilizer on the stability of apricot beverage. The mathematical evaluation model was set up based on 3 main component indexes selectcd by principal component analysis with sedimentation, absorbance of supernatant, sensory assessment and viscosity as evaluating index, the compound stabilizer was optimized as pectin 0.35%o, gellan 0.18%o, xan-than 0.10%o.%以新疆浓缩小白杏浆还原加工成50%果肉型杏汁饮料,采用单因素和三元二次回归正交旋转组合实验.以离心沉淀率、上清液吸光度、感官稳定性和黏度为指标,评价不同稳定剂对杏汁的稳定效果.通过因子分析提取3个主成分指标,构建综合评价模型,筛选出最佳复配稳定剂组合为:果胶0.35%、结冷胶0.18%、黄原胶0.10‰.

  14. Comparison of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction with Simultaneous Steam Distillation Extraction for the Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in Chinese Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-xia; CHEN Xue-sen; WANG Xin-guo; CI Zhi-juan; LIU Xiao-li; HE Tian-ming; ZHANG Li-jie

    2006-01-01

    Volatile constituents in fully mature fruits of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Xinshiji were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SSDE) and then analyzed using capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 70 components were identified by HSSPME, including 20 esters, 19 hydrocarbons, 5 alcohols, 5 ketones, 4 acids, 4 lactones, 3 aldehydes, and 10 miscellaneous components, with the esters being the dominant constituent. On the basis of the odor unit values, it is believed that the following compounds probably contributed to the fresh apricot odor: hexyl acetate, β-ionone, butyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal,linalool, limonene, γ-decalactone, and hexanal. A total of 49 components were also detected by SSDE, including 13 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 9 esters, 4 ketones, 4 lactones, 2 acids, and 1 miscellaneous component, of which the monoterpene alcohols were the dominant constituents. It could be judged from the odor unit values that the following compounds were the major contributors to boiled apricot aroma: β-ionone, linalool, hexyl acetate, γ-dodecalactone, γ-decalactone, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, γ-octalactone, phenylacetaldehyde, butyl acetate, limonene, α-terpineol, and δ-decalactone.The results show that HS-SPME is a simple, rapid, and solvent-free method, which is an alternative to the classical SSDE.

  15. 复合护色剂对杏片干制中护色效果的研究%Color-preservation effects of compound reagent on dried apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过利敏; 邹淑萍; 孟伊娜; 张谦

    2012-01-01

    Choosing Saimaiti-apricots,one of main cultivars in Xinjiang, as the main raw material,effects of different inhibitors on browning degree of fresh-cut apricot during solar-drying were investigated.The results showed that 0.1%-0.2% citric acid, Vc 〉 0.02%, 0.1% - 0.2% NaCI and sodium sulfite 〉 0.02% showed good anti- browning effects on fresh-cut apricots during solar-drying period.q (34) test showed that the optimum compound reagent for color-protection of fresh-cut apricots was a mixture of 0.1% citric acid, 0.03% Vc, 0.1% NaCI and 0.04% sodium sulfite.After using the compound reagent,the fresh-cut apricot slices had maintained its original color and the value were:L * =22.92,a, =9.26,b * = 19.4.%以新疆主栽品种赛买提杏为主要原料,开展不同褐变抑制剂对鲜切杏片在太阳能干制(solar-drying,简称sD)过程中护色效果的研究。实验结果表明,柠檬酸在初始浓度范围0.1%-0.2%、抗坏血酸浓度在〉0.02%、氯化钠在初始浓度范围0.1%-0.2%、亚硫酸钠浓度在〉0.02%时,对鲜切杏片的褐变均有抑制作用。采用k(3。)正交实验,利用各种护色剂的协同作用,最终得到最佳的复合护色液:O.1%柠檬酸+0.03%抗坏血酸+0.1%氯化钠+0.04%亚硫酸钠。经复合护色液处理后的鲜切杏片在干制后色差值为:L*=22.92,a*=9.26,b%=19.4,均比对照高,能较好地维持其原有色泽。

  16. Study of the Technology of Spray Drying for Apricot Powder%杏粉喷雾干燥工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 于佳佳; 陈恺; 朱正兰; 李焕荣

    2012-01-01

    [目的]试验以浓缩杏浆为原料,经稀释、二次均质、喷雾干燥工序生产杏粉.[方法]采用单因素实验和正交实验研究进风温度、出风温度、雾化器转速、浆料可溶性固形物含量对杏粉的色泽、含水率、得率的影响.[结果]最终确定了杏粉最佳喷雾干燥工艺参数为:进风温度155℃,出风温度75℃,蠕动泵转速为29r/min,浆料可溶性固形物含量为11%时,所得杏粉的L值为69.35、b值为31.28、水分含量3.5%、集粉率56%.[结论]杏粉果香浓郁、色泽最佳.%[Objective]In this study, concentrated apricot pulp was used as raw materials, and through dilution, the second homogenization treatment, apricot beverage powder was successfully produced by sprayed drying procedure. [Method]Single - factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were applied to study the effect of inlet and outlet temperatures, atomizer rotating speed, pulp soluble solids content on apricot powder color, moisture content, and the yield. [Result] Ultimately the best apricot powder spray process parameters were determined; the inlet temperature should be at 1551, the outlet temperature 75?, peristaltic pump speed 29 r/min, pulp soluble solids content was 11% ; the apricot power L value was 69.35; 6 value 31.28; moisture content was 3.5% ; collection rate of the powder was 56%. [Conclusion] The product is fruity and the color is appealing.

  17. Study on Technology of Low-souger and Sulfur-free Preserved Apricots%无硫低糖杏脯生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 张永茂

    2011-01-01

    以鲜杏为原料,以氯化钙、氯化钠、柠檬酸、D-异抗坏血酸钠作为护色剂,通过单因素及L16(45)正交试验,研究不同护色剂对杏脯质量的影响,确定无硫低糖杏脯生产的最佳的无硫护色工艺条件为:杏果经清洗、去皮、硬化后在含0.3%氯化钙、0.6%柠檬酸、0.6%氯化钠、0.3%D-异抗坏血酸钠制得的护色液烫漂,再放入0.5%的明胶溶液中浸胶,用40%的糖液第一次糖煮,真空糖渍24h,再用45%糖液进行第二次糖煮,真空糖渍24h,用55-65℃温度的烘房烤制,制得的杏脯品质最好.该方法与传统果脯生产方法相比,具有产品安全性高、含糖量低等优点.%Fresh apricots as raw materials and calcium chloride, sodium chloride, citric acid, and D-erythorbate sodium as color protection, effects of different color protection on apricot quality was determine by a single factor and through L16(45) orthogonal experiment.The best conditions of sulfur-free low-sugar apricot production are apricot fruit by washing, peeling, after hardening in calcium chloride containing. The solution was composed of 0.3% calcium chloride,0.6% citric acid, 0.6% sodium chloride, and 0.3% D-sodium erythorbate,protect the color obtained by blanching liquid, then add 0.5% gelatin solution, 40% of the sugar with sugar and cook for the first time, vacuum sugar stains 24h, then 45% sugar the second sugar boiling liquid, vacuum vugar stains 24h, with 55 - 65 ℃ temperature drying room, roasted,apricot obtained the best quality. Compared with the traditional methods, our method has advantages of having safe products and low sugar content.

  18. Seasonal Variation of Cumulative CO2 Emission from a Vertisol Under Apricot Orchard in Semi-Arid Southeast Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting the CO2 emission from agricultural practices is crucial for global warming.A study was performed in an apricot orchard field in the experimental farm of the Harran University,Southeast Turkey,to i) quantify weekly and seasonal variations of the CO2 emissions from a Vertisol under apricot orchard; ii) evaluate the difference in CO2 emission between the area under trees and rows; and iii) assess the relationships between the amounts of CO2 emissions and environmental parameters for better use and management of the soils from the view point of carbon balance and flux in a semi-arid environment under drip irrigation.Soil CO2 emission measurements were performed during May 2008 and May 2010,from both under tree crowns (CO2-UC) and between tree rows (CO2-BR),on a weekly basis in southeast Turkey with a semi-arid climate.CO2 emissions were statistically correlated with weather and soil parameters such as air temperature,relative humidity,rainfall,soil water content,and soil temperature at various depths from 5 to 100 cm.The weekly emissions ranged from 82 to 1 110 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 and from 96 to 782 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 in CO2-UC and CO2-BR,respectively.Increase in CO2 emission in the second year was due to increases in mean air and soil temperatures.The weekly and monthly cumulative CO2 emissions were positively correlated with the air and soil temperatures.Multiple linear regression analysis explained 35% and 83% variations in average weekly and monthly CO2 emissions,by using meteorological data.Including the interaction effects of meteorological parameters in regression equations nearly doubled the variance explained by the regression models.According to stepwise regression analysis,soil and air temperatures were found to have the most significant impact on the temporal variability of the soil CO2 emission.

  19. Self-compatibility in 'Zaohong' Japanese apricot is associated with the loss of function of pollen S genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Ni, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Bin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    While most Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) cultivars display typical S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility, some self-compatible (SC) cultivars have also been identified. In this study, we confirmed SC of 'Zaohong' through replicated self-pollination tests. Cross-pollination tests showed that SC of 'Zaohong' was caused by a loss of pollen function, so we determined that the S-genotype of 'Zaohong' was S 2 S 15 . Sequence analysis of the S-haplotypes of 'Zaohong' showed no mutations which were likely to alter gene function. Furthermore, expression analysis based on RT-PCR of S-locus genes revealed no differences at the transcript level when compared with 'Xiyeqing', a self-incompatible cultivar with the same S haplotypes. In addition, except for S-locus genes, a new type of F-box gene encoding a previously uncharacterised protein with high sequence similarity (61.03-64.65 %) to Prunus SFB genes was identified. Putative structural regions of PmF-box genes have been described, corresponding to regions in PmSFB alleles, but with some sequence variations. These results suggest that SC in 'Zaohong' occurs in pollen, and that other factors outside the S-locus, including PmF-box genes, might be associated with the loss of function of pollen S genes.

  20. Creating New Germplasm by Distant Hybridization in Stone Fruits:Ⅱ-Embryo Rescue and Hybrid Identification Between Plum and Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-hua; CHEN Xue-sen; FENG Bao-chun; LIU Huan-fang; ZHENG Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Embryo abortion stage and rescue system of hybrids were studied in the distant hybridization between plum and apricot. Identification of the hybrids was also made. The results showed:(1)Embryo abortion started from three weeks after pollination.(2)The germination and growth of embryos were different at different growth stages,which could germinate and grow with PF value> 0.5,but failed with PF value< 0.5. In embryo rescue system of hybrids,the best germination and differentiation medium was MS + 6-BA 2 mg L-1+ IAA 0.3 mg L-1,the rate of germination and differentiation reached up to 80%,bud induction and multiplication medium was MS + 6-BA 1.5 mg L-1+ IAA 0.3 mg L-1,rooting medium was 1/2 MS + IAA0.8mgL-1. Some hybrids were transplanted into the field successfully.(3)Leaf shape investigation and identification by S allele-specific PCR and RAPDs showed that the hybrids were true ones.

  1. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez-Sarmiento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida” were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain, during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010. The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc and ii RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest. Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years, whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  2. 水杨酸处理对杏果实贮藏品质的影响%Effect of salicylic acid treatment on storage quality of apricot fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭科燕; 左宝莉; 贾盼盼; 朱璇

    2012-01-01

    研究了水杨酸处理赛买提杏后对其采后贮藏品质的影响。在0.05MPa负压下,将杏果实分别浸泡于浓度为0.002、0.01、0.05g/L的水杨酸溶液中。将处理后的杏果实取出晾干,于4℃,RH90%~95%条件下贮藏。定期测定杏果实贮藏期间的失重率、硬度、叶绿素、维生素C、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、发病率。结果显示,0.01g/L水杨酸处理的杏果实贮藏品质最好,能有效地抑制杏果实贮藏期间的失重率上升,硬度的下降,延缓叶绿素和维生素C含量的下降,减少杏果实中可溶性固形物和可滴定酸的损耗,降低杏果实腐烂率。%Effects of salicylic acid treatments on the postharvest quality of Saimaiti apricots were investigated.The apricots were immersed in 0.002,0.01,0.05g/L salicylic acid with a negative pressure of 0.05MPa.Then the apricots were air-dried and packaged,stored

  3. Fate of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and potential surrogate bacteria on apricot fruit, following exposure to UV-C light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Yan, Ruixiang; Fan, Xuetong; Gurtler, Joshua; Phillips, John

    2013-09-16

    Some soft fruit, such as tree-ripened apricots, cannot be washed with aqueous sanitizers, due to their innate softness and delicate surfaces. In this study, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light was investigated for its efficacy in inactivating 4-5 individual strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on apricots, in addition to a four-strain composite of Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 and a cocktail of three attenuated strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. Also, the survival of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. after exposure to 74 and 442 mJ/cm² of UV-C was evaluated during post-UV storage at 2 and 20 °C. The fruit was spot inoculated and the areas (ca. 1.5 cm²) of fruit surface with the inoculated bacteria were exposed to UV-C at 7.4 mW/cm². E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations decreased rapidly (1-2 logs) (PSalmonella spp. During storage at 2 or 20 °C, populations of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on untreated fruit decreased slowly; however, populations on fruit treated with 442 mJ/cm² decreased rapidly at both temperatures. After 8 days at 20 °C or 21 days at 2 °C, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations on UV-C treated fruit were at least 2 log CFU/g lower than on non-treated controls. Our results suggest that surface-inoculated bacteria survived poorly following UV-C treatment of apricots.

  4. 3个杏品种荧光特性的比较%Study on the Chlorophyll Fluorescent Characteristics of 3 Apricot Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The basis of the screening of the species of high-efficiency photosynthic ecology of apricot cultivar was provided through the analysis of the difference of 3 apricot cultivars in photosynthesis. [ Method] The chlophyll fluorescent index of the apricot cultivar:Chuanzhihong, Sungold and Katy was measured with . The chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of 3 apricot cultivars in field were measured with Heady Plant Efficiency Analyzer(PEA). [ Result] There was significant or highly significant difference in chlorophyll fluorescent parameters among 3 cultivars. Compared with other two cultivars, the number of active reaction center on the unit leaf area of Chuanzhihong was many more, which could be used for higher excitation energy of QA so that the energy of heat dissipation was relatively fewer and the energy transferred into the electron transport chain was higher. [ Conclusion] Chuanzhihong had higher light energy absorption, transmission and conversion efficiency than other two cultivars.%[目的]分析3个杏品种的光合生理差异,为杏属植物高光效生态类型筛选提供依据.[方法]以我国河北的串枝红、美国的Sun-gold(金太阳)和Katy(凯特)3个杏品种为试材,利用Handy PEA(Hansatech,UK)田间测定了其叶绿素荧光参数.[结果]3个杏品种的荧光参数存在极显著差异.其中,串枝红单位叶面积上有活性的反应中心数量多,用来还原Q的激发能高,以热的形式耗散的能量比例较少,进入电子传递链的能量较高.[结论]串枝红在光能的吸收、传递与转换效率上优于Sungold和Katy.

  5. 苦杏仁去皮热风干燥适宜温度提高油脂品质%Suitable hot air drying temperature improving quality of apricot kernel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦中高; 吕真真; 刘杰超; 张春岭; 刘慧; 杨文博; 王思新

    2016-01-01

    为探索适宜的杏仁热风干燥温度,以热烫去皮处理后的湿杏仁为试验材料,研究了热风干燥不同温度对杏仁及其油脂的感官、理化和营养品质的影响。结果表明,经热烫去皮、干燥处理后可以得到颜色较浅的杏仁油,有利于提高杏仁油的感官品质,但会造成杏仁油过氧化值显著升高(P0.05);过氧化值呈上升趋势,且80℃以上干燥处理显著高于40℃和60℃干燥处理(P<0.05);总不饱和脂肪酸、油酸、亚油酸、十七碳烯酸、二十碳烷酸的比例及β-生育酚、δ-生育酚及总生育酚含量总体呈下降趋势,棕榈油酸、棕榈酸、硬脂酸的比例和β-谷甾醇、总甾醇含量总体呈升高趋势。低温干燥有利于提高杏仁油中生育酚含量,而提高干燥温度则有利于杏仁油中植物甾醇含量的提高。尤其是干燥温度为80℃以上时,杏仁油的品质变化加快。因此,为提高杏仁油理化与营养品质,杏仁脱皮后的干燥宜在80℃以下的较低温度条件下进行。研究结果可为杏仁干燥和高品质杏仁油加工提供参考。%In order to explore optimal drying method and technological conditions, the effects of different conditions of hot air drying on sensory quality, physico-chemical characteristics and nutrition properties of apricot kernels and apricot kernel oil were studied using the wet apricot kernels after decorticating with blanching treatment as test materials. The apricot kernels with a moisture content of 4.61% were blanched in boiling water for 10 min and decorticated, and then the decorticated wet apricot kernels with a moisture content of 17.93% were dried with hot air at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120℃) till the moisture content of apricot kernels was decreased to about 4%-5%. After extracting the oils from cooled apricot kernels using the petroleum ether with boiling point from 60 to 90℃ under ultrasonic

  6. Inheritance of S(f)-RNase in Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume) and its relation to self-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Habu, T.; Namba, A.; Yamane, H.; Fuyuhiro, F.; Iwamoto, K.; Sugiura, A.

    2002-08-01

    Self-compatible cultivars of Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume Shieb. et Zucc.), a tree species that normally shows S-RNase-based self-incompatiblity, have a horticultural advantage over self-incompatible cultivars. Inheritance of self-compatibility and a common S(f)-RNase allele that is observed in self-compatible cultivars was investigated using progenies from controlled crosses. Total DNAs were isolated from the parents and progenies of seven crosses that included at least one self-compatible cultivar as a parent. These DNAs were PCR-amplified with the Pru-C2 and PCE-R primer pair to determine S-haplotypes of the parents and progenies. A novel S-haplotype, S(8), was found. In all crosses examined, the S(f)-RNase gene was inherited from either the seed or pollen parent as a pistil S-allele in a non-functional S-haplotype. Self-compatibility of about 20 trees each from reciprocal crosses of 'Benisashi ( S(7) S(f))' and 'Shinpeidayu ( S(3) S(f))', and 26 selections from 16 different crosses was tested by pollination and pollen-tube growth studies. Cosegregation of the S(f)-RNase allele and self-compatibility was confirmed with all but selection 1K0-26 ( S(3) S(7)). Selection 1K0-26 ( S(3) S(7)) that originated from 'Benisashi ( S(7) S(f))' x 'Koshinoume ( S(3) S(f))' appeared to be self-compatible even without the S(f)-RNase allele. The possible role of pollen- S, a presumably existing pollen component of gametophytic self-incompatibility, is discussed.

  7. Self-compatibility of two apricot selections is associated with two pollen-part mutations of different nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Santiago; Badenes, María Luisa; Burgos, Lorenzo; Martínez-Calvo, José; Llácer, Gerardo; Romero, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Loss of pollen-S function in Prunus self-compatible mutants has recently been associated with deletions or insertions in S-haplotype-specific F-box (SFB) genes. We have studied two self-compatible cultivars of apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Currot (S(C)S(C)) and Canino (S(2)S(C)), sharing the naturally occurring self-compatible (S(C))-haplotype. Sequence analysis showed that whereas the S(C)-RNase is unaltered, a 358-bp insertion is found in the SFB(C) gene, resulting in the expression of a truncated protein. The alteration of this gene is associated with self-incompatibility (SI) breakdown, supporting previous evidence that points to SFB being the pollen-S gene of the Prunus SI S-locus. On the other hand, PCR analysis of progenies derived from Canino showed that pollen grains carrying the S(2)-haplotype were also able to overcome the incompatibility barrier. However, alterations in the SFB(2) gene or evidence of pollen-S duplications were not detected. A new class of F-box genes encoding a previously uncharacterized protein with high sequence similarity (approximately 62%) to Prunus SFB proteins was identified in this work, but the available data rules them out of producing S-heteroallelic pollen and thus the cause of the pollen-part mutation. These results suggest that cv Canino has an additional mutation, not linked to the S-locus, which causes a loss of pollen-S activity when present in pollen. As a whole, these findings support the proposal that the S-locus products besides other S-locus independent factors are required for gametophytic SI in Prunus.

  8. Characterization of two different apricot latent virus variants associated with peach asteroid spot and peach sooty ringspot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentit, P; Foissac, X; Svanella-Dumas, L; Peypelut, M; Candresse, T

    2001-08-01

    Peach asteroid spot (PAS) and peach sooty ringspot (PSRS) are two diseases of stone fruit trees of unknown aetiology. The use of a cRNA probe of the newly described Apricot latent virus (ApLV), a tentative member of the Foveavirus genus, indicated the presence of cross-hybridizing agents in PAS isolate LA2 and in PSRS isolates Caserta 12 and Clava J4. Analysis of dsRNA patterns revealed in each case the presence of a major dsRNA band of about 9.6 kbp. The purified dsRNAs were used to obtain cDNA clones for isolates LA2 and Caserta 12. Sequence analysis of a 1.1 kbp cDNA clone from isolate LA2 showed very high homology with the known ApLV sequence, indicating that this isolate represents a closely related variant of ApLV. Sequence analysis of a 3.06 kbp Caserta 12 cDNA clone representing the 3' region of the genome revealed a genomic organization similar to that reported for other members of the Foveavirus genus, including the triple gene block and a large, 43.6 kDa coat protein. Sequence comparison with the CP gene of ApLV, the only sequenced region so far for this virus, showed an overall homology of 78%. These results indicate that the foveavirus represented by the Caserta 12 isolate of PSRS disease may be regarded as a distant variant of ApLV. The present results indicate that the viral agents associated with peach asteroid spot and peach sooty ringspot diseases might be variants of the recently described ApLV.

  9. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  10. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1'-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  11. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  12. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  13. Effects of simulated transport vibration on respiratory pathways and qualities of Xinjiang apricot fruit%模拟运输振动对新疆杏呼吸途径和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘俨; 车凤斌; 董成虎; 张辉; 孟新涛; 张婷

    2015-01-01

    Effects of simulated transport vibration on respiratory pathways and qualities in Xinjiang apricot were studied based on the similarity simulation. About 1.50 t fresh apricots (Xiao baixing) in physiological maturity stage were packaged in plastic crates and transported in a refrigerated truck at the average velocity of 60 km/h.X-axial (lateral), Y-axial (longitudinal) and Z-axial (vertical) vibration accelerations of apricot crates in refrigerated truck were measured using digital 3-dimensional (3D) acceleration recorders with a sampling rate of once every 2.0 seconds during the 10-hour highway transportation. A vibration simulation platform (self-triturating equipment) loaded 120 kg apricots packaged in plastic crates where the vibration of horizontal direction and vertical direction both initiated from 0 to 8.0 Hz with 1.0 Hz rise every 5 minutes. During the simulation, vibration was measured with 3D acceleration recorders sampling once every 50 ms to select the proper vibration frequency close to the real transportation. According to the repeatable measurements, the simulated vibration was 57.60%-67.75% similar to real transportation at 0.5 Hz. Frequencies of low acceleration vibrations on lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions were higher than real transport. Apricots were divided into 2 groups: one group was stored in static state for 20 d at 3℃; the other group was stored for 17 days 3 days after the simulated transport under the selected vibration condition at 3℃. The differences between simulated transport and static storage in respiratory pathways, firmness, SSC (soluble solid content) and pericarp color of apricots were analyzed.The total respiration rate of apricot reached peak in the first 2-day simulated transport vibration, which was earlier 8 days than the apricot in static storage, and the peak value raised by 3.26 times. Apricot TCAC (tricarboxyficacid cycle) respiration rate reached peak in first 2-day simulated transport vibration

  14. 不同太阳能干燥设备处理对杏干品质的影响%Effect of Different Solar Drying Equipments on the Quality of Dried Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐麟; 蒋涛; 冯建荣; 李文慧; 沈卫强; 张谦; 阿曼古丽

    2012-01-01

    以新鲜库买提杏果实为试材,自然风干晾晒为对照,研究两种太阳能干燥设备加工杏干的品质效果.结果表明,当杏干基含水率达到20%时,GTG太阳能干燥设备用时5d,5HT-2型太阳能干燥设备用时6d,自然风干晾晒用时8 d;GTG太阳能干燥设备处理的杏干含水率为17.458%,含水量适中,口感更好,且易于储藏,制备的杏干优级品率达到83.30%,是自然风干晾晒优级品率的1.2倍.综合评价,GTG太阳能干燥设备处理杏果的制干效果最好,且节能、环保,适于推广.%The experiment used fresh kumaiti apricot as material, nature air-drying as control, and studied the drying effects of the two solar drying equipments. The results showed that, period time with GTG solar drying apricot was five days, period time with 5HT-2 solar drying was six days, nature air-drying was eight days, when water content rate of dried apricots was 20%. 17.458 percent of water content in GTG solar drying apricots was moderate, tasted better, and easy to storage. Superior grade product rate of GTG solar drying apricot was 83.30%, which was 1.2 times better than nature air-drying product. The drying effect with GTG solar drying equipment was the best in synthetic evaluation.

  15. 杏皮渣中类胡萝卜素的提取工艺研究%Study on Extraction of Carotenoids from Skin Residue of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贸; 刘昌蒙

    2013-01-01

    类胡萝卜素普遍存在于动物、高等植物等中的黄色、橙红色或红色的色素之中,具有广泛的生理活性,如抗氧化、防癌症、预防夜盲症等.随着对天然类胡萝卜素制品的需求量的增加,果渣或其他下脚料成为获取天然类胡萝卜素的新途径之一.本文中合理利用杏酒发酵过程中的下脚料-杏皮渣,以无水乙醇∶丙酮(3∶7)为提取溶剂,结果表明当料液比为1∶15、提取温度55℃、提取时间120 min、重复操作2次时,类胡萝卜素的得率最高,可达228.62 μg/g.%Carotenoids are groups of important bioactive compounds, which possess important physiological functions as anu'oxidant, anti-aging, and preventing cancer or cardiovascular disease. With the growing demand of natural Carotenoids, people focus on the pomace or some processing wastes, gradually. In consideration of comprehensive utilization of the waste from apricot wine fermentation- residues, the effect of organic solvents on carotenoids from apricot residues was researched in this paper. The experimental results showed that the best solvent was the mixture of absolute ethyl alcohol-acetone (3:7) and the optimal parameters were as follows: the Carotenoids were extracted at 55 ℃ for 120minutes, at the ratio between material and solvent of 1:15, operated twice totally. Under the conditions, the yield of Carotenoids from apricot skin residue could reach up to228.62 μg/g.

  16. Optimization of liquid submerged fermentation technology of apricot vinegar%杏果醋液态深层发酵工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小; 赵会芳; 孙福林; 刘苗苗

    2012-01-01

    采用酒精发酵和液态深层醋酸发酵两步法,研究了杏果醋的发酵工艺。通过L9(34)正交试验优化得到最佳酒精发酵工艺条件为:初始糖度16°Bx、酵母接种量3%、酒精发酵温度30℃,发酵液的酒精度达8.6%。采用4因素二次通用旋转组合试验设计,通过响应面法对醋酸发酵条件进行了研究。结果表明,起始酒精度、醋酸菌接种量、摇床转速及发酵温度4个因素对杏果醋总酸含量有极显著影响(P〈0.01)。在初始酒精度为6.7%、醋酸菌接种量为13%、发酵温度为34℃、摇床转速为153 r/min的最佳工艺条件下,杏果醋酸发酵液的总酸(以醋酸计)为7.11 g/100 mL,挥发酸(以醋酸计)为6.23 g/100 mL。%The alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid liquid fermentation technology of apricot vinegar were studied. The alcoholic fermentation was optimized by means of L9(34) orthogonal test. The optimized result was 16°Bx the initial Brix, 3% inoculation volume of yeast and fermentation temperature 30℃. The alcohol content was 8.6% under the optimized condition. Response surface methodologu was applied to study variation regularity of apricot acetic acid fermentation and to optimize the technical parameters with the four factors quadratic currency rotational composite experiment. The result showed that initial alcohol concentrarion, inoculation volume of acetic acid bacteria, fermentation time and shaker rotate speed had a highly significant influence on total acid content of apricot vinegar. The optimal fermentation parameters were obtained as: initial alcohol concentrarion 6.7%, 13% inoculation volume of acetic acid bacteria, fermentation time 34 % and shaker rotate speed 153 r/min. Under the condition, apricot vinegar had 7.11 g/100 mL total acid content (measured by the amount of acetic acid) and 6.23 g/100 mL volatile acid.

  17. 凉山州鲜食杏采果后的管理技术措施%Post-Harvest Management of Fresh-Edible Apricot in Liang Shan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元良; 陈雪梅; 王凤屏; 李瑞成; 余启茂

    2012-01-01

    简述四川凉山州鲜食杏金太阳、凯特等优良品种在采果后、落叶前应采用的肥水管理、整形修剪、病虫害防治、促花等管理技术措施,以促进树体的生长发育,提高产量。%In this paper, post-harvest management of two fresh-edible apricot cuhivars ( Golden Sun and Kate ) was described briefly. Fertilizer and water management, training and pruning, disease and insect prevention and promoting flowering are very important for tree growth and yield.

  18. [A case of acute ethanol intoxication with remarkable hyperglycemia by "ume-shu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Takayuki; Kojima, Naoki; Kaneko, Susumu; Ishida, Junro; Terada, Taizo; Inagawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasusei

    2002-07-01

    A 19-year-old woman ingested 2.2 L of "umeshu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar. She was unconscious and in shock. The estimated blood ethanol concentration was 607 mg/dl, and the blood glucose level was 576 mg/dl. Because her respiration and circulation was highly suppressed, blood purification was indicated. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was performed instead of hemodialysis because her hemodynamics was unstable. After CHDF was instituted, her blood glucose level reduced to normal range, and her consciousness became alert. CHDF was effective in eliminating ethanol and stabilizing her hemodynamics within an early stage. Though acute ethanol intoxication is known to inhibit glucogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia, marked hyperglycemia was seen in this case. Ingestion of a large amount of glucose-rich liquor and being in shock seemed to be the causes of hyperglycemia.

  19. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  20. 杏皮渣白兰地酒精发酵最佳工艺条件的研究%Study on the Optimum Alcohol Fermentation Conditions in Apricot Peel Brandy Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 张富县; 艾乃吐拉; 傅力

    2011-01-01

    以杏皮渣为原料,研究杏皮渣白兰地生产中酒精发酵阶段的主要工艺条件。对杏皮渣浆液的制备方式、最佳酵母的筛选、接种量、初始含糖量、发酵温度、初始pH以及在发酵过程中酒精度和残糖的变化进行了研究。结果表明,杏皮渣浆的最佳制取方式采用高压蒸煮和酶解结合法:将杏皮渣和水按1:6浸泡2h后破碎打浆,121℃高压蒸煮10min,冷却到室温后加入杏皮渣重量0.5%的果胶酶和1.5%的纤维素酶,在50℃下酶解4h,得到的杏皮渣浆的还原糖含量为72.27g/L。杏皮渣酒精发酵最佳工艺条件为:采用杏酒酵母N016,接种量为3%,初始合糖量为250g/L,发酵温度为28℃,初始pH3.9,发酵时间为12d,酒精度可以达到11.2%vol。%The main technical conditions in alcohol fermentation stage in apricot peel brandy production were studied. The preparation of apricot peel pulp, the selection of suitable yeast, inoculating quantity, initial sugar content, fermentation temperature, initial pH value and the change of alcoholicity and residual sugar content in alcohol fermentation process were investigated. The results showed that apricot peel pulp was prepared through the combination of high pressure cooking and enzymolysis as follows: the ratio of apricot peel and water was 1:6, after 2 h steeping, breaking and pulping operated, and then 10 rain high pressure cooking and steaming at 121 ~C, after cooling at room temperature, pectinase (0.5 % of apricot peel weight) and cellulase (1.5 % of apricot peel weight) were added, after 4 h enzymolysis at 50 ℃, apricot peel pulp was finally produced with its reducing sugar content as 72.27 g/L. The best technical conditions for alcohol fermentation were summed up as follows: Nol6 yeast was used, the inoculating quantity was 3 %, initial sugar content was 250 g/L, fermentation temperature was at 28 ℃, initial pH value was 3

  1. 杏核的活性壳:一种用于黄金回收的有价值的吸附剂%Activated Hard Shell of Apricot Stones: A Promising Adsorbent in Gold Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansooreh Soleimani; Tahereh Kaghazchi

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon has been proven to be an effective adsorbent for the recovery of a wide variety of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this research, the activated hard shell of Iranian apricot stones was used for gold recovery from electro-plating wastewater. The effect of parameters such as dose and particle size of adsorbent,pH, agitation speed of mixing on the gold recovery was investigated. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions more than 98% of gold ions were adsorbed onto activated carbon after just 3 h. In addition, the adsorbed gold could be eluted from this adsorbent by improved striping method. The process involves contact of gold-laden adsorbent with a strong base at ambient temperatures followed by elution with an aqueous solution con-taining an organic solvent. It was found that activated hard shell of apricot stones has the potential to replace im-ported commercial activated carbons in gold adsorption processes.

  2. Analysis of Sugars and Organic Acids in Fruits of Zhenzhuyouxing Apricot by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%珍珠油杏果实搪酸组分的高效液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 杨建明; 李慧峰; 李林光

    2011-01-01

    Zhenzhuyouxing apricot was a rare local variety in Shandong Province. The sugars and organic acids in the apricot fruits were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the soluble sugars in the fruit flesh included sucrose, glucose and fructose. The content of sucrose taking up 70. 53% of total sugars was substantially higher than the contents of the other two sugars. The organic acids in the fruit flesh included oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, of which, malic acid taking up 58.58% of total acids was the dominant acid, then the citric acid. According to the classification of apricot cultivars, Zhenzhuyouxing apricot belonged to the malic - acid type.%以山东省珍稀地方名产珍珠油杏为试材,采用高效液相色谱技术对其果实的糖酸组分进行了分析.结果表明:珍珠油杏果实含有3种糖组分:果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖;5种有机酸组分:草酸、苹果酸、乙酸、柠檬酸、琥珀酸.糖组分以蔗糖含量最高,占糖总量的70.53%,其次为葡萄糖,果糖含量最低;有机酸组分以苹果酸较高,占酸总量的58.58%,柠檬酸次之,琥珀酸、乙酸、草酸含量较低.珍珠油杏属于苹果酸型杏品种.

  3. 杏棉间作复合系统对棉花产量及纤维品质的影响%Effect of apricot-cotton intercropping system on fiber quality and yield of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光磊; 陈耀锋; 万群芳; 张玉东; 陈瑞萍; 曹春波

    2011-01-01

    以大田棉花为对照(CK),研究了环塔里木盆地杏、棉间作系统对棉花的产量和纤维品质特性的影响.结果表明:杏、棉间作下棉花的产量及其构成因素相比对照均有不同程度的减小,且随着距杏树垂直距离的增加,其变化呈偏态分布趋势;在杏、棉间作区,棉花的比强度、伸长率和马克隆值明显减少,而纤维长度、整齐度、黄度和纺纱指数则形成了明显的增加区和降低区,表明杏、棉间作对棉花产量和纤维品质的影响很大.%With the ingle cropping of cotton as CK, the effect of apricot-cotton intercropping on fiber quality characteristics and yield of cotton around Tarim Basin was studied. The results showed that the trend of changes in the yield and its components of cotton was in partial distribution tendency in the apricot-cotton intercropping system, which were lower than those in CK. In apricot-cotton intercropping, the strength, elongation and Micronaire value of cotton were significantly reduced, but the fiber length, uniformity, yellowness and CSP of cotton increased obviously in some areas but reduced in others. The experiment showed that the apricot-cotton intercropping had great effect on fiber quality and yield of cotton.

  4. Research of Vibration Device of Fresh Apricot Dryer based on Infrared Ray%基于红外线的鲜杏干燥机振动装置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉陇; 姚伟; 史增录; 张学军; 孙杰; 沈唯; 冯一洪

    2014-01-01

    The infrared radiation heat flux density of drying process is high, resulting in uneven heating of fresh apricot-sided, which af-fects the drying quality. The vibration device of fresh apricot dryer was designed. Dynamics analysis of the dryer vibration device was made and experiments were conducted to test the maximum vibration velocity of fresh apricot on the vibration device with a view of pro-viding a theoretical basis for the design and improvement of the vibration device.%针对红外辐射干燥过程中辐射的热流密度高,造成鲜杏单面受热出现阴阳面,影响干燥品质等问题,设计一种鲜杏干燥机的振动装置。通过对干燥机振动装置的动力学分析,以及鲜杏在振动装置上可承受的最大振动速度的分析与试验,为振动装置的设计及改进提供理论依据。

  5. 新疆轮台小白杏的太阳能制干工艺研究%Research of different drying process for white apricot of LUN-tai in XinJiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟伊娜; 马燕; 邹淑萍; 张谦; 过利敏; 张平

    2013-01-01

    With white apricot as the main materials that one of main cultivars in Luntai of Xinjiang,solar drying(SD)appliance was used as a single greenhouse device as controls.The main purpose on study was to investigate different solar-drying process and drying characteristics of solar-dryer for white apricot through comparing the apricot moisture content,water activity and the changes of color difference of the two kinds of devices in drying.The results showed that the drying-period of white apricot was 10d under SD appliance,compared with house drying,with the drying time shorter,the final product-quality were better.Weight loss ratio of white apricot was 28.9%,water activity was 0.45,and L value,a value and b value were 42.7,20.1 and 31.8,respectively.%以新疆轮台县主栽杏品种~小白杏作为实验材料,以单一温室装置为对照,采用自主研发的5HT-2农副产品太阳能干燥(solar-drying SD)装置,通过对比杏子在该装置与温室装置的干燥过程中水分含量、水分活度及色差等指标的变化情况,开展制备新疆轮台小白杏杏干的太阳能干燥实验研究.结果表明:SD装置有利于缩短杏子的干燥时间,SD装置中小白杏干燥时间为10d,较温室缩短1d;杏干优级品率高;温室小白杏杏干的失重率为28.9%、水分活度为0.45、色差值为L值为42.7,a值为20.1,b值为31.8.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoneedles using shallot and apricot tree gum%利用葱和杏树胶绿色合成银纳米针

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mahdi TAHERI; Mohammed Rafiq ABDUL KADIR; Noor Kamila AHMAD SHAFIAI; Tolou SHOKUHFAR; Mahtab ASSADIAN; Mostafa Rezazadeh SHIRDAR

    2015-01-01

    使用葱和杏树胶为原料,采用一种快速、简单和低成本的绿色方法在硝酸银溶液中合成银纳米颗粒和纳米针。葱作为还原剂,杏树胶为稳定剂和覆盖剂,银离子被还原成颗粒状和针状的银原子。利用葱或葱与杏树胶混合物合成的银纳米颗粒的直径为8~20 nm,银纳米针的直径为50~60 nm,长度为5~10μm。提出一个自组装机理来阐明球形银纳米颗粒通过杏树胶的碳链形成针状结构,通过这种方式,葱和杏树胶可将还原的银纳米颗粒转变成银纳米针。采用XRD、紫外−可见光谱、场发射电子扫描显微镜和透射电镜对所得样品进行表征。%A green synthesis method to produce silver nanoneedles was described using shallot and apricot tree gum (ATG). A fast, simple, and low cost method was used to synthesize silver with nanoparticle and nanoneedle shape from the silver nitrate solution. Shallot as a reducing agent and apricot tree gum (ATG) as a stabilizer and a capping agent were utilized to reduce and form silver ions into silver atoms with needle and particle shape. Moreover, high crystalline structures of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with diameters of 8−20 nm and silver nanoneedles with average diameters of 50−60 nm and lengths of 5−10 μm were consequently synthesized by shallot and the mixture of shallot and ATG. A self-assembly mechanism was proposed to indicate the formation of needle-like structures of spherical AgNPs via carbon chains of ATG. The results indicate that the presence of ATG with shallot can transfer the reduced AgNPs into the silver nanoneedle. The findings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques.

  7. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Gato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF or cellulose (CF diet (control for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. The fecal lipids content (% DW of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058. Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.

  8. Improving knowledge of plant tissue culture and media formulation by neurofuzzy logic: a practical case of data mining using apricot databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Jorge; Pérez-Tornero, Olaya; Landín, Mariana; Burgos, Lorenzo; Gallego, Pedro P

    2011-10-15

    Plant tissue growth can be regulated and controlled via culture media composition. A number of different laborious and time-consuming approaches have been used to attempt development of optimized media for a wide range of species and applications. However, plant tissue culture is a very complex task, and the identification of the influences of process factors such as mineral nutrients or plant growth regulators on a wide spectrum of growth responses cannot always well comprehended. This study employs a new approach, data mining, to uncover and integrate knowledge hidden in multiple data from plant tissue culture media formulations using apricot micropropagation databases as an example. Neurofuzzy logic technology made it possible to identify relationships among several factors (cultivars, mineral nutrients and plant growth regulators) and growth parameters (shoots number, shoots length and productivity), extracting biologically useful information from each database and combining them to create a model. The IF-THEN rule sets generated by neurofuzzy logic were completely in agreement with previous findings based on statistical analysis, but advantageously generated understandable and reusable knowledge that can be applied in future plant tissue culture media optimization.

  9. Natural Polymer of Iraqi Apricot Tree Gum as a Novel Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1 M HCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Alwaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid using Iraqi apricot tree gum Arabic as natural polymer was studied. The weight loss method was used to predict the efficiency of the inhibitor on corrosion of mild steel in a temperature range of 17–40°C. The FTIR result of natural polymer revealed that the C=O and O-H groups were found in the structure of the natural polymer. The results of weight loss method showed that the inhibition efficiency (I% increased with the increase in both the natural polymer concentration and the temperature; therefore, chemical adsorption mechanism was suggested in this system. The different mathematical models of the adsorption isotherms were studied and the results revealed that natural polymer was found to obey Temkin, Langmuir, and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The activation energy of adsorption, enthalpy of adsorption, and entropy of adsorption were obtained for different concentrations of natural polymer (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 g/L and the results showed that the thermodynamic properties decreased with the loading of a natural polymer. Gibbs free energy of adsorption results was a minus value that led to the conclusion of the spontaneous adsorption of the natural polymer in this system.

  10. Analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nut, nutmeg, apricot kernel, and pine nut samples: re-evaluating the uniqueness of 2-alkylcyclobutanones for irradiated food identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elvis M K; Tang, Phyllis N Y; Ye, Yuran; Chan, Wan

    2013-10-16

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) have long been considered as unique radiolytic products that can be used as indicators for irradiated food identification. A recent report on the natural existence of 2-ACB in non-irradiated nutmeg and cashew nut samples aroused worldwide concern because it contradicts the general belief that 2-ACBs are specific to irradiated food. The goal of this study is to test the natural existence of 2-ACBs in nut samples using our newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with enhanced analytical sensitivity and selectivity ( Ye , Y. ; Liu , H. ; Horvatovich , P. ; Chan , W. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine . J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 , 61 , 5758 - 5763 ). The validated method was applied to identify 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in nutmeg, cashew nut, pine nut, and apricot kernel samples (n = 22) of different origins. Our study reveals that 2-DCB and 2-TCB either do not exist naturally or exist at concentrations below the detection limit of the existing method. Thus, 2-DCB and 2-TCB are still valid to be used as biomarkers for identifying irradiated food.

  11. Research of extraction technology of the melanin from core-shell of wild apricots using response surface analysis%响应面法对山杏核壳黑色素提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 张乔会; 蓝晶晶; 王建中

    2012-01-01

    With less utilization, core-shell of wild apricot was the scarps of production. On the basis of single factor experiments,the optimum conditions for the extraction of the melanin from core-shell of wild apricot were obtained through Box-Benhnken center-united experiment design and response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimum conditions of extraction of the melanin from core-shell of wild apricot were as follows: liquid ratio 1:20, temperature 60℃,alkali concentration tmol/L,time 4h.Under this condition,the maximal yield of melanin was up to 8.33%.%山杏核壳是生产中的下脚料,开发利用较少。以山杏核壳为原料提取黑色素,通过响应面法优化工艺条件。在单因素实验基础上选取实验因素与水平,根据Box—Benhnken中心组合实验设计原理采用四因素三水平的响应面分析法。得到最佳提取工艺为:料液比1:20,温度60℃,碱液浓度1mol/L,时间4h;在此条件下,提取得率可达8.33%。

  12. Initial Research of Apricot Fruit Harvesting Vibration Energy Transfer%杏果树激振收获能量传递的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建清

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the apricot fruit harvest mechanical vibration.According to the Xinjiang field fruit harvesting requirements, introduces the basic principle of energy transfer test vibration harvesting process, through vibration test of fruit trees in different position of external excitation force, data acquisition output by using the strain data acquisition system, with high-speed photography of apricot trees dynamic real-time image capture process record. Through the acquisition of strain data and image motion analysis processing.Obtained in process of vibration type recovery, energy transfer and the clamping position on.When selecting the excitation point branch holding the best location point is 27.5mm, the branches reach resonance frequency, obtain the maximum energy;energy loss processes in the branches in the energy transfer;the angle of branch and trunk is of the smaller to get more energy, more conducive to fruit vibration off.To provide theoretical basis and technical guidance for the further research of vibration type fruit mechanical.%为解决杏果实机械振动式采收的问题,根据新疆实地果品采收要求,介绍了激振式收获过程能量传递试验的基本原理,并通过在果树不同位置外加激振力进行振动试验,利用应变数据采集系统进行数据采集输出,借助高速摄像对果树振动过程进行实时图像捕捉记录。通过对采集应变数据及图像进行运动分析处理可知:在振动式采收过程中,能量传递与夹持位置有关。当选取树枝上激振点距夹持点的最佳位置为27.5mm 时,树枝上达到共振频率,获得的能量最大;能量在树枝传递的过程中存在能量的损失;分支与主枝干夹角越小,获得的能量越大,越有利于果实振动脱落。该研究可以为水果机械振动式的进一步研究提供理论基础和技术指导。

  13. 仁用杏品种的引种栽培及适应性研究%Introduction Cultivation & Adaptation of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建玲; 马建成

    2012-01-01

    张掖市寺大隆林场于2001年引进仁用杏良种龙王帽、一窝蜂等品种,通过设点定植观察,4个品种的综合性状都表现出良好的栽培适应性,龙王帽结果性状尤为明显,平均株产2.77kg,最高株产8k。干仁质量从大到小排列:龙王帽、优一、一窝蜂、白玉扁,龙王帽丰产性好且杏仁口感好,香甜无余苦。同时,从其抗旱性、抗寒性、抗病虫能力上对不同仁用杏品种进行研究,逐步摸索出一套适应张掖市特殊气候条件早果丰产栽培技术措施:%Longwangmao & Yiwofeng and other species were introduced to Sidalong forest farm of Zhangye city in 2001. Through the point of colonization observation, integrated traits of the 4 varieties show good adaptability; character of fruitage of Longwangmao is particularly significant, the average yield being 2.77 kg, the highest strain capacity being 8 kg. Dry kernel weight are in decreasing order : Longwangmao, Youyi, Yiwofeng , Baiyubian ; the high yield of Longwangmao is good and the almond taste good, no more than a hitter sweet. From its drought resistance, cold resistance, resistant ability to disease & insect, different apricot varieties were studied simultaneously; a set of early-fruiting & high-yielding cultivation techniques to adapt to the special climate were gradually worked out in Zhangye city.

  14. Pathogen-Induced Leaf Chlorosis: Products of Chlorophyll Breakdown Found in Degreened Leaves of Phytoplasma-Infected Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Trees Relate to the Pheophorbide a Oxygenase / Phyllobilin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelberger, Cecilia; Yalcinkaya, Hacer; Pichler, Christa; Gasser, Johanna; Scherzer, Gerhard; Erhart, Theresia; Schumacher, Sandra; Holzner, Barbara; Janik, Katrin; Robatscher, Peter; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard; Oberhuber, Michael

    2017-03-07

    Phytoplasmoses such as Apple Proliferation (AP) and European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) cause severe economic losses in fruit production. A common symptom of both phytoplasma diseases is the early yellowing or leaf chlorosis. Even though chlorosis is a well-studied symptom of biotic and abiotic stress, its biochemical pathways are hardly known. In particular, in this context, a potential role of the senescence-related pheophorbide a oxygenase/phyllobilin (PaO/PB) pathway is elusive, which degrades chlorophyll (Chl) to phyllobilins (PBs), most notably to colorless non-fluorescent Chl catabolites (NCCs). In this work, we identified the Chl catabolites in extracts of healthy senescent apple and apricot leaves. In extracts of apple tree leaves, a total of 12 Chl catabolites were detected, in extracts of leaves of the apricot tree 16 Chl catabolites were found. The major seven NCC fractions in the leaves of both fruit tree species were identical, and displayed known structures. All of the major Chl catabolites were also found in leaf extracts from AP- or ESFY-infected trees, providing the first evidence that the PaO/PB pathway is relevant also for pathogen-induced chlorosis. This work supports the hypothesis that Chl breakdown in senescence and phytoplasma infection proceeds via a common pathway in some members of the Rosaceae family.

  15. Optimization of Extraction Process for Melanin Pigment from Apricot Kernel Skin%杏仁种皮黑色素提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巨秀; 李红姣; 赵忠; 夏秋敏; 朱海兰

    2012-01-01

    Melanin is a kind of complex polymeric phenolic compound,which can be used in the field of medicine,cosmetics,food and electron.In this work,melanin was extracted from apricot kernel skin by alkaline extraction,acid hydrolysis,and repeated precipitation,and one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods were used to optimize four extraction conditions including NaOH concentration,extraction temperature,extraction time and material-to-liquid ratio based on melanin yield.Three extraction conditions except extraction time had a highly significant effect on melanin yield(P 0.01),and could be ranked in descending order of importance as follows: extraction temperature NaOH concentration material-to-liquid ratio.The optimal extraction conditions were NaOH concentration of 0.4 mol/L,extraction temperature of 80 ℃,and extraction duration of 6 h,and material-to-liquid ratio of 1:20.Under these conditions,the yield of melanin was 7.2%.%以杏仁种皮为试验材料,采用碱溶解酸沉淀的方法提取黑色素,以氢氧化钠溶液浓度、提取温度、提取时间、料液比为考察因素,以黑色素得率为指标,通过单因素和正交试验,研究山杏种皮黑色素的提取工艺。结果表明:氢氧化钠浓度、提取温度、料液比3个因素对黑色素的得率均表现出极显著(P〈0.01)影响;3个因素对黑色素提取得率影响的主次顺序为提取温度〉氢氧化钠浓度〉料液比;最佳工艺为氢氧化钠浓度0.4mol/L、提取温度80℃、提取时间6h、料液比1:20(g/mL),黑色素得率达到7.2%。

  16. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro e clones de umezeiros submetidos à aplicação de AIB Rooting of peach and clones of japanese apricot cutting treated with IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do umezeiro ou damasqueiro-japonês (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. como porta-enxerto de Prunus sp. vem despertando grande interesse em função de sua rusticidade, resistência a pragas e doenças, adaptação e, principalmente, por reduzir o porte de pessegueiros e nectarineiras. Visto que trabalhos prévios constataram baixo enraizamento de alguns clones de umezeiro e um estímulo a este processo em estacas herbáceas com uso de 2000 mg.L-1 de AIB, objetivou-se no presente trabalho estudar o enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro e clones selecionados de umezeiros tratados com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB na forma líquida. Estacas lenhosas do pessegueiro 'Okinawa' e dos clones de umezeiro Clone IAC-2, Clone IAC-X, Clone IAC-10 e Clone IAC-XIX, foram padronizadas com 25 cm de comprimento, ausentes de folhas e 5 cm de suas bases tratadas com AIB, nas concentrações 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000 mg.L-1, por cinco segundos. As estacas foram colocadas em leito de areia umedecido, coberto com sombrite 50% de luminosidade. As avaliações ocorreram após 90 dias após o estaqueamento, avaliou-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, com calos, enraizadas, brotadas e o número médio de raízes por estacas. Concluiu-se que a concentração de 2000 mg.L-1 de AIB promoveu os melhores resultados para a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, com calos e número médio de raízes por estacas. De uma forma geral, o Clone IAC-X demonstrou-se superior entre os demais no enraizamento de suas estacas.The use of the japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. as rootstock of Prunus sp. has raised a great interest due to its rusticity, resistance to plagues and diseases, adaptation and mainly for reducing the peach and nectarines. Since previous works had evidenced low cut of rooting of some clones of japanese apricot and stimulation to this process in herbaceous of cut using 2000 mg.L-1 of AIB, the objective of the present work was to

  17. Effect of Oligochitosan Treatment on Induce Disease Resistance and Active Oxygen Metabolism in Apricot Fruits%壳寡糖对杏果实抗病性及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿衣木古丽·艾赛提; 王英; 贾盼盼; 朱璇

    2015-01-01

    为研究壳寡糖处理对杏果实贮藏期间抗病作用中活性氧变化的影响。以新疆塞买提杏为试验材料,选用分子量5000 u、浓度为0.50%的壳寡糖对杏果实进行减压渗透处理。处理后的杏果实贮藏在温度为4℃、RH 90%~95%的冷库中,定期测定杏果实接种发病率、病斑直径、超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide dismutase, SOD)、过氧化氢酶(Catalase, CAT)、过氧化物酶(Peroxidase, POD)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(Ascorbate peroxidase, APX)的活性和超氧阴离子(Superoxide anion,·)产生速率及过氧化氢(Peroxide, H2O2)的含量。结果表明,壳寡糖处理的杏果实发病率显著低于对照果实,且可诱导杏果实早期·和H2O2的含量的积累,并使·产生速率和H2O2含量在杏果实贮藏后期保持在较低水平,增强了杏果实中SOD、CAT、POD和APX的活性。说明壳寡糖处理可降低果实发病率,诱导活性氧的迸发和相关抗氧化酶酶活性的显著增强,提高了果实的抗病性。%The objective of the study was to explore the effect of oligochitosan treatment on active oxygen metabolism of apricot fruits. The Saimaiti apricot fruit (Prunus armeniacal) was used as materials and treated by vacuum infiltration 0.50%oligochitosan solution (molecular weight:5,000 u). The treated apricot fruit were stored at 4℃, 90%-95%RH. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) the related active oxygen metabolism, super oxygen anion (O2-·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content were determined. Results indicated that the disease incidence in oligochitosan -treated fruits was significantly lower than that in control fruits. Oligochitosan treatment accelerated H2O2 content and ·production rate. The activities of SOD,POD,APX and CAT were enhanced. The studies suggested that oligochitosan-treated can decreased the disease incidence

  18. Study on structure and function of apricot leaf glandular trichomes%杏叶腺毛的结构和功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林

    2012-01-01

    植物腺毛通常分化出柄部和头部,为了解杏叶腺毛柄部和头部的结构与功能,对杏叶腺毛做半薄和超薄切片,用光学与透射电子显微镜观察。结果表明,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部都是多细胞结构,在超微结构水平上柄部与头部有三方面显著区别:(1)柄部质体分化成具发达类囊体和基粒的叶绿体,积累淀粉,而头部质体不分化,为原质体,含大量管状内膜结构,不积累淀粉或其他贮藏物质;(2)柄部液泡少而体积大,液泡内没有可见物质积累,相反,头部液泡多而体积小,液泡内积累电子染色深的酚类物质;(3)与柄部相比,头部具更多内质网。显然,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部有不同的超微结构和生化功能,包括柄部进行光合作用,头部负责酚类物质的合成与积累。%Glandular trichomes of plants usually consist of a stalk and a head. In order to understand the structural and functional features of the two parts, glandular triehomes of apricot leaves were investigated by means of both light and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that both the stem and the head of the glandular triehome were multieellular and eontained rieh organelles. Comparisons revealed differences between the two parts in three aspects: (1) the plastids differentiated into chloroplasts in the stem, whereas remained as proplastids in the head, the chloroplasts contained rieh thylakoids, grana and starch grains, while the proplastids contained numerous tubules without any visual storage; (2) vaeuoles were less in number but larger in size in the stem than in the head, vaeuoles in the stem did not accumulate electron-dense substances, while electron-dense phenolic aceumulation oecurred in vaeuoles in the head; (3) endoplasmic reticula were much rieher in the head than in the stem. It is coneluded that the ultrastruetures of the stem and head are distinct and the

  19. 杏皮渣醋醋酸发酵工艺条件的研究%Optimization of Technology Conditions for Acetic Acid Fermentation of Apricot Dregs Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富县; 王文文; 李丽; 傅力

    2014-01-01

    为了提高杏皮渣醋醋酸发酵产量,对杏皮渣醋醋酸发酵工艺进行优化,采用均匀设计对杏皮渣醋醋酸发酵阶段中初始pH 值、初始酒精度、装瓶量、接种量、发酵时间和发酵温度进行优化,并建立二次多项式回归模型。结果表明:初始pH 值为4.24,初始酒精度为6.53%(V/V),装瓶量为30%,接种量为12.92%,发酵时间为25天,发酵温度为30.1℃,杏皮渣醋的产酸量可达到8.11%。在最优条件的基础上简化操作,在 pH 自然,接种量为13%,装瓶量为30%的条件下,采用静止发酵法30℃发酵24天,产酸量达到7.49 g/dL,占预测值的92.36%。%In order to improve the production of acetic acid fermentation,the technical parameters for acetic acid fermentation of apricot dregs vinegar are optimized by uniform design.The effects of initial pH,initial alcohol content,bottle capacity,inoculums,fermentation time and fermentation tempera-ture on acetic acid yield are studied.The regression equation of six factors to acetic acid yield is found. The results are as follows:initial pH of 4.24,initial alcohol content of 6.53% (V/V),bottle capacity of 30%,inoculums of 12.92%,fermentation time of 25 days and fermentation temperature of 30.1 ℃.In this case,the acetic acid yield reaches 8.11%.The technology conditions could be simpli-fied in the optimal conditions:they are natural pH,inoculums of 13%,which is 92.36% of the pre-dicted value,the bottle capacity of 30%.The acetic acid yield reaches 7.49 g/dL at 30 ℃for 24 days.

  20. Investigation of Pistil Abortion Rate of Five Apricot Cultivars in Xinjiang%新疆5个栽培杏品种雌蕊败育率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白泽晨; 冯建荣; 李文慧; 胡亚洲; 曹晓艳; 孙军利

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解新疆南疆杏品种花的败育率,探索杏的败育机理,克服生产中杏败育的现象.[方法]在此过程中调查奎克皮曼等5个杏品种果树不同部位、不同长度枝的雌蕊败育情况.[结果](1)5个供试品种的败育率在6.04% ~99.64%.其中依力克大杏的雌蕊败育率最高,为99.64%,克孜佳娜丽最低,为6.04%.奎克皮曼和大果杏雌蕊败育率差异表现不显著,除此之外,不同品种间雌蕊败育率差异均十分显著.(2)5个品种中,依力克大杏上部、中部、下部雌蕊败育率差异不显著;黄胡安娜、克孜佳娜丽都是中部与上部、下部雌蕊败育率差异不显著,而上部与下部雌蕊败育率差异显著;奎克皮曼、大果杏的上、中、下部雌蕊败育率差异都十分显著.(3)5个品种中,不同果枝发育的花败育率比例不同.奎克皮曼、依力克大杏、黄胡安娜3个品种的雌蕊败育率呈现出相同的趋势,即败育率长果枝>中果枝>短果枝.[结论]不同品种对杏花败育率的影响比不同部位对杏花败育率的影响大;杏树品种及部位对雌蕊败育率的影响是极显著的.%[ Objective ] This test was aiming at investigation of flower fertility of apricot cultivars in Xinjiang for exploring the mechanism of sterility and overcoming the phenomenon of pistil abortion. [ Method] In this process, pistil abortion rate (PAR) of different parts and different branches in 5 apricot cultivars from Luntai National Fruit Germplasm Resource Garden was investigated. [Result] The results showed that (1) PAR of 5 cultivars were between 6.04 ~99.64% , PAR in Yilikedaxing was the highest with 99.64% and that in Kezijianali was the lowest with 6. 04%. The PAR between Kuikepiman and Daguoxing had no significant difference. In addition, PAR between the different cultivars were very significant. (2) In the five cultivars, PAR in Yilikedaxing had no significant difference in different parts of tree

  1. 三种无公害农药对杏坚球蚧的防治试验%Three Types of Biologically Rational Pesticides in Control of Apricot Stone Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀文; 尚华

    2011-01-01

    应用石硫合水剂、阿维高氯、腊蚧灵三种农药对杏坚球蚧进行防治试验。结果表明:阿维高氯、石硫合水剂、腊蚧灵和对照四种处理的种群趋势指数分别为0.4148、0.8328、4.9908、6.3925,这说明阿维高氯和石硫合水剂处理区的杏坚球蚧种群数量呈显著下降趋势,而腊蚧灵和对照区的仁用杏球坚蚧种群数量呈明显增长趋势;应用阿维高氯和石硫合水剂防治杏球坚蚧效果良好。%Lime sulphur,abamectin betacypermethrin,scale insect kills as well as CK were applied to control the apricot stone shells.The results showed that the index of population trends of the four treatments were 0.4148、0.8328、4.9908、6.3925,respectively.Quantity of the insects was obviously decreased with the treatments of lime sulphur and abamectin betacypermethrin while the quantity of insects with other two treatments was significantly increased.

  2. Effect of Ethylene Inhibitors on Quality Attributes of Apricot cv. Modesto and Patterson during Storage Efecto de los Inhibidores de Etileno sobre Atributos de Calidad de Damascos, Variedades Modesto y Patterson durante Almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Valdés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. fruit are highly susceptible to flesh softening, loss of flavor and fruit decay, particularly during postharvest storage. Most of these quality changes observed during fruit ripening are under ethylene regulation. We performed a study with the objective of determining the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG applications on quality attributes of Modesto and Patterson apricot cultivars. 1-MCP was applied at a rate of 1000 and 10 000 nL L-1 of SmartFresh™, and AVG at a rate 100 and 1000 mg L-1 of Retain®. Quality evaluations were performed after 20 and 30 days of cold storage and after a shelf-life period of 3-4 days at 20 °C. In general, both ethylene inhibitors were effective in reducing the ethylene production rate, especially in Patterson. Fruit softening and color development showed ethylene-dependent behavior, with significant reductions for both varieties in fruit treated with 1-MCP and AVG. On the other hand, soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity showed an ethylene-independent pattern, i.e. they were not affected by ethylene inhibitors applications. Among volatile compounds identified, esters and aldehydes showed ethylene-dependent behavior in both varieties. On the other hand, alcohols and terpenes were not affected by ethylene inhibition, suggesting ethylene-independent behavior.El damasco (Prunus armeniaca L. es muy susceptible al ablandamiento de la pulpa, pérdida de sabor y pudriciones, especialmente durante postcosecha. Muchos de estos cambios que ocurren durante maduración son regulados por etileno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el cambio de la calidad de damascos var. Modesto y Patterson tratados con 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG. Las dosis utilizadas fueron de 1000 y 10 000 nL L-1 de 1-MCP (SmartFresh™, 100 y 1000 mg L-1 de AVG (Retain® 15% p/p y su respectivo testigo. Las evaluaciones se realizaron

  3. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

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    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  4. Nondestructive detection of dried apricots quality based on machine vision and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technology%基于机器视觉和近红外光谱技术的杏干品质无损检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星奕; 钱媚; 徐富斌

    2012-01-01

    干果品质直接影响其市场销售.该研究以杏干为对象探讨用机器视觉和近红外光谱技术快速无损检测干果内外品质的方法.拍摄杏干4个不同位置的彩色图像,用基于区域骨架化的填充法分割杏干,提取每种角度下的面积.从100个正常杏干样本中随机挑选75个为校正集,25个为预测集,用多元线性回归对杏干的实际质量和4个面的面积建模,得到校正集和预测集相关系数分别为0.9374和0.9307,杏干质量分级的准确率为90%.提出用基于平均灰度的区域增长法提取杏干缺陷,缺陷检测的准确率为84.5%.采用SNV对杏干近红外光谱进行预处理,然后分别采用偏最小二乘法(PLS)、向后区间偏最小二乘法(biPLS)及联合区间偏最小二乘法(siPLS)建立杏干糖度预测模型.结果表明,当全光谱范围被划分为22个子区间,优选出区间[17、2、3、9、20、13、7、18、15、11、6],主因子数为10时建立的biPLS糖度模型性能最好.其校正集相关系数和校正均方根误差分别为0.8983和1.23,预测集相关系数和预测均方根误差分别为0.8814和1.46.研究表明,机器视觉结合近红外光谱技术能对杏干内外品质进行综合检测,也可为其他干果的品质检测提供借鉴.%Quality is the most important factor for marketing of dried fruits. The machine vision and near infrared spectroscopy were explored to detect the external and internal quality of dried apricots nondestructively. Color images of dried apricots in four different locations were captured, the filling algorithm based on the regional skeleton was used for segmentation of dried apricots on those images and then area of dried apricot was calculated. Among 100 normal samples, 75 samples were randomly selected as calibrating set, 25 samples were used as forecast set. Evaluation model based on co-relationship between actual weight and pixels of dried apricots was developed via multiple linear

  5. Single factor experimental study on ultrasonic extraction of amygdalin from apricot kernel%超声波法提取山杏仁中苦杏仁苷的单因素试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝晖; 李鑫; 李文博; 王福梅; 赵安方

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the apricot kernel,which is produced in Lushan,was taken as a raw material,ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the yield of amygdalin,which is regarded as the index to select an optimum extraction method.The influence of solid-liquid ratio,ethanol concentration,extraction temperature,extraction time and ultrasonic power on the yield of amygdalin at different levels were studied.The optimum technological parameters of single factors on amygdalin extraction with ultrasonic extraction technique were solid-liquid ratio 1: 5,ethanol concentration 80%,extraction temperature 70 ℃,extraction time 40 min and ultrasonic power 64 w.The results indicated that the influence of solid-liquid ratio,ethanol concentration,extraction temperature,and ultrasonic power on the yield of amygdalin all showed a very significant level;while the influence of extraction time on the yield of amygdalin was not significant.The results of Fisher LSD multiple comparisons indicated that the influence of these factors between different levels were all different.%以产自平顶山市鲁山县的山杏仁为原料,采用紫外分光光度法,以苦杏仁苷的得率为指标,研究超声波提取法中固液比、乙醇浓度、提取温度、提取时间及超声功率对苦杏仁苷提取效果的影响。单因素试验结果表明,超声波法提取苦杏仁苷的最佳单因素工艺参数为固液比1∶5、乙醇浓度80%、提取温度70℃、提取时间40 min、超声功率64 W。单因素方差分析的结果表明,固液比、乙醇浓度、提取温度、超声功率四个因素对苦杏仁苷得率的影响都极其显著,而提取时间对苦杏仁苷得率的影响是不显著的。Fisher LSD多重比较结果显示,各因素不同水平之间对苦杏仁苷得率影响的差异显著性也有所不同。

  6. 杏树桃粉大尾蚜及其天敌种群动态研究%Population dynamics of Hyalopterus amygdali (Hemiptera:Aphididae)and its natural enemies on apricot tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仁福; 王登元; 王华; 于江南

    2013-01-01

    对杏树桃粉大尾蚜及其天敌种群动态进行了系统调查研究.结果表明,杏树桃粉大尾蚜4月初开始发生,6月初达到高峰期,7月中旬逐渐消退.其天敌主要由桃瘤蚜茧蜂[Fovephedrus persicae(Froggatt)]、大灰后食蚜蝇[Metasyrphus corollae (Fabricius)]、多异瓢虫[Hippodamia variegata (Goeze)]、菱斑巧瓢虫[Oenopia conglobata (Linnaeus)]、十一星瓢虫(Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus)和丽草蛉(Chrysopa formosa Brauer)构成,各种天敌在时间上对桃粉大尾蚜有明显的跟随效应.采用时间生态位法和灰色关联分析研究了各种天敌与桃粉大尾蚜种群数量之间的关系.在明确桃粉大尾蚜及其天敌种群动态的基础上,为桃粉大尾蚜天敌评价提供理论依据.%Population dynamics of Hyalopterus amygdali Blanchard and its natural enemies on apricot tree were investigated. The results showed that H. Amygdali occurred in early April, reached its peak in early June, and disappeared in mid-July. Its natural enemies include Fovephedrus persicae (Froggatt), Metasyrphus corollae(Fabricius), Hippodamia variegata(Goeze), Oenopia conglobata (Linnaeus), Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus and Chry-sopa formosa Brauer. All natural enemies had great following effect on H. Amygdali. The temporal niche and grey relation grade analysis were used to analyze the relationship between the quantities of H. Amygdali and its natural enemies. Based on elucidating the population dynamics of H. Amygdali and its enemies, the results provide a theory basis for evaluation of its natural enemies.

  7. Enxertia recíproca e AIB como fatores indutores do enraizamento de estacas lenhosas dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiro 'Okinawa' e umezeiro Reciprocal grafting and IBA factors induction on rooting of woody cutting: peach tree 'Okinawa' and japanese apricot tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecius Spuri de Miranda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de enraizamento do porta-enxerto pode ser influenciado pelo enxerto e pelo transporte basípeto de auxinas e cofatores. Objetivou-se verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e da enxertia recíproca entre dois porta-enxertos de pessegueiro: o umezeiro (A e o pessegueiro 'Okinawa' (B, nas concentrações de 0 e 4000 mg.L-1, no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas dessas duas espécies. As estacas foram enxertadas nas seguintes combinações enxerto (enxerto com duas gemas e sem folhas/porta enxerto (20 cm de comprimento: A/B e B/A. Como testemunhas, foram utilizadas estacas não enxertadas e tratadas ou não com AIB. Posteriormente, as estacas foram colocadas em sacos de polietileno preto contendo areia lavada e de granulometria média e mantidas em casa-de-vegetação sob nebulização intermitente durante 80 dias. Observou-se que a utilização do AIB aumenta o percentual de enraizamento, o número e o comprimento médio de raízes primárias das estacas de pessegueiro 'Okinawa' e do umezeiro enxertadas ou não. A enxertia recíproca entre o pessegueiro 'Okinawa' (porta-enxerto/umezeiro (enxerto, quando tratadas com AIB, aumentou o percentual de enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro 'Okinawa'.Rootstock rooting potential may be influenced by the graft because auxin down movement and cofactors. The objective was to verify the reciprocal grafting effects between peach tree rootstock: Japanese apricot (A and 'Okinawa' (B, IBA at the 0 and 4.000 mg L-1 concentrations upon both woody cutting rooting. The following grafting combinations were used on the grafted cuttings (two gems graft without leaves in rootstock 20 cm long: A/B and B/A and woody cuttings not grafted an treated IBA as check. Later the cutting were kept in black polyethylene bags containing washed sand and maintained in greenhouse with intermittent mist during 80 days. IBA was efficient to improve the rooting, percentual, number and length primary roots of peach tree

  8. 甜仁仁用杏果实形态主要评价指标的选择%Selection of main evaluation indexes of sweet almond-apricot fruit morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦培; 杜红岩; 朱高浦; 赵罕; 乌云塔娜

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the sweet almont-apricot’s germplasm resources effectively, 147 superior plants were collected from North China and Central China, and 23 fruit morphology characters of them were analyzed with correlation analysis, regression analysis, principal component analysis and clustering analysis. The results show there was a highly significant correlation between fruit maximum diameter and fruit longitudinal diameter, fruit transverse diameter and transverse abdominal diameter, fruit weight to pulp weight and fruit side diameter and pulp thickness, shell weight to nucleus weight, nucleus transverse diameter and transverse-abdominal=diameter-1 to transverse-abdominal-diameter-2, they all had correlation coefficients above 0.98, and there were close correlations among theirs fruit morphological characteristics;based on the morphological traits correlations, specially, focused on fruit weight and fruit shape indexes, the species of high nucleus-yield rate were bred and the species of high kernel rate varieties were cultured according to nucleus weight, kernel side diameter and kernel shape indexes;the fruit morphology characters of 23 sweet almont-apricot could be simplified into 9 main characters which represented all information, such as fruit weight, nucleus weight, kernel weight, kernel longitudinal diameter, kernel side diameter, nucleus rate, kernel rate, fruit shape index, kernel shape index.%为了有效评价甜仁仁用杏种质资源,对华北地区和华中地区的147份甜仁仁用杏优株的23个果实形态性状进行了相关分析、回归分析、主成分分析及聚类分析。研究结果表明,果最大径与果纵径,果横径与果腹横径,果重与肉重、果侧径和果肉厚,壳重与核重,核横径、核腹横径1与核腹横径2呈极显著相关,相关系数均在0.98以上,果实形态性状之间存在密切的相关性。由此选育高出核率的品种重点参考果重和果型指数指标;选

  9. Study on cotton yield and components in apricot-cotton intercropping system%杏棉间作对棉花产量及其构成因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红国; 王飞; 张巨松; 王军; 曹公利; 敬碧; 余永江

    2011-01-01

    在新疆南疆自然生态条件下,研究了杏棉间作对棉花产量及其构成因素的影响.结果表明:间作棉花的LAI在整个生育期低于单作,且峰值出现早,后期下降缓慢,比单作低15.9%;叶片的净光合速率Pn与SPAD值联系密切,盛花期前叶片的Pn、SPAD值增长快,间作的叶片Pn和SPAD值均低于单作;间作棉花地上部干物质快速积累持续期比单作少10.7 d,最大积累时问间作棉花比单作早4.7 d,最大积累量间作比单作少0.42g/(d·株);间作棉花的"三桃"(伏前桃:伏桃:秋桃)比例为0.14:1:0.14;皮棉产量为1 395.3 kg/hm2,比单作低41.2%;经济收入间作比单作高37.8%.%Under the natural environment in south Xinjiang , we studied the effect of apricot~cotton intercropping on cotton yield and yield components , aimed at providing the theoretical basis for efficient cultivation technology of cotton in the apricotrxotton intercropping system . The results showed : The LAI of intercropped cotton was lower than that of sole cotton through the whole growth stage , and the peak of LAI appeared earlier and LAI of intercropped cotton decreased slowly at the later stage , and was lower than that of sole cotton by 15 .9% ; There was a close relation between leaf Pn and its SPAD value , before peak flowering , both the leaf Pn of intercropped cotton and sole cotton increased fast and so was the leaf SPAD value , but both of which were lower than that of sole cotton ; The fast accumulating period of dry mat- ter above ground of intercropped cotton was shorter than that of the sole cotton by 10 .7 days , and the max dry matter ac-cumulation time of intercropped cotton appeared earlier than that of sole cotton by 4 .7 days, and the max dry matter ac-cumulation amount was less than that of the sole cotton by 0 .42 g per plant; The ratio of the three kinds of bolls of inter- cropped cotton was 0 ,14!l!0 .14, and the lint yield was 1 395 .3 kg/hm lower than that of the sole cotton by 41

  10. 二次通用旋转组合设计优化杏皮渣醋酒精发酵阶段工艺%Optimization of Alcoholic Fermentation Conditions of Apricot Dregs Vinegar by Quadratic General Rotary Unitized Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富县; 王文文; 艾乃吐拉·马合木提; 何伟; 依合帕来木·肉苏力; 罗芳芳; 傅力

    2014-01-01

    The experiment of alcoholic fermentation of apricot dregs vinegar with apricot dregs is con-ducted.The effect of the amount of wine yeast and ester yeast on the yield of both ester and alcohol is studied.The effects of initial content of soluble solid,initial pH,inoculums and fermentation time on alcohol content are studied.The parameters of alcoholic fermentation are optimized by means of quad-ratic general rotary unitized design.The results show that the ratio of wine yeast to ester yeast is 2∶1 (V/V),the ester content is 0.104 g/L,and the alcohol content is 6.25% (V/V).The optimal condi-tions of fermentation are as follows:the content of soluble solid is 18%,pH 3.8,inoculums of 3%, the fermentation time is 5 days.In such conditions,the alcohol yield can reach 7.26%(V/V).%以杏皮渣为原料,采用果酒酵母和产酯酵母对杏皮渣汁进行酒精发酵。研究了果酒酵母和产酯酵母的用量对杏皮渣汁发酵产酯量和酒精产量的影响,同时研究了初始可溶性固形物含量、初始pH、接种量和发酵时间对酒精产量的影响。利用二次通用旋转组合设计优化酒精发酵工艺参数。结果表明:果酒酵母与产酯酵母的比例为2∶1(V/V)时,产酯量为0.104 g/L,酒精度为6.25%(V/V)。当最佳可溶性固形物含量为18%,最佳初始pH 值为3.8,最佳接种量为3%(V/V),最佳发酵时间为5天时,杏皮渣汁发酵的酒精度可达7.26%(V/V)。

  11. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  12. Insertion Mutation of Pollen SFB Gene in Self-compatibility of Japanese Apricot Cultivars Native to China%中国原产果梅自交亲和变异品种花粉决定基因SFB的插入突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 侍婷; 高志红; 章镇; 庄维兵

    2012-01-01

    Japanese apricot(Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc)is a fruit crop with gametophytic self-incompatibility. Some self-compatible varieties appeared during long-term evolution. In this study,a typical self-incompatibility cultiva‘rNanko’and self-compatible cultiva‘rKoshinoume’of Japanese apricot were taken as controls. We identified the self-compatibility of two cultivars‘Sichuan Baimei’and ‘Changnong 17’native to China through field self-pollination test,the results demonstrated that the rate of fruiting set were 30.73% and 16.27%,respectively. Further analysis of AS-PCR showed that there were insertion mutation in pollen SFB genes of the two cultivars,which possibly resulted in self-compatibility of these two cultivars.%果梅是配子体自交不亲和树种,但在长期进化过程中也出现了自交亲和品种。以果梅典型的自交不亲和品种‘南高’和自交亲和品种‘甲州小梅’为对照,采用田间自交授粉试验对原产于中国的‘四川白梅’和‘长农17’两个果梅品种进行了自交亲和性鉴定,结果表明:其自花授粉坐果率分别为30.73%和16.27%,属于自交亲和品种。进一步通过AS-PCR分析发现花粉SFB基因存在一段插入序列,造成了分子水平的基因突变。推测该基因的突变使‘四川白梅’和‘长农17’SFB功能发生改变,从而自交亲和。

  13. Response Surface Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Melanin from Testae of Wild Apricots and Its Antioxidant Activities%响应面试验优化超声波辅助提取山杏种皮黑色素工艺及其抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红姣; 李巨秀; 赵忠

    2016-01-01

    以山杏种皮黑色素得率为考察指标,在单因素试验的基础上采用Box-Behnken方法,通过响应面设计优化超声波辅助提取山杏种皮黑色素的工艺,并对山杏种皮黑色素的自由基清除能力、螯合金属离子能力、抗脂质过氧化等抗氧化活性进行了测定。结果表明,提取温度、料液比、NaOH浓度这3个因素对提取效果均有显著影响(P<0.05),超声波辅助提取山杏种皮黑色素的最优工艺为NaOH浓度0.33 mol/L、料液比1∶10(g/mL)、提取温度63.07℃,山杏种皮黑色素得率可达4.14%。山杏种皮黑色素具有较强的螯合金属离子的能力,对羟自由基也有一定的清除作用,能显著抑制大鼠肝脏自发性以及H2O2和Fe2+-VC诱导的脂质过氧化反应,但铁还原能力、体外清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦肼基(DPPH)自由基和2,2’-联氮-二(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)二铵盐自由基(ABTS+·)的能力较弱。%In this work, we isolated melanin from the testae of wild apricots (MTWA) by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The optimization of the extraction process was carried out using by the combined use of one-factor-at-a-time method and response surface analysis (RSA) with Box-Behnken experimental design. Then the antioxidant activities of MTWA were analyzed including free radical scavenging capacity, metal ion-chelating capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: NaOH concentration, 0.33 mol/L; temperature, 63.07℃;time,3 h; and solid-to-solvent ratio, 1:10 (g/mL). Under these conditions, the maximum yield of MTWA of 4.14% was obtained. The in vitro antioxidant tests showed that MTWA had weaker 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate),radicalscavenging activities and ferric reducing ability. However, compared with synthetic melanin, MTWA had much stronger

  14. Study on Influencing Factors of the Antifungal Activity on the Main Postharvest Disease -producing Fungus of Apricot Fruit by Oligochitosan%壳寡糖对杏果实采后主要病原菌抑菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾盼盼; 刘晓丹; 吝晨晨; 朱璇

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究壳寡糖对引起杏果实采后病害主要病原真菌抑菌作用的影响因素.[方法]将供试菌种扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)、胶孢链格孢(Alternaria alternata)和匍枝根霉(Rhizopus stolonifer)活化培养后接种到含有壳寡糖的PDA培养基上,观察不同分子量及不同浓度的壳寡糖对不同病原菌菌落生长的影响.[结果]壳寡糖对3种供试菌均有较好的抑制作用.不同分子量的壳寡糖抑菌效果不同,分子量5000和10000壳寡糖的抑菌率显著高于分子量3 000的壳寡糖.在供试壳寡糖浓度中,处理效果表现为剂量依赖关系,三种分子量的壳寡糖均以2.0%浓度对三种供试菌的抑菌效果最好.不同病原菌对壳寡糖的敏感性不同,供试壳寡糖对胶孢链格孢(A.alternata)和匍枝根霉(R.stolonifer)的抑制率明显高于扩展青霉(P.expansu).[结论]不同分子量的壳寡糖对病原菌的菌落生长均有较好的抑制作用,抑制作用的大小因壳寡糖分子量、浓度、病原菌的不同而有差异.%[Objective] The influencing factors of the antifungal activity on the main postharvest disease -producing fungus of apricot fruit by oligochitosan were studied. [Method] Penicillium expansum, Alternaria alternate and Rhizopus stolonifer were inoculated on the potato dextrose agar containing oligochitosan. The effects of oligochitosan of different molecular weight and concentration on the colony growth were evaluated. [Result]The results from the experiment showed that the oligochitosan had good antifungal activity on the three tested fungi strains. The antifungal activity of 10,000 Da was higher than that of the oligochitosan with molecular weight 3, 000 Da. The antifungal activity of the tested oligochitosan concentration has a concentration dependent manner. Among them, 2.0% oligochitosan was the most effective. Different strains had different sensitivities to the oligochitosan. A. Alternata and R. Stolonifer were more

  15. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, The plum fruit moth, Cydia funebrana (Treitschke), Leaf...: Apiognomonia erythrostoma (Pers.), a brown rot fungus; Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, the Mediterranean fruit... fruit would be cut open to inspect for the internal pest C. capitata. If any of these quarantine...

  16. Composition and oil characteristics of apricot, peach and cherry kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazos, Evangelos S.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Se han obtenido huesos de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza de vegetales procesados y se han separado y analizado las pepitas después de eliminar las cascaras. El aceite crudo, extraído con éter de petróleo, fue 38’4, 48’0 y 26’0% de materia seca de pepitas de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente; el contenido en proteina cruda fue 21’2, 26’7 y 25'3%; fibra bruta 5'0, 5’4 y 9’5%; hidratos de carbono totales 32'4, 16'0 y 34’5% de los cuales 9’3, 7’1 y 11’3% fueron azúcares reductores: y ceniza 3’0, 4’0 y 4’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado en las pepitas cantidades considerables de K, P, Mg y Ca; se han tabulado valores para 15 minerales. Las características del aceite fueron: índice de iodo 105, 97, 116; índice de saponificación 195, 201, 198; materia insaponificable 0’95, 1’60, 3’12%; índice de refracción (40°C 1’4635, 1’4622, 1’4693; y gravedad específica (20°C 0’9227, 0’9158, 0’9419 para aceite de pepita de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente. El ácido graso dominante fue el oleico (68’0, 69’0, 46’0% respectivamente seguido por el linoleico (24’2, 22’0, 41’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado también en concentraciones traza C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C15:0, C15:1, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0 y C20:1. El esterol principal fue el β-sitosterol alcanzando alrededor del 90%, seguido por el campesterol. Se han encontrado asimismo colesterol, estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol. Δ7-estigmasterol y Δ7-avenasterol.

    Se han obtenido huesos de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza de vegetales procesados y se han separado y analizado las pepitas después de eliminar las cascaras. El aceite crudo, extraído con éter de petróleo, fue 38’4, 48’0 y 26’0% de materia seca de pepitas de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente; el contenido en proteina cruda fue 21’2, 26’7 y 25'3%; fibra bruta 5'0, 5’4 y 9’5%; hidratos de carbono totales 32'4, 16'0 y 34’5% de los cuales 9’3, 7’1 y 11’3% fueron azúcares reductores: y ceniza 3’0, 4’0 y 4’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado en las pepitas cantidades considerables de K, P, Mg y Ca; se han tabulado valores para 15 minerales. Las características del aceite fueron: índice de iodo 105, 97, 116; índice de saponificación 195, 201, 198; materia insaponificable 0’95, 1’60, 3’12%; índice de refracción (40°C 1’4635, 1’4622, 1’4693; y gravedad específica (20°C 0’9227, 0’9158, 0’9419 para aceite de pepita de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente. El ácido graso dominante fue el oleico (68’0, 69’0, 46’0% respectivamente seguido por el linoleico (24’2, 22’0, 41’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado también en concentraciones traza C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C15:0, C15:1, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0 y C20:1. El esterol principal fue el β-sitosterol alcanzando alrededor del 90%, seguido por el campesterol. Se han encontrado asimismo colesterol, estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol. Δ7-estigmasterol y Δ7-avenasterol.

  17. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic... pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or...

  18. 78 FR 79573 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... political and administrative divisions in Spain), auditing companies, integrated pest management... integrated pest management, rather than systems approaches for the growth and certification of crops for... movement of pests between lots exceedingly rare. There is a slightly larger risk that articles destined...

  19. S-genotypes identification of 40 local varieties of Chinese plum and Chinese apricot%中国李、杏S基因鉴定及其在远缘杂交中的应用(Ⅲ)——中国李、杏40个地方品种S基因型的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌云塔娜; 杜红岩; 李洪果; 杨绍彬

    2011-01-01

    用蔷薇科S基因4对引物对40个李、杏地方品种的S基因进行PCR扩增、测序确定了40个李、杏品种的S基因型.‘蜜李’、‘水晶李’、‘不祥李’的S基因型均为Sc/Se;‘空心李’、巴塘李’的S基因型均为S10/S11;‘绥棱红李’、‘早黄李’的S基因型均为S10 /Sg;‘离核1号’、‘离核4号’的S基因型均为S11/Se.其他品种的S基因型如下:‘新疆1号’S17/S8、‘朱砂李’S11 /S8、‘、‘平顶香’Sk/Se、‘大青稞’S10/S8、‘连平三花李’S10/S6、‘早李’S10/S15、‘李子梅’S10/S22、‘横道河子大红李’S17/S10、‘苹果李’S15/S16、‘紫云鸡血李’S17/S11、‘芙蓉李’Si/Se、‘早熟李’S9/S18、‘金沙李’S18/S10、‘大黄李’S10/Sg、‘秋红李’Sb/Sg、‘康什李’S10/Se、‘奉化李’S7/Sb、、‘灰子李’S17/S32、‘早熟红李砧’S18/S9、‘孔雀蛋实生’S10/S8、‘无名李’S17/S8、‘五香李’Sk/Se、‘奈曼晚熟’S22/S11、‘巴斗杏’S11/S26、‘黑叶杏’S8/S27、‘9803’S12/S3、‘金奎’S22/S17、‘五月李’S10/S8、‘晚熟黄李砧’S8/Sx.%Based on S gene structure of Rosaceae,four pairs of primers have been designed to amplify the S gene of 40 cultivars of apricot and plum. Sequencing and bioinformatics analysis show that 'Mili', 'Shuijingli'and'Buxiangli' has the same S-genotype Sc/Se; 'Kongxinli', 'Batangli' has the same S-genotype S10/S11 ; 'Suilinghongli', 'Zao-huangli' has the same S-genotype S10/Sg; 'Liheyihao',' Lihesihao' has the same S-genotype S11 /Se. Other cultivars'S-genotypes are showed as follows: ' Xinjiangyihao' S17/Sg, ' Zhushali 'S11/S8, ' Pingdingxiang 'Sk/Se, 'Daqingke' Sio/Ss. 'Lianpingsanhuali' S10/S6, 'Zaoli' S10/S15, 'Lizimei' S10/S22, ' Hengdaohezidahongli' S17/ S10, 'Pingguoli' Sis/Sis, ' Ziyunjixueli' S17/S11. 'Furongli' Si /Se, 'Zaoshuli' S9/S18, 'Jinshali' S18/S10, 'Dahuangli' S10/Sg, 'Qiuhongli' Sb/Sg, 'Kangshili' S10/Se

  20. Scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    an exposure of 0.105 mg/kg bw associated with a non-toxic blood cyanide level of 20 micro mol (µM), and applying an uncertainty factor of 1.5 to account for toxicokinetic and of 3.16 to account for toxicodynamic inter-individual differences. In the absence of consumption data and thus using highest intakes...

  1. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide treatment should be avoided.

  2. 78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... businesses may obtain information on complying with this and other marketing order and agreement regulations by viewing a guide at the following Web site: http://www.ams.usda.gov/MarketingOrdersSmallBusiness... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Research on air drying apricot after different treatments%杏的自然风干试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志龙; 高振江; 张春敏; 马玲绢

    2006-01-01

    选用两种杏,就葡萄促干剂及气体射流冲击烫漂对杏的干燥特性和色泽的影响进行了研究.结果表明:杏经不同的处理,表现出不同的干燥特性;相同处理间不同杏,表现出相近的干燥特性;其中经BDP处理的杏的干燥速率最快;不同的处理方式对杏的色泽(L*、a*和b*)都有很大的影响,其中对b*值的影响最显著,烫漂是b*减少的主要原因.

  4. Jujube dry apricot compound beverage development%红枣杏干复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜海燕; 田洪磊; 李伟朝; 詹萍

    2009-01-01

    以红枣、杏干为原料,用正交实验设计,主要研究了枣汁、杏汁浸提的最佳工艺条件和最佳澄清条件以及最佳复合饮料配方.结果表明,干枣和水用量比为1∶8,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间100 min;杏干和水用量比为1∶10,浸提温度40 ℃,浸提时间100 min.最佳澄清条件为:在温度45℃下,枣汁加入浓度为0.005%的果胶酶,杏汁加入浓度为0.002%的果胶酶,澄清时问为2.5 h.复合饮料最佳配方为杏汁:枣汁(v/v)为1∶1.5,蔗糖7%,柠檬酸0.1%.

  5. Processing Technology of Non-sulfur Dried Apricots%无硫杏干加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 龚鹏; 车玉红; 郝庆

    2008-01-01

    新疆南部环塔里木盆地是我国杏干的主要产区,目前大多采用传统熏硫加露天暴晒的方式进行制干,生产出的杏干不仅残硫量高,外观品质差,而且卫生状况也无法得到有效的保障,极大地影响了杏干的商品价值。为了降低生产成本,简化制作工序,提高商品价值,现介绍一种简易制作优质无硫杏干工艺。

  6. Cultivation Techniques on Apricot in Hualong County%化隆县杏树栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽莉; 韩学良

    2006-01-01

    杏属蔷薇科(Rosaceae)李属(Prunusl)。杏的适应性很强,对冬季低温抵抗力强,遇-30℃的温度仍能安全越冬;喜光照,生长期光照充足,果实品质好,含糖量高;其根系发达,抗旱能力较强;喜干燥气候。杏的果实成熟期早,肉酸甜多汁,杏仁营养丰富,商品价值较高。

  7. Fermentation Conditions of Dried ‘Xiaobai’ Apricot Kvass%小白杏干格瓦斯饮料发酵条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾乃吐拉·马合木提; 董成虎; 艾麦提·巴热提; 冯作山; 魏帅

    2016-01-01

    以小白杏干为原料,酵母菌和乳酸菌混合发酵制作格瓦斯饮料,在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验确定小白杏干格瓦斯饮料的最佳发酵工艺.结果表明,小白杏干格瓦斯饮料发酵的最佳条件为:小白杏干汁可溶性固形物含量9%,接种量4%(V/V),其中酵母菌与乳酸菌比例为3:1,发酵温度28℃,发酵时间18h.在该条件下制得的小白杏干格瓦斯饮料酒精含量为0.49%(V/V),可溶性固形物含量8%~9%,总酸含量6.0~7.0 g/L,外观呈深黄色,澄清、透明,具有明显的杏干香气和风味,口感醇厚,酸甜适中.

  8. Integrated mRNA and miRNA transcriptome reveal a cross-talk between developing response and hormone signaling for the seed kernels of Siberian apricot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Wang, Jia; An, Jiyong; Liu, Lili; Lin, Zixin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Libing; Ma, Chao; Shi, Lingling; Lin, Shanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, our transcriptomic analysis has identified some functional genes responsible for oil biosynthesis in developing SASK, yet miRNA-mediated regulation for SASK development and oil accumulation is poorly understood. Here, 3 representative periods of 10, 30 and 60 DAF were selected for sRNA sequencing based on the dynamic patterns of growth tendency and oil content of developing SASK. By miRNA transcriptomic analysis, we characterized 296 known and 44 novel miRNAs in developing SASK, among which 36 known and 6 novel miRNAs respond specifically to developing SASK. Importantly, we performed an integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA transcriptome as well as qRT-PCR detection to identify some key miRNAs and their targets (miR156-SPL, miR160-ARF18, miR164-NAC1, miR171h-SCL6, miR172-AP2, miR395-AUX22B, miR530-P2C37, miR393h-TIR1/AFB2 and psi-miRn5-SnRK2A) potentially involved in developing response and hormone signaling of SASK. Our results provide new insights into the important regulatory function of cross-talk between development response and hormone signaling for SASK oil accumulation. PMID:27762296

  9. Studies on the Annual Variation of Amygdalin Content in Branches of Apricot%杏树体内苦杏仁甙含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇瑛; 程丽琴

    2006-01-01

    研究结果表明:杏树叶片中苦杏仁甙(Am)含量的变化趋势呈单峰曲线;在休眠期,1年生枝条韧皮部Am含量较高,而木质部Am含量较低;在旺盛生长期,韧皮部Am含量较低,而木质部Am含量较高;果肉及种仁的Am含量变化趋势基本相似,都呈上升趋势,5月中旬前果肉中Am含量高于种仁;之后,种仁Am含量大于果肉.

  10. Study on the anti-browning technology of ‘Shushanggan' apricot dried artificially%人工干制树上干杏的防褐变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤尧; 张文涛; 高凯; 李喜宏; 齐威; 王威

    2015-01-01

    为有效解决树上干杏人工干制过程中的褐变问题,优化树上干杏的护色干制工艺条件,以色度、感官评分为响应值,选择热烫温度、热烫时间及护色剂VC浓度为实验因子,进行响应面分析.得到最优护色参数:热烫温度95.6℃,热烫时间4.62 min,护色剂VC浓度1.63%.实验结果表明树上干杏护色干制工艺合理可行,能有效抑制干制过程中的褐变.

  11. Dried apricots infrared radiation characteristics and mathematical models%杏子红外辐射干燥特性及数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超新; 张学军; 史增录; 孙杰

    2015-01-01

    为了改善杏子在传统干燥过程中卫生条件差、能耗大、干燥后品质不高、环境污染等问题,将红外辐射干燥应用到杏子干燥.研究了杏子在不同干燥条件下的干燥特性曲线,求出不同条件下有效水分扩散系数并建立了数学模型.结果表明:随着辐射温度和辐射距离减少,物料的有效水分扩散系数不断增加,且辐射温度对杏子红外辐射干燥影响更明显;在干燥过程中杏子水分比的变化规律符合以Page模型为基础的数学模型.

  12. 促干剂在鲜杏制干工艺中的应用%Preliminary Study on Dry-promoter to Dry Technology of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车玉红; 杨波; 龚鹏; 郝庆

    2009-01-01

    通过应用促干剂对色买提杏和木格亚格杏进行制干试验.结果表明:促干剂加快杏干前期失水速率,但色泽均比对照略深,制干时间变化不明显.经促干剂处理后,出干率比对照均有所提高,色买提杏提高了3.5%,木格亚格杏提高了1.5%.促干剂不影响杏干商品品质,可在制干中应用.

  13. 喷雾干燥杏子固体饮料工艺研究%Study on the technology of spray drying for apricot beverage powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟佳佳; 周家华; 常虹; 兰彦平

    2009-01-01

    以新疆色买提杏子为原料,经前处理、酶解、打浆、调配、胶磨、均质和喷雾干燥等工序生产出杏子固体饮料,采用正交设计对酶解工艺、喷雾干燥工艺参数以及稳定剂进行了优选.结果表明:果胶酶浓度0.12 mL/kg,纤维素酶浓度0.08 mL/kg,酶解温度40℃,反应时间为90min时酶解效果最佳;喷雾干燥最佳工艺参数为进口温度170℃,进样速率6.6 mL/min,风速35m3/h;复合稳定剂最佳配方是CMC 0.3%,海藻酸钠0.06%,黄原胶0.12%.

  14. Processing Technology of Low Sugar Dried Apricot in Xinjiang%新疆地区低糖杏脯加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凯; 王继勋; 卢春生

    2007-01-01

    新疆南疆地区光热资源丰富,气候干燥,昼夜温差大,病虫害少,是我国杏树主产区之一。该地区产的鲜杏个头大,颜色鲜艳,果实含糖量高,不仅适合鲜食,也适合制成各种杏的加工产品。低糖杏脯是杏加工产品之一,它的含糖量能够降低到40%~50%,并能保持杏的原果味,适宜新的消费趋势。

  15. 杏的无硫护色工艺研究%RESEARCH ON TECHNOLOGY OF ANTIBROWNING WITHOUT SULPHITE OF THE APRICOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂玲

    2008-01-01

    研究杏的无硫护色工艺.结果表明:杏片的厚度、护色工艺影响护色效果.将4mm-5mm杏片浸泡于0.3%a-环状糊精+0.2%葡萄糖酸锌复合液中.热烫2mim.经此处理的杏片仍保持杏原有的橙黄色,具有良好的感官效果.为了防止破碎的杏浆料的褐变,采用90℃下热烫2min以钝化多酶氧化酶(PPO),防止有酶参与的酶促褐变.

  16. 杏的无硫护色工艺研究%RESEARCH ON TECHNOLOGY OF ANTIBROWNING WITHOUT SULPHITE OF THE APRICOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂玲

    2009-01-01

    研究杏的无硫护色工艺.结果表明:杏片的厚度、护色工艺影响护色效果.将4mm~5mm杏片浸泡于0.3%β-环状糊精+0.2%葡萄糖酸锌复合液中,热烫2 min,经此处理的杏片仍保持杏原有的橙黄色,具有良好的感官效果.为了防止破碎的杏浆料的褐变,采用90℃下热烫2min以钝化多酶氧化酶(PPO),防止有酶参与的酶促褐变.

  17. 杏叶片与果实总RNA提取方法研究%Study on Methods for RNA Extraction from Apricot Leaf and Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓颖; 曹雪; 房经贵; 章镇

    2010-01-01

    以杏叶片及幼果为材料,分别从操作耗时、RNA质量和产量等方面比较了CTAB法、改良CTAB法、Trizol法、SDS-苯酚法和改良SDS法5种不同的RNA提取方法.结果表明:5种方法均能从幼嫩叶片中提取到总RNA;经电泳检测,28S rRNA和18S rRNA两条主带清晰,A260/A280均大于1.8;其中以Trizol法提取效果最佳,改良CTAB法次之,产量分别达到了839.25μg/g和395.21μg/g.在果实RNA提取过程中,改良SDS法以及改良CTAB法能有效减少果实RNA的提取中酚类物质和多糖等杂质的影响,获得质量较高的RNA,二者产量分别为352.65μg/g和361.95μg/g.每种方法提取的叶片和果实的RNA经反转录后形成cDNA,并进行RT-PCR扩增,成功扩出看家基因泛素蛋白UBQ片段,说明了RNA质量能够满足文库构建、基因克隆等研究需要.

  18. Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Photosynthesis in Apricot Trees%一氧化氮对杏叶片光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师守国; 李善菊; 童斌; 任小林

    2005-01-01

    以山杏(Armerniaca vulgaris Lam)叶片为试材,叶面喷施外源一氧化氮(Nitric Oxide, NO)供体硝普钠(Sodium Nitroprusside,SNP),研究其对杏叶片净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)以及叶绿素含量的影响.结果表明,在一定浓度范围内,杏叶片Pn、叶绿素含量随处理浓度的升高而增加,其中以100 μmol/l处理最高.SNP处理后,叶片的Tr均低于对照而Ci均不同程度有所升高.

  19. Application of HACCP System in the Producing of Muddied Apricot Juice Beverage%HACCP在浊型杏汁饮料生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 徐建国

    2006-01-01

    运用HACCP原理对浊型杏汁饮料生产各环节的危害因子及明:危害因子主要来源于物理、化学及生物等综合因素.物理因素来自原辅料及包装材料中的杂质危害等;农药残留、重金属超标或添加剂过量等导致化学危害;生物危害来自原料、水或加工中微生物污染、二次污染以及微生物超标等.在危害分析的基础上,确定了浊型杏汁饮料安全生产过程中的七个关键控制点为:原料、清洗、调配、脱气、均质、装罐封盖、杀菌.

  20. A new pest in apricot fruit——Eurytoma maslovskii%危害杏果的新害虫——太谷桃仁蜂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维升

    2000-01-01

    @@ 太谷桃仁蜂 Eurytoma maslovskii Nikolskaya,又名太谷广肩小蜂,国内分布于河北、辽宁等地,对桃果危害严重时,造成大幅度减产,是一种重要的种实害虫.近年在辽宁朝阳发现该虫转移寄主危害山杏Prunus sibirica L及大扁杏Prunus sibirica var suavos-perma,使山杏、大扁杏核产量徘徊不前.

  1. 77 FR 18748 - Dicloran and Formetanate; Proposed Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    .... Provide specific examples to illustrate your concerns and suggest alternatives. vii. Explain your views as... CFR 180.200(a) from ``apricot, postharvest'' to ``apricot,'' ``carrot, roots, postharvest'' to ``carrot, roots,'' ``cherry, sweet, postharvest,'' to ``cherry, sweet,'' ``nectarine, postharvest''...

  2. 不同IBA和6-BA浓度对巴斗杏离体腋芽增殖的影响%The Effect of Different Factors on the Proliferation of Croton Apricot Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪玲; 余如刚; 宋运贤

    2010-01-01

    本研究以淮北巴斗杏茎段为外植体,以MS为基本培养基,研究不同浓度6-BA和IBA对芽增殖的影响.结果表明:采用4、5月份巴斗杏茎段,0.1%升汞灭菌时间8 min,6-BA浓度1.0 mg/mL,IBA浓度为0.1mg/L时茎段增殖和生长最适宜.

  3. Seasonal variations of wild apricot seed dispersal and hoarding by rodents in rehabilitated land%啮齿动物作用下退耕地山杏种子扩散与贮藏的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆亮; 赵雪峰; 孙明洋; 路纪琪; 孔茂才

    2010-01-01

    啮齿动物对植物种子的取食和扩散影响种子的时空分布,继而影响种子的萌发和幼苗建成,因而在森林更新中起着重要作用.在国有济源市愚公林场,选择退耕地生境,于春季、夏季、秋季分别释放人工标记的山杏种子,观察啮齿动物扩散与埋藏山杏种子的季节性差异.结果表明:1)退耕地中的啮齿动物主要包括大林姬鼠、社鼠、黑线姬鼠;2)山杏种子扩散速率在春季显著慢于夏季,夏季显著慢于秋季;3)种子搬运量受季节和种子状态交互作用影响,春季显著少于夏季,夏季显著少于秋季;4)不同季节种子平均搬运距离不同,秋季不同状态种子的搬运距离均大于春季和夏季;5)啮齿动物对山杏种子的贮藏点大小多为1粒种子,少量为2、3粒种子,且贮藏点大小与季节间存在显著的交互作用,春季单粒种子的贮藏点数量显著少于夏季和秋季,而夏季与秋季的贮藏点则倾向于多粒种子;6)在夏季和秋季各有5枚(共释放1800枚)被啮齿动物分散贮藏的山杏种子建成幼苗.

  4. Experiment of Three Insecticides for Controlling Aphids in Apricot Field%3种杀虫剂对杏树桃粉大尾蚜的防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海斌; 张坤鹏; 杨福; 于欣; 张学萍; 孙瑞红

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] Neonicotinoid and triazine ketones insecticides were selected to carry out the effective test against Hyalopterus arundinis to clarify the control effect, optimal concentration and persistence. [Methods] "DMRT" method was used to analyze variance and Duncan-style with new multiple range to test the significance of differences. [Results] Acetamiprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L and imidacloprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L showed good control against Hyalopterus arundinis. After 21 days control effect reached 99.78-100%, obviously higher than pymetrozine 50% WG 166.7, 250 mg a.I./L. There is no evident difference of corrective effect between acetamiprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L and imidacloprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L. [Conclusions] In practical application, acetamiprid 5% EC 16.7 mg a.I./L and imidacloprid 5% EC 16.7 mg a.I./L should be used alternately to prevent development of pest resistance.%[目的]选取新烟碱类和三嗪酮类杀虫剂,通过对桃粉大尾蚜Hyalopterus arundinis的药效试验,明确3种药剂的防治效果、适宜质量浓度、持效期.[方法]采用“DMRT”法进行方差分析,并用邓肯氏新复极差法检验差异显著性.[结果]5%啶虫脒EC、5%吡虫啉EC 16.7、25 mg a.i./L,防治桃粉大尾蚜效果均较好,药后21 d的防治效果为99.78%~100%,明显高于50%吡蚜酮WG 166.7、250 mg a.i./L的防效.并且5%啶虫脒EC及5%吡虫啉EC各药剂处理间校正防效无显著差异.[结论]在实际应用中建议交替使用啶虫脒和吡虫啉,防止害虫抗药性的产生.

  5. Modification of Biodiesel and Preparation Process of Bio-kerosene from Apricot Oil through Olefin Metathesis Reaction%交叉易位改性生物柴油与合成轻质燃油的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科

    2014-01-01

    文章以大豆油、山杏油为例,分别探讨了烯烃易位反应对生物柴油的改性以及合成提取一种碳数类似煤油的轻质燃油的全新方法,其步骤主要是:首先将油脂与甲醇酯交换得到脂肪酸甲酯;再将甲酯与3-己烯等烯烃通过交叉易位合成一些列碳数在9到16的烯烃燃料油;如需提炼轻质燃油可通过精馏将烯烃燃料油与饱和脂肪酸甲酯分离即可.

  6. Study on the Drying Technology and Drying Characteristics of Solar-dryer for High-quality Dried Apricot%优质杏干的太阳能干燥特点及其工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过利敏; 张谦; 赵晓梅; 邹淑萍; 刘路

    2008-01-01

    通过阐述2005~2008年在新疆南疆三地州采用标准化自制BG双波太阳能干燥(Solar-drying,简称SD)装置连续4年开展优质杏干的SD工艺研究,分析了影响SD的主要因素,并提出了相应的工艺措施以指导实际生产.研究表明,影响杏干SD特性的主要因素前期为排湿、中后期为温度,并且SD干燥温度应控制在40~60℃.还重点介绍了2008年6~8月在喀什地区泽普县进行赛买提杏的SD工艺研究.当装载量为60 kg时,赛买提杏干的实际SD干燥时间为10 d;杏干脱水率为1.804 kg/(m2·d),杏干优级品率达85%,分别是露天摊晒方式的1.9和2.8倍.可见,利用该装置在南疆地区进行SD杏干的生产是可行的,干燥效率高,产品品质好.

  7. 植物精油对杏干优势微生物的抑制效果研究%Study on antimicrobial activity of essential oils of dried apricots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚茹; 周林燕; 李淑荣; 曹珍珍; 张乐; 魏明; 聂莹; 唐选明

    2014-01-01

    以新疆小白杏为实验材料,研究新疆小白杏杏干在储藏期间微生物含量变化,通过分离、纯化从杏干上得到3株优势霉菌,形态观察初步鉴定为根霉菌、链格孢菌和青霉菌.选取9种植物精油对杏干上的混合菌进行抑菌实验,根据抑菌率筛选出3种抑菌活性较强的精油,并通过测定抑菌圈直径和最低抑菌浓度(MIC)进一步研究这3种精油对杏干上优势霉菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,9种植物精油对杏干上微生物均有一定的抑制作用,其中肉桂精油、月桂精油和茴香精油具有较强的抑菌性,且异味较小,对3种优势霉菌也有显著的抑制作用,抑菌活性显著优于卡那霉素,抑菌效果依次为:肉桂精油>月桂精油>茴香精油,肉桂精油可以作为天然保鲜剂用于杏干制品,达到抑菌和延长货架期的目的.

  8. Study on the Dried Technology and the Selection of Dried Varities for Apricot%新疆杏制干品种的筛选及制干工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱杰; 傅力; 张大海; 徐麟; 康竹君; 寇美林; 廖康

    2010-01-01

    [目的]筛选适宜的杏制干品种并对其制干工艺进行研究.[方法]对大胡安娜、佳娜丽、库买提、赛买提等46个杏品种的鲜杏自然晾晒制干,通过对46个品种的杏干果肉的总糖、总酸、制干比等指标测定及感官评价,筛选出适宜的杏制干品种.以库买提为原料,通过采用促干剂、蒸汽漂烫、NaHSO_3溶液浸泡、漂烫结合NaHSO_3溶液浸泡等处理方法,经过自然晾晒得到杏干,并对杏干的总糖、总酸、制干比、水分、残留SO_2量进行测定以确定最佳制干工艺.[结果]适宜的制干品种为大胡安娜、黑叶杏、库买提、佳娜丽等.最佳制干工艺条件为整果经90℃热水漂烫3 min,再浸泡于浓度为3.75 g/L的NaHSO_3溶液中1 h后晾晒.[结论]采用该工艺提高了制干速率,制干时间缩短2 d,且杏干感官品质好.

  9. Research of sulfur free color protecting liquid on color keeping effects of freeze dried apricot%无硫护色液对冻干杏干护色效果影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璇; 赵丽芹

    2014-01-01

    本文以兰州大接杏为原料,采用无硫护色液对真空冷冻干燥的杏干进行护色工艺研究.以明度值和色差值作为影响杏干褐变的指标,通过实验最终得到一种替代亚硫酸盐的无硫护色液:杏干冻干之前,在柠檬酸0.4%、抗坏血酸0.06%、氯化钠0.1%、焦磷酸钠0.04%的护色液中浸泡10min,冻干后测得杏干的色差值△E为6.96,此时杏干颜色保持最好.

  10. Study on The Techniques of in vitro Embryo Culture with Immature Embryo of Apricot%未成熟杏离体胚培养技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉柱; 张大鹏; 杨丽; 阎爱玲; 石宏

    2000-01-01

    本研究以极早熟"骆驼黄"杏品种未成熟离体胚为试材,分别在盛花后39、40、41、46、47、50、56、57和58 d采集样品,接种于Norstog、Tukey、Ms-R、SH、C2 d和改良SH培养基上,再分别进行0、45、65、80、90、100、110和120d的低温(0~5℃)处理.研究结果表明,所有供试培养基都能够使杏未成熟离体胚成苗,但是以Tukey培养基为佳,其次依次为Norstog、SH、Ms-R、C2d和改良SH培养基;胚龄越大,胚培养的成苗率越高;低温处理80 d以下的各处理成苗率明显下降.同时,防止立枯病菌侵染是杏胚培苗移栽成活的保障.

  11. 河北中部设施果树需冷量研究%Chilling Requirement of Flat Peach, Apricot and Plum in Solar Greenhouse in the Middle Region of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾桂梅; 许春燕; 卢建立; 李春强

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探讨河北中部设施果树蟠桃(Prunus persical L. var. compressa Bean)、杏(Prunus armeniaca L.)和李(Prunus salicina)的需冷量.[方法]利用0~7.2 ℃模式和犹它模式,结合试验,分析了保定市山前平原设施果树早露蟠桃、凯特和金太阳杏、大石早生李的需冷量.[结果]0~7.2 ℃模式在当地的适用性较好.早露蟠桃和凯特杏的需冷量为536 h,金太阳杏和大石早生李的需冷量为507 h.[结论]当地设施果树扣棚日期为12月下旬.

  12. 复方杏苏止咳糖浆制备及质量标准研究%Study on the Preparation and Quality Standard of Compound Apricot Sue Cough Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程多武

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立复方杏苏止咳糖浆的制备及质量标准.方法:用水提取制备复方杏苏糖浆,以单味样品和缺味样品做对照,以薄层色谱法鉴别紫苏和麻黄.结果:在薄层色谱法中均能检出紫苏叶、麻黄.结论:该方法可靠,结果稳定,制备工艺简单,重现性好,可有效控制制剂质量.

  13. Detection and sequence analyses of S-RNase gene in eleven Chinese apricot(Prunus armeniaca)cultivars%11个中国杏品种S-RNase基因的检测与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 谷超; 张绍铃; 张树军; 宋宏峰; 赵习平; 刘铁铮

    2008-01-01

    以11个未知基因型的中国杏品种为试材,根据李属植物S-RNase基因保守区设计2对引物组合检测各品种S-RNase基因,共获得22条等位扩增片段,电泳检测表明所有品种的扩增条带集中在300~1 100 bp的范围内,且表现出一定的长度多态性.序列分析进一步确定22个S-RNase基因为10个不同的等位基因,其中6个为首次发现,根据GenBank中已登陆的杏S-RNase基因的顺序,分别命名为S19、S20、S23、S24、S25、S26,序列登陆号为:EF185300、EF185301、EU037262、EU037263、EU037264、EU037265.推导氨基酸序列的同源分析表明,杏的S-RNase与李属植物的S-RNase表现较高的同源性,为59.3%~100%;与苹果和梨的S-RNase同源性较低,为19.6%~31.6%.试验确定11个中国杏品种资源的自交不亲和基因型分别为:'大果杏'S19/S20,'张公园'S24/S25,'二红'S9/S11,'黄口外'S11/S26,'植丸子'S11/S17,'宇宙红'、'大丰'S17/S23,'超仁'、'虹桥'S8/S11,'冀光'、'中华大杏梅'S8/S9;部分品种的田间杂交授粉座果与花粉管荧光显微镜观察证实了所鉴定基因型的可靠性.

  14. 新疆霍城县大西沟野杏果实表型多样性研究%Study on the Daxigou Wild Apricot Fruit Phenotypic Diversity in Huocheng County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩; 廖康; 刘娟; 徐桂香; 孙琪; 司洪章; 杨新峰

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究新疆野杏种质资源的果实经济性状多样性,为野杏的开发利用奠定基础.[方法]观察和测定新疆霍城县大西沟自然分布的野杏果实性状,通过Excel2010和DPS7.05数据处理软件计算各性状的平均值、标准差、极值,变异系数、Simpson多样性指数和主成分分析,利用MEGA软件的UPGMA方法进行聚类分析.[结果]66株大西沟野杏果实的28个表型性状分析中,变异系数在0% ~ 53.99%,变异系数最大的是核粘离和果形,而果实大小和果核核仁大小的变异系数较低,野杏果实果面均有茸毛,核仁都是苦杏仁;多样性指数在5.7189~6.0444,具有丰富的多样性;主成分分析中,前6个主成分累计贡献率为86.57%,各主成分的贡献率以此递减,所以前6个主成分是野杏果实形态28个性状的重要主成分;基于野杏果实性状将66株野杏分为6大类.[结论]新疆霍城县大西沟野杏具有丰富的多样性,在表型性状中,各个性状的变异程度较大,果实、果核和核仁大小较稳定,是野杏的评价及分类的重要依据.果形、果实整齐度、单果重、鲜核重、鲜仁重、风味、果肉汁液、硬度和可溶性固形物、核粘离等表型性状有较大差异.

  15. The community composition and niche of ladybirds in orchard of American apricot and plum%美国杏李园瓢虫群落组成及生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军和; 贺达汉

    2009-01-01

    对美国杏李园中瓢虫的种群动态和生态位进行研究,结果表明,异色瓢虫、龟纹瓢虫、多异瓢虫为优势种群,黑缘红瓢虫、红点唇瓢虫、七星瓢虫、马铃薯瓢虫、深点食螨瓢虫、二星瓢虫种群密度长时间处于稳定状态.马铃薯瓢虫占据生态位最宽,对美国杏李树危害时间较长.红点唇瓢虫和七星瓢虫的生态位重叠较高,出现频率高.在瓢虫类天敌中,生态位宽度越宽的种类往往数量较低,且持续时间较长,对害虫种群的控制程度较低,生态位宽度较低的种类出现时间较短,短时间内种群数量较高,可以控制害虫种群数量.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Melanin Derived from Apricot Testa on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products%杏仁种皮黑色素抑制晚期糖基化末端产物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红姣; 赵忠; 李巨秀

    2015-01-01

    建立牛血清蛋白-葡萄糖(BSA-Glucose)、牛血清蛋白-果糖(BSA-Fructose)和牛血清蛋白-丙酮醛(BSA-Methylglyoxal)的关拉德模拟反应体系,在体系中添加不同浓度的杏仁种皮黑色素,氨基胍(AG)作为阳性对照,37℃下反应,以荧光强度(Ex=370 nm,Em=440 nm)表示晚期糖基化末端产物(AGEs)含量,分析BSA-Glucose体系中蛋白质巯基、羰基含量变化,通过反相高效液相色谱/二极管阵列法(RP-HPLC-DAD)分析杏仁种皮黑色素对丙酮醛(Methylglyoxal,MGO)的清除效果.结果表明,杏仁种皮黑色素对BSA-Glucose、BSA-Fructose、BSA-Methylglyoxal体系中AGEs的形成均有显著的抑制作用(P<0.05),抑制率最高分别达到73.81%、42.22%、38.57%.杏仁种皮黑色素能显著升高BSA-Glucose中蛋白质巯基含量(P<0.05),对MGO也具有清除作用,清除率随着时间的延长而升高,当反应24 h时,清除率达到最高,为63.54%.

  17. Optimization of Culture Medium for Testing Apricot Pollen Viability and Study of the Storability of the Fruit%杏花粉活力测定培养基筛选及耐贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓芹; 王玲丽; 逯东阳; 孙慧瑛; 廖康

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective and Method]The pollen viability of Dahuangxing cultured in vitro on agar medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid were compared, and the optimum medium was used to test the pollen vitality which was stored at three different temperatures. [ Result ] The results showed that the medium with 15% sucrose, 0.01% boric acid and 1% agar is the best for germination, and besides, stored in dry and closed condition, the pollen vigor at three different temperatures from high to low always was; - 18℃, 4-5℃, room temperature, while the decrease amplitude of the pollen viability was just the opposite. [Conclusion]The pollen viability stored at - 18℃: still could reach to 30.00% one year later, while stored at 4 - 5℃ the pollen viability would be lost after storage for eleven months, and the room temperature kept the pollen vigor only for 3 months.%[目的]以固体琼脂培养基离体培养‘大黄杏’品种花粉,比较不同浓度蔗糖、硼酸对花粉离体萌发的影响.[方法]用筛选出的最适培养基测定三种贮藏温度条件下花粉活力变化.[结果]‘大黄杏’品种最适萌发培养基为:l5%蔗糖+0.01%硼酸+1%琼脂;干燥密闭条件下,为期1年贮藏于三种温度条件下花粉活力大小依次均为:-18℃>4~5℃>室温,活力下降幅度由大到小则依次均为:室温>4 ~5℃>- 18℃.[结论]花粉于-18℃贮藏后1年活力仍达30.00%,4~5℃在贮后第11个月丧失活力,而在室温下贮藏3个月花粉即失去活力.

  18. Determination of Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow in Canned Apricot High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定杏罐头中的柠檬黄、日落黄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬妍; 杨书宁

    2010-01-01

    水果罐头中添加的合成色素大部分被果肉所吸附,为充分提取色素,优化水果罐头中合成色素的测定方法.采用无水乙醇-氨水溶液浸泡、离心,提取被杏果肉吸附的柠檬黄、日落黄,高效液相色谱法测定.柠檬黄、日落黄的平均回收率分别为99.32%和98.96%,相对标准偏差分别为0.51%和0.33%.

  19. Preparation of preserved apricot with superheated steam blanching and vacuum pulse osmotic dehydration%热蒸汽漂烫及真空脉动渗透加工杏脯试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白竣文; 高振江; 刘宇婧; 徐胜荣; 罗慧

    2016-01-01

    为了加快杏子渗透速率,提高杏脯品质.试验联合过热蒸汽漂烫和真空脉动渗透技术加工,采用均匀设计研究真空保持时间(1 min~12 min)、常压保持时间(1 min~12 min)、过热蒸汽漂烫时间(0 s~100 s)和糖液浓度(40°Brix~65°Brix)4个因素对杏子渗透速度和杏脯色泽的影响,利用二次多项式逐步回归建立了相应的预测模型.通过通径分析等方法分析了各影响因素对总渗透时间和杏脯色泽的影响,研究表明:真空保持时间和烫漂时间对总渗透时间有影响,且真空保持时间与其他3因素有较强的交互作用;漂烫时间对于杏脯色泽有极显著(P<0.01)的影响,烫漂时间越长,杏脯色差值越小.得到杏脯加工最优参数为:真空保持时间3.1 min,常压保持时间12 min,漂烫时间100 s,糖液浓度65°Brix,经过验证杏子渗透时间最短为1.55 h,色差值最小为15.15,达到了良好的试验效果.试验为杏脯的生产加工提供了理论依据和技术支持.

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-3 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune), Cydonia spp. (quince), Chaenomeles spp. (flowering quince... Prunus spp. (almond, apricot, cherry, cherry laurel, English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune)...

  1. Pharmacognostic studies of gums collected from aprocot trees growing in Armenia and perspectives of their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichoyan, N

    2009-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides are widely used in the food and confectionary industries, as an emulsifier, flavour encapsulator, and thickening agent. The apricot tree has a gum that oozes out in the spring and it seems to be a lot like gum Arabic. Gums collected from apricot trees growing in Armenia (RA) are considered as exudates of ecological significance. Besides, in food industry it can entirely replace the more expensive gum Arabic as well as its synthetic derivatives. Periodically organized resource potential studies in the regions of RA gives the opportunity to have an exact notion of biological and utilized resources of gums as a natural exudates of cultivated apricot trees of the country. The study was conducted on gums collected from the apricot trees of Armavir region (Armavir, Edjmiatsin, Baghramyan) that were purified by general physical methods without any chemical or enzymatic influence. According to obtained results--from one apricot tree was collected 54.15+/- 4.41 g/m(2), the biological resource of apricot gum was 45 ton. We also determined the quantities of Mg, K and Ca in apricot gum by atomic--absorptive method (Mg - 18 mg/kg; Ca - 5.8 mg/kg; K - 15.7 mg/kg). The study results also revealed that addition of gummi armeniaca increases the yeast biomass up to 55%. According to above mentioned and the great resources of raw material of apricot tree gum it can be approved its usage in the food industry in Armenia.

  2. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... tomentosa Thunb.)...... 12-12A Cherry, sweet (Prunus avium (L.) L.) 12-12A Cherry, tart (Prunus cerasus L.... Table 1--Crop Group 12-12: Stone Fruit Group Commodities Related crop subgroup Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) 12-12C Apricot, Japanese (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.) 12-12C Capulin (Prunus serotina Ehrh....

  3. 7 CFR 51.2927 - Marking and packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and packing requirements. 51.2927 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Marking and Packing Requirements § 51.2927 Marking and packing requirements. The minimum size or numerical count of the apricots in any package shall...

  4. 75 FR 1623 - Jason Vale; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... or other products, containing or purporting to contain, Laetrile, ``Vitamin B-17,'' amygdalin, or... the two injunctions, he continued to promote and sell amygdalin-based products and apricot seeds under... continuing to market amygdalin-based products and apricot seeds, Mr. Vale ignored two injunctions, which...

  5. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cotton; rice; peanuts;1 and the following types of tobacco: flue-cured, types 11-14; Virginia fire-cured... use); apples for processing; apricots for fresh consumption; apricots for processing (except dried..., dried; all grapes, excluding raisins, dried; nectarines for fresh consumption; nectarines for...

  6. Drug: D04331 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e as: E00025 Therapeutic category: 2241 Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus armeniaca s...ents D04331 Apricot kernel water (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D04331 Apricot kernel water PubChem: 17398056 ...

  7. Drug: D06708 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ants and expectorants D06708 Apricot kernel; Kyounin Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D06708 Apricot kernel PubChem: 47208359 ... ...22], Glycolipid [CPD:C05005], Phospholipid [CPD:C00865] Prunus armeniaca [TAX:36596] Same as: E00080 Therapeutic category: 5100 Rosac...eae (rose family) Prunus armeniaca seed Major component:

  8. Comparative Investigation of the Efficiency of Absorption of Solar Energy by Carbon Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod‧ko, N. G.; Smagulova, G. T.; Rakhymzhan, N. B.; Kim, S.; Lesbaev, B. T.; Nazhipkyzy, M.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the efficiency of absorption of solar energy by various carbon materials (soot, carbonized apricot pits and rice husks, and carbon nanotubes in the form of a ″forest″), as well as by composites based on them with inclusions of metal oxide nanoparticles. An analysis of the efficiency of absorption of solar energy by various carbon materials has demonstrated the advantage of the carbon material from carbonized apricot pits. The results of the comparative investigation of the absorptivity of apricot pits with that of the coating of a production prototype of solar collector are presented.

  9. 7 CFR 301.74-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) species, including, but not limited to, almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, plum, and sweet and tart cherry. The strain of plum pox in Pennsylvania does not affect cherry trees. Quarantined area. Any State,...

  10. Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

    2013-12-01

    Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added.

  11. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  12. 40 CFR 180.412 - Sethoxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 40 Alfalfa, hay 40 Almond, hulls 2.0 Apricot 0.2....0 Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4 4.0 Vegetable, root and tuber, group 1 4.0 (b)...

  13. 7 CFR 922.52 - Issuance of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED... average prices are expected to exceed the parity level; (3) Fix the size, capacity, weight,...

  14. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  15. Magnesium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of magnesium: Fruits or vegetables (such as bananas, dried apricots, and avocados) Nuts (such as almonds ... Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium . ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-Consumer . ...

  16. Phytoplasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladimirovna Makarova, Olga

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that are transmitted by leafhopper vectors. These phytopathogens cause disease in over 100 economically important plants, including apple, grapevine, rice, coconut, pear, apricot, cotton and potato. When infected, susceptible plants usually fail to germi......Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that are transmitted by leafhopper vectors. These phytopathogens cause disease in over 100 economically important plants, including apple, grapevine, rice, coconut, pear, apricot, cotton and potato. When infected, susceptible plants usually fail...

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHR879 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e. 46 1.1 1 CV053095 |CV053095.1 EST 12543 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II ...Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone bge018d09q 5', mRNA sequence. 46 1.1 1 CV052987 |CV052987.1 EST 12435 Half... 1 CV052615 |CV052615.1 EST 12063 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library P

  18. 杏树流胶病的发生与防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉娴; 蒋萍

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] Gummosis is the most severe disease to apricot trees . Different medicament and different methods for prevention of gummosis in Luntai County, Xinjiang were tried during the year 20ll. The objective of this study was to find the best method for controIIing apricot gummosis. [Method] Four methods Iike scraped coIIoids, smeared medicament, smeared Iime and sprayed boron to prevent apricot gummosis were appIied. After that, the four choices were compared and contrasted in order to find the best one and the best effect. [ Result ] Smeared medicament is better than scraped coIIoids to the prevention of apricot gummosis. Smeared Iime and sprayed boron both can reduce the gummosis. NongfengIing is the best medicament for preventing apricot gummosis, and Iime suIfur foIIowed. [ conclusion ] So the best method to prevent apricot gummosis is smeared nongfengIing before the tree growing in Spring and the arriving peak of gummosis. At the same time smeared Iime and sprayed boron can increase the controI effect.

  19. Extracellular ligninolytic enzymes production by Pleurotus eryngii on agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet (MCC58) was investigated for its ligninolytic ability to produce laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzymes through solid-state fermentation using apricot and pomegranate agroindustrial wastes. The reducing sugar, protein, lignin, and cellulose levels in these were studied. Also, the production of these ligninolytic enzymes was researched over the growth of the microorganism throughout 20 days, and the reducing sugar, protein, and nitrogen levels were recorded during the stationary cultivation at 28 ± 0.5°C. The highest Lac activity was obtained as 1618.5 ± 25 U/L on day 12 of cultivation using apricot. The highest MnP activity was attained as 570.82 ± 15 U/L on day 17 in pomegranate culture and about the same as apricot culture. There were low LiP activities in both cultures. The maximum LiP value detected was 16.13 ± 0.8 U/L in apricot cultures. In addition, AAO activities in both cultures showed similar trends up to day 17 of cultivation, with the highest AAO activity determined as 105.99 ± 6.3 U/L on day 10 in apricot cultures. Decolorization of the azo dye methyl orange was also achieved with produced ligninolytic enzymes by P. eryngii using apricot and pomegranate wastes.

  20. On-farm Grading of Wild Apricot Pits with Pedal Operated Grader and Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (Extracts)%采用响应曲面法优化脚踏分级机山杏核现场分级操作(摘选)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A E Kate; U C Lohani; N C Shahi; A S arkar; J P Pandey

    2014-01-01

    分级是山杏核采后加工利用的最初操作步骤.利用响应面分析对踏板式山杏核分级机机械参数和分级操作(以尺寸为标准)进行优化设计.采用3因素(踏板速度、进料速度和含水率)3水平(速度60、70和80 r/min,进料速度275、300和375 kg/h,含水率10.5%、12.5%和14.5%)研究分级效率(%)和分级能力(kg/h).为得到自变量最优解,对试验数据进行分析.开发了全二阶模型用于预测反应(分级效率和分级能力),并且研究了各个参数及其相互作用.试验结果表明,分级效率和分级能力分别为75.9%~ 82.4%和270~ 325 kg/h.在踏板速度75 r/min,进料速度325 kg/h和核含水率14.5%时,分级机可以达到最大分级效率和分级能力.

  1. Pragmatic analysis of traditional Chinese short cartoons---Applying Qian Guanlian′s Pragmatic Theory to analyzing Jia′er Selling Apricots%中国传统动画短片的语用学分析--运用钱冠连“三带一理论”分析《贾二卖杏》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰; 刘金梅

    2013-01-01

    Animation production needs more creation of the story plot and language besides the technical support .Creativity and inspiration derive from the artists′experience in real life or what they have witnessed and heard in daily lives .The Chinese traditional short cartoon, with its unique design of the text creativity and story ideas , plays an important role in today′s anima-tion industry.This paper takes the text of the short cartoon “Jia′Er Sells Apricots” as the example of analysis, which is pro-duced by Nanjing Film Produce Plant in 1984.The authors have employed the pragmatic theory developed by Qian Guanlian to analyze the construction mode of the conversational texts and to elaborate their linguistic features so as to explore the pragmatic value of the traditional Chinese short cartoon′s conversational text.%  动画片的制作,除了需要技术支撑,更需要优秀的故事情节和文字创意。中国传统动画在文本创意和故事构想设计上具有其独到之处,并在今天的动画业界依然适用。本文以1984年由南京电影制片厂出品的动画短片《贾二卖杏》的文本为例,依据钱冠连的语用学“三带一理论”分析中国传统动画短片中会话语言的构建模式,并阐述其文本特点,旨在探索中国传统动画短片会话文本的语用价值。

  2. Fruit pomace and waste frying oil as sustainable resources for the bioproduction of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follonier, Stéphanie; Goyder, Miriam S; Silvestri, Anne-Claire; Crelier, Simon; Kalman, Franka; Riesen, Roland; Zinn, Manfred

    2014-11-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to petrol-derived polymers, whose break-through has been prevented by high production cost. Therefore we investigated whether wastes from the food industry (nine types of fruit pomace including apricots, cherries and grapes, and waste frying oil) could replace the costly sugars and fatty acids typically used as carbon substrates for the bacterial fermentations. A selection of enzyme preparations was tested for converting the residual polysaccharides from the pomaces into fermentable monosaccharides. From the pomace of apricots, cherries and Solaris grapes, 47, 49 and 106gL(-1) glucose were recovered, respectively. Solaris grapes had the highest sugar content whereas apricots contained the fewest growth inhibitors. These two pomaces were assessed for their suitability to produce mcl-PHA in bioreactor. A 2-step fermentation was established with Pseudomonas resinovorans, hydrolyzed pomace as growth substrate and WFO as mcl-PHA precursor. Solaris grapes proved to be a very promising growth substrate, resulting in the production of 21.3gPHA(Lpomace)(-1) compared to 1.4g PHA (L pomace)(-1) for apricots. Finally, capillary zone electrophoresis analyses allowed monitoring of sugar and organic acid uptake during the fermentation on apricots, which led to the discovery of reverse diauxie in P. resinovorans.

  3. Characterization of biochar and bio-oil samples obtained from carbonization of various biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcimen, Didem; Ersoy-Mericboyu, Ayseguel [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical-Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell are important biomass residues obtained from the food processing industry in Turkey and they have a great importance as being a source of energy. In this study, the characteristics of bio-oil and biochar samples obtained from the carbonization of apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell were investigated. It was found that the biochar products can be characterized as carbon rich, high heating value and relatively pollution-free potential solid biofuels. The bio-oil products were also presented as environmentally friendly green biofuel candidates. (author)

  4. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  5. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  6. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  7. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-08

    Onions 70.8 Morello cherries 69.6 Green onions 99.0 Plums 91.7 Garlic 99.4 Apricots 64.8 Common lettuce 94.4 Peaches 67.6 Spinach 47.3 Quince 99.6... hydroponics , aeroponics, automatic systems for the computer control of microclimate, full mechanization and automation of production. The plans have been

  8. 78 FR 67331 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...; 922, Apricots grown in designated counties in Washington; 923, Sweet cherries grown in designated... Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington, and Long Island in New York; 930, Tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; 932,...

  9. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Pennsylvania that are no longer necessary. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... affect many Prunus (stone fruit) species, including plum, peach, apricot, almond, nectarine, and sweet and tart cherry. Infection eventually results in severely reduced fruit production, and the fruit...

  10. Beta-glycosidase (amygdalase and linamarase) from Endomyces fibuliger (LU677): formation and crude enzymes properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brimer, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Tuncel, G.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous studies, the yeast Endomyces fibuliger LU677 was found to degrade amygdalin in bitter apricot seeds. The present investigation shows that E. fibuliger LU677 produces extracellular beta-glycosidase activity when grown in malt extract broth (MEB). Growth was very good at 25 degrees C a

  11. High-specificity quantification method for almond-by-products, based on differential proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Shifeng; Huang, Jingmin; Lai, Xintian; Du, Yegang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Bifang; Feng, Ronghu; Yang, Guowu

    2016-03-01

    A highly specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol has been developed to identify and classify almond products based on differential proteomic analysis. We applied two-dimensional electrophoresis to compare the differences between almond and apricot kernels to search for almond-specific proteins. The amino acid of apricot Pru-1 was sequenced and aligned to almond Pru-1. One peptide, RQGRQQGRQQQEEGR, which exists in almond but not in apricot, was used as hapten to prepare monoclonal antibody against almond Pru-1. An optimized ELISA method was established using this antibody. The assay did not exhibit cross-reactivity with the tested apricot kernels and other edible plant seeds. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.5-100μg/g based on different food samples. The recoveries of fortified samples at levels of twofold and eightfold LOD ranged from 82% to 96%. The coefficients of variation were less than 13.0%. Using 7M urea as extracting solution, the heat-treated protein loss ratios were 2%, 5% and 15% under pasteurization (65°C for 30min), baking (150°C for 30min) and autoclaved sterilization (120°C for 15min), respectively.

  12. 233西番莲%Passionflower1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 又名 Apricot Vine, Corona De Cristo, Fleischfarbige, Fleur De La Passion, Flor De Passion, Madre Selva, Maypop, Maypop Passion Flower, Passiflora, Passiflorae herba, Passiflore, Passiflorina, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Passionaria, Passionblume, Passionflower Herb, Passionsblumenkraut,Purple Passion Flower, Water Lemon, Wild Passion Flower.

  13. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while...

  14. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2011-11-23

    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  15. Lipid transfer protein : a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; Vries, de S.C.; Gautier, M.F.; Ciurana, C.L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R.C.; Ree, van R.

    2000-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly

  16. Patterns of Food Utilization in the DOD. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    CND AIR APPLES CND AIR PtARS CND AIR FRUIT COCKTAIL CND FRUITS .019 CIMD OTHER FRUI CANNED OR .00001 .0004 .0005 .0006 .0008 .0008 .0010...PINEAPPLE SLICES CND .002 APRICOTS CND .002 CMERKIES KTP CND .002 duACKbERKiES CND .002 PtARS CNU .001 PcACHES HALVES CND .001 FRUIT COCKTAIL CND .005

  17. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  18. 78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... invasive brown tree snake in Guam. The snakes ingest baited mice, which are lethal to the snake. One FIFRA..., apricots, cherries, Christmas trees, grapes, nectarines, ornamentals (greenhouse and outdoor), peaches... feed crops, livestock (and livestock quarters), and indoor and outdoor residential sites. Use...

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSD525 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1369 |CB821369.1 EST 2220 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone be002d22... to V-type H+-ATPase 16 kDa subunit, mRNA sequence. 52 0.006 1 CB822417 |CB822417.1 EST 3268 Half-Ripe Apric

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHA720 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0027O11f, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 1 CB822147 |CB822147.1 EST 2998 Half...22172 |CB822172.1 EST 3023 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone be005f1

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHA579 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available V052777 |CV052777.1 EST 12225 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunu...s armeniaca cDNA clone bge017e02q 5', mRNA sequence. 52 0.006 1 CB821170 |CB821170.1 EST 2021 Half-Ripe Apri

  2. 40 CFR 180.275 - Chlorothalonil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Apricot 0.5 Asparagus 0.1 Banana (NMT 0.05 ppm in edible pulp) 0.5 Bean, dry, seed 0.1 Bean, snap... with husks removed 1 Cranberry 5.0 Ginseng 4.0 Horseradish 4.0 Lentil 0.10 Lychee 15 Mango 1.0...

  3. Navy Nutrition and Weight Control Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-10

    3/4 cup: 0.2 grams fiber applesauce, 1/2 cup: 2.1 grams fiber whole apple with peel : 3.6 grams fiber (from USDA/HNIS Home and Garden Bulletin 232-4...papaya mango strawberries Other foods in this group are- apricots broccoli green beans cabbage cantaloupe cauliflower peach corn squash green peas lettuce

  4. First report of hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple apple fruit symptoms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), the type member of the genus Hostuviroid, family Pospiviroidae, was first described from hops with stunt disease in Japan. HSVd has a wide host range that includes hop, cucumber, citrus, grapevine, plum, pear, peach, apricot and almond and is the causal agent of serious dis...

  5. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI

  6. Detection of irradiated fruits and vegetables by gas-chromatographic methods and electron spin-resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, S.E.A. (National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Gas chromatographic methods detected some hydrocarbons esp. 17:1, 16:2, 15:0 and 14:1 in irradiated, Avocado, Papaya, Mangoes with 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 kGy and Apricot with 0.5 and 3.0 kGy. The detection of hydrocarbons was clearly at high doses but the low doses need more sensitive conditions using Liquid-Liquid-Gas chromatographic method as used here. Using Electron Spin-Resonance, produce a specific signal from irradiated onion (dried leaves) as well as apricot (hard coat of kernels) after some weeks of irradiation process but not clear with the other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  7. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali.

  8. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  9. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, D; Sadallah, S; Larous, L

    2004-01-01

    A survey of bacterial diseases due to Pseudomonas on rosaceous fruit trees was conducted. In forty two orchards located in the Constantine region ( East Algeria). Pseudomonas isolates were identified on the bases of their cultural and biochemical characteristics . A total of fifty nine phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased pome and stone fruit trees. Thirty one strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from cherry (Prunus avium L.), plum (P. domestica L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), almond (P. dulcis L.) and pear trees (Pirus communis L.); sixteen strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum were obtained from samples of cherry and plum. Twelve strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava were isolated from cherry, apricot and peach (Prunus persica L.).

  10. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  11. NATURAL PLANT TOXICANT – CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE AMYGDALIN: CHARACTERISTIC, METABOLISM AND THE EFFECT ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Kolesár; Marek Halenár; Adriana Kolesárová; Peter Massányi

    2015-01-01

    The amount of cyanogenic glycosides, as natural plant toxicants, in plants varies with plant species and environmental effects. Cyanogenic glycoside as an amygdalin was detected in apricot kernels, bitter almonds and peach, plum, pear and apple seeds. Amygdalin itself is non-toxic, but its HCN production decomposed by some enzymes is toxic substance. Target of this review was to describe the characteristic, metabolism and possible effects of amygdalin on reproductive processes. Previous studi...

  12. An In-Port Feeding System for Shipboard Personnel. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Frozen Mix Mix Frozen sponge cake Frozen Frozen Frozen 51 ■ in! «’i »i ■! Vi’i V ViViYfc V .\\ * V« ■’■’■ I.^’I m\\ fr"’ai Vi^VL’ihii ^fcV...Strawberry Shortcake 100 Frozen sponge cake B J-8-1 Apricot Crisp 100 K-16 Whipped Topping 200 Assorted Breads 200 & Assorted Beverages 200 * . * Salad

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  14. JPRS Report, Supplement. East Europe: Recent Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    land—arable, vineyards, orchards, vine and fruit tree nurseries, hops and bean fields, pastures, hay fields, greenhouses, hothouses, and others...orchard plantations ; b) Arable land in flat regions, needed to complement vineyards intended for table grapes and raisins, as well as peach and apricot...orchards, established by specialized organs in the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, can be transformed into vineyard and orchard plantations ; c

  15. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    In-Sook Cho; Davaajargal Igori; Seungmo Lim; Gug-Seoun Choi; John Hammond; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Jae Sun Moon

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. S...

  16. Analysis of the relationship between the structure and aromatic properties of chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Barbara; Guzowska-Swider, Barbara

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the relationship between the structure and odour properties of a selection of chemical compounds. The research concerns five groups of esters, each with a different smell: almond, apricot, apple, pineapple and rose. The supposed relationship between the smell and certain selected attributes of each molecule was examined by various pattern recognition techniques using programs developed in the Department of Computer Chemistry at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  17. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary), composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  18. Identification and characterization of peach pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović, Veljko; Dolovac, Nenad; Trkulja, Nenad; Stevanović, Miloš; Živković, Svetlana; Poštić, Dobrivoj; Ivanović, Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is economically important plant pathogen, found on a number of hosts including fruit trees, field crops, vegetables and decorative plants. This phytopathogenic bacteria is becoming a quite widespread pathogen on the fruit trees in Serbia, causing significant economic loses. Up to now it was experimentally confirmed as a pathogen on the pear, apple, apricot, cherry, sour cherry, plum trees as well as raspberries. In this study Pseudomonas syringae was identificated as path...

  19. Pseudomnas syringae: A pathogen of fruit trees in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2009-01-01

    Data about symptomatology, pathogenicity and bacteriological characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae, and PCR methods for fast and reliable detection of the pathogen are given in this paper. P. syringae has been experimentally proved as a pathogen of pear, apple, apricot, plum cherry, and raspberry, and pathogen strains have also been isolated from necrotic peach buds. Two pathogen varieties, syringae and morsprunorum, were found in our research in Serbia, the former being dominant on fruit t...

  20. Technical communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, D.A.

    Bitter almond oil (benzaldehyde), a flavoring compound used in many foods, was isolated from apricot kernels; 2 synthetic benzaldehyde samples were obtained from commercial sources. All samples were analyzed for radiocarbon (/sup 14/C) content. The natural sample yielded a value consistent with its natural origin (approximately 116% of Modern Standard Activity), while the synthetic samples were devoid of /sup 14/C activity as expected for a petrochemical material. Implications for quality control of bitter almond oil are discussed.

  1. Influence of host plant species on the development and reproduction of hawthorn spider mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dingxu; Hou Yueli; Shen Zuorui

    2006-01-01

    A leaf disc bioassay was employed to investigate the influence of host species of deciduous fruit trees,like apple,peach,plum,cherry and apricot,on the development and reproduction of the hawthorn spider mite Tetranychus viennensis Zacher in the laboratory under conditions of 25±1℃,60±10% RH and a photoperiod of 16 h: 8 h light:dark.This was done by determining the duration of each life stage of the mites,the intrinsic rate of population increase (Tm),mean generation time (T) and net reproductive rate (R0)of the spider mites on each of the host plant species.Differences in life table parameters of the spider mite among host plants were analyzed with the jack-knife method.The results indicated that plum might be the best suitable plant for the spider mite among the plants tested due to shorter developmental period and higher intrinsic rate of increase,whereas cherry and apricot were least suitable due to their long developmental duration and low intrinsic rates of increase.When the spider mites were transferred from apple to other fruit trees,negative effects on developmental duration, fecundity and life table parameters were found in the first generation,but the effects faded out in succeeding generations.When transferred onto plum and peach,the spider mite adapted to the new hosts in the second generation;however,on cherry and apricot,it adapted in the third generation.

  2. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  3. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Niazi, N S; Kohn, J S

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00-2.84 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g(-1)). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts.

  4. Determination of organic acids compounds in abricotine by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography%杏酒中有机酸类化合物的 RP-HPLC法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贤; 彭光杰; 郑茂奎; 赵会芳; 刘昌蒙; 孙福林

    2013-01-01

    建立了反相高效液相色谱测定杏酒中有机酸类化合物的方法.以金太阳杏为原料,经液体发酵法精心酿制成的低度杏酒作为检测样品,测定了杏酒中9种有机酸类化合物.采用Agilent C18色谱柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm)分离,流动相2%的甲醇-0.01 mol/L (NH4)2 HPO4(pH 2.8)洗脱,流速1 mL/min ,检测器波长为210 nm ,柱温30℃,采用色谱峰保留时间定性,面积外标法定量,并比较了不同杏发酵产品中有机酸的种类和含量,各成分的线性相关系数均大于0.99.方法的回收率大部分都在94%以上,RSD均在3%以下,说明该方法具有快速、分辨率高、重复性好等优点,可用于杏酒中有机酸类化合物的检测.%RP-HPLC(reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography) method for the determination of organic acids compounds in apricot wine was developed .Low-alcohol apricot wine as samples which was brewed by liquid fermentation with Gold sun apricot ,9 kinds of organic compounds in the apricot wine were determined by retention time of chromatographic peak .The relative determination were summed up as follows :Agilent HC-C18 chromato-graphic column (4 .6 mm × 250 mm ) , mobile phase is 2% methanol-0 .01 mol/L (N H4 )2 HPO4 (pH2 .8) ,the flow rate of 1 mL/min ,detector wavelength of 210 nm ,30 ℃column temperature .Area external standard method as quantitative method ,and compared the type and contents of organic acids in different apricot fermented products .Linear correla-tion coefficient of each component were greater than 0 .99 .The recoveries were above 94% in method ,and RSD were below 3% .The experiments results show that the RP-HPLC method has the advantages of rapid ,high resolution ,good repeatability and can be used for analysis of organic acids compounds in apricot wine .

  5. Regulated deficit irrigation can decrease soil CO2 emissions in fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Acosta, José Alberto; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Faz, Angel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area have created a growing interest in water conservation. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils, by decreasing microbial and root activity in response to decreased soil moisture levels. An experiment was established in four orchards (peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape) to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on soil CO2 emissions. Two irrigation treatments were assayed: full irrigation (FI), and RDI, irrigated as FI except for postharvest period (peach, apricot, Saturn peach) or post-veraison period (grape) were 50% of FI was applied. The application of deficit caused a significant decrease in CO2 emission rates, with rates in average of 90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 120 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 and 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 lower than FI during the period when deficit was applied for peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape. This confirms the high effectiveness of the RDI strategies not only to save water consumption but also to decrease soil CO2 emissions. However, monitoring during longer periods is needed to verify that this trend is long-term maintained, and assess if soil carbon stocks are increase or most CO2 emissions derive from root respiration. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  6. Detection of irradiated fruits by gas-chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Dien, S; Farag, A

    1996-06-01

    To detect those fruits which have been subjected to low-dose irradiation (0.5-3 kGy), two methods of chromatography (GC-MS and LC-LC-GC-FID) were used to determine the radiolytic compounds of lipids formed after irradiation, such as alkanes and alkenes. Extraction of volatile hydrocarbon compounds from some parts of irradiated fruits, e.g. the flesh (avocado), seeds (papaya) and kernels (mango and apricot) was carried out. The analysis of hydrocarbons by GC-MS proved the suitability of using C17:1, C16:2, C15:0 and C14:1 as markers for avocados irradiated with a low dose (0.75 kGy). The same indicators appeared following the analysis of papayas and mangoes irradiated with 1.5, and 3.0 kGy. Also, C15:0, C14:1 and C16:3 can be used to identify apricots irradiated with a low dose (0.5 kGy). The detection of alkenes was only improved by a more selective isolation, e.g. of dienes or trienes by LC-LC-GC-FID. Within a few minutes, apricots and avocados irradiated at low doses (0.5 and 0.75 kGy) can be recognized by the indicators C16:2, C17:2 and C16:3, without interfering peaks. In all cases, C16:1, C16:2, C16:3 as well as significant amounts of C17:2 can be used as markers for fruit irradiation.

  7. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA, inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%, with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%. Western   blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. 

  8. Effects of Seasonal Changes (The Spring and The Autumn on Microbial Population of the Surface Soils Planted the Various Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial population of soil and its structure is affected with chemical and biological changes such as plant-root secretions. Upper layer of the soil is exposed to mixture of stems, fruiting bodies and leaves of trees. Seven trees growing at same area were chosen. Their upper layers of the soil were collected from depth 5-10 cm as samples in spring and autumn. Their microbial populations were investigated in order to determine in terms of climate changes. In order to determine the number of the total microorganisms, gram-negative bacteria and spore-forming bacteria (cfu/g were used by the serial dilution techniques. As a result, the highest numbers of microorganisms from the soil of the apple tree were determined as the total microbial count in the autumn, although the lowest number of microorganisms was obtained from the soil of the pine tree. However, the number of the gram-negative bacteria was the highest in the soil of linden tree, although the number of gram negative bacteria was the lowest in the soil of apricot, mulberry and apple trees. For spore - forming bacterium, the highest number from the mulberry soil and the lowest number from the linden tree have been obtained. In the spring, the highest numbers of microorganisms from the soil of the apple tree were obtained as the total microbial count, although the lowest number of microorganisms was obtained from the soil of the apricot tree. For the number of the gram-negative bacteria was the highest in the soil of walnut tree, although the number of gram negative bacteria was the lowest in the soil of apricot trees. However spore - forming bacterium, the highest number from the soil of the poplar tree and the lowest number from the mulberry tree have been obtained. In general, the rich diversity of the microbial population was shown morphologically in autumn.

  9. FRUIT IN POEMS OF KARACAOĞLAN / KARACAOĞLAN’IN SIIRLERINDE MEVYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hüseyin ÖZCAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Karacaoglan used the existent elements of naturein his poems succesfully by ascribing meanings to fruits.In his poems fruits like peach, quince, pomegranate,apple, date, cherry, orange, tangerine, apricot, hazelnut,almond, grape, lemon were used as metaphor, simile. InKaracaoglan’s poems there are similes between apple –lover’s face, quince- lover’s belly, chin, seville orange –lover’s breast, cherry – lip, mouth; orange - lover’s faceand date – lover’s mouth. In this study all of these fruitsand also the name of fruit were examined inKaracaoglan’s poems about their meanings.

  10. Peking Chutney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    2 pounds (about 4 cups of pulp) of ripe Ming Tomb persimmons1 1/2 cups of light or dark Turpan raisins (haven’t recently been to Turpan? then any raisins will do)2 cups of dried apricots from Turpan2 freshly picked tart apples from Maoling, tomb of the 9th Emperor of the Ming Dynasty2 tablespoons of fresh ginger 1 green chili pepper chopped 1 tablespoon of mustard seed3 1/2 cups water1 1/2 cups white vinegar (I used rice wine vinegar) 1 1/4 cups brown sugar

  11. FRUITS AND SIMILES AND METAPHORS ON FRUITS IN CLASSICAL TURKISH LITERATURE (DIVAN POETRY / DIVAN SIIRINDE MEYVELER VE MEYVELERDEN HAREKETLE YAPILAN TESBIH VE MECAZLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdülkerim GÜLHAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have surveyed 40 divans belonging differentcenturies and different regions in classical TurkishLiterature. Đn the works we have looked up, poets used fruitnames such as pear, quince, almond, hickory, apple, plum,filbert, peanut, date palm, jujube, oleaster, fig, coffee,watermelon, melon, apricot, cherry, lemon, pomegranate,peach, bitter orange, grape, morello, olive and mademetaphor regarding their trees, forms, tastes, colors, flowersand functions. Many characteristical features of “the lovedone” were given with word games on fruits.

  12. A Survey of Study on Lactase Isolated from Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 General situation of lactase distributionLactase ( β-D-galactosidase EC 3. 2. 1. 23 )[1] generally exists in microorganism and many kinds of animals and plants like almond,apricot,peach,soybean,coffee bean and snail. In microorganism category,mold and yeast can produce this enzyme.Due to the fact that yeast is safe,unvirulent and easy to culture,using it as a source of enzyme seems relatively ideal.Thus,a lot of studies corresponding to this field has been conducted[2].

  13. Low-calorie marmalades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Saša R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from insulin-dependent (Diabetes Melitus type I and insulin-independent (Diabetes Melitus type II is huge, and the number of potential diseased is in permanent rise. For that reason products with reduced amount of sugar have become very popular. Factory "Srbijanka" Valjevo manufactures reduced–sugar marmalades from apricot peach, strawberry, apple and orange. Low–metoxyl pectins and high-grade locust bean gum were used as gelation agents. Sensory evaluation and energy value of these marmalades were determined and all samples were highly graded. All marmalades belonged to the group of low-calorie (dietetic products.

  14. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    were characterised by floral and fruity flavours, such as banana, peach/apricot and strawberry, while the remainder were mainly described by less desirable flavours for white wine, such as chemical, cheese and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression of the sensory and instrumental analyses...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...

  15. Evaluation of Penicillium expansum isolates for aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in usual and less common fruit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Fiorella; Donati, Irene; Veronesi, Francesca; Mazzoni, David; Mari, Marta

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were carried out in vivo and in vitro with four isolates of Penicillium expansum (I 1, E 11, C 28 and I 12) to evaluate their aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in both usual (pears and apples) and less common hosts (apricots, peaches, strawberries and kiwifruits) of the pathogen. The 75% of isolates showed the ability to cause blue mould in all tested hosts. In particular, C 28 and I 1 were the most and the least aggressive isolates, respectively (52.9 and 10.6% infection and 20.7 and 15.4 mm lesion diameters). 'Candonga' strawberries and 'Pinkcot' apricots showed the largest lesion diameters (29.8 and 25.3 mm), followed by 'Conference' pears, 'Spring Crest' peaches and 'Abate Fetel' pears. With the exception of 'Candonga' strawberries, the formation of colonies and mycelial growth of P. expansum isolates on fruit puree agar media (PAMs) was stimulated in comparison to a standard growth medium (malt extract agar, MEA). Two of the most aggressive isolates in our assays (I 12 and C 28) showed the greatest accumulation of patulin both in vitro and in vivo, while the least aggressive isolate (I 1) produced patulin only in a few growth media and cvs. Patulin concentration on fruit PAMs was higher than patulin detected in infected fruit tissues. Apple PAMs were the more favorable substrates for patulin accumulation in vitro (maximum concentration 173.1 and 74.1 μg/mL in 'Pink Lady and 'Golden Delicious' PAMs, respectively) and 'Pink Lady' apples inoculated with the isolate E 11 showed the greatest accumulation of patulin in the whole in vivo assay (33.9 μg/mL). However, infected tissue of cv Golden Delicious showed lower average accumulation of patulin (1.7 μg/mL) than that of cv Pink Lady (19.1 μg/mL), and no significant differences in patulin concentrations were found among 'Golden Delicious' apples and tested cvs of pears, kiwifruits and strawberries. Peaches were highly susceptible to patulin accumulation, showing average concentrations

  16. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS. AN EFFECT OF SONICATION AND SAMPLE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Braniša

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls and carotenoids are abundant pigments in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. In this study we verified the applicability of two previously developed UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of chlorophylls (a, b and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene or total carotenoids. The pigments were extracted from the strawberries, apricots and raspberries in both the acetone-water and acetone-hexane mixtures. Based on the statistical evaluation of the results the combination of mechanical disruption and sonication of fruit samples seems to be a suitable way to improve the pigment extraction efficiency from fruits in both types of solvents. In the case of apricot and raspberry fruit extracts the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids calculated from the proposed equations was comparable to those published by other authors. However, the spectrophotometric determination of β-carotene content in strawberry acetone-hexane extract appeared to be problematic mainly due to the fact that carotenoids exhibited overlapping chlorophyll absorption bands. Overlap of bands leads to the negative values calculated from the proposed equation for the β-carotene content. The results indicate the limitations in use of the proposed set of equations for plant samples with comparable amounts of studied pigments.

  17. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xihong; Li, Dingxu; Li, Zheng; Zalom, Frank G; Gao, Lingwang; Shen, Zuorui

    2012-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apricot, Prunus armeniaca L.; plum, Prunus salicina L.; peach, Prunus persica L.; jujube, Zizyphus jujuba Will.; apple, Malus domestica Mill.; and pear, Pyrus sorotina Will) on the development and life table parameters of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions. Peach fruit moth developed faster (12.48 d) and had the highest preimaginal survival rate (50.54%) on plum compared with the other host plants. Adult longevity was significantly longer on jujube for both female and male moths. Adult females from larvae reared on jujube and peach laid significantly greater numbers of eggs (214.50 and 197.94 eggs per female, respectively) compared with those reared on the other four host plants. Life-table parameters were calculated for each host plant and compared by jackknife procedures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was significantly greatest on plum (0.1294 eggs per female per d), followed by jujube and apricot (0.1201 and 0.1128 eggs per female per d), respectively. Implications of the various measures of population performance are discussed.

  18. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Rana; V Chandel; Y Kumar; R Ram; V Hallan; A A Zaidi

    2010-12-01

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91–100% and 70–98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV.

  19. Multifrequency EPR study on freeze-dried fruits before and after X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, A. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-09-15

    X-, K- and Q-band EPR studies on lyophilized whole pulp parts of blue plum, apricot, peach, melon as well as achens and pulp separately of strawberry before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples show in X band a weak singlet EPR line with g=2.0030+/-0.0005, except melon, which is EPR silent. Immediately after irradiation all samples exhibit complex fruit-depending spectra, which decay with time and change to give, in ca. 50days, an asymmetric singlet EPR line with g=2.0041+/-0.0005. Only apricot pulp gave a typical ''sugar-like'' EPR spectrum. Singlet EPR lines recorded after irradiation in X -band are K- and Q-band resolved as typical anisotropic EPR spectra with g{sub ||}=2.0023+/-0.0003 and g{sub -}bar =2.0041+/-0.0005. In addition, K- and Q-band EPR spectra of all samples show a superposition with the six EPR lines of Mn{sup 2+} naturally present in the fruits. The saturation behavior of the EPR spectra of achens of lyophilized and fresh strawberry is also studied. The differences in g factors of samples before and after X-ray irradiation might be used for the identification of radiation processing of fruits in the case of pulp and the differences in the EPR saturation behavior might be used for the achens of strawberry.

  20. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Elizabeth; Hembree, Kelsey D; Davis, McKale R; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Halloran, Bernard P; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w) dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx) activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  1. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  2. Levels of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead in fruits and vegetables grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteef, Mohammed D Y; Fawy, Khaled F; Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S M; Idris, Abubakr M

    2015-11-01

    The levels of four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were evaluated in two fruit types (apricot and fig), a fruity vegetable (tomato), and three leafy vegetables (arugula, spinach, and lettuce) that are commonly grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for quantification. The quality of results was checked by a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1570a). Good recovery values in the range of 87-104% were achieved. Metals were quantified in washed and unwashed samples to evaluate the effect of washing. Statistically, no significant difference was noticed (p>0.05), except for Zn in arugula and Cu in apricot and spinach. The levels of metals found in the analyzed fruits and vegetables were in their normal ranges in crops and not posing any serious risks to the consumers in Aseer Region. The toxic elements Pb and Cd were well below the maximum levels set in the Saudi and international food standards. Zn and Cu levels were comparable to the ranges reported in worldwide previous studies.

  3. Survey of sulfites in wine and various Turkish food and food products intended for export, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulca, P; Öztürk, Y; Senyuva, H Z

    2011-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2010 to determine the total levels of sulfites in 1245 samples of wines, dried apricots, dried vegetables, nuts, juices and purees, frozen foods and cereals containing dried fruit supplied by food inspectors and by food producers for testing or for export certification. Sulfite analysis of wine was carried out using the Ripper method with an LOQ of 5 mg l(-1) and for dried and other foods the Monier-Williams distillation procedure was employed with an LOQ of 10 mg kg(-1). In the survey all wines contained measurable sulfites, but with the exception of one sample of white wine they were otherwise below Turkish Food Codex limits of 160 mg kg(-1) for red wine, 210 mg kg(-1) to white wine and 235 mg kg(-1) for sparkling wine. None of the cereal products, frozen foods, juices or purees contained sulfites above 10 mg kg(-1). However, all dried apricot samples contained significant levels of sulfite with around 40% having levels exceeding the Turkish limit of 2000 mg kg(-1). Significant levels of sulfite were found in other samples of dried fruit with even a fruit and nut bar containing 1395 mg kg(-1) of sulfite, suggesting the dried fruit ingredients contained levels above regulatory limits.

  4. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jie; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yun; An, Rong-Yan; Yue, Zhuo-Ya

    2017-07-01

    Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines. In addition to typical aromas of noble-rot wines, artificial noble-rot wines were found to contain significant cream and dry apricot attributes. Partial Least-Squares Regression models of aroma characteristics against aroma components revealed that non-fermentative odorants were the primary contributor to dry apricot attribute, especially, thiols, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, terpenols and phenolic acid derivatives, while cream attribute was dependent on both fermentative and non-fermentative volatile components.

  5. [Effects of low temperature and weak light on the functions of photosystem in Prunus armeniaca L. leaves in solar greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Zhang, Li-tao; Wang, Jia-Xi; Wang, Shao-Min; Gao, Hua-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (PhiPSII), photochemical quenching (qp), and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in light (Fv'/Fm') of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) leaves in solar greenhouse were measured, and the effects of low temperature (7 degrees C) and weak light (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) PFD) on the photoinhibition of PS I and PS II were investigated. The results showed that the optimal temperature for the photosynthesis of apricot leaves was around 25 degrees C, and the photosynthetic capacity was reduced greatly by the low temperature and weak light, inducing a markedly increased excitation press (1-qp) and in turn, resulting in photoinhibition. The functions of both PS I and PS II were damaged by the low temperature and weak light. Comparing with those only subjected to low temperature, the leaves subjected to both low temperature and weak light had a decreased activity of PS I, with a decrement of 28.26% within 2 h, but their maximal photochemical effeciency of PS II (Fv/Fm) had little change in the same period, suggesting that under low temperature and weak light, PS I was more suffered from photoinhibition than PS II.

  6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  7. The application of sheet filters in treatment of fruit brandy after cold stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljić Uroš D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common use of sheet filtration for clarification of fruit brandies, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of its application on the stability and composition of volatile compounds of apricot brandy after cold stabilisation. Cold stabilisation treatment involved holding of the brandy at -1°C during 24 hours. Five depth filter sheets with the nominal retention rate of 0.3 μm, 0.5-0.7 μm, 0.7-1.0 μm, 1.0-2.0 μm and 2.5-4.0 μm, were tested in the study. It was shown that all assessed filter sheets were efficient in removing chill haze by significantly reducing the content of fatty acid esters (primarily ethyl palmitate and ethyl laurate. Other volatile and aromatic compounds were not significantly influenced by the applied treatments. However, the filter sheets with higher nominal retention rate (> 0.7 μm, had a smaller impact on the sensory characteristics of the apricot brandy. The re-exposure to lower temperatures did not lead to chill haze formation in any sample obtained after sheet filtration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  8. Study on the selection of superior rootstocks for plum trees%李树优良砧木选择试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建英; 孙志; 李万强; 黄志龙

    2013-01-01

      通过对张掖市小红李、榆叶梅等5种李树砧木根皮率、树高、冠径、嫁接亲和性、生长与结果测试分析,认为本地实生小红李、榆叶梅为李子良种的优良砧木,榆叶梅有一定的矮化性,适于密植;山桃次之;毛桃不适于作抗寒性差品种的砧木;山杏作砧木,盛果期李子品质下降,忌大面积推广。%The paper analyzing the percetage of root bark, tree height, crown diameter, graft compatibility and growth of five plum tree’ s rootstocks such as small red plum and flowering plum etc. The small red plum and flowering plum are good rootstocks for plum. Dense planting is suitable for flowering plum because of its dwarfed nature. Wild peach can’t be used as rootstock for species which had poor cold resistence. Taking apricot as the rootstock resulted in a decline in plum quality in full fruit period, so apricot can’t be popularized.

  9. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  10. Analysis and risk assessment of 4(5)-methylimidazole in brown colored foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) levels in various 144 brown coloured foods and beverages were determined. The brown coloured foods and beverages were 62 processed sauces, 40 coffee, 9 caramel syrups, 18 red ginseng juice and 15 Japanese apricot fruit juice. The amount of 4(5)-MI in brewed coffee (1821.3 ng/g) was the highest level among the samples. The 4(5)-MI concentration in processed sauce (47.6 ng/g) was the lowest level among the samples. The levels of 4(5)-MI in various samples were found as follows: 47.6-1748.5 ng/g in processed sauces, 64.1-1821.3 ng/g in commercial coffee, 115.5-491.9 ng/g in caramel syrups, 91.0-854.1 ng/g in red ginseng juice and 137.6-587.4 ng/g in Japanese apricot fruit juice. Based on the 4(5)-MI levels, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and chronic daily intake (CDI) were calculated. EDI and CDI of red ginseng juice was the highest among all samples, and they were 1618.6 and 1256.8 ng/kg bw/day, respectively.

  11. 岩松鼠的食物贮藏行为%Food-hoarding behaviour of David's rock squirrel Sciurotamias davidianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路纪琪; 张知彬

    2005-01-01

    Food storage is an important adaptation of some animal species to the temporal variation or unpredictable food supplies. David's rock squirrel Sciurotamias davidianus occurs in mountainous and hilly areas of north China. Food-hoarding behaviour of this species was unknown. We set up four semi-natural enclosures in the Donglingshan Mountain area near Beijing, and investigate the hoarding strategy of 12 David's rock squirrels and their response to perceived pilferage on seeds of walnuts Juglans regia and wild apricot Prunus armeniaca. The results show that: 1) David's rock squirrels hoarded food items in both larder and scatter patterns but more items were scatter hoarded; 2) when confronted by perceived pilferage on hoarded food, David's rock squirrels increased both larder hoarding and scattered hoarding; 3) none of the seeds of wild apricot and walnut were eaten at the feeder. David's rock squirrels consumed more seeds of wild apricot than that of walnuts outside nest boxes; 4) David's rock squirrels only scatter hoarded walnuts; and 5) seeds of walnuts were transported greater distances than that of wild apricot. The result suggests that David's rock squirrels might play different roles in natural regeneration of walnuts and wild apricots[Acta Zoologica Sinica 51(3):376-382,2005].%食物贮藏是许多动物对不可预见的食物供应变化的一种重要适应.岩松鼠(Sciurotamias davidianus)为中国特有物种,广泛分布于华北地区的山地和丘陵地带.作者在北京市东灵山地区建造半自然围栏(4 m×3 m× 1 m),以核桃(Juglans regia)和山杏(Prunus armeniaca)种子为备选食物,对岩松鼠(12只)的食物贮藏行为进行了研究.数据的统计分析采用SPSS for Windows进行.研究结果表明:1)岩松鼠表现出集中和分散两种食物贮藏方式,而分散贮藏是其偏好的贮藏方式;2) 当遇到贮藏食物被盗窃时,岩松鼠倾向于搬运更多的食物进行集中和分散贮藏;3)岩松鼠没有在食

  12. 麻杏白果汤灌肠结合西医治疗小儿毛细支气管炎50例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹蕾; 李晗怡; 朱生东

    2014-01-01

    objective:to observe the quasi hemp apricot ginkgo decoction enema combined with western medicine to treat infantile capillary bronchitis curative effect. Methods:80 patients aged 3 months to 2 years old capillary bronchitis patients were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (50 cases using the hemp apricot ginkgo decoction enema and western medicine treatment;Control group of 30 cases treated with western medicine only. Results:treatment group total effective rate was 96.00%, control group total effective rate was 80.00%, two groups had significant difference compared (P<0.05). Conclusion:from hemp apricot ginkgo decoction enema combined with western medicine to treat infantile capillary bronchitis in children with reduce symptoms, shorten the treatment time significantly superior to pure western medicine treatment, pediatric clinical application worth.%目的:观察麻杏白果汤灌肠结合西医治疗小儿毛细支气管炎的疗效。方法:将80例年龄在3个月~2岁毛细支气管炎患儿随机分为二组。治疗组50例用麻杏白果汤灌肠和西药治疗;对照组30例仅用西药治疗。结果:治疗组总有效率为96.00%,对照组总有效率为80.00%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05)。结论:麻杏白果汤灌肠结合西医治疗小儿毛细支气管炎在减轻患儿症状、缩短治疗时间方面明显优于纯西药治疗,值得儿科临床应用。

  13. Quantitative Determination of Three Active Constituents%高效液相色谱测定3种活性成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英婕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and bitter apricot seed in Xiao'er Feire Kechuan Oral Solution by high performance liquid chromatography.Methods ARP-HPLC method was estab-lished, with emethanol-acetonitrile-water (v ∶v ∶v=9 ∶9 ∶82, adding 1% triethylamine) used as the mobile phase, and 210 nm was the detecting wave length.Results The method has higher precision and repeatability.The recovery rate of Ephedrine Hydrochlo-ride was 99.42%, RSD (%) =0.38, the rate recovery of pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride was 99.23%, RSD (%) =0.35, and the recovery rate of Bitter Apricot Seed was 99.32%, RSD (%) =0.43.Conclusion With the advantages of simplicity, sensitive-ness and accuracy, the method can be used to determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and bitter apricot seed.%目的:采用高效液相色谱测定小儿肺热咳喘口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量。方法采用RP-HPLC 法测定,选择流动相为:甲醇-乙腈-水(9∶9∶82,加0.1%三乙胺),检测波长为210 nm。结果此方法精密度高,重现性好,盐酸麻黄碱平均回收率为99.42%, RSD (%)=0.38,盐酸伪麻黄碱平均回收率为99.23%, RSD (%)=0.35,苦杏仁苷平均回收率为99.32%, RSD (%)=0.43。结论此方法简便、灵敏、准确,可用于盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量测定。

  14. The North Atlantic Oscillation system and plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-05-01

    The onset of flowering in 78 wild and domesticated terrestrial plant species recorded in South Moravia (Czech Republic) from 1965 to 2014 was correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the preceding winter. Flowering occurred significantly earlier following positive winter NAO phases (causing spring to be warmer than normal in Central Europe) in nearly all early-flowering (March, April) species; high Pearson correlation values were recorded in, e.g., goat willow, spring snowflake, golden bell, cornelian cherry, sweet violet, cherry plum, grape hyacinth, apricot, blackthorn, common dandelion, cherry, southern magnolia, common apple, cuckoo flower, European bird cherry, and cherry laurel. In contrast, the timing of later-flowering plant species (May to July) did not correlate significantly with the winter NAO index. It was found that local temperature is obviously a proximate factor of plant phenology, while the winter NAO is the ultimate factor, affecting temperature and other meteorological phenomena in Central Europe during spring season.

  15. A pilot project: Antioch Delta Cove, Antioch, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, M. [Antioch Diversified Development Associates, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The project involves the restoration of the Hickmott cannery site, comprising approximately 15 acres (three five acre parcels) located on the Delta in inter-city Antioch. Hickmott Foods, Inc., operated a fruit and vegetable cannery between 1905 and the early 1970`s, during which time tomato skins, peach and apricot pits, and asparagus butts were discharged on the site. The decaying fruit pits have caused cyanide contamination. Additionally, the site contains some petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as gypsum board contamination, apparently from nearby manufacturing operations. The Antioch Delta Cove Pilot shows how interested parties can work together to clean up contaminated sites and use the clean up process to stimulate technology transfer. The Antioch project is a blueprint that can be replicated at other sites across California.

  16. Development of an enzyme membrane reactor for treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters from the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basheer, S.; Kut, O.M.; Prenosil, J.E.; Bourne, J.R. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland))

    1993-02-20

    Cyanidase, an immobilized enzyme preparation for hydrolyzing cyanide to ammonia and formate, was applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing waste-waters from the food industry. Apricot seed extract was chosen as a model effluent. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pure amygdalin, the main cyanogenic glycoside in the extract, and the degradation of the cyanide formed was investigated and compared with the behavior of the real extract in a batch slurry reactor. A diffusional-type, flat-membrane reactor with immobilized cyanidase was developed, where the enzyme is effectively protected from adverse effects of high molecular components contained in the extract. For monitoring continuous-membrane reactor operation, a new unsegmented ammonia measurement system was developed and applied. In continuous operation the cyanidase retained its original activity for more than 400 hours on stream.

  17. AMYGDALIN AND ITS EFFECTS ON ANIMAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is a natural compound whose anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity and other medicinal benefits have been known for many years. It has been isolated in 1830 by the French chemists Robiquet and Boutron-Charlard from kernels of the bitter almond (Prunus amygdalus. It is a major component of the seeds of prunasin family plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one of benzaldehyde, which induces an analgesic action, and one of hydrocyanic acid, which is an anti-neoplastic compound. It has been used as a traditional drug because of its wide range of medicinal benefits. Amygdalin can be used in medicine for preventing and treating migraine, hypertension, chronic inflammation, and other reaction source diseases. This review is focused on the effects of amygdalin on the animal system.

  18. NATURAL PLANT TOXICANT – CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE AMYGDALIN: CHARACTERISTIC, METABOLISM AND THE EFFECT ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kolesár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cyanogenic glycosides, as natural plant toxicants, in plants varies with plant species and environmental effects. Cyanogenic glycoside as an amygdalin was detected in apricot kernels, bitter almonds and peach, plum, pear and apple seeds. Amygdalin itself is non-toxic, but its HCN production decomposed by some enzymes is toxic substance. Target of this review was to describe the characteristic, metabolism and possible effects of amygdalin on reproductive processes. Previous studies describe the effects of natural compound amygdalin on female and male reproductive systems focused on process of steroidogenesis, spermatozoa motility and morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa. In accordance to the previous studies on amygdalin its benefit is controversial.

  19. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low.

  20. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: a growing but unrecognised problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; van den Berg, Leon J L; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Masood, Tariq; Büker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Ashmore, Mike

    2012-03-01

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull's Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved.

  1. QUALITY ASSESSMENTOF SELECTEDVARIETIES OFAPRICOT FRUITS AS POTENTIALLY SUITABLEFORTHEBABY FOOD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Apricots aremajorfruit cropin our climatic zone. They have become a strategic crop raw materialdue to their chemicalcomposition and wide usefulnessfor food processors. Fruits containhigh levels ofantioxidantactivesubstances such asvitamins,provitamins, minerals and polyphenols.The aim ofthis study wasto assess thequality of theeightvarieties ofapricots(´Detskij´, ´Cegledikedves´, ´Goldtropfen´, ´Velkopavlovická´, ´Maďarská´, ´Vestar´, ´Velbora´ and ´Veharda´ for their potential use in the production ofbaby foodbased onsoluble dry mattercontent,totalandreducingsugars, organic acidsandcarotenoid content.Based on our results, as the most suitablefor the production ofbabyfoodwereidentified varieties ´Cegledikedves´, ´Goldtropfen´ and ´Detskij´ which were the best in all keyindicators monitored compared to all selected varieties.

  2. A Course in Science and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

  3. Two new species of Romulea (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the west­ ern Karoo, Northern Cape and notes on infrageneric classification and range extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Romulea are described from Northern Cape, raising the number of species in southern Africa to 76. R. collina J.C.Manning & Goldblatl is endemic to the Hantamsberg near Calvinia. It is distinguished in subgenus Spatalanthus by its clumped habit, yellow flowers with dark markings in the throat, and short papery bracts. A re-examination of rela­tionships within the subgenus suggests that section Cruciatae is not monophyletic and it is accordingly no longer recog­nized as separate from section  Spatalanthus. R. eburnea J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is a distinctive species of subgenus Spatalanthus from the Komsberg near Sutherland. It is distinguished by its golden yellow flowers with the apical third of the tepals coloured pale creamy apricot, bracts with broad, translucent margins and tips, and an unusually long perianth tube, 10-13 mm long.

  4. Regeneration of transgenic plants of Prunus armeniaca containing the coat protein gene of Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Câmara Machado, M L; da Câmara Machado, A; Hanzer, V; Weiss, H; Regner, F; Steinkellner, H; Mattanovich, D; Plail, R; Knapp, E; Kalthoff, B; Katinger, H

    1992-02-01

    A system was developed which allows the transfer of foreign genes into apricot cultivars. We report the transformation and regeneration of Prunus armeniaca plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 containing various binary plasmids, pBinGUSint, carrying the marker gene ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and pBinPPVm, carrying the coat protein gene of Plum Pox Virus (PPV). The marker gene GUS was used for optical evaluation of the efficiency of the transformation system. The coat protein gene of PPV was used to introduce coat protein mediated resistance against one of the most important pathogens of stone fruit trees in Europe and the whole Mediterranean area. This is the first report of the successful integration of a viral coat protein gene into a fruit tree species, opening a new perspective on the control of the disease.

  5. Diversity among Pseudomonas syringae strains originating from fruit trees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Žarko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread and economically important plant pathogen, one found on a number of hosts, including fruit trees, field crops, vegetables, and ornamental plants. This bacterium has been experimentally identified as a parasite of pear, apple, apricot, peach, cherry, sour cherry, plum, and raspberry. The present study was designed to establish differences between strains isolated from fruit trees in Serbia. The pathogenic and biochemical characteristics of isolates were studied. The BOX-PCR method was used to generate genomic fingerprints of Pseudomonas syringae isolates and to identify strains that were previously not distinguishable by other classification methods. Different Bacillus sp. strains were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity against Pseudononas syringae isolates. Bacillus sp. strains show inhibitory activity only against P. syringae isolates that originated from peach. The obtained results demonstrate that the population of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae from the fruit trees in Serbia is very diverse.

  6. 山杏种皮提取物体外抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant Activities in Vitro in Testa Extractive of Prunus Armeniacavar.ansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐高强; 赵忠; 李巨秀; 朱海兰; 周锋利

    2013-01-01

    Objective:the study was purported to research on the total polyphenol content and in vitro activity of testa extract of wild apricot.Method:testa extract of wild apricot was obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 80% (V/V) ethanol and its total polyphenol content and total anti-oxidative capacity were assayed with Folin's reagent and FRAP,respectively.The capacities of test extract of wild apricot eliminating superoxide anion radical(O2),hydroxyl radical (·OH) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-l-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl(DPPH·) and the capacities of the testa extract inhibiting the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and reducing were assayed with 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-methylphenol(BHT) and proply gallate(PG) as its controls.Results:the testa extract had a total polyphenol content of (186.7±15.6)mg/g and a FRADP value of (3.715±0.012)mmol/g,and capable of eliminating superoxide anion radical (O2、),hydroxyl radical (·OH) and diphenyl bitter acyl radical (DPPH·) at the percentages of 80%,97% and 98%,respectively and evidently inhibiting the β-carotene/linoleic acid system.Conclusion:testa extract of wild apricot had relatively strong anti-oxidative capacity.%目的:研究山杏种皮提取物总多酚含量及其体外抗氧化活性.方法:选用体积分数80%的乙醇为溶剂,采用超声辅助法制备山杏种皮提取物.采用Folin-酚试剂法测定山杏种皮提取物的总多酚含量.采用FRAP法测定山杏种皮提取物的总抗氧化能力.以2,6-二叔丁基对甲酚(BHT)、没食子酸丙酯(PG)为对照样品,分别测定山杏种皮提取物对1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼自由基(DPPH·)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2)、羟自由基(·OH)的清除能力、对β-胡萝卜素/亚油酸体系的抑制能力及其还原力.结果:山杏种皮提取物中总多酚含量为(186.7±15.6)mg/g,其FRAP值为(3.715±0.012) mmol/g;对DPPH·、O2、·OH具有清除作用,清除率分别为80%、97

  7. Study on the processing of instant Mei powdered drink%青梅冲剂生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨; 程秀云

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of processing technology of instant Mei (Japanese apricot) were studied in this paper, problem of the juice yield and juice bitterness and astringency had been solved by the technology of enzymatic hydrolysis and encapsulation. An instant Mei powdered drink was successfully made in terms of its color, flavor and acceptability.%就青梅冲剂生产工艺条件进行了一些探讨,成功地应用酶解和包埋技术,解决了梅的出汁率问题,并有效地控制了梅汁苦涩味,达到了果汁制品理想的色、香、味,进而制成方便冲剂。

  8. Influence of Pre-Fermentation Treatments on Wine Volatile and Sensory Profile of the New Disease Tolerant Cultivar Solaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-12-03

    Solaris is a new disease tolerant cultivar increasingly cultivated in cool climate regions. In order to explore the winemaking processes' potential to make different styles of Solaris wines, the effects of different pre-fermentation treatments (direct press after crushing, whole cluster press, cold maceration, and skin fermentation) on the volatile profile, chemical, and sensory properties of Solaris wines were investigated. Cold maceration treatment for 24 h and fermentation on skin led to wines with lower acidity and higher glycerol and total polyphenol indexes. Sensory analysis showed that cold maceration enhanced "apricot" and "apple" flavor while skin fermentation gave rise to increased "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. The PLS regression model revealed that fruity flavor of cold macerated wines was related to a combination of esters while β-damascenone and linalool were correlated to the "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. This study provides information about pre-fermentation techniques that allowed the possibility of obtaining wines with different styles.

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean and tropical fruits compared with common food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, M A; Jiménez, A M; Martínez-Tomé, M

    2001-12-01

    Several Mediterranean and tropical fruits have been analyzed in order to assess their antioxidant activity compared with that of common food additives (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT] and propyl gallate). Among Mediterranean fruits, red grape and plum were more effective (P plum > apricot > white grape > melon > red grape > mandarin > watermelon > peach > medlar > apple > orange > cherry > strawberry. However, the four varieties of pear were poor scavengers (P lime > passiflora > kumquat > avocado > pineapple > physalis > papaya fruit > carambola > mango > banana. All Mediterranean fruits showed an effect on hydrogen peroxide except peach. Tropical fruits also had a strong effect on hydrogen peroxide except avocado, which had no effect. The effect of Mediterranean and tropical fruits on the protection factor of refined olive oil, analyzed by the Rancimat method and compared with common food additives, was clear. Watermelon conferred a significantly (P < 0.05) greater protection than the other Mediterranean fruits. Among tropical fruits, physalis had the most stabilizing effect.

  10. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  11. 厨神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.……

  12. 厨神%A GREAT COOK--Joseph Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.

  13. Thougths Emerged From the Anaphylactic Reactions Due to Fresh Prict Test with Fruit; are We Aware of the Potantial Danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kutlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic approach for food allergy is to avoide taking the food which is known to be allergic to the person. Minimal contact with allergen even such as skin prict test may also trigger the severe anaphylactic reactions. We want to share our exprience about a patient who exprienced anaphylaxis after fresh prick allergy skin test with fresh fruit (peach, apricot, plumb that we performed in our clinic. We belive that the patients who are known to have severe allergic reaction story must avoid to work in food proccesing and storage works, in case any contact with wounded skin area may result in severe allergic reaction [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 435-436

  14. Ultrasonic modification of carbon materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiy, Bogdan I.; Nykoliuk, Marian O.; Budzulyak, Ivan M.; Kachmar, Andrii I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is devoted to study the ultrasonic impact on the biomass of natural raw materials, which were used for the creation a nanoporous carbon material (NCM), which was used as electrode material for electrochemical capacitors (EC). The dry shells of apricot seeds were a feedstock, which were modified by the chemical treatment in the phosphoric acid and part of them were impacted by ultrasonic waves for 25 minutes. The NCM, which were obtained by carbonization at 550 °C, were modified by chemical treatment in the nitric acid. Thus, the different of modification NCM was obtained to compare their capacitance characteristics for EC. From experimental data we can do a conclusion, that ultrasonic modification and chemical treatment in nitric acidare improvecapacitance characteristics of NCM for EC.

  15. Changes of the landscape caused by industrial smoke acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohne, H.

    1971-01-01

    The influence of industrial smoke emissions of sulfur dioxide, fluorine and chlorine on landscape is examined. Sulfur dioxide emission has been estimated to cause 80% of the plant damage found near industrial surroundings according to the literature, but more recent evidence has pointed to fluorine-containing exhaust as being the main culprit of smoke damage. Two examples are presented in favor of the litter hypothesis. Fluorine-containing exhausts have been found to cause damage in gladiolas, horse-chestnuts, damson plums, apricots, forest plants; leaf burning and permanent damage have been common. Plant damage has also been observed in the vicinity of chlorine-emitting facilities. Growth depression, bleached or lightened leaves, and necroses have been observed. Damage to pear leaves from chlorine appeared as ill defined, brown necrosis in contrast to the sharply defined black-brown edges resulting from fluorine damage.

  16. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  17. The lipid transfer proteins (LTP) essentially concentrate in the skin of Rosaceae fruits as cell surface exposed allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J-P; Jauneau, A; Brulé, C; Culerrier, R; Barre, A; Didier, A; Rougé, P

    2006-10-01

    The localization and distribution of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) allergens in the skin and pulp of Rosaceae fruits (apple, peach, apricot, plum) has been investigated. nsLTP essentially concentrate in the pericarp of the fruits whereas the pulp contains lower amounts of allergens. Immunolocalization showed they are primarily located in the cytosol but are subsequently excreted and finally accumulate at the plasmalemma-cell wall interface and in the cell wall. However, high discrepancies were observed in the content of allergens among, e.g. different cultivars of apple. As a consequence, the consumption of peeled-off fruits is recommended to reduce the risk of severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) in individuals sensitized to Rosaceae fruits.

  18. Pseudomnas syringae – a Pathogen of Fruit Trees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about symptomatology, pathogenicity and bacteriological characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae, and PCR methods for fast and reliable detection of the pathogen are given in this paper. P. syringae has been experimentaly proved as a pathogen of pear, apple, apricot, plum cherry, and raspberry, and pathogen strains have also been isolated from necrotic peach buds. Two pathogen varieties, syringae and morsprunorum, were found in our research in Serbia, the former being dominant on fruit trees.The most reliable method for detection of this bacteria is PCR, using BOX and REP primers. This method has also revealed significant differences among the strains originating from fruit trees in Serbia. Thus, it was proved that the population of P. syringae in Serbia is heterogeneous, which is very important for future epidemiologocal studies. Control of this pathogen includes mechanical, cultural and chemical measures, but integrated approach is very important for sustainable control.

  19. The S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, SFB, is defective in self-compatible haplotypes of Prunus avium and P. mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Yamane, Hisayo; Watari, Akiko; Kakehi, Eiko; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2004-08-01

    Many Prunus species, including sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, of the Rosaceae, display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The specificity of this outcrossing mechanism is determined by a minimum of two genes that are located in a multigene complex, termed the S locus, which controls the pistil and pollen specificities. SFB, a gene located in the S locus region, encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the self-incompatibility reaction. This study characterizes SFBs of two self-compatible (SC) haplotypes, S(4') and S(f), of Prunus. S(4') of sweet cherry is a pollen-part mutant (PPM) that was produced by X-ray irradiation, while S(f) of Japanese apricot is a naturally occurring SC haplotype that is considered to be a PPM. DNA sequence analysis revealed defects in both SFB(4') and SFB(f). A 4 bp deletion upstream from the HVa coding region of SFB(4') causes a frame-shift that produces transcripts of a defective SFB lacking the two hypervariable regions, HVa and HVb. Similarly, the presence of a 6.8 kbp insertion in the middle of the SFB(f) coding region leads to transcripts for a defective SFB lacking the C-terminal half that contains HVa and HVb. As all reported SFBs of functional S haplotypes encode intact SFB, the fact that the partial loss-of-function mutations in SFB are present in SC mutant haplotypes of Prunus provides additional evidence that SFB is the pollen S gene in GSI in Prunus.

  20. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection.

  1. Profiling of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids in plant extracts using in-source CID fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ádám; Abrankó, László

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids (HCQAs) are a major class of phenolic plant secondary metabolites, belonging to the chlorogenic acid family. Various health-beneficial properties of HCQAs have been shown, which has drawn interest for HCQA profiling in plants of human consumption. However, this task remains challenging, because several isomeric HCQAs can be present in the sample with identical molecular formulae and the limited availability of reference standards poses additional challenges to their identification. In the present work, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) method accompanied with an effective data filtering protocol is presented, which is shown to be suitable for the identification of HCQAs in plant materials in a non-targeted manner. Both collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation performed in a collision cell and in-source (CID) fragmentation were used to produce accurate mass fragments. It was shown that fragmentation characteristics required for identification of regio-isomers of HCQAs can be achieved with in-source CID fragmentation, enabling the use of a single-stage MS system with in-source fragmentation for convincing identification of HCQAs. Based on a thorough validation of identified HCQA compounds using coffee bean extracts as reference samples, comprehensive profiling of HCQAs in two apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes ('Preventa' and 'Gönci magyarkajszi') was carried out for the first time and the following 10 HCQAs were shown to be present in apricot fruit: 3-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), cis-3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, cis-5-CQA, 3,5-diCQA, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA), 4-pCoQA, 3-feruloylquinic acid (FQA) and cis-3-FQA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  3. Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits and Vegetables Common in the Croatian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-uzelac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the polyphenol content (total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in selected fruits (apple, ‘Idared’; apricot, ‘Madjarska najbolja’; blueberry, ‘Bluecrop’; mandarin, ‘Kuno’; orange, unknown; sour cherry, ‘Marasca’; strawberry, ‘Maya’ and peach, ‘Redhaven’ and vegetables (broccoli, ‘Belstar’ -flower and steam; cauliflower, ‘Favola’; kale, ‘Melissa’ and leek-leaf and root -unknown commonly consumed in the Croatian diet. Total phenols, flavonoids and nonflavonoids were measured calorimetrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as the standard; anthocyanins were determined using bisulphite bleaching method using cyanidin-3-diglucoside as standard, whereas antioxidant capacity was measured using DPPH method. The highest total polyphenols were observed in sour cherry as 2560 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW, followed by blueberry, orange, mandarin, strawberry, apple, apricot, and peach. Among vegetables the highest concentration of total polyphenols was determined in kale (1039 mg GAE/kg FW followed by broccoli flower, broccoli steam, leek leaf, leek root and cauliflower. In all investigated fruits, as well as vegetables, total flavonoids were predominant polyphenols. Total nonflavonoids were present in low concentration especially in leek leaf, broccoli flower and leek root. The highest antioxidant capacity in fruit and vegetables was determined in samples with higher concentration of flavonoids. In selected fruits, there was a distinct correlation between total phenols or flavonoids and antioxidant capacity, while in vegetable the correlation was not observed.

  4. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fenpyroximate in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the company Nichino Europe Co Ltd. to modify the existing MRLs for fenpyroximate in various crops. In order to accommodate for the authorized uses in European Member States, the EMS Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs of fenpyroximate in peaches, raspberries, blackberries, peppers and beans (with pods and to lower MRLs for citrus fruit, loquat, quinces, medlar, plums, apricots, wine grapes and strawberries. No need to modify MRLs was identified for apples, pears, tomatoes and aubergines. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the submitted residue data are sufficient to support the lowering of the existing EU MRLs for citrus fruit, pome fruit, plums, wine grapes and strawberries. The submitted residue data on raspberries, blackberries, peppers and beans (with pods substantiate the proposal to raise the existing EU MRL. The submitted residue data on peaches, tomatoes and aubergines confirm the existing EU MRL. For apricots insufficient data were provided to support the authorized use. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the raising of the existing EU MRLs for fenpyroximate in raspberries, blackberries, peppers and beans (with pods and the maintaining or lowering of the existing EU MRLs for other crops under consideration, will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern. Data gaps regarding the lack of processing studies and rotational crop studies identified by the peer review are confirmed in the current assessment and have to be further considered in the framework of the MRL review according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005.

  5. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  6. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for isopyrazam in pome fruits, various stone fruits and oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Syngenta Crop Protection UK Ltd to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance isopyrazam in pome fruits, stone fruits and oilseeds. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of isopyrazam, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg to 0.7 mg/kg in pome fruits, 1.5 mg/kg in apricots and peaches, including nectarines and 0.4 mg/kg in linseed, poppy seed, mustard seed and rape seed. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.7 mg/kg for the intended use on pome fruits, 1.5 mg/kg for the intended use on peaches and 0.4 mg/kg for the intended use on rape seed, linseed, mustard seed and poppy seed. The intended use on apricots is not adequately supported by residue data and no MRL proposal can be therefore derived. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of isopyrazam in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of isopyrazam on pome fruits, peaches, rape seed, linseed, mustard seed and poppy seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  7. Design and Experiment of Integrative Fruit-vegetable Solar-air Drier%整体式果品蔬菜太阳能干燥装置设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肉孜·阿木提; 毛志怀; 李峰; 高泽斌; 海力力·沙比提; 张学军

    2011-01-01

    设计了一种以太阳能为主要能源、电能为辅助能源,集热器的方位角和仰角随太阳辐射方位变化而可调的太阳能空气集热器与干燥箱为一体的干燥装置.试验结果表明,该装置集热量达11 964 kJ/h,可满足干燥箱所需热量消耗,但是在于燥箱内部前后端温度有1.5~4.O℃温差.整粒库车小白杏的干燥时间为79 h,杏干优等品率达85%,与传统干燥方法相比,干燥时间缩短52%.%A solar-air drier which was applied to dry many kinds of agro-products was studied in order to take advantage of ample solar energy in Xinjiang and improve productivity of solar drying equipment and improve quality of dried fruits and vegetables. Solar energy was the main energy sources and electricity was auxiliary. Azimuth angle and elevation of solar collector could be adjusted manually when sun light changed. The experiment result showed that solar collector could provide 11 964 kJ/h heat energy which was sufficient for the drier, but there was 1. 5 ~4. O℃ difference in fore and back parts of the drier. The time of drying entire apricot was 79 h which was 52% shorter than convention, the percentage of first-class dried apricot was 85%.

  8. 枣实蝇产卵选择习性研究%Oviposition preference of ber fruit fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡陇生; 朱银飞; 齐长江; 任玲; 田呈明

    2012-01-01

    通过枣实蝇产卵选择习性研究,发现枣实蝇喜欢产卵于枣果的背阴面及底部,其产卵孔周围呈现凹陷或瘤状凸起症状,且对不同品种枣果的产卵选择性不同,‘鸡心枣’、‘骏枣’对枣实蝇的抗性大于‘梨枣’、‘灰枣’和‘相枣’;枣果受伤害程度越重,产卵量就越少;不同大小的枣果均受到危害,且以中型果受害最为严重;随枣果成熟度的增加其产卵量逐渐减少,且不产卵于完全红的枣果上.同时枣实蝇对枣、海棠果、青杏、番茄、葡萄等不同寄主的产卵选择性均存在显著性差异,但更喜欢产卵于枣果.胁迫性寄主试验中不同寄主果实的产卵量存在显著差异,但枣果与杏之间的产卵量差异不明显,而且枣实蝇可以在杏果中化蛹并羽化.%The ber fruit fly Carpomya vesuviana Costa preferred to oviposit on the shades and bottom of jujube based on our study on oviposition preference. The oviposition aperture showed hollow and lump-like shapes. It was showed that the ber fruit fly had different ovipositional selection to different varieties of jujube. The 'Jix-inzao' jujube and ' Junzao' jujube were less severely damaged than ' pear jujube', ' grey jujube' and ' Xiang jujube' . It ovipositional selection decreased as the extent of damage increased. The ber fruit fly's harms to the jujube differed depending on jujube size. The medium-sized jujube was more hurtful than others. Its ovipositional selection decreased as the maturing stage of the jujube increased. The ber fruit fly showed no ovipositional selection at full maturity. The jujube was more hurtful than others and had significant difference in oviposition preference for jujube, Beijing flowering crab, apricot, tomato and grape. No significant difference existed between jujube and apricot, but significant difference existed in oviposition preference between different species of hosts. The ber fruit fly could pupate and eclose on the

  9. 气相色谱法分析北方水果中膳食纤维的单糖组成%Determination of Monosaccharide Composition in Dietary Fiber of Fruits in Northern China by GC Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明霞; 李媛; 张飞; 何童森; 侯栋; 王洋; 崔同

    2012-01-01

    Using GC method analyzed dietary fiber (DF) contents and monosaccharide composition of seven kinds of northern China fruits (apple, pear, peach, apricot, Chinese hawthorn, strawberry and mulberry). The results indicated that total dietary fiber (TDF) contents in these fruits was between 0.26% (apricot) and 1.17%(peach), SDF/TDF ranged from 38.5% (apricot) to 86.3% (peach). Calacturonic acid was the main component in SDF, between 33.1% (mulberry) and 91.1% (Chinese hawthorn). The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), not only had a high content of galacturonic acid (4.5% and 46.5%), but also had a considerable contents of arabinose (9.4% and 37.7%), galactose (8.3% and 24.2%), xylose (8.7% and 20.3%) and fucose (8.0% and 23.7%), the ratio of glucose ranged between 0.7% (peach) and 15.6% (Chinese hawthorn), the ratio of mannose and rhamnose was below 6%. Different kinds of fruits had significantly different monosaccharide composition in DF.%采用糖腈乙酰化衍生GC法分析中国北方地区7种水果(苹果、梨、桃、杏、山楂、草莓和桑椹)膳食纤维(DF)的含量和单糖组成,结果表明这些水果中总膳食纤维(TDF)含量在0.26%(杏)~1.17%(桃)之间,其中水溶性膳食纤维(SDF)占TDF的比例在38.5%(杏)~86.3%(桃)之间.半乳糖醛酸是SDF的主要成分,占33.1%(桑椹)~91.1%(山楂)之间.不溶性膳食纤维中除含有较高比例的半乳糖醛酸(4.5%~46.5%)外,阿拉伯糖(9.4%~37.7%)、半乳糖(8.3%~24.2%)、木糖(8.7%~20.3%)和岩藻糖(8.0%~23.7%)也有相当含量,葡萄糖的比例在0.7%(桃)~15.6%(山楂)之间,甘露糖和鼠李糖的比例在6%以下.不同水果之间DF的单糖组成差异明显.

  10. Study on Determination Technology of Tree Morphology Based on Multi-baseline Digital Close-range Photogrammetry System%基于多基线近景摄影测量系统的树木形态结构测定技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义伟; 李春友; 张劲松; 孟平; 王会顶

    2012-01-01

    应用Lensphoto多基线数字近景摄影测量系统,对5、6、7、8、9年生核桃和5、6、8、9、10年生杏树的三维坐标参数进行了近景摄影测量,得到平均误差在X轴方向误差为0.001 0 m,Y轴方向误差为0.001 4 m,Z轴方向误差为0.0004 m,水平方向误差为0.001 8 m,整体误差为0.001 8m.以6年生核桃和9年生杏树为例,利用多基线数字近景摄影测量系统对被测树木进行了形态结构测定,获得了高精度的树高、胸径、枝下高、冠幅以及分枝角度等主要形态结构数据,从而为树木形态结构精确测定以及树木可视化研究提供基础数据和理论支持.%The 3-dimensional coordinate parameters of 5,6,7,8,9 year-old walnut trees and 5,6,8,9,10 year-old apricot trees were measured by using Lensphoto multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system. The results indicated that average error of x axis direction was 0.001 0 m,average error of y axis direction was 0. 001 4 m,average error of z axis direction was 0. 000 4 m,average error of horizontal direction was 0.001 8 m and average global error was 0.001 8 m. Taking the 6 year-old walnut tree and 9 year-old apricot tree as example,tree height,diameter, height under branch,crown width and branching angle etc. Main parameters of configuration structure with high precision was obtained by u-sing multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system to provide basic data for the study of tree morphology and visualization.

  11. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2010-06-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1alpha, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.

  13. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  14. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.

  15. Time and speed of fruit drying on batch fluid-beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Bauman; Z Bobić; Z Ðaković; M Ukrainczyk

    2005-10-01

    Drying of particles (pieces) in a fluidized bed affords better quality of end products, especially for better product structure and its shorter reconstitution time. Fluid-bed drying of different fruit particles has been investigated. Starting water content varies from grape berries 81·5% and peach 87·7% to apricot 86·9%. The temperature of fluidization varies from 70°C to 100°C at air velocities from 0·98 ms-1 to 5·2 ms-1. The product should be dried fruit with 10% to 14% of water content with good rehydration quality that varies from 8 to 20. Experimental data have been measured, relevant values have been calculated and a mathematical model introduced. The results have shown that drying of fruit in a fluidized bed produces dry fruit particles of improved quality in a much shorter time, with improved rehydration times and qualities, than in continuous belt-driers that are generally used.

  16. [Antimutagenic substances in the Armeniacae semen and Persicae semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Osaki, Y; Kato, T; Miyazaki, T

    1992-12-01

    Using the Ames/Salmonella/microsome assay, we examined the antimutagenic effect of the hexane extract of Armeniacae semen (apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed), Persicae semen (peach (P. persica Bat.) seed), and seeds of cherry (P. avium L.), plum (P. salicina Lindle) and almond (P. dulcis Mill). Hexane extracts of Armeniacae semen and Persicae semen inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), but those of seeds of cherry, plum and almond did not. The mutagenicities of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2) were also inhibited by the extracts of Armeniacae semen and Persicae semen. Inhibitory substances in Persicae semen were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, and were identified as oleic acid and linoleic acid. The contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid were 0.7 and 0.4% in the hexane extract of Armeniacae semen, and 1.5 and 0.5% in that of Persicae semen, respectively.

  17. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  18. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjing Shang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  19. Role of lycopene in preventing oral diseases as a nonsurgical aid of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest′s ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases.

  20. Usefulness of ANN-based model for copper removal from aqueous solutions using agro industrial waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption properties of locally available lignocelluloses biomaterials as biosorbents for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. Materials are generated from juice production (apricot stones and from the corn milling process (corn cob. Such solid wastes have little or no economic value and very often present a disposal problem. Using batch adsorption techniques the effects of initial Cu(II ions concentration (Ci, amount of biomass (m and volume of metal solution (V, on biosorption efficiency and capacity were studied for both materials, without any pre-treatments. The optimal parameters for both biosorbents were selected depending on a highest sorption capability of biosorbent, in removal of Cu(II. Experimental data were compared with second order polynomial regression models (SOPs and artificial neural networks (ANNs. SOPs showed acceptable coefficients of determination (0.842 - 0.997, while ANNs performed high prediction accuracy (0.980-0.986 in comparison to experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003, TR 31055

  1. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. Balady, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  2. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  3. 果蔬中超氧化物歧化酶活性与生命动力源群子统计参数之间关系的研究%Relationship between high antioxidant content of some fruit and vegetables and sub-cluster statistical parameters for essential elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽改; 张秀超; 程润; 张双琨; 金日光

    2013-01-01

    从某些果蔬(黑美人土豆、串叶松香草、鸭犁、杏、西红柿、香蕉、黄元帅苹果、黄瓜)中提取并测定了其超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性,同时研究了这些果蔬的SOD活性与生命动力源分布的科学统计参数之间的关系.研究结果发现,黑美人土豆在所测果蔬中酶活性最强,达到5671.11 U;SOD的生物抗氧化、抗衰老活性与食物中的生命动力源元素分布呈线性关系.%The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) extracted from different fruit and vegetables (black beauty potato,silphium perfoliatum,pear,apricot,tomato,banana,golden delicious,cucumber) has been analyzed.The enzyme activity of SOD extracted from black beauty potatoes was 5671.11 U.It was found SOD activity and sub-cluster statistical parameters for essential elements had a good linear relationship.

  4. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

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    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  5. Amygdalin blocks the in vitro adhesion and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells by an integrin-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Eva; Afschar, Masud; Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Tsaur, Igor; Mani, Jens; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-03-01

    Information about the natural compound amygdalin, which is employed as an antitumor agent, is sparse and thus its efficacy remains controversial. In this study, to determine whether amygdalin exerts antitumor effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, its impact on RCC metastatic activity was investigated. The RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, were exposed to amygdalin from apricot kernels, and adhesion to human vascular endothelium, immobilized collagen or fibronectin was investigated. The influence of amygdalin on chemotactic and invasive activity was also determined, as was the influence of amygdalin on surface and total cellular α and β integrin expression, which are involved in metastasis. We noted that amygdalin caused significant reductions in chemotactic activity, invasion and adhesion to endothelium, collagen and fibronectin. Using FACScan analysis, we noted that amygdalin also induced reductions, particularly in integrins α5 and α6, in all three cell lines. Functional blocking of α5 resulted in significantly diminished adhesion of KTC-26 and A498 to collagen and also in decreased chemotactic behavior in all three cell lines. Blocking α6 integrin significantly reduced chemotactic activity in all three cell lines. Thus, we suggest that exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibits metastatic spread and is associated with downregulation of α5 and α6 integrins. Therefore, we posit that amygdalin exerts antitumor activity in vitro, and this may be linked to integrin regulation.

  6. OVARIAN HORMONE PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY AMYGDALIN ADDITION IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural substance, is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring in the seeds of apricots and bitter almonds. It is a controversial anti-tumor compound that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one of benzaldehyde, which induces an analgesic action, and one of hydrocyanic acid, which is an anti-neoplastic compound. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the possible impact of amygdalin (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg/mL on the secretory activity of granulosa cells (GCs from porcine cyclic ovaries. The release of progesterone and estradiol-17β by GCs were evaluated by ELISA. In our study, the noticeable changes in estradiol-17β release by ovarian GCs were determined after the amygdalin addition. Amygdalin, at the highest dose (10 000 μg/mL, significantly (P≤0.05 stimulated the release of estradiol-17β by GCs, in comparison to the untreated control cells. On the contrary, no significant (P≥0.05 changes in the progesterone release by GCs caused by amygdalin addition were observed. In conclusion, obtained results showed that the amygdalin application (various doses to ovarian GCs caused a dose-dependent stimulation of the estradiol-17β release, but not progesterone, and its possible modulatory impact on the steroid production in porcine ovaries.

  7. Antinociceptive effect of amygdalin isolated from Prunus armeniaca on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Pil; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Hye-Jung; Shim, Insop; Yin, Chang Shik; Yang, Young; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Amygdalin is a plant glucoside isolated from the stones of rosaceous fruits, such as apricots, peaches, almond, cherries, and plums. To investigate the pain-relieving activity of amygdalin, we induced pain in rats through intraplantar injection of formalin, and evaluated the antinociceptive effect of amygdalin at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg-body weight by observing nociceptive behavior such as licking, biting and shaking, the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord, and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the plantar skin. The intramuscular injection of amygdalin significantly reduced the formalin-induced tonic pain in both early (the initial 10 min after formalin injection) and late phases (10-30 min following the initial formalin injection). During the late phase, amygdalin did reduce the formalin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner in a dose range less than 1 mg/kg. Molecular analysis targeting c-Fos and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) also showed a significant effect of amygdalin, which matched the results of the behavioral pain analysis. These results suggest that amygdalin is effective at alleviating inflammatory pain and that it can be used as an analgesic with anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectionery products were used. Numbers of coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from <1x101 to 4x102 cfu.g-1, the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1, the number of yeasts from <1x101 to 5.5x102 cfu.g-1, cells of Salmonella sp. were not detected and the number of staphylococci was from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1. All investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  10. Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Ljubičić, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindrić, Iva Juranović; Bušić, Arijana; Vojvodić, Aleksandra

    2014-05-15

    Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion.

  11. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples.

  12. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and strobilurin fungicides in particle phase atmospheric samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids and strobilurin fungicides in the particle phase fraction of atmosphere samples. Filter samples were extracted with pressurized solvent extraction, followed by a cleanup step with solid phase extraction. Method detection limits for the seven neonicotinoid insecticides and six strobilurin fungicides were in the range of 1.0-4.0 pg/m(3). Samples were collected from June to September 2013 at two locations (Osoyoos and Oliver) in the southern Okanagan Valley Agricultural Region of British Columbia, where these insecticides and fungicides are recommended for use on tree fruit crops (apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots) and vineyards. This work represents the first detection of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin in particle phase atmospheric samples collected in the Okanagan Valley in Canada. The highest particle phase atmospheric concentrations were observed for imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin at 360.0, 655.6, and 1908.2 pg/m(3), respectively.

  13. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  14. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dehelean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature.

  15. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Giuseppe; Louis, Christos; Zhang, Hongyou; Petrella, Valeria; Di Natale, Manuela; Perri, Maria; Salvemini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly.

  16. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırcı, Gözde Türköz; Yaman Acay, Dilek Bengü; Bakırcı, Fatih; Ötleş, Semih

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey. A total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. The samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. The analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) confirmed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a multi-residue extraction procedure (the QuEChERS method). The results were evaluated according to maximum residue limits (MRLs) for each commodity and pesticide by Turkish Regulation. All pomegranate, cauliflower and cabbage samples were pesticides-free. A total of 754 samples contained detectable residues at or below MRLs, and 48 (8.4%) of the fruit samples and 83 (9.8%) of the vegetable samples contained pesticide residues above MRLs. MRL values were most often exceeded in arugula, cucumber, lemon, and grape commodities. All detected pesticides in apricot, carrot, kiwifruit and leek were below the MRLs. Acetamiprid, chlorpyriphos and carbendazim were the most detected pesticide residues.

  17. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  18. Testing research for assessing suitability of multi-species of trees Introduced in habitats In hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Lixin; Liu Jianghua

    2006-01-01

    To enrich resource of species,105 arbor species (25 genera,15 families) were introduced to the hilly and gully areas on Loess Plateau.By acclimation and selection,more than 90 tree species (12 genera,8 families) were identified as fine species,including trees suitable for sloping fields such as Pinus sylvestri var mongolica,Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia,trees suitable for gully bottoms such as Populus davidiana, Populus diversifolia, and Salix cheilophila and non-timber trees such as Prunus armeniaca,Ziziphus jujuba and Prunus persica.For those fine trees,habitat conditions and regularity of requirement of water and fertilizers were studied and then habitat ranges were given.From research results,it could be seen that Robinia pseudoacacia consumed more water,but it could improve the content of organic matters in soil;by contrast,Pinus tabulaeformis and Platycladus orientalis consumed less water and were suitable for dry sloping fields;species of apricot were suitable for sunny or semi-shady sloping fields with good conditions of water and fertilizer;species of pear were suitable for both shady sloping fields and sunny sloping fields;species of Chinese date were suitable for sunny sloping fields.

  19. Polyphenols: Potential Future Arsenals in the Treatment of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solayman, Md; Ali, Yousuf; Alam, Fahmida; Islam, Md Asiful; Alam, Nadia; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.

  20. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  1. Use of dried high-phenolic laden host leaves for virus and viroid preservation and detection by PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahioglu, Hikmet Murat; Usta, Mustafa; Ocak, Mustafa

    2006-10-01

    The efficiency of RNA extraction for Apricot latent virus (ApLV), Plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV), Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), and Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) from infected hosts is of great importance for molecular diagnosis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A method is described for drying tissue to overcome phenolic inhibitors of viral RNA. This study showed that the infected host leaves, dried at 65 degrees C for 2 days and conserved at 4 degrees C in air proof conditions, serve as good sources for detection of viral and viroid pathogens by PCR methods. Preliminary results suggest that ApLV, PNRSV, PVY, and ASSVd were detected easily by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PBNSPaV by nested-RT-PCR with high amplification yields. No significant difference was observed between ethidium bromide-stained band profiles of dried compared to fresh leaves of infected samples. The RNA derived from dry leaf samples was suitable for detection studies. This simple and inexpensive method has proved very effective for long term conservation of virus and viroid isolates.

  2. Copper on activated carbon for catalytic wet air oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Dolores Martínez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is an important source of water contamination. Some of the organic contaminants cannot be eliminated by nature in a reasonable period. Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation is one of the most effective methods to purify wastewater with organic contaminants. In this work, catalysts based on copper supported on activated carbon were synthesized. The activated carbons were obtained from industrial wastes (apricot core and grape stalk of San Juan, Argentina. These were impregnated with a copper salt and thermically treated in an inert atmosphere. Analysis of specific surface, pore volume, p zc, acidity, basicity and XRD patterns were made in order to characterize the catalysts. The catalytic activity was tested in the oxidation of methylene blue (MB and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA in aqueous phase with pure oxygen. Reaction tests were carried out in a Parr batch reactor at different temperatures, with a 0.2 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. The amount of unconverted organics was measured by spectrophotometry. Higher temperatures were necessary for the degradation of PVA compared to those for methylene blue.

  3. Determination of antioxidant properties of aromatic herbs, olives and fresh fruit using an enzymatic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, L; Bonanni, A; Favero, G; Tomassetti, M

    2003-04-01

    The aim was to experimentally evaluate the antioxidant capacity of different fresh aromatic herbs (field balm, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, sage, sweet basil), several varieties of olives from Central Italy ('Carboncello', 'Rosciolo', 'Olivastro', 'Coratello', 'Leccino', 'Frantoio') and several types of fresh fruit (apple, apricot, banana, cherry, fig, grape, medlar, melon, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, water melon, yellow plum) using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) biosensor developed by the present authors. Measurements were carried out by comparing the biosensor response to the concentration of superoxide radical produced in solution using a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system in the presence and absence of the antioxidant sample considered. Tests carried out on different samples of fruit and aromatic herbs showed that the homogenised samples had better antioxidant properties than the centrifuged ones (obtained by centrifuging the homogenate), which sometimes gave extremely low antioxidant capacity values. The reliability of the proposed method was checked by comparing the trend of some experimental results found using the SOD biosensor with those reported in the literature obtained using the classic (ORAC) method. The precision of this method of analysis was found to be good for samples of aromatic herbs (RSD%

  4. Benefits of breakfast meals and pattern of consumption on satiety-related sensations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Cristiana; Riso, Patrizia; Brusamolino, Antonella; Porrini, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects on satiety-related sensations of seven isoenergetic cereal-based breakfasts and two fruit products (salad and juice) consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Nine healthy women participated to 11 sessions following a randomized repeated-measures design. Subjects were asked to consume seven breakfasts consisting of a standard beverage and a different cereal-based product, and also fruit salad or apricot juice consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Satiety, desire-to-eat and perceived characteristics of products consumed were monitored on Visual Analog Scales from 8:30 am until lunch. Ratings registered and areas under the curve of sensations were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. All breakfast meals maintained the satiety-related sensations at lunch time higher than basal values. The best satiety control was obtained when the fruit salad was consumed as a midmorning snack. Consequently, regular consumption of breakfast and of whole fruit as midmorning snack may be a valid strategy to achieve appetite control.

  5. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Seob Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell extracts in ovariectomized (OVX rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women.

  6. Fabrication method and microstructural characteristics of coal-tar-pitch-based 2D carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Mohammad; Khosravi, Hamed; Mirhabibi, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    The lignin-cellulosic texture of wood was used to produce two-dimensional (2D) carbon/carbon (C/C) composites using coal tar pitch. Ash content tests were conducted to select two samples among the different kinds of woods present in Iran, including walnut, white poplar, cherry, willow, buttonwood, apricots, berry, and blue wood. Walnut and white poplar with ash contents of 1.994wt% and 0.351wt%, respectively, were selected. The behavior of these woods during pyrolysis was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis. The bulk density and open porosity were measured after carbonization and densification. The microstructural characteristics of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the density of both the walnut and white poplar is increased, and the open porosity is decreased with the increasing number of carbonization cycles. The XRD patterns of the wood charcoal change gradually with increasing pyrolysis temperature, possibly as a result of the ultra-structural changes in the charcoal or the presence of carbonized coal tar pitch in the composite's body.

  7. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Results: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  8. Serological and molecular detection of Prune dwarf virus infecting stone fruits of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, a central region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourolah Soltani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prune dwarf virus (PDV is one of the major positive RNA viruses which cause economical damages in stone fruit trees. The symptoms of PDV vary between different stone fruits namely sour and sweet cherry, almond, peach, apricot and plum including leaf narrowing, leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, mosaic, leaf whitening, leathery leaf, bushy branches and stunt trees. During the years 2011 and 2012, 251 leaf samples were collected for detection of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province. DAS-ELISA test proved PDV presence serologically. Then, total RNA were extracted and tested by two-step RT-PCR which replicated partial and full coat protein sequence of PDV. One hundred and eighty one out of total samples (251 samples showed PDV infection using serological and two-step RT-PCR assays, hence, incidence of PDV in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province was confirmed. This is the first report of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province and in Iran.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance soil carbon sequestration in the coalfields, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yin-Li; Jiang, Bin; Zhakypbek, Yryszhan; Peng, Su-Ping; Liu, Wen-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Carbon storage is affected by photosynthesis (Pn) and soil respiration (Rs), which have been studied extensively in natural and agricultural systems. However, the effects of Pn and Rs on carbon storages in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in coalfields remain unclear. A field experiment was established in 2014 in Shendong coal mining subsidence area. The treatments comprised two inoculation levels (inoculated with or without 100 g AMF inoculums per seedlings) and four plant species [wild cherry (Prunus discadenia Koebne L.), cerasus humilis (Prunus dictyneura Diels L.), shiny leaf Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge L.) and apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L.)]. AMF increased Pn of four species ranging from 15.3% to 33.1% and carbon storage, averaged by 17.2% compared to controls. Soil organic carbon (OC), easily extractable glomalin-relation soil protein (EE-GRSP), and total glomalin-relation soil protein (T-GRSP) were significantly increased by AMF treatment. The effect of AMF on the sensitivity of Rs depended on soil temperature. The results highlighted the exponential models to explain the responses of Rs to soil temperature, and for the first time quantified AMF caused carbon sequestration and Rs. Thus, to our knowledge, AMF is beneficial to ecosystems through facilitating carbon conservation in coalfield soils.

  10. Test of different biomass into the IISc open-top co-current gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, P. [Xylowatt SA, Chatel-St-Denis (Switzerland); Hasler, P. [Verenum SA, Zuerich (Switzerland); Dasappa, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Combustion Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory, Bangalore (India)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the efforts made to demonstrate the technical feasibility of combined heat and power generation using wood gasification. The report describes a project involving a small open-top gasifier based on a design realised by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). The tests made with various wood fuels such as clean wood chips, waste-wood chips, pecan nut shells, crushed oak briquettes, wood pellets, coffee hull pellets and chicken litter pellets are described and the results of measurements made concerning particulate matter, tar and certain organic compounds are presented. The discussion of the results shows that certain types of biomass can easily be used as a fuel for the small gasifier whereas others, such as coffee hull pellets, are less suitable. The report suggests that other possible fuels, such as olive and apricot stones, sludge from waste water treatment plant or plastic residue from refuse treatment should be tested in the gasifier. These tests could also provide the opportunity of testing appropriate gas treatment equipment at the same time.

  11. Development of a photosensitive, high-throughput chip-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay to explore the radioprotective activity of herbal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoghare, Pravin K; Kwon, Ho Taik; Song, Joon Myong

    2009-08-15

    Appropriate pharmacological interventions and modalities are needed to protect humans against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. We disclose a rapid chip-based approach to elucidate the radioprotective/antioxidant potential of herbal plants using a photodiode array (PDA) microchip system. Red light absorption property of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) formazan was applied to chip-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity measurements of six herbal plant extracts in a high-throughput manner. SOD activities obtained via gel-based assays were in line with the data obtained through the chip-based assay and hence validated our approach. Compared to amifostine, all the tested herbal plant extracts, except apricot kernel, demonstrated greater radioprotective properties. Among the tested herbal extracts, pueraria root showed the highest antioxidant/radioprotective activity and can be considered a preferred radioprotector candidate. Low standard deviations and high statistical confidence obtained during the assay prove the sensitivity and consistency of this approach. The developed approach has several advantages (simplicity, rapidness and portability) over existing methods and can be applied to high-throughput screening of the radioprotective properties of various unexplored plants species.

  12. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  13. Status of Fruit Farming in Central Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ali Shah,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was conducted in four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa namely Charsadda, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar during January February, 2013 to examine the status and factors affecting fruit orchards. A total of Sixty four fruit orchards growers were interviewed on the basis of land acquisition. Data indicates that farmer areas for citrus and planted Stone fruit such as peach, plum and apricot were declined in the last 10 years while the area under pear and loquat were increased. The study results also indicate that a number of factors were affecting fruit orchards. These problems were ranked as (1 diseases/insects, followed by (2 high price, (3 water shortage problem, (4 adulteration in inputs, (5 marketing problem and (6 non-availability of credit. It is concluded that various factors are responsible for the decline in production of fruit orchards. It is thus, recommended that agriculture department should regularly disseminate technical-know-how regarding improved fruit orchards management practices through training, field days and workshop and other awareness programmes for fruit orchards growers. The government should also keep check and balance on price and quality of inputs to encourage fruit orchard growers to increase their production.

  14. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-08-22

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  15. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications.

  16. Rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal for the assessment of oxidative degradation and safety of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbanini, Simone; Matera, Riccardo; Valvassori, Alice; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-04-15

    A novel method for the UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of (E)-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is described. The method is based on derivatization of 4-HNE with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (1) or 4-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazine (2) in acetonitrile in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst at room temperature and allows complete analysis of one sample of vegetable oil in only 21 min, including sample preparation and chromatography. The method involving hydrazine 1, implemented in an ion trap instrument with analysis of the transition m/z 337→154 showed LOD=10.9 nM, average accuracy of 101% and precision ranging 2.5-4.0% RSD intra-day (2.7-4.1% RSD inter-day), with 4-HNE standard solutions. Average recovery from lipid matrices was 96.3% from vaseline oil, 91.3% from sweet almond oil and 105.3% from olive oil. The method was tested on the assessment of safety and oxidative degradation of seven samples of dietary oil (soybean, mixed seeds, corn, peanut, sunflower, olive) and six cosmetic-grade oils (avocado, blackcurrant, apricot kernel, echium, sesame, wheat germ) and effectively detected increased 4-HNE levels in response to chemical (Fenton reaction), photochemical, or thermal stress and aging, aimed at mimicking typical oxidation associated with storage or industrial processing. The method is a convenient, cost-effective and reliable tool to assess quality and safety of vegetable oils.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

    2006-05-01

    The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

  18. Land Capability Classification for Crop and Fruit Product Assessment Using GIS Technology. Case Study: The Niraj River Basin (Transylvania Depression, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Maria ROȘCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficient capitalisation of agricultural land is dependent on determining the environmental suitability of the area and on identifying the most appropriate culture types for a particular terrain. Because of its complex landforms, the anthropic pressure and the irrational use of land on large surfaces, the Basin of Niraj River was the object of a reorganising process in the production activities, by emphasising the agricultural land use as a resource for sustainable development, which has been too long underexploited.  The technique of capability classification, in collaboration with the GIS techniques of spatial analysis, represents one of the most facile and concrete ways of identifying and creating an inventory of lands which fulfil the best conditions for the creation of orchards, through the use of specific indicators: climatic, morphometric, morphologic, pedologic. The present study created a new GIS model of spatial analysis, which could offer a new approach to the classical method of land capability classification. The identification of the areas which are suitable for fruit tree cultivation was based on this model by integrating the specific indicators into databases and GIS spatial analysis equations. The results of this study highlights the maps of the land favorability for apple trees, pear trees, plum trees, cherry trees, peach trees and apricot trees and a geodatabase materialization in the maps of quality classes for orchards.

  19. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  20. Analysis of Volatile Components of Plum%梅果挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫民; 王之建; 吴晓红; 苗彩芬; 魏玉琪; 李琼

    2011-01-01

    The volatile components of plum were identified by method of HS-SFME -GC-MS. There were 66 volatile compounds, including 8 alcohols,4 lactones,12 aldehydes,23 esters,2 ketones,8 acids,7 terpenes and terpene alcohols and 2 aromatic compounds. The reason was analyzed why plum sends forth the aromas of peach,milk and apricot in the early,middle and late stages of aroma production.%采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了梅果的挥发性成分,共鉴定出66种挥发性成分,其中醇类8种、内酯类4种、醛类12种、酯类23种、酮类2种、酸类8种、萜烯及萜烯醇类7种以及其他芳香族类化合物2种.分析了梅果发香前、中和后期分别具有桃香、果香奶香和杏香的原因.

  1. [The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity ready to eat desserts for infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dereń, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in ready-to-eat desserts for babies. The experimental material consisted of six kinds of fruit desserts taken from the market in 2008, in which the content of dry matter phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity levels on the basis of free radical quenching ability ABTS were determined. The largest share of dry matter was found in apricot mousse with apples and bananas (16.9%). The largest amounts of phenolic compounds were found in the cream with apple and wild rose (186.3 mg/100 g) and apple with forest fruits (170.7 mg/100 g). The highest antioxidant activity among the desserts was determined in cream with apple and wild rose (14.2 micromol Trolox/g) and apple mousse with peaches (12.8 micromol Trolox/g). The antioxidant capacity of the remaining examined purée was slightly lower and ranged from 11.4-11.7 micromol Trolox/g.

  2. A study of dietetic on the diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyeun Baek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the dietary therapy. 2. Methods of the preparation for use as therapeutics were decoction, pulvis, gruel, medicinal wine, cake, tea, paste and gelatin and etc. 3. Frequently used materials were sesame oil, honey, ear mushroom, shiitake mushroom, kelp, walnut seed, hemp seed, groundnut, glutinous rice, apricot stone, yellow bean peel, radish, potato, spinage, and spring onion. Conclusion : Though dietary therapy for the diarrhea is not based on clinical or experimental data, but through experience. It is mostly based on Yin-Yang and five elements, visceral manifestation, channels and their collateral channels and chinese herbal medicine theories. If we use them properly according to oriental medicine method, it will be effective on treating and preventing the diarrhea.

  3. Effects of different host plants on the development and reproduction of the peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae)%不同寄主植物对桃小食心虫生长发育和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定旭; 雷喜红; 李政; 高灵旺; 沈佐锐

    2012-01-01

    为探索寄主植物对桃小食心虫Carposina sasakii生长发育和繁殖的影响,在室内温度23±1℃,相对湿度80%±7%,光周期15L∶9D条件下,测定了桃小食心虫在杏Armeniaca vulgaris、李Prunus salicina、桃Amygdalus persica、枣Ziziphus jujuba、苹果Malus pumila和梨Pyrus sorotina上各发育阶段的历期、存活率和/或产卵量,并组建了桃小食心虫在各寄主植物上的生命表.结果表明:桃小食心虫的生长发育和繁殖在不同寄主植物间存在显著差异.幼虫的发育历期以李为最短(12.48 d),梨为最长(19.15 d);整个幼虫期的存活率以李为最高(50.54%),梨为最低(17.91%);单雌平均产卵量以枣(214.50粒/雌)和桃(197.94粒/雌)最高.生命表分析结果表明,净生殖率R0以枣(117.49)为最大,平均世代周期T则以梨(41.31 d)和苹果(41.51 d)最长,内禀增长率Tm以李(0.1294)为最高,其次为枣(0.1201)和杏(0.1128).这些结果有助于深入了解该虫在不同寄主植物上的种群动态.%The peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii, is an important pest of deciduous fruit trees in northern China. In order to explore the influence of host plants such as apricot (Armeruaca vidgaris) , plum (Prunus salicina) , peach (Amygdalus persica) , jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba) , apple (Malus pumila) , and pear (Pyrus sorotina) on the development and reproduction of this pest, experiments designed to examine the developmental duration and reproduction of the pest feeding on various host plants were carried out under laboratory conditions of 23 ±1℃, RH 80%±7% and a photoperiod of 15L:9D. The results showed that the peach fruit borer exhibited significant differences in the developmental duration and reproduction among various host plants. Larval duration was the longest on pear (19. 15 d) and the shortest on plum ( 12. 48 d) , while the preimaginal survival rate was the lowest on pear ( 17. 91% ) and the highest on plum (50. 54%). Adult females derived from

  4. 含低聚半乳糖的生物活性果粒发酵乳及其保藏性研究%Preparation of GOS-contained bioactive fermented yogurt and investigation of its qualities during preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德龙; 米晓冲; 钱利芳; 安胜明; 张波; 吴金鸿; 高艳玲

    2013-01-01

    Lactase was analyzed among several fruit including peach,plum,black plum,apple and apricot by Ultraviolet spectrophotometry.Optimal sterilizing method for fruit particles (1 cm3) was investigated.Results showed that black plum and apricot had higher lactase at the concentration of 0.034 U/mL and 0.018 U/mL,respectively.The GOS-contained bioactive fruit yogurt was prepared under the following conditions:fruit was cut into 1 cm3 of particles and sterilized at 65 ℃ for 30 min using water bath.The fruit was mixed with 12% (w/v) sterilized reconstituted skim milk solution at the amount of 8% (w/w).Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus LB340 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB03 at the ratio of 1∶1 (w:w) were incubated into the mixture at the amount of 3% and fermented at 42 ℃ for 10 h.Finally,1.10~1.40% GOS was produced in the yogurt.During two weeks' storage at 4 ℃,viscosity of yogurt was maintained at (0.74±0.25)Pa·s,while acidity and pH was at (181.7±12.1)°T and 4.15±0.06,respectively.Viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus LB340 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB03 was at the range of 1.50×1011 to 2.00×1015 mL-1.Physics and chemistry parameters of the GOS-rich yogurt in two weeks' storage at 4 ℃ were in accordance with China rational standards of Yogurt.%通过紫外分光光度法对5种水果包括桃、青李子、黑布林、苹果和杏进行乳糖酶的检测筛选和果粒巴氏消毒条件研究.结果表明:黑布林和杏富含乳糖酶,含量分别是0.034 U/mL和0.018 U/mL.确定了富含GOS的果粒发酵乳的最佳制备条件为:将黑布林和杏切成1 cm3大小的果粒,65℃水浴30 min巴氏消毒,按质量分数为8%添加到灭菌的复原脱脂乳中,Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus LB340和Bifidobacterium bifidum BB03质量比为1∶1,总接种量3‰(质量分数),在42℃,常规发酵10 h,产物中GOS质量分数达1.10%~1.40%.该酸乳在4℃保藏14d,产品黏度为(0.74±0.25)Pa

  5. 伊犁河谷新垦区土壤有机质、全氮、全磷特征%On Features of SOM、Total - N、 Total - P in New Reclamation Area of Yili River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏; 李志忠

    2012-01-01

    对伊犁河谷新垦区不同土地利用方式下土壤剖面有机质、全氮、全磷含量进行分析,结果表明:不同土地利用方式,土壤有机质、全氮含量明显不同,都是未开垦荒地最大,杨树林地、树上干杏林地次之,油葵地(耕地)最小,撂荒地因弃耕比油葵地稍大;土壤全磷则是树上干杏林地最大,油葵地最小。新垦区土壤有机质、全氮、全磷含量随着深度变大含量都有所减小,表现出的表聚的特征,并且有机质与全氮含量随深度增加差异也逐渐减小。研究区土壤有机质含量与全氮、全磷含量相关性较好,尤其是有机质与全氮具有更高的相关度。为了防止土地肥力逐渐退化,研究区应提倡以林草为主的土地利用方式,并且在耕作中适量增施有机肥。%This paper analyzes the contents of soil organic matter(SOM) 、total - N,total - P of different types of land use in new reclamation area of Yili River valley. Studies show that the soil property has significant influence over different types of land use. According to the contents of SOM, total - N, the wasteland is maximum, while the poplar forest and the apricot land follow, and the cultivated land with sunflower oil is minimum, and the abandoned land is higher than the cultivated one. According to the contents of total - P, the maximum is the apricot land, the minimum is also the cultivated land. All of the contents of soil organic matter(SOM) ,total -N,total -P in new reclamation area reduce with the depth increasing, show the character of surface gathering, the content diversity in different types of land use of SOM and total - N also decrease with the depth increasing. The content of SOM has relevance with total -N and total -P, especially more obvious to the total -N. The experimental area should advocate the types of land use of woods and grass, and add organic fertilizers in cultivated land, in order to prevent the

  6. Study Summaries on Quality Formation of White Tea%白茶品质形成研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华春

    2012-01-01

    The processing of white tea includes withering and drying, and the former is the key process for its quality formation. During withering for long time, the inclusions of tea leaves such as tea polyphenols, amino acid, soluble saceharide complicatedly changed, oxidative dimerizations of tea polyphenols help to form apricot-yellow tea liquor color and mellow sweet taste of White tea, amino acid transformed volatile aldehydes or other products during processing help to form fragrance of White tea, and colored complex formed by the combination of O-quinone from catechin with amino acid had a good effect on soup color of white tea, soluble saccharide was the important ingredients which constituted soup taste and viscosity of white tea.%白茶加工工序包括萎凋和干燥,其中萎凋是形成白茶品质的关键工序。鲜叶经过较长时间的萎凋,内含物发生了复杂的变化,包括多酚类、氨基酸、糖类等,多酚类氧化缩合产物形成了白茶特有的杏黄汤色和醇爽清甜的滋味。氨基酸在茶叶加工中转化成挥发性的醛或其他产物形成茶叶香气。萎凋中氨基酸与儿茶素的邻醌结合而成的有色化合物,对白茶汤色有着良好的影响。可溶性的糖是构成白茶荼汤滋味和粘稠度的重要物质。

  7. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sulfoxaflor

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Ireland and the co-rapporteur Member States Czech Republic, France and Poland for the pesticide active substance sulfoxaflor and the assessment of applications for maximum residue levels (MRLs are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of sulfoxaflor as an insecticide on fruiting vegetables (field use and glasshouse application; tomato, cherry tomato, pepper (bell and non bell, aubergine, cucurbits (field use and glasshouse application; cucumber, water melon, courgette, spring and winter cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats, triticale and cotton. MRLs were assessed in almonds, pecans, apples, pears, cherries, peaches including nectarines, apricots, plums, wheat and barley grain, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard greens, cabbage, leaf and head lettuce, spinach, celery, cotton seed, oilseed rape seed, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, melons, squash (winter and summer, cucumbers, potatoes, sugar beet, carrots, soya bean, beans (pulses, fresh beans with and without pods, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, wine and table grapes, and in animal commodities such as milk, eggs, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment and the proposed MRLs, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. With the available assessments a high risk to bees was not excluded for field uses and a high long-term risk was indicated for the small herbivorous mammal scenario for field uses in vegetables and in

  8. Effect of several different pollens on the bio-ecological parameters of the predatory mite Typhlodromus athenas Swirski and Ragusa (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokytha, P D; Fantinou, A A; Papadoulis, G Th

    2011-06-01

    The development, survivorship, and reproduction of the predacious mite Typhlodromus athenas Swirski and Ragusa were studied in the laboratory by rearing the predator on nine different plant pollens [almond(Prunus amygdalis Batsch), apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), cherry (Prunus avium L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.), walnut (Juglans regia L.), olive (Olea europaea L.), Typha sp.], and pollen collected from bee hives. All experiments were conducted in environmental chambers at 20 ± 1°C, 65% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Survival during immature development ranged from 81.1 to 96.0%. The shortest mean developmental time from egg to adult with respect to the range of pollen species was recorded for females and males fed on almond pollen (10.76 ± 0.18 and 10.45 ± 0.21 d, respectively), while the longest was on beehive pollen (26.97 ± 0.23 and 24.00 ± 0.25 d for females and males, respectively). Female longevity varied from 51.63 ± 5.52 d (olive pollen) to 102.81 ± 6.60 d (pear pollen), while fecundity ranged from 5.33 ± 2.35 eggs per female (beehive pollen) to 26.43 ± 1.73 eggs per female (almond pollen). The diet consisting of almond pollen resulted in the highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) (1.00 d(-1)) and pollen collected from bee hives resulted in the lowest (0.013 d(-1)). These results showed that various pollen could favor the development of T. athenas, and also support the view that alternative food resources may play an important role in the field for sustaining and increasing the predator's population.

  9. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs.

  10. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis.

  11. HIGH INFECTION PRESSURE OF ESFY PHYTOPLASMA THREATENS THE CULTIVATION OF STONE FRUIT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara AMBROŽIČ TURK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit species are affected by severe disease caused by European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma (ESFY; ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’. ESFY phytoplasma is transmitted to the host plants of Prunus spp. by the vector Cacopsylla pruni. The disease is graft-transmissible as well. The occurence of ESFY phytoplasma was monitored from 2004 to 2006 in a mother plant orchard of stone fruit species planted with virus free material in 2001 in the Primorska region of Slovenia. The total of 158 samples of mother plants were analysed in this period. The symptomatic and asymptomatic trees were analysed using molecular methods (PCR or nested-PCR. Among 15.7 % of sampled apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca in the orchard, ESFY phytoplasma was detected in 70.0 % of samples. In the case of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina samples were taken from one third of all Japanese plum trees and the presence of ESFY phytoplasma was confi rmed in all samples. In the European plum trees (Prunus domestica the incidence of phytoplasma was determined in 51.0 % of sampled trees, where the plants in most cases did not show symptoms. ESFY phytoplasma was also detected in peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica in 13.0 % of sampled trees while no detection of the phytoplasma was confi rmed in the samples of cherry trees (Prunus avium. With the survey performed in a mother plant orchard it was observed that especially young trees did not show typical symptoms and the infection was latent. In the year 2005, ESFY phytoplasma was detected in all tested samples of the vector Cacopsylla pruni captured in the vicinity of the mother plant orchard.

  12. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON. Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigated the effect of natural substance amygdalin at the selected doses (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 µg/mL in combination with deoxynivalenol (1000 ng/mL on secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs from cyclic pigs. Our results showed that the releasing of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells was affected by amygdalin plus DON addition. The secretion of progesterone by ovarian GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by administration of both compounds in all experimental groups. Similarly, estradiol releasing by GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 increased in experimental groups with amygdalin (10, 100 and 10 000 µg/mL plus DON (1000 ng/mL addition. Amygdalin treatment combined with DON caused increase of steroid hormones release by ovarian granulosa cells. Our findings suggest possible involvement of these natural substances (amygdalin and deoxynivalenol in the regulation process of steroidogenesis. In conclusion, results from this experiment contribute to knowledge about interaction between two different natural compounds and their positive or negative interferences with ovarian functions.

  13. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides, plant hormones, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins using HILIC chromatography - MS/MS in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Anagnostopoulos, C J; Liapis, K; Koupparis, M A

    2016-10-26

    One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A). Isolation of the analytes from the matrix was achieved with a fast and effective technique. The validation of the multi-residue method was performed at the levels: 10 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg in the following representative substrates: fruits-vegetables (apples, apricots, lettuce and onions), cereals and pulses (flour and chickpeas), animal products (milk and meat) and cereal based baby foods. The method was validated taking into consideration EU guidelines and showed acceptable linearity (r ≥ 0.99), accuracy with recoveries between 70 and 120% and precision with RSD ≤ 20% for the majority of the analytes studied. For the analytes that presented accuracy and precision values outside the acceptable limits the method still is able to serve as a semi-quantitative method. The matrix effect, the limits of detection and quantification were also estimated and compared with the current EU MRLs (Maximum Residue Levels) and FAO/WHO MLs (Maximum Levels) or CXLs (Codex Maximum Residue Limits). The combined and expanded uncertainty of the method for each analyte per substrate, was also estimated.

  14. 辽西坡地林农复合经营模式优化研究%Optimization of Agroforestry Model on Slope of Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金刚; 赵冰; 刘畅; 刘阳; 刘红民; 高英旭

    2012-01-01

    On slope of western Liaoning province,through test screening,production value analysis on jujube + millet + soybean,pear + millet + soybean,peach + millet + soybean,apricot + millet + soybean other models,result shows that:jujube + millet + soybean is suitable for this area;through compared experiments of dried fruit trees of hazelnuts or walnut + crop and jujube + millet + soybean,result shows that jujube + millet + soybean is the preferred model for western Liaoning;Lingdang jujube + millet,which is optimal component for jujube + millet + soybean,is high-efficient agroforestry in the same land-unit on slope of western Liaoning.%在辽西坡地上,通过枣农、梨农、桃农、杏农等林农复合经营模式试验筛选及产量、产值分析,结果表明,该区适宜的林农复合优化模式为枣农复合模式;通过榛子、核桃干果树种+作物复合经营与枣农复合对比试验,结果表明枣农复合经营为辽西坡地林农复合首选模式;继续试验研究了枣农复合优秀组分为铃铛枣与谷子,是辽西坡地同一土地单元内高效的林农复合模式。

  15. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  16. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  17. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in the setting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection: clinically relevant or a diagnostic problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, M; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Bräu, N; Solá, R; Moreno, S; Rockstroh, J; Smaill, F; Mendes-Correa, M C; DePamphilis, J; Torriani, F J

    2007-06-01

    The clinical relevance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined as detectable HBV DNA serum/liver, in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is unclear. We determined the prevalence of serum occult HBV infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients enrolled in APRICOT, a randomized multinational trial that investigated the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) plus ribavirin for treatment of HCV. We also examined the effect of prior HBV exposure to liver histology at baseline. Only HBsAg-negative patients were eligible. At screening, serum HBV DNA was assessed by commercial assay (detection limit = 200 copies/mL). Patients were divided into four serological groups: anti-HBs+/anti-HBc+; anti-HBs-/anti-HBc+; anti-HBs+/ anti-HBc-; anti-HBs-/anti-HBc-. Baseline liver biopsy grade and stage were compared among groups. Serum HBV DNA was undetectable in all patients, (n = 866). Results of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was available for 176 patients: 60 (34.1%) anti-HBs+/anti-HBc+; 60 (34.1%) anti-HBs-/anti-HBc+; 11 (6.3%) anti-HBs+/anti-HBc-; 45 (25.6%) anti-HBs-/anti-HBc-. There were no differences among the groups in the histological grade or stage at baseline liver biopsies. Occult HBV infection in serum was not detected in this large immunocompetent cohort. Moreover, prior exposure to HBV did not appear to have any affect on baseline liver histology.

  18. Nutraceuticals: (Prevention is better than Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Khokhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human inquisitiveness and search for specific constituents of plants animal’s minerals and microbial origin which are beneficial to our overall health have cost coining of terminologies such as functional food or nutraceuticals1. Nutraceuticals have evolved from the recognition of the link between food and health. Thus nutraceuticals can be defined as the part of food that helps in prevention from various disease. In this context we have reached to that point which describes the utilization of nutraceuticals its source its benefits to the human body as well as to the animals. There are certain fruits and vegetables which provide a great role in healthcare like apples, oranges, cabbages, apricots, banana etc. They all are fibrous materials from which DHA, RDA (from carrots we can easily get. There are certain Phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, herbs which are used in the treatment of many dangerous diseases like cancer. Various nutraceuticals are now available in market as along with their brand names. The nutraceuticals market comprises two principal segments: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements. Functional foods are similar in appearance to a conventional food or beverage, are consumed as part of a normal diet, and have been demonstrated to have physiological benefits or to reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Functional foods can also promote growth and development and enhance performance, and can take many forms. Some may be conventional foods with bioactive components that can now be identified and linked to positive health outcomes (e.g., soy protein, oat fiber, cranberries, tomatoes and carrot juice.

  19. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  20. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-03-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 °C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  1. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  2. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV, and Apricot latent virus (ApLV were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  3. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  4. Combustion of agro-waste with coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, a review of the studies done on the co-combustion of some agro-waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm is given. The agro-waste used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics were peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry, and olive cake produced as a waste from the olive oil industry. These are typical wastes for a Mediterranean country. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m} H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. Emissions were also monitored from the exhaust. Various combinations of coal and biomass mixtures were tested. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from the biomass quickly volatilizes and mostly burns in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of the biomass increases, combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. Better combustion conditions occur at higher excess air ratios. The results showed that co-combustion with these three proposed biomasses lowers the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions considerably. CO and hydrocarbon emissions are lower at the higher excess air ratios. (orig.)

  5. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines.

  6. Graft incompatibility in plants: Metabolic changes during formation and establishment of the rootstock/scion union with emphasis on Prunus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fruit trees are usually formed by the combination of a rootstock and a scion to broaden the adaptability of scion cultivars to soil and climatic conditions, facilitate agricultural management, and/or increase productivity. In the different cultivated species of the genus Prunus, rootstocks having a wide range of uses are scarce, because of rootstock/ scion graft incompatibilities that prevent the establishment of a strong and lasting functional union. Graft incompatibility is a problem in cherry, almond, and apricot than in peach or plum. In general, closely related cultivars and species tend to be compatible, but taxonomically distant plants often manifest incompatibility. This review will focus on the knowledge currently available on the metabolic response during the formation and establishment of the stock/scion graft union in order to help the effort for identify future metabolic markers to be used in breeding programs. The physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms that cause incompatibility remain unclear and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it, mostly based on herbaceous species. Few studies are available to explain incompatibility in woody plants. Various phenolic compounds are known to affect cell division, development and differentiation at the graft union. Flavonol (catechins and proanthocyanidins concentrations increase shortly after grafting and, as a result of the stress induced during the healing response, vacuolar membrane disruption occurs resulting in the escape of phenols from the vacuole into the cytoplasmic matrix, causing dysfunctions in the growth of certain tissues (xylem and phloem, interference with the synthesis of lignin or inducing hormonal imbalances. All these abnormalities result in mechanical weakening of the union, which may manifest during the first year after grafting (translocated incompatibility or may appear several years later (localized incompatibility, leading to major

  7. Rapid liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal for the assessment of oxidative degradation and safety of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbanini, Simone; Matera, Riccardo [BeC S.r.l., R& D Division, Via C. Monteverdi 49, 47122 Forlì (Italy); Valvassori, Alice [University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, Via S. Giacomo 11, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Valgimigli, Luca, E-mail: luca.valgimigli@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, Via S. Giacomo 11, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A novel method for the UPLC–MS/MS analysis of 4-HNE is described. • The method allows complete analysis of a vegetable oil in 21 min with LOD ≤ 7 ng g{sup −1}. • Excellent recovery from lipid matrices without deuterium-labeled internal standards. • Requires straightforward sample manipulation and routine equipment. • Allows fast, reliable, cost-effective assessment of safety and quality of oils. - Abstract: A novel method for the UHPLC–MS/MS analysis of (E)-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is described. The method is based on derivatization of 4-HNE with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (1) or 4-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazine (2) in acetonitrile in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst at room temperature and allows complete analysis of one sample of vegetable oil in only 21 min, including sample preparation and chromatography. The method involving hydrazine 1, implemented in an ion trap instrument with analysis of the transition m/z 337 → 154 showed LOD = 10.9 nM, average accuracy of 101% and precision ranging 2.5–4.0% RSD intra-day (2.7–4.1% RSD inter-day), with 4-HNE standard solutions. Average recovery from lipid matrices was 96.3% from vaseline oil, 91.3% from sweet almond oil and 105.3% from olive oil. The method was tested on the assessment of safety and oxidative degradation of seven samples of dietary oil (soybean, mixed seeds, corn, peanut, sunflower, olive) and six cosmetic-grade oils (avocado, blackcurrant, apricot kernel, echium, sesame, wheat germ) and effectively detected increased 4-HNE levels in response to chemical (Fenton reaction), photochemical, or thermal stress and aging, aimed at mimicking typical oxidation associated with storage or industrial processing. The method is a convenient, cost-effective and reliable tool to assess quality and safety of vegetable oils.

  8. Study of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Bainiku-Ekisu against Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Jye Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was undertaken to determine the bacteriostatic effects of the concentrate of Japanese apricot juice (bainiku-ekisu, which is a popular health food in Taiwan and Japan, on Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The results show that E. faecalis, S. aureus, and E. coli could be killed or inhibited by bainiku-ekisu at concentrations between 1.0 and 10.0 mg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 1 mg/mL for all strains, and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs were 5, 2.5, and 2.5 mg/mL for E. faecalis, S. aureus, and E. coli, respectively. Using the growth rate to calculate the MICs and MBCs, the MICs were 1.55, 1.43, and 0.97 mg/mL, and the MBCs were 2.59, 2.63, and 2.25 mg/mL for E. faecalis, S. aureus, and E. coli, respectively. According to the D values, E. faecalis and S. aureus exhibited lower resistance than E. coli at lower bainiku-ekisu concentrations (1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, and the resistance of these two pathogens was better than that of E. coli at higher bainiku-ekisu concentrations (5.0 and 10.0 mg/mL. The Z values of the E. faecalis, S. aureus, and E. coli strains were 3.47, 4.93, and 11.62 mg/mL, respectively.

  9. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Nicola D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, Katerina [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-03-15

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  10. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  11. Adsorption Studies of Phenol Using Thermally and Chemically Modified Rice Husk as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. M. Yousaf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Phenols are hazardous substances and some are supposed to have carcinogenic activity. Thus it is necessary to remove Phenolics and other aromatics from the aqueous ecosystem. Traditional processes for the removal of Phenolics compounds are extraction, adsorption on granulated activated carbon, steam distillation, chemical and bacterial techniques. Literature survey show a number of methods like oxidation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical oxidation and adsorption. Phenol removal by process like, adsorption is the best method of choice as it can remove most of phenols in simple and easy way. In recent past; agricultural by-products such as, maize cob, date stone, apricot Stones, rice bran, and bagass pith have been extensively studied and used as adsorbents for the adsorption of hazardous substances from wastewater. In the present study we tried modified rice husks as potential adsorbents for the removal of Phenol from aqueous system. Batch mode studies were carried out. Isotherm data was generated and fitted in Freundlich and Langmuir equation to explain the phenomenon of adsorption. The adsorption capacities based on Langmuir model (Qm of the 3 adsorbents were found to be 0.81 for raw husk (RH, 0.395 for the Grafted (G and 2.306 mg/g for the Charred (C. The R2 values were 0.92 for raw husk, 0.97 for grafted and 0.91 for charred husk. Based on Freundlich model the adsorption capacities (K were 2.94, 2.29 and 1.25mg/g for Raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk. The R2 values were found to be 0.72, 0.95 and 0.83 for the raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk respectively. Our result showed that modified rice husks could be used as potential adsorbents for Phenol removal from aqueous system.

  12. The Study of Adaptation of the New Peach Cultivars in the Agricultural Region of Vlora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARDHOSH FERRAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drupaceous fruits are placed in the first place in the species structure of Albania’s farms. To anticipate problems in the development of arboriculture and market production, scientific institutions have started a research to find possible solutions for the development of this sector. This is the reason why through collaboration between, CTT Vlore & IAM Bari was made possible to bring from Italy during the years 2000-2001, 96 cultivars of peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, nectarines, almonds. These cultivars dominate the production markets of the Mediterranean countries. In this project were included 21 peach cultivars 10 years old, rootstocks, planting material of basic category, clear of viruses and other pathogens. As the main rootstocks were selected GF 677 and MRS 2/5. To study the behavior, adaptability and productivity of the peach cultivars, in the warm coastal areas, specialists from the Agriculture University of Tirana and Center for Technology Transfer in Vlora carried out a number of tests and evaluations during a three year period. At the end of the study it resulted that the cultivars with a very early maturation better adapted in the coastal areas were: ‘Cardinal’, ‘May Crest’, and ‘Spring Crest’. The cultivars with early maturation and consolidated productivity were: “Red Haven”, “Bolero”, “Dixired”, “Early Crest”, “Iris Rosso”. Cultivars with an average maturation period were: “Red Haven Bianca”, “Red Top”, “Regina Bianca”, “Sun Crest”. The most suitable cultivars with a delayed maturation period are considered: “Big Moon”, “Domiziana”, “Haile”, “Laure”, “Maria Delizia”, “Rome Star”, “Pontina” and “Red Cal”. The only cultivar with a very delayed maturation is “Padana”.

  13. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somia El-Maghraby; Galal A Nawwar; Reda FA Bakr; Nadia Helmy; Omnia MHM Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods: The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results:White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24%in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions:Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

  14. Polymer characterization and optimization of conditions for the enhanced bioproduction of benzaldehyde by Pichia pastoris in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Tom; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    Benzaldehyde, with its apricot and almond-like aroma, is the second most abundantly used molecule in the flavor industry, and is most commonly produced via chemical routes, such as by the oxidation of toluene. Biologically produced benzaldehyde, whether by extraction of plant material or via microbial biotransformation, commands a substantial price advantage, and greater consumer acceptance. Methylotrophic yeast, such as Pichia pastoris, contain the enzyme alcohol oxidase (AOX), which, in the presence of alcohols other than methanol, are able to yield aldehydes as dead-end products, for example, benzaldehyde from benzyl alcohol. In this work, we have determined that benzaldehyde, and not benzyl alcohol, is inhibitory to the transformation reaction by P. pastoris, prompting the development of a selection strategy for identifying sequestering polymers for use in a partitioning bioreactor that was based on the ratio of partition coefficients (PCs) for the two target molecules. Additionally, we have now confirmed for the first time, that the mechanism of solute uptake by amorphous polymers is via absorption, not adsorption. Finally, we have adopted a common strategy used for the production of heterologous proteins by P. pastoris, namely the use of a mixed methanol/glycerol feed for inducing the required AOX enzyme, while reducing the time required for high density biomass generation. All of these components were combined in a final experiment in which 10% of the polymer Kraton D1102K, whose PC ratio of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol was 14.9, was used to detoxify the biotransformation in a 5 L partitioning bioreactor, resulting in a 3.4-fold increase in benzaldehyde produced (14.4 g vs. 4.2 g) relative to single phase operation, at more than double the volumetric productivity (97 mg L(-1) h(-1) vs. 41 mg L(-1) h(-1) ).

  15. 阿克苏市特色林果业发展优势及时空变化特征分析%Analysis on Developing Advantages and Temporal and Spatial Variation Features of Special Fruit Industry in Aksu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿曼古丽·艾则孜; 满苏尔·沙比提

    2015-01-01

    阿克苏市是新疆发展特色林果业重要的生产区,其地理位置优势、资源优势、品牌优势为发展特色林果业提供了得天独厚的条件.阿克苏市特色林果业项目主要由苹果、梨、杏、桃、核桃、枣组成,选取具有代表性的苹果、核桃、枣、梨等林果品种数据资料,运用文献查阅和统计分析方法,对阿克苏市特色林果业的优势和苹果、核桃、枣、梨等林果品种的时空分布特征进行深入分析.阿克苏市特色林果业面积在时间变化上呈现逐年递增趋势;在空间上划分为4个果树区,其中城郊果树区最适宜鲜果生产.%Aksu City is a special fruit industry base in Xinjiang.Its geographical,resources and brand advantages provide unique opportunity to develop its fruit industry.Its special fruit mainly include apple,pear,apricot,peache,walnut and date.This essay selected the data materials of apple,walnut,date and pear,used literature review and statistical analysis method,deeply analyzed the advantages of Aksu fruit industry and temporal and spatial variation of apple,walnut,date and pear.Since being special fruit industry in Aksu City,it has increased its area of wood's fruit industry year by year;The space is divided into four areas of fruit trees,and the suburban area of fruit trees is most suitable for fruit production.

  16. Overwintering form of the causal agent of shot hole disease in Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehkeh, N; Yosefi, A

    2011-01-01

    Shot hole disease of stone fruit trees caused by some plant pathogenic fungi is a major constraint to stone fruit production worldwide where the trees are grown. Identification of the causal agents of the disease and their overwintering forms in stone fruit trees of Khorasan Razavi was necessary for disease management programs. Buds, twigs, fallen leaves and fruits were collected from the infected peach, apricot, nectarine and almond trees in winter 2007. The samples were superficially disinfested in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 2-3 min and then in 70% ethanol for 45 sec. Two to three fragments of 4x4 mm from each tissue were separately cultured on 2% water agar and potato dextrose agar (PDA), and purified on PDA. Just a pathogenic fungal species, Wilsonomyces corpophilus was isolated from the infected buds and twigs. No microorganism was isolated from the fallen leaves and fruits collected from underneath of the infested stone fruit trees. Pathogenicity of the fungus was examined on detached shoots of current year of four varieties of stone fruit trees. Fungal discs were placed under the bark of the bud base. Control shoots were similarly treated with sterile PDA discs. Inoculated shoots were placed in a humid growth chamber at 25 degrees C. Fungal hyphae appeared at 30 days post inoculation. Control shoots were asymptomatic. Pathogenicity intensities or lesion lengths were significantly different among the four varieties tested. A completely randomised design with five replicates was employed to measure the number of spores in infested buds and twigs of each variety of stone fruit tree. The samples were sliced and placed into a glass tube of centrifuge containing 3 ml of sterile distilled water. They were mixed on a vortex mixer for 30-40 min and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. Pelleted material from each sample was suspended in 500 microl of sterile distilled water and the spores were counted using a hemocytometre. Results revealed that the fungus overwinters

  17. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

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    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  18. Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J

    2013-01-01

    A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and

  19. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  20. Studies on non-traditional oils: l. Detailed studies on different lipid profiles of some Rosaceae kernel oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanein, Minar M. M.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Kernel oils obtained from apricot, peach and plum, produced as by-products from food canning industry, were analyzed by capillary GC and HPLC. The fatty acid composition of the fractionated mono-, di- and triacylglycerol was elucidated. Oleic acid ranged from 64 to 72% in triacylglycerol (TAG, whereas linoleic acid ranged from 17% to 27%. The TAG profile showed the presence of 0 0 0 (35-42%, LOO (22-28%, LLO (7-16%, LOP and LLS (6-7%, OOP (6-10.4%. Campesterol-, 5-stigmasterol-, β-sitosterol-. isofucosterol, 7-stigmasterol and avenasterol were detected in the three analyzed oils. Sterylglycosides were also determined and showed some characteristic profiles. The three kernel oils contained appreciable amounts of tocopherols in which gamma-tocopherol was the predominating one. Alpha-and delta-tocopherols were also present in smaller quantities. Results obtained can be used to characterize these kernel oils and facilitate their differentiation from the other oils.

    Aceites obtenidos de las semillas de albaricoque, melocotón y ciruela, producidos como subproductos de la industria alimenticia conservera, se analizaron mediante cromatografía gaseosa capilar y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Se estableció la composición en ácidos grasos de los mono-, di- y triacilgliceroles fraccionados. El ácido oleico osciló desde el 64% al 72% en triacilgliceroles (TAG, mientras que el ácido linoleico lo hizo entre el 17% y el 27%. El perfil de TAG mostró la presencia de OOO (35-42%, LOO (22-28%, LLO (7-16%, LOP y LLS (6-7%, OOP (6-10.4%. En los tres aceites analizados se detectaron campesterol-, 5-estigmasterol, β-sitosterol-, isofucosterol, 7-estigmasterol y avenasterol. También se determinaron glicósidos de esteroles, mostrando perfiles característicos. El contenido en tocoferoles fue apreciable en todos ellos, siendo el gamma-tocoferol el predominante. Los alfa- y delta-tocoferoles se detectaron en pequeñas cantidades. Los

  1. Development and bin mapping of a Rosaceae Conserved Ortholog Set (COS of markers

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    Kozik Alex

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed comparative genome analyses within the economically important Rosaceae family have not been conducted. This is largely due to the lack of conserved gene-based molecular markers that are transferable among the important crop genera within the family [e.g. Malus (apple, Fragaria (strawberry, and Prunus (peach, cherry, apricot and almond]. The lack of molecular markers and comparative whole genome sequence analysis for this family severely hampers crop improvement efforts as well as QTL confirmation and validation studies. Results We identified a set of 3,818 rosaceaous unigenes comprised of two or more ESTs that correspond to single copy Arabidopsis genes. From this Rosaceae Conserved Orthologous Set (RosCOS, 1039 were selected from which 857 were used for the development of intron-flanking primers and allele amplification. This led to successful amplification and subsequent mapping of 613 RosCOS onto the Prunus TxE reference map resulting in a genome-wide coverage of 0.67 to 1.06 gene-based markers per cM per linkage group. Furthermore, the RosCOS primers showed amplification success rates from 23 to 100% across the family indicating that a substantial part of the RosCOS primers can be directly employed in other less studied rosaceaous crops. Comparisons of the genetic map positions of the RosCOS with the physical locations of the orthologs in the Populus trichocarpa genome identified regions of colinearity between the genomes of Prunus-Rosaceae and Populus-Salicaceae. Conclusion Conserved orthologous genes are extremely useful for the analysis of genome evolution among closely and distantly related species. The results presented in this study demonstrate the considerable potential of the mapped Prunus RosCOS for genome-wide marker employment and comparative whole genome studies within the Rosaceae family. Moreover, these markers will also function as useful anchor points for the genome sequencing efforts currently

  2. PRIMARY OFFER OF MILK IN GOIEŞTI VILLAGE, COUNTY DOLJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2014-04-01

    where there were groves of fruit trees (plum, apricot, cherry began afforestation works, not depreciate slopes. Elucidating the communal potential, of milk production is based on use of an appropriate set of indicators: effective in exploitation (by species, total production and average yield per head. The study covers the period 2010-2012, taken as a starting point for developing a strategy of reviving the sector of production.

  3. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides

  4. MK615 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth by dual inhibition of Aurora A and B kinases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshie Okada; Tokihiko Sawada; Tatsushi Osawa; Masakazu Adachi; Keiichi Kubota

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the anti-neoplastic effect of MK615,an anti-neoplastic compound isolated from Japanese apricot,against human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.METHODS:Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1,PK-1,and PK45H were cultured with MK615 at concentrations of 600,300,150,and O μg/mL.Growth inhibition was evaluated by cell proliferation assay,and killing activity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay.Expression of Aurora A and B kinases was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting.Cell cycle stages were evaluated by flow cytometry.RESULTS:The growth inhibitory rates of MK615 at 150,300,and 600 μg/mL were 2.3% ± 0.9%,8.9% ±3.2% and 67.1% ± 8.1% on PANC1 cells,1.3% ± 0.3%,8.7% ± 4.1% and 45.7 ± 7.6% on PK1 cells,and 1.2 ±0.8%,9.1% ± 2.1% and 52.1% ± 5.5% on PK45H cells,respectively (P<0.05).The percentage cytotoxicities of MK615 at 0,150,300,and 600 μg/mL were 19.6% ±1.3%,26.7% ± 1.8%,25.5% ± 0.9% and 26.4% ± 0.9%in PANC1 cells,19.7% ± 1.3%,24.7% ± 0.8%,25.9% ±0.9% and 29.9% ± 1.1% in PK1 cells,and 28.0% ± 0.9%,31.2% ± 0.9%,30.4% ± 1.1% and 35.3 ± 1.0% in PK45H cells,respectively (P<0.05).Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that MK615 dually inhibited the expression of Aurora A and B kinases.Cell cycle analysis revealed that MK615 increased the population of cells in G2/M phase.CONCLUSION:MK615 exerts an anti-neoplastic effect on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro by dual inhibition of Aurora A and B kinases.

  5. 果园越冬叶螨群落和种间关系%Overwintering spider mite community in orchardand the interspecific association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺春贵

    2001-01-01

    1989年对甘肃武威果园(N38°,E103°)越冬叶螨的群落调查表明:该区果园越冬叶螨有4种:李始叶螨Eotetranychus pruni(Oudemans)、山楂叶螨Tetranychus viennensis Zacher、苹果全爪螨Panonychus ulmi Koch和果苔螨Bryobia rubrioculus(Scheuten)。发现在不同的越冬寄主上以株为单位时其群落内种的组成和种间关系不同。聚类分析表明,杏园和梨园在叶螨群落组成上的相似性较高,而与苹果园叶螨群落的差异较大。调查发现,4种叶螨在田间自然条件下以单个种、两个种形成的群落为主,3个种组成的群落少,但没有4个种形成的群落(以株为单位)。2×2列联表法分析表明,群落中两个种的种间关系在不同的果园表现不同。分析发现叶螨群落及种间关系的研究对叶螨的综合防治有重要意义。%The investigation of community of overwintering spider mites in the orchards were carried in WuWei(N38°, E103°), Gansu. There are four species, Eotetranychus pruni (Oudemans)、 Tetranychus viennensis Zacher、 Panonychus ulmi Koch and Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) founded in the orchards. Different orchard has different community and its species association. The apricot orchard has more similar community with the pear orchard, but more different from apple orchard by cluster analysis. The community where a tree was used a sample unit is composed of dominantly 1 or 2 species, less frequently 3 species. The community of 4 species had not been found. It is clear that the interspecific association is different in different orchards by 2×2 table or 4-fold table. The study on community and interspecific association of overwintering spider mites is significant in the pest community management.

  6. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán López, Antonio; García-Moreno, Jorge; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Cerdà, Artemi; Alanís, Nancy; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    intensity of WR in aggregates of different sizes. [ii] the intra-aggregate distribution of OC and the intensity of WR and [iii] the structural stability of soil aggregates relative to the OC content and the intensity of WR in soils under different crops (apricot, citrus and wheat) and different treatments (conventional tilling and mulching). Soil samples were collected from an experimental area (Luvic Calcisols and Calcic Luvisols) in the province of Sevilla (Southern Spain) under different crops (apricot, citrus and wheat) and different management types (conventional tillage with moldboard plow) and mulching (no-tilling and addition of wheat residues at rates varying between 5 and 8 Mg/ha/year). At each sampling site, soil blocks (50 cm long × 50 cm wide × 10 cm deep) were carefully collected to avoid disturbance of aggregates as much as possible and transported to the laboratory. At field moist condition, undisturbed soil aggregates were separated by hand. In order to avoid possible interferences due to disturbance by handling, aggregates broken during this process were discarded. Individual aggregates were arranged in paper trays and air-dried during 7 days under laboratory standard conditions. After air-drying, part of each sample was carefully divided for different analyses: [i] part of the original samples was sieved (2 mm) to eliminate coarse soil particles and homogenized for characterization of OC and N contents, C/N ratio and texture; [ii] part of the aggregates were dry-sieved (0.25-0.5, 0.5-1 and 1-2 mm) or measured with a caliper (2-5, 5-10 and 10-15 mm) and separated in different sieve-size classes for determination of WR and OC content; [iii] aggregates 10-15 mm in size were selected for obtaining aggregate layers using a soil aggregate erosion (SAE) apparatus and WR and OC content were determined at each layer; finally, [iv] in order to study the relation between stability to slaking, WR and OC, these properties were determined in 90 air-dried aggregates

  7. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for food antioxidants: vitamins, polyphenolics, and flavonoids in food extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektas Oğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    , and that the antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidants are additive, in conformity to the Beer's law. For individual determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices with a modified CUPRAC procedure, flavonoids are pre-extracted as their La(III) complexes prior to assay. For apricot extracts, a modified version of the CUPRAC assay based on anion exchange separation at pH 3 is applied, since sulfited-dried sample extracts contain the hydrosulfite anion interfering with the determination. For herbal tea infusions, the standard CUPRAC protocol is applied. The CUPRAC reagent is stable, easily accessible, low-cost, and is sensitive toward thiol-type antioxidants unlike FRAP. The reaction is carried out at nearly physiological pH as opposed to the acidic pH of FRAP or to the alkaline pH of Folin methods, constituting a basic advantage for the realistic assay of biological fluids.

  8. Effect of Qingre Jiedu Formula on Living Mycoplasma in Children with Refractory Mycoplasma Pneumonia%清热解毒方对难治性支原体肺炎患儿支原体活体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会荣; 刘建华; 赵秀敏; 帅金凤; 牛波; 路素坤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨清热解毒方治疗对难治性支原体肺炎患儿支原体活体的影响。方法:选取本院难治性支原体肺炎住院患儿87例,治疗过程中因故不能坚持退出12例,最终入选75例,随机分为2组。对照组37例,采用阿奇霉素抗菌等治疗。治疗组38例,在阿奇霉素等治疗基础上加用清热解毒方(由生石膏、炙麻黄、桔梗、苦杏仁、连翘、蒲公英、鱼腥草、大青叶、白花蛇舌草等组成)。中药治疗1疗程前后分别采取2组患儿肺泡灌洗液,在超高倍镜下观察肺炎支原体活体变化。结果:治疗后治疗组与对照组患儿肺泡灌洗液支原体活体明显减少,二者比较差异有显著性(P <0.05)。结论:抑制肺炎支原体活体可能是清热解毒方治疗难治性支原体肺炎的作用机制之一。%Objective:to explore the effect of Qingre Jiedu formula on living mycoplasma in children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia. Methods:87 children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia in the hospital,but finally 75 patients were chosen in the study since 12 patients disengaged for some reasons,among whom 37 patients was control group treated with Azithromycin while the other 38 patients was treatment group treated with Qingre Jiedu formula in addition to Azithromycin. The formula consists of Sheng Shi-gao (gypsum),Jiu Mahuang (Ephedra),Jiegeng (root of balloonflower),Ku Xingren (ansu apricot seed),Lianqiao (weeping for-sythia fruit),Pugongying (dandelion),Yuxingcao (heartleaf houttuynia herb),Da Qingye (folium isatidis)and Bai Hua She She Cao (oldenlandia),and so on. After one course of treatment with Chinese medicine,patients of both group were given alveolar lavage fluid. The living mycoplasma changes were observed under the ultramicroscope. Results:The living mycoplasma number in treatment group was reduced significantly compared to control group,and the difference was significant (P <0.05 ). Conclusion

  9. Sensory Evaluation and Chemical Components Analysis on Tieguanyin of Different Shaking Styles in Anxi for Yinyun%不同做青风格安溪铁观音“音韵”的感官审评及品质化学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛伟; 洪永聪; 卢莉; 王飞权

    2012-01-01

    , which had emerald green color and tight curled knot in appearance, fresh fragrance, kelly liquor color, diethylene glycol in taste, kelly hypertrophy securinega, with a diethylene glycol taste and strong fresh fragrance of Yinyun. The Tuosuan style of Tieguanyin had lowe total esters-catechin, higher total free amino acids and lower ratio of phenol to amino, which had green luster color and tight knot in appearance, strong fragrance, apricot liquor color, stong fresh taste, dark green securinega, with a strong fragrance and stong fresh taste of Yinyun.

  10. Climate and Phenology Variations in Sichuan and Chongqing%川渝地区气候与物候的变化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳赟; 范广洲; 董一平; 华维; 周定文; 朱丽华; 张琪

    2011-01-01

    According to the daily temperature and precipitation data of 44 stations in 1961-2007 and part of the woody plant data of Beibei observation stations and Renshou observation stations in 1963 - 1988, the Chinese A-cademy of phenological observation network in Sichuan-Chongqing, temperature, precipitation, season, woody plant phenology variation were analyzed. The results showed that mean annual temperature of the last 10 years were 0.68 ℃ higher than the previous 37 years, and mean annual precipitation basically unchanged. Low tem-perature is mainly distributed in the western Sichuan Plateau, and the number of low temperature days and accu-mulated low temperature decreased. Mean daily maximum temperature in the southern region of the western Si-chuan Plateau tended to decrease, while that in other regions increased. Mean daily minimum temperature was confirmed to have wanning trends, and that in the southwestern Sichuan and the northern Sichuan Plateau grew faster. Precipitation in the central and southern of Sichuan Basin declined, southwest of Chongqing and western Sichuan plateau tended to increase. Precipitation days in the western Sichuan Plateau demonstrated an increasing trend, that in other regions tended to decrease, especially, those decreased rapidly in the east of Sichuan and Chongqing. According to Zhang Baokun Designate Temperature Method to define seasons, spring starting time delayed in Renshou, advanced in Beibei, and autumn starting time delayed in those two stations. In the leaf ex-pansion phase, apricot and black locust of Renshou, and black locust, Metasequoia, Bauhinia, Indus of Beibei delayed, wisteria, peaches of Beibei advanced. In the leaf defoliation stage, black locust of Renshou advanced, but all plants of Beibei delayed.%利用川渝地区44个气象台站的气象资料和2个物候观测站的物候资料分析了该地区的气候与物候变化特征:最近10 a年均温度比前30多a高0.68℃,年均降水量基本无变化.低

  11. 昆虫性信息素在印度的研究及应用%INSECT SEX PHEROMONE RESEARCHES AND ITS AP PLICATION IN INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.P. Srivastava; S. Satpathy

    2001-01-01

    Sex pheromones of insect pests have several characteristics, which are highly desirable in insect pest management programmes. Being extremely potent, only small amounts of these material are required to incite species specific behavioural responses. In India, the first report about the existence of sex pheromone in an insect called almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker) was made in the year 1967. The real research work and application of pheromones for different purposes picked up in late seventies. Since then sex pheromones of about twenty economically important insect pests of agricultural crops and of about ten stored grain pests have been identified, isolated and synthesized. The sex pheromones of these insect pests are mostly used for population monitoring, followed by mass trapping and mating disruption. Mating disruption have been successful in pink bollworm in cotton, yellow stem borer in rice,codling moth in apple, gypsy moth in apple and apricot and potato tuber moth in storage. The extensive research on sex pheromones of some insect pests of fruits and vegetables are very much required, particularly of those insect pests, which have developed resistance against most of the commonly available and safe insecticides. Strong collaborative research is needed among the institutes working in applied entomology, insect ecology, chemical ecology and chemical technology to address the different aspects of pheromone research and its application in IPM.%只需要少量的性信息素就能诱发昆虫产生极强的行为反应.这一特点展现了昆虫性信息素在害虫防治中的广阔前景.印度在1967年首次报道了杏仁蛾Cadra cautella(Walker)的性信息素.在70年代后期,性信息素的研究及应用得到了突飞猛进的发展.从那时起,分离和鉴定了二十种重要的作物害虫和十种仓储害虫的性信息素,并进行了合成.在用性信息素进行种群控制时,主要采用大量诱捕和交配干扰的办法.用交配

  12. 栗山天牛繁殖生物学研究%Studies on the reproductive biology of Massicus raddei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家全; 唐桦; 姜国胜; 王晓东

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain further knowledge on the biological,ecological habits of Massicus raddei adult,researches on the extra-nu-trition of adults,behavioral science and the simply distinguish method between male and female have been carried out,so as to pro-vide scientific basis for effectively controlling of the pest. Results indicated that the adult like eating sweet and sour fruit,the degree of adephagia can follow the orders from big to small:peach>pear=plum=apricot>apple;the male adult of Massicus raddei is dimor-phism:the first type is larger,about 40 mm long,its elytra covered with yellow villi,its body color is yellow;the second type is small-er,about 30 mm long,its elytra covered with yellow black villi,its body color is black. Females are all the first type,size and color are similar to those of males. Massicus raddei adult have multiple mating habits,the spawning behavior is also very special:don’t bite groove,but directly to lay the eggs in the bark cracks,and secrete jelly to embed the eggs,only show the oval rubber block,therefore not easy to find in the wilderness.%为进一步搞清栗山天牛Massicus raddei成虫的生物、生态学习性,围绕成虫补充营养、雌雄成虫简易区别方法及行为学等方面展开了研究。结果表明,栗山天牛成虫喜食酸甜的水果,嗜食性程度按由大到小的排序为:桃>梨=李=杏>苹果。栗山天牛雄虫具有2型现象:第1种类型体形较大,长约40 mm,鞘翅满被污黄色绒毛,体色较黄;第2种类型体形较小,长约30 mm,鞘翅满被黄黑色绒毛,体色较黑;雌虫均为第一种类型,大小及体色与雄虫相似。栗山天牛成虫具有多次交尾的习性,其产卵习性也很特殊,不咬刻槽,而是直接将卵产在树皮裂缝中,并分泌胶状物将卵包埋,只露出椭圆形胶块,因而在野外不易找到。

  13. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    , maize for silage) could be gradually shifted as far as 500 km from the south northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) and new crops (maize for grain, apricot, grape, gourds) may be introduced in the very south depending on winter conditions and would necessitate irrigation in a drier 2080 climate; The environment for the Siberian moth may considerably shrink in the future leaving suitable habitats only in highlands of mountains and the north of Eurasia. The moth habitats also depend on migration rates of tree species Larix spp., Abies sibirica, and Pinus sibirica being main food resources. Siberian moth may not be considered as a threat in climates with mild winter because larvae require continuos continental type winters. Needle-cast of Pinus sylvestris caused by Lophodermium pinastri Chev. was found to be strongly related to precipation including snow depth. In a predicted dryer climate, it would shift northwards followed sufficient water.

  14. [Effeciency of usage of natural low caloric protein-vegetable product by patients with excess body weight and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Istomin, A V; Narutdinov, D A; Kropachev, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the usage of natural low caloric concentrated protein-vegetable food product (LCCF) by 23 persons with excess body weight at the age of 30-44 years (the 1st group) and 30 hypertensive patients at remission stage and overweight at age 45-59 years old (the 2nd group) has been assessed. According to energy expenditure, all examined male persons were classified to II group of physical activity: PhysicalActivity Coefficient (PAC) was 1,35±0,14 and 1,34±0,22 respectively. As for dietary intake, authors revealed an excess of protein (up to 20,1%), fat (up to 17,2%) and daily caloric content over daily energy expenditure that led to an increase of body weight along with metabolic and liver function disorders. Initially, body mass index (BMI) was 29,9±0,6 kg/m2 in the 1st group and 36,2±0,4 kg/m2 in the 2nd group. LCCFP was administrated to persons in studied groups and consisted of fat-free curd, egg white, rye bran, dried apricots, laminaria, leaves of green tea and cowberry. The product was made by cryogenic technology. LCCFP (35 g) was administrated two times per day instead of breakfast and supper during 15 days. Protein content in 1 portion of LCCFP was 5.2 g, fats -3.8 g, carbohydrates - 16.8 g; energy value - 122 kcal. The decrease of daily caloric content was 1225,5 kilocalories (kcal) in the 1st group and 1071,3 kcal in the 2nd group duringperiod of LCCFP administration; the energy value of the diet amounted to an average of 1420 and 1560 kcal per day. During the study, authors found serum protein indices were constant, but revealed the decrease of the level of glucose (by 15,3-18%), cholesterol (18,8-19%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (13,9-15,8%), triglycerides (20-26,3%) and alanine aminotransferase (39,7-41,4%) and asparagine aminotransferase (40,6-40,7%) activity. This provided evidence of positive influence of the natural protein-vegetable LCCFP on fat and carbohydrate metabolisms as well as liver function. Also, the decrease of

  15. Importancia del género Alternaria como productor de micotoxinas y agente causal de enfermedades humanas The importance of genus Alternaria in mycotoxins production and human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Á. Pavón Moreno

    2012-12-01

    ía species produce more than 70 secondary metabolites which are toxic to plants, and some of these phytotoxins have been chemically characterised and reported to act as mycotoxins to humans and animals. Exposure to Alternaría spp. toxins has been linked to a variety of adverse effects on human and animal health, including genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic effects. Alternaría spp. mycotoxins have been isolated from fruits (apple, pear, melon, apricot, grapes, raisins, strawberry, olive, citrus fruits and dried figs, vegetables (tomato, pepper and carrot and tubers (potato, as well as from several processed foodstuffs manufactured with damaged raw materials (juices, preserves, sauces, etc.. Moreover, Alternaría spp. are frequently associated with allergic reactions in sensitized individuals.

  16. Efficacy of MK615 for the treatment of patients with liver disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Hokari; Tomohisa Ishikawa; Hisao Tajiri; Takahide Matsuda; Osamu Ishii; Nobuyuki Matsumoto; Chiaki Okuse

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of MK615,a Japanese apricot extract,in an animal model,and its clinical therapeutic effect.METHODS:Wistar rats were administered physiological saline (4 mL/kg) or MK615 solution (4 mL/kg) for 7 d.On the sixth d,acute hepatic injury was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection (ip) of D-galactosamine hydrochloride (D-GalN) (600 mg/kg).Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined,and liver tissues were used for histopathological analysis.Fifty-eight patients with liver disorders [hepatitis C (n =40),non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n =15),and autoimmune liver disease (n =3)] were orally administered commercially available Misatol ME-containing MK615 (13 g/d) daily for 12 wk.Blood and urine were sampled immediately before and 6 wk,12 wk,and 16 wk after the start of intake to measure various biochemical parameters.The percentage change in ALT and AST levels after 12 wk from the pre-intake baseline served as a primary endpoint.RESULTS:D-GalN effectively induced acute hepatic injury in the rats.At 48 h after the ip injection of D-GalN,the plasma levels of ALT (475.6 ± 191.5 IU/L vs 225.3 ± 194.2 IU/L,P < 0.05) and AST (1253.9 ± 223.4 IU/L vs 621.9 ± 478.2 IU/L,P < 0.05) in the MK615 group were significantly lower than the control group.Scattered single cell necrosis,loss of hepatocytes,and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in hepatic tissue samples collected from the control group.However,these findings were less pronounced in the group receiving MK615.At the end of the clinical study,serum ALT and AST levels were significantly decreased compared with pre-intake baseline levels from 103.5 ± 58.8 IU/L to 71.8 ± 39.3 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 93.5 ± 55.6 IU/L to 65.5 ± 34.8 IU/L (P < 0.05),respectively.A reduction of ≥ 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 26 (45%) of the 58 patients

  17. Development and quality assessment of ‘Bei Bing Hong ’sparkling wine%山葡萄‘北冰红’起泡葡萄酒研发与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 张莉; 丁吉星; 李华; 段琪; 崔长伟

    2015-01-01

    Sparkling wine was developed using vitis amurensis ‘ Bei Bing Hong’ as raw material through new technology.Quality assessment system for ‘ Bei Bing Hong’ sparkling wine was established through four aspects including the basic physicochemical index,phenolic compounds,aroma compounds and sensory characteristics.Basic physiochemieal composition of the sparkling wine met the requirements of National Standard.The total phenol,tannis and total flavonoids were higher,while total anthocyanins and flavanol were lower.17 kinds mono-phenolics were detected including 6 flavonoids (17.70 mg/L,32.47%) and 11 non-flanvonoids (36.81 mg/L,67.53%).By SBSE-GC-MS analysis,72 aroma compounds were identified in the sparkling wines,and the aroma profile was mainly contributed by esters,carbonyls,alcohols,and terpenes.Typical aroma characters of Bei Bing Hong sparkling wine were fruity aroma such as apple,apricot,pear,strawberry,cherry and sweet melon.The results showed that the sparkling wine had slight structure,potation to age,high antioxidant activity,and intense flavors,which indicated that the quality of sparkling wine made from ‘ Bei Bing Hong’ was good.%以山葡萄‘北冰红’为原料,采用新工艺研发了山葡萄起泡酒,并从基本理化指标、酚类物质、特征香气、感官分析4个方面构建了抗寒酿酒葡萄新品种‘北冰红’起泡葡萄酒质量评价体系.结果表明:北冰红起泡葡萄酒各项基本理化指标均符合国家标准要求;总酚、单宁和总类黄酮含量较高,分别为868.02、1 340.76和828.38 mg/L;总花色苷和总黄烷-3-醇含量较低,分别为9.05 mg/L和36.03 mg/L.‘北冰红’起泡酒中共检测出17种单体酚:其中类黄酮类单体6种,总量为17.71 mg/L,占单体酚总量的32.47%;非类黄酮类11种,总量为36.81 mg/L,占总量的67.53%.通过SBSE-GC/MS分析,‘北冰红’起泡酒中检测到72种香气物质,对起泡酒香气影响较大的是酯类、醛酮类、醇

  18. Experiments of pollinationg and pollen viability and stigma receptivity of ‘Weixuan1'%‘围选1号’授粉试验及花粉生活力和柱头可授性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金锋; 张超; 李玲; 王萍; 李彦慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, pollination experiments and the effects of pollination tree on fruiting rate and seed-setting rate of Prunus armeniaca were studied by choosing grafting 'Weixuanl' as female parent and 4 different apricot tree as male parent. After the choosing suitable method. Pollen viability of 'Weixuanl' was evaluated by pollen germination test in vitro. It is feasibility to test stigma receptivity by the benzidine-H2O2 also. The conclusion is drawn as follows: The self pollination results showed that the self-pollination rate for 'Weixuanl' was 0. 84%(<6%) and * Weixuanl' were suggested to be a self-incompatible cultivar, The result indicated that most it need pollinating variety. Prunus armeniaca L. Cv. Katy is the best one a-mong them, The fructification ratio of cross pollination is 25. 88%; The viable pollen ratios of four test species were more than 70% and they could pollinate each other under natural condition, The pollen viability was 84.31% for 'Weixuanl', but pollen germination rate is low; The sucrose concentration has some effect on pollen germiration, which has a highest germina-tion rate at 10%; The stigma receptivity began enhancing in the time 3 h after anthesis. The stigma receptivity of 'Weixuanl' was around 4 days. Optimal pollination period lasted around 2 days.%以嫁接的2年生‘围选1号’为授粉母树,分别以‘围选1号’、‘优一’、‘凯特’、‘金太阳’4个不同的杏品种作为父本,进行授粉试验,研究不同授粉树对‘围选1号’结实率和坐果率的影响.同时,用花粉离体培养法测定其花粉生活力,并用苯胺一过氧化氢法测定了其柱头可授性.结果表明:‘围选1号’自花授粉坐果率为0.84%(<6%),是自交不亲和品种;‘围选1号'以‘凯特'作为的授粉树效果最好,坐果率为25.88%;供试品种的花粉生活力都在70%以上.‘围选1号’的花粉生活力高达84.31%,但花粉的萌发力相对较低;不同蔗糖浓度

  19. 威代尔甜葡萄酒主要呈香物质和香气特征的鉴定%Identification of Main Aroma Components and Aroma Characteristics of Vidal Sweet Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家梅; 张军翔; 薛洁; 刘娜; 张峰玮

    2016-01-01

    them, Moon Valley sweet white wine had prominent apricot kernel and fat flavor, Changyu ice wine had outstanding flower aroma with unique taste of rose and caramel, Bacchus ice wine had prominent fruit aroma and evident plant aroma, and Yancy sweet white wine had the aroma of pineapple and malt, which was in accordance with the analysis results.

  20. 圣女果分段式变温变湿热风干燥特性%Dried characteristics of cherry tomatoes using temperature and humidity by stages changed hot-air drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆惠; 李忠新; 杨劲松; 谢龙; 张世湘; 高振江

    2014-01-01

    Cherry tomato decays easily. Generally, it can be preserved only for 5-7days under normal pressure and temperature. The dehydration of cherry tomatoes into dried or preserved fruits can prolong their shelf life and enrich the market of the fruit. Currently, cherry tomatoes is dehydrated through natural drying. The advantage of this method is simple, and low cost. But the drying time is long and is affected by the climate and sanitary conditions. The product quality is difficult to control. In order to shorten the drying time and prevent mildew, cherry tomatoes are often soaked or sprayed with the alkaline solution. These chemicals are bad for our health. Multi-stage temperature-and-humidity drying is conducted through the material drying characteristics. This method can speed up the drying rate, improve drying quality, and reduce energy consumption. It has been successfully applied for apricot,lyceum barbarum, grapes and other materials. In this study, internal recycling hot-air drying technology was employed for the drying of cherry tomatoes. The effects of drying temperatures, humidity, drying stages and slicing forms on the drying characteristics and the appearance quality of the cherry tomatoes were investigated. Each experiment was composed of four drying stages. The drying temperatures were fixed, the humidity of the environment was changed in processⅠ,Ⅱ andⅢ. The drying temperature was low, the humidity was high at the beginning of processⅣ. Gradually, the temperature was raised, the humidity was reduced. At the end of the process, the drying temperature was higher, the humidity was lower compared with their values at the beginning. The experimental results indicated that pre-heated and falling rate periods exist during the drying of cherry tomato. Previous studies only shown falling rate period. The increase in temperature and humidity has bad effects on the nutrition, color and the appearance quality of cherry tomato. Even though cherry tomato can

  1. Diseases,formula and Chinese herbal medicines:a study on spleen-stom-ach dampness-heat pattern based on modern literature%基于现代文献的脾胃湿热证疾病分布及处方用药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路路; 李婷婷; 吴秀艳; 王天芳; 薛晓琳; 罗清香; 张晓娜; 任红; 侯帅颖; 张佳元

    2016-01-01

    SSDHP”(Chinese:脾胃湿热证) as subject term or title /keyword,the databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),Wan-fang Data Knowledge Service Platform and VIP Information were systematically retrieved,from the begin-ning of the databases to 31 December,2015.The articles related to treatment on SSDHP were collected, and the database was established by using Microsoft Excel 2010,on which data were descriptively statisti-cal analyzed.Results 109 articles were eligible from total 1 681 retrieved ones.The top two diseases with SSDHP were digestive system disorders (86.41%)and dermatoses (5.83%).The common formu-la directed at clearing heat and dampness including Pingwei Powder,Huopu Xialing Decoction,and Sanren Decoction,combined with specific medications for exact symptoms.The common Chinese herbal medications with frequency more than 1 percent were listed as the following:Golden Thread (Huangli-an),Pinellia Tuber(Banxia),Official Magnolia Bark(Houpu),Liquorice Root (Gancao),Dried De-coctionerine Peel (Chenpi),Baical Skullcap Root (Huangqin),Indian Bread (Fuling),Dandelion (Pugongying),Agastache Rugosus (Huoxiang),Atractylodes Rhizome (Cangzhu),Coix Seed (Yiy-iren),Round Cardamon Fruit (Baidoukou),Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (Baizhu),Orange Fruit (Zhiqiao),Immature Orange Fruit (Zhizi ),Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo ),White Peony Root (Baishao),Medicinal Evodia Fruit (Wuzhuyu),Dried Ginger (Ganjiang),Bamboo Shavings (Zhu-ru),Virgate Wormwood Herb (Yinchen),Grassleaf Sweetflag Rhizome (Shichangpu),Turmeric Root Tuber (Yujin),Immature Orange Fruit (Zhishi),Chinese Thorowax Root(Chaihu),Common Bletilla Tuber (Baiji),Danshan Root (Danshen),Bitter Apricot Seed (Kuxingren),Villous Amomum Fruit (Sharen),Common Aucklandia Root (Muxiang),Finger Citron (Foshou),Talc (Huashi).Conclu-sion Now,the diseases with SSDHP were most common in digestive system,but also in other systems. And the prescription and Chinese herbal medicines should be applied by holistic conception,combination of disease and

  2. The Economic Benefits Analysis of the Carbon Sink Effect on the Reforestation Project in the Centre Guizhou Province%黔中喀斯特地区退耕还林项目的碳汇经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦树林; 艾其帅

    2011-01-01

    The increasing unceasingly of the global atmospheric CO2 concentration will lead to global climate change caused by the greenhouse effect of the atmospheric CO2, which sharply challenges the sustainable development of the human society. Atmospheric carbon reduction has become the consensus of human society. As China's carbon sinks market development and gradually improvement, returning farmland to forest carbon sinks in the economic value of benefits will become increasingly prominent. In this study, the program of the returning farmland to forests were surveyed in the Hongfenghu Basin Drainage area,mainly tree species in the region of Lin Chinese fir, cedar, peach, plum, apricot, camptothecin, such as seven kinds of bungei Carbon trees a preliminary estimate of net reserves during the time from 2000 to 2006. There would be 1.05x104kg forest carbon storage in all of the Hongfenghu Basin Drainage during the next 5 years from 2000 to 2006. The carbon storage and carbon density of the forest, especially the young growth forest have an increasing trend with the plants growing time lengthened, and the young growth will play an increasing potential for the carbon sequestration. The volumes of the forest carbon sequestration were calculated through the trees on the forecast volume, the study in the seven kinds of trees, the fir is to examine the regional carbon sink function of strong trees, Japanese cedar, followed by fruit trees of the carbon sink function of the weakest. There would be 2.21 × 104kg forest carbon storage in all of the Hongfenghu Basin Drainage during the next 10 years, and would generate the economic benefits of 7.17×106 yuan according to the analysis on the economic benefits of the carbon sequestration by 305 yuan per a ton in prices.%由大气CO2浓度不断增加引起的温室效应而导致全球气候变化对人类社会的可持续发展构成了巨大挑战,大气碳的减排增汇已经成为人类社会的共识.随着我国碳汇交易市

  3. Optimizing supplementary pollen mixtures for bumblebeeBombus terrestris colonies based on colony reproductive variables%地熊蜂蜂群发育性状评价及其饲料花粉配比优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖琴宝; 周志勇; 张红; 黄家兴; 安建东

    2015-01-01

    [目的] 为了明确熊蜂蜂群发育过程中具有代表性的性状指标及其饲料花粉最优配比.[方法]以山杏Armeniaca sibirica花粉、山柳Salix caprea花粉和油菜Brassica rapa花粉为原料,通过{3,3}混料设计得到7种配比的混合花粉,分析不同混合花粉对地熊蜂Bombus terrestris (L.)无王工蜂群的产卵前时间、幼虫拖出数、幼虫总数量、幼虫总重量、蛹总数量、蛹总重量、雄蜂出房时间、出房雄蜂数量和雄蜂出生重9个蜂群性状指标的影响,使用主成分分析对蜂群性状指标进行综合评价,并通过混料回归模型预测熊蜂蜂群饲养过程中的最优花粉配比.[结果] 地熊蜂无王工蜂群发育过程的9个性状指标可以归纳为幼虫发育、蛹发育、成蜂发育、蜂群发育周期4类评价因子,其中幼虫总数量、蛹总重量、雄蜂出生重、产卵前时间和雄蜂出房时间是 5个主要性状指标;以蜂群主要性状指标为评价依据,得出蜂群饲养过程中最优花粉配比:当以油菜花粉单独饲喂蜂群时蜂群产卵前时间短、幼虫总数量最多、蛹总重量最大,当山杏花粉、山柳花粉和油菜花粉以1︰1.5︰1.5比例饲喂蜂群时雄蜂出房时间最短,当山柳花粉和油菜花粉以3︰1比例饲喂蜂群时雄蜂出生重最大.[结论] 明确了地熊蜂无王工蜂群发育过程中的重要性状指标和饲料花粉最优配比,为进一步研究商品化熊蜂群不同发育阶段的营养需求奠定了基础.%[Objectives]To measure reproductive variables of bumblebee colonies and optimize supplementary pollen mixtures based on these.[Methods] Three types of pollen, apricot (Armeniaca sibirica), willow (Salix caprea), and oilseed rape (Brassica rapa) were mixed following a {3,3} mixture design to obtain seven pollen mixtures. Nine reproductive variables including egg laying delay, larval ejection, total number of larvae, total weight of larvae, total number of pupae

  4. Influence of Fruit Tree Types and Arrangements on Yield, Quality and Economic Returns of Cotton of Intercropping System in Southern Xinjiang%果树类型及配置方式对南疆间作棉花产量品质及经济效益的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 田立文; 郭仁松; 汤秋香; 崔建平; 徐海江

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide a theoretical basis for stable and high-ly effective intercropping arrangements and scientific management measures by se-lecting apple, pear, peach, apricot, walnut, jujube and other fruit trees to study their influence on yield, fiber quality and economic returns of intercropped cotton in southern Xinjiang. [Method] Based on major cropping pattern in production, random-ized block design was adopted to explore growth indicators, canopy micrometeorolog-ical indicators, yield and fiber quality in key growth stage. [Result] Shading has a significant effect on cotton canopy micro-environment and canopy diameter is propor-tional to shading effect. According to comparisons of the same tree type, the change of canopy micro-environment was as fol ows: under canopy>outer canopy>middle points and peach>pear>apple>walnut>jujube for comparisons among different tree types. Canopy diameter is directly proportional to the number of tree branch and bol weight reductions and shading is the main cause of yield reduction. The canopy expansion is the major cause of decline of light intensity, temperature and humidity of cotton canopy. [Conclusion] Fruit trees, which wil promote cotton yield, quality and canopy-environment, are as fol ows: jujube>walnut>apple>pear>peach trees. In practice, trees, which are smal in canopy or wel trimmed, are popular in production, such as jujube trees, to improve cotton yield and fiber quality.%[目的]选取苹果、香梨、桃、杏、核桃、红枣等果树,在南疆果棉间作生态区,研究开展间作果树类型对棉花生长的影响,为形成稳定、高效的配置结构,以及制订系统科学的管理措施提供理论依据。[方法]以生产中的主要种植模式为研究对象,采用大田随机区组设计,在关键生育时期,调查棉花的主要生长指标、冠层微气象指标、产量指标及纤维品质指标。[结果]遮荫对棉花冠层微环境的改变显著,

  5. Characteristics of the socio-geographical factors in the Drina-Velika Morava strategic direction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Radivoj Inđić

    2013-06-01

    periphery. In the strategic direction, the major geographic sources of energy are waterpower and coal while oil and gas are not sufficiently represented. The diversity of non–metal ores and metals is of invaluable importance because they form the basis for the production of a variety of funds for strengthening the defense capability of the country. Technical and Economic Technological resources are exposed through the major characteristics of agriculture and industry in the area of strategic direction. Within the geographic strategic direction, there are two agricultural areas: the Pannonian agricultural area (south of the Sava and the Danube rivers, with wheat and corn as strategic raw materials and the mountainous agricultural area (including the border area of ​​the Pannonian agricultural field to the right border of the strategic direction with many cultures (especially plums, apples, pears, cherries, apricots, walnuts, etc.. There are two industrial areas set aside the strategic direction: Pannonia–Belgrade (Belgrade allocated industrial area and the central industrial area (there are two industrial areas: Timok–Morava and Zapadna Morava. Industrial production in the strategic direction is well developed, especially in energy, mining and metal industries. Conclusion Based on the complex understanding of the socio – geographic factors in the Drina–Velikamorava strategic direction, it can be concluded that the strategic direction shown enables successful combat operations over an extended period of time. Some problems may occur due to unevenly distributed technical and technological potentials and a potential use of weapons of mass destruction in the vicinity of large cities in the area of strategic direction.

  6. Effects of different diets on worker colony development of the bumblebee Bombus hypocrita Pérez(Hymenoptera:Apidae)%不同饲料对小峰熊蜂工蜂群发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰; 黄家兴; 安建东; 胡福良

    2009-01-01

    糖和花粉对熊蜂的生长发育和繁殖起重要作用.本研究测定和分析了2种糖源(白砂糖、蜂蜜)和5种花粉(杏花粉、油菜花粉、向日葵花粉、玉米花粉、茶花粉)的饲料组合对小峰熊蜂Bombus hypocrita的无王工蜂群寿命、产卵前期时间、产卵量、幼虫拖出数、卵杯数、雄蜂出房时间和子代雄蜂数量的影响.结果表明:只饲喂糖类食物时,工蜂寿命显著短于有花粉的饲料组,而且工蜂不产卵.含有花粉的各饲料组之间工蜂寿命存在显著差异,饲喂玉米花粉的工蜂寿命小于其他4种花粉组.在工蜂产卵前期时间和卵杯数量方面,10种含有花粉的饲料组之间差异不显著;但在产卵量、幼虫拖出数、雄蜂出房时间和子代雄蜂数量等方面,各饲料组之间差异较大.白砂糖和杏花粉组的产卵量最高;杏花粉组和茶花粉组的幼虫拖出数量显著低于其他花粉组;油菜花粉组和杏花粉组的雄蜂出房时间显著短于其他花粉组;杏花粉组的子代雄蜂数量显著高于其他饲料组.结果显示不同饲料组合对小峰熊蜂工蜂群的发育影响很大.因此建议在熊蜂的人工繁育过程中,在不同的发育阶段应给予不同的饲料配方.%Sugar and pollen play an important role in the development and reproduction of bumble bees. The effect of feed combinations with different sugar and pollen on the reproduction of the bumblebee Bombus hypocrita Pérez was investigated by feeding micro-colonies of queenless workers. Two kinds of sugars [sucrose (S) and honey (H)] and five kinds of pollen [rape(RP), apricot (AP),sunflower (SP) , corn (CP) and tea (TP) ] were used in twenty-four treatments. The results showed that the workers just fed with sugar did not lay eggs with longevity significantly shorter than other treatments fed with sugar and pollen. Pollen also caused significant difference in the longevity of workers. The longevity of workers fed on corn

  7. The effect of host plant species on the development ofTrabala vishnou gigantina Yang (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae)%栎黄枯叶蛾生长发育与几种寄主内含物的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温冬梅; 刘永华; 任利利; 陆鹏飞; 骆有庆

    2016-01-01

    impact of different hosts on the population dynamics ofT. vishnou gigantina.[Methods]The pupae weight, fecundity, and the duration of larvae and pupal stages of T. vishnougigantina, reared on four different host plants (Hippophae rhamnoices,Armeniaca sibirica,Populus davidiana,Salix matsudana) under laboratory condition, were compared, and secondary compounds, soluble sugar, soluble protein and water content of the four host plants, determined. The relationship between larval development, adult fecundity, and host plant inclusion contents was analyzed.[Results]Host plant species had a significant effect on the duration of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, and reproduction.Larvae fed on sea-buckthorn had the shortest larval stage (74.50±1.76) d, and those fed on willow the longest (106.00±1.51) d. Larvae fed on poplar had the longest pupal stage (44.00±1.41) d and those fed on willow the shortest (32.70±3.13) d. Larvae reared on sea-buckthorn, or apricot, had significantly higher pupal weight and adult fecundity than those reared on poplar or willow. Nutrients, water and secondary compounds differed significantly between the different host plants. Soluble sugar content was significantly, negatively correlated with female pupal weight and fecundity, and soluble protein content was significantly negatively correlated with duration of the larval stage. Female and male pupal weights were positively correlated with water content.There was no relationship between flavone content and the duration of the larval stage or adult fecundity, but tannin content was significantly, positively correlated with the duration of pupal stage.[Conclusion] The results indicate that sea-buckthorn was the most suitable of the four host plants forT. vishnou gigantina. The development and adult fecundity ofT. vishnou gigantinaare better when larvae feed on host plants with lower soluble sugar and tannin content, and higher water and soluble protein content.

  8. Influence of Fruit Tree Types and Their Structure Configuration on the Yield, Quality and Economic Returns of Intercropping Cotton in Southern Xinjiang%果树类型及配置方式对南疆间作棉花产量、品质及经济效益的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 田立文; 郭仁松; 汤秋香; 崔建平; 徐海江

    2013-01-01

    [目的]选取苹果、香梨、桃、杏、核桃、红枣等果树,在南疆果棉间作生态区,研究开展间作果树类型对棉花生长的影响,为形成稳定、高效的配置结构,以及制订系统科学的管理措施提供理论依据.[方法]以生产中的主要种植模式为研究对象,采用大田随机区组设计,在关键生育时期,调查棉花的主要生长指标、冠层微气象指标、产量指标及纤维品质指标.[结果]遮荫对棉花冠层微环境的改变显著,树冠直径与遮荫效果呈加性效益,同一树种间比较,冠层微环境的变化幅度依次为冠下>冠外>中间测点,不同树种间比较,冠层微环境变化幅度依次为桃树>香梨>苹果>桃核>红枣.树冠直径与果枝台数、单株结铃数的下降呈正比,遮荫是造成产量下降的主要原因.树冠增大导致棉花冠层光强、冠层温度降低,冠层湿度升高,微环境因子的改变对棉纤维品质的形成具有影响作用.[结论]对间作棉花产量、品质及冠层环境综合指标较为有利的果树依次为红枣>桃核>苹果>香梨>桃树,生产中采用红枣等冠层较小的树种或适度修剪营养枝,能够提高棉花产量,改善纤维品质.%[Objective] The project aims to provide a theoretical basis for stable and highly effective structure configuration and scientific management measures by selecting apple, pear, peach, apricot, walnut, jujube and other fruit trees to study their influence on yield, fiber quality and economic returns of intercropping cotton in Southern Xinjiang. [Method] Cropping pattern in the present production was chosen as the object of study by using randomized block design. Major growth indicators, canopy micrometeorological indicators, yield and fiber quality indicators were investigated at the crucial important growing stage. [Result] Shade has a significant influence on cotton canopy microenvironment. Crown diameter is proportional to shade

  9. The use of straw to reduce the soil and water losses in agriculture and forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Type-Ecosystem. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Hedo, Javier; Brevik, Eric; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnacion

    2016-04-01

    using paired plots under natural and simulated rainfall at the Soil Erosion Stations of Montesa, El Teularet and Celler del Roure. Rainfall simulation experiments with very small (0.25 m2), small (1 m2) and medium (20 m2) plots were carried out in scrublands and recently fire-affected land, and on vineyards and orchards. The plots under natural rainfall conditions ranged from 1 to 300 m2. The results show a positive influence of the straw mulch to reduce the soil and water losses, although is more efficient to control the sediment delivery due to the reduction of the raindrop impact. Reduction in one order of magnitude is usual after the immediate application of the straw on vineyards (Prosdocimi et al., 2016) and apricots (Keesstra et al., under review) and in persimmon plantations (Cerdà et al., in press). The above-mentioned results show the positive effect of the straw mulch found by other researchers with other types of mulches such as rock fragments (Cerdà, 2001; Jordán et al., 2009; Jordan and Martínez-Zavala, 2008; Martínez-Zavala and Jordán, 2008, Zavala et al., 2010). There is a need to develop new and advanced research on the effects of the straw cover and other mulches such as litter on the recently forest fire affected soils, and pruned chipped branches and other organic amendments on agriculture land (Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). This new reseach challenge should give information about the soil and water losses, but also about the organic matter recovery, the soil water retention, and the biological, chemical and physical soil properties changes. . Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S. 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18 (5), 881-888. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9869-6 Biswas H

  10. PREFACE: Stimuli Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    well-rehearsed talk. The audience was intrigued by this new principle of stimulated coherent microwave radiation [3]. Friedrich Hund, famous for his 'rule' was then our theory professor, he sat in the second row. He was very surprised, and asked me in the discussion if he had understood correctly. If it were true what I had just suggested, then the maser coherence length would go from the Earth to the Moon. I paused a little, pondered and observed my microwave-conscious friends in the audience nodding encouragingly. 'Yes, sir; I think so!' 'I don't believe it', Hund retorted. How could a youngster react? I remained silent and obediently, quite imperceptibly shrugged my shoulders. After the talk, Professor Lamla, an editor of a science journal came to congratulate me and asked for a manuscript. I delivered [4]. This item on my early publication list may have contributed to the fact that I was hired in 1959 by William Shockley to join his fledgling company Shockley Transistor in this old apricot barn on 391 South San Antonio Road in Mountain View, California [5]. I knew that it would be extremely difficult to extend the frequency into the optical regime, you have to fight against the square of the frequency. Nevertheless, I refrained from making the statement in my paper that reaching an optical maser might be hopeless [4]. 'Never say never' is an appropriate adage, not only for seniors. A young colleague, who had also written a review paper, dared to support a more pessimistic view [6]. He anticipated in his very last sentence that stimulated emission would probably prevail merely in the microwave regime. This defeatist attitude seemed to have ruled throughout Germany, as already preached in the famous textbooks by Pohl [7], and also assumed by physics Professor Hellwege at Darmstadt, who was the leading expert regarding luminescence of materials such as ruby crystals; yet Maiman and others surpassed him [8]. Silicon came next for me, working, for example, with Shockley

  11. Molecular mechanism of TFL1 on the regulation of flowering time in Rosaceae%TFL1调控蔷薇科植物开花时间的分子机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高用顺; 汪以; 朱云美; 林顺权

    2016-01-01

    The rose family (Rosaceae),consists of numerous horticultural plants that have significant economic value.The family includes strawberry,raspberry and rose in the Rosoideae subfamily;fruit trees of apple,pear and loquat in the Maloideae subfamily;and peach,plum and apricot in the Prunoideae subfamily.Consisting of herbaceous plants and woody fruits,the rosaceous plants present various modes of flowering,and the different flowering modes directly influence the flowering ornamental period and/or the fruit harvest period,which are both very important in the horticulture industry.Flowering is the vital physiological process for fruiting,and it is the mark for the transitio n from vegetative to reproductive growth,which is also known as floral transition.In Arabidopsis,a genus in the Brassicaceae family,FLOWERINGLOCUS T (FT) is a key florigen,which integrates the signals regulated by the internal and external environmental cues,and it works at the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to activate the downstream signals for floral transition.TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a homologous gene of FT,which is originally reported in Arabidopsis,the function of TFL1 is opposite to FT,as it plays a role in delaying flowering time.TFL1 suppresses the expression of the downstream genes like LEAFY (LFY),flower meristem identity genes APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL),and thereby consequently inhibits flowering.The till mutant shows determinate inflorescence and early flowering phenotype.FT can bind with another flowering transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS D (FD) and form a strong activator to promote the expression of downstream genes,however,when FD binds with TFL1,they form to become a powerful suppressor and inhibit flowering.In the process of vegetative growth,TFL1 strongly expresses in the central area of the inflorescence meristem,and suppresses the translation of AP1 and LFY,in order to keep the meristem at an undifferentiated status.In wild strawberry Fragaria vesca,FvTFL1 highly