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Sample records for apricots

  1. Studies on cloud stability of apricot nectar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siliha, H.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cloud loss behaviour in pasteurized apricot nectar was found to be different from that of other fruit juices. The cloud particles settled slowly on standing and a gel formed. On standing for a longer period the gel contracts and a clear supernatant layer which can be considered partly as syneresis w

  2. 21 CFR 145.115 - Canned apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.115 Canned apricots. (a...) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water. (c) Fruit juice(s). Such packing media may be used as such or...

  3. Apricot - An Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Huixing; Zhu, Huibiao; Shi, Jianqi

    2013-01-01

    We propose Apricot as an object-oriented language for modeling hybrid systems. The language combines the features in domain specific language and object-oriented language, that fills the gap between design and implementation, as a result, we put forward the modeling language with simple and distinct syntax, structure and semantics. In addition, we introduce the concept of design by convention into Apricot.As the characteristic of object-oriented and the component architecture in Apricot, we c...

  4. S-Genotype Profiles of Turkish Apricot Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Busra BASBUG; Kahraman GURCAN; Hasan PINAR; Julia HALASZ; Sezai ERCISLI; UZUN, Aydın; Erdogan COCEN

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, gametophytic self-incompatibility, controlled by a single locus with several allelic variants, is one of the major problems preventing self-fertilization. Among fruit trees, apricots show to a high degree self-incompatibility, especially in Middle-Asian and Iranian-Caucasian eco-geographical groups. In the present study, self-(in)compatibility characteristics of a total of 236 apricot genotypes (218 Turkish and 18 foreign) found within the National Apricot Germplasms of A...

  5. S-Genotype Profiles of Turkish Apricot Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ugurtan YILMAZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, gametophytic self-incompatibility, controlled by a single locus with several allelic variants, is one of the major problems preventing self-fertilization. Among fruit trees, apricots show to a high degree self-incompatibility, especially in Middle-Asian and Iranian-Caucasian eco-geographical groups. In the present study, self-(incompatibility characteristics of a total of 236 apricot genotypes (218 Turkish and 18 foreign found within the National Apricot Germplasms of Apricot Research Institute in Malatya, Turkey was studied. Analyses were carried out by using four primer pairs (SRc-F and SRc-R, EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD, AprSC8-R and PaConsI-F, AprFBC8-F and AprFBC8-R. A total of 11 S-RNase alleles (S2, S3, S6, S7, S8, S9, S11, S12, S13, S20 and Sc were determined in the 236 apricot genotypes. As Turkish and foreign apricot genotypes are determined mostly self-incompatible, the data obtained hereby might be of good use for apricot breeding programs and more practically, for apricot new plantations; thus pollinator cultivars should be considered when self-incompatible apricot cultivars are being used.

  6. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hajnal, Veronika; Zarif OMID; Márta LADÁNYI; Magdolna TÓTH; Szalay, László

    2013-01-01

    Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their...

  7. Rootstock breeding program for apricot through interspecific crosses of Myrobalan x apricot: Significant effect of accidental pollinations

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Daorden Álvarez, María Elena; García Martín, Elena; Andreu Puyal, Pilar; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rootstock breeding programme for apricot is being developed through interspecific crosses of the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and the 'Moniqui' and 'Moniqui Borde' (P. armeniaca L.) apricot cultivars. In this work, the incidence of accidental pollinations on these low-setting hybridisations was assessed. The progeny originated through hand-pollination of emasculated flowers of three Myrobalan clones, in three consecutive years. Fruit set was low and variable among years (1.8-8.0...

  8. 78 FR 62963 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... channels, thereby fostering consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and improving returns to growers... been to ensure that only acceptable quality apricots enter fresh market channels to foster consumer satisfaction, increase sales, and improve returns to growers. The Washington apricot industry recognizes...

  9. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  10. An apricot story: view through a keyhole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy-Smith Starlene

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few cases of small bowel obstruction due to ingested fruits have been described in literature, and most of these have managed by a laparotomy. Laparoscopic assisted surgery can effectively deal with such impacted foreign bodies, thereby avoiding a formal laparotomy. Case presentation A 75 years old lady was admitted via the Accident and Emergency to the surgical ward with a three-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Investigations were suggestive of acute small bowel obstruction. On laparoscopy, there was an area of sudden change in calibre of small bowel with dilated proximal and collapsed distal segment in distal jejunum. A foreign body, dried undigested apricot, was extracted by mini-laparotomy. Discussion Small bowel obstruction is a frequent cause of emergency surgery, and aetiology may include food bolus obstruction. Diagnosis is usually confirmed intra-operatively. Foreign body impacted in small bowel can be removed by open or laparoscopic methods. Conclusion Generally, laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and management in acute bowel obstruction, but with increasing expertise, laparoscopy can be equally effective with all the other advantages of minimal access approach.

  11. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    OpenAIRE

    Girgis, Adel Y.; El-Aziz, N.M. Abd; El-Salam, S.M. Abd

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca) through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2). Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73%) while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%). Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from aprico...

  12. Preparation of microporous activated carbons based on carbonized apricot shells

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Pavlenko; Sergey Anurov; Zulkhair Mansurov; Bijsenbaev Makhmut; Tatyana Konkova; Seithan Azat; Sandugash Tanirbergenova; Nurzhamal Zhylybaeva

    2014-01-01

    Results of applying the method of thermo-oxidative modification of fiber, based on the shell of apricot along with producing on its base microporous activated carbons that have high specific surface area and a significant amount of micropores were presented. The paper contains analysis and interpretation data of changes in the structure and composition of samples, which occurring as a result of thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Morphological features of the surface of produced...

  13. Apricot Breeding at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Krška; Zdeněk Vachůn

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the apricot-breeding program in the Horticultural Faculty in Lednice, that has been developed since 1981, is to obtain new adaptable cultivars, which combine most of the valuable biological traits. Standard breeding techniques, such as crossing by emasculation and hand pollination, self-pollination and open pollination, were employed. A total of 1.154 crossings were produced from more than 110 different parents. So far more than 20,000 seedlings have been obtained, of which about 1...

  14. Apricot Breeding at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krška

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the apricot-breeding program in the Horticultural Faculty in Lednice, that has been developed since 1981, is to obtain new adaptable cultivars, which combine most of the valuable biological traits. Standard breeding techniques, such as crossing by emasculation and hand pollination, self-pollination and open pollination, were employed. A total of 1.154 crossings were produced from more than 110 different parents. So far more than 20,000 seedlings have been obtained, of which about 13,000 have already been evaluated. The most interesting selections were grafted and planted in trial orchards (we now have more than 650 elite genotypes. Ten of these have already been registered, and further promising new hybrids have been submitted for registration and law right protection (Betinka, Candela, Sophia and Adriana. The basic prerequisite for the initiation of the breeding program was a large collection of genetic resources, established and gradually supplemented since the 1970s. At the present time, we preserve and manage more than 300 accessions of apricot trees. In the frame of the descriptive work of the genetic resources and in order to use in breeding, a collection of apricots has been evaluated. We selected the genotypes and characters relating to an increased level of adaptation to the environment.

  15. Influence of Putrescine Application on Storability, Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Two Iranian Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Zarei, Mehdi; Elham ARDAKANI; Mohamad Ebrahim NASRABADI

    2013-01-01

    The limited postharvest storage life of apricot is the focus of this study. Presenting a solution to improve the postharvest storage of studied apricot cultivars is the goal. Studding the effect of different concentration of postharvest putrescine on quality attributes and antioxidant activity of two apricot cultivars during storage is the approach taken. The two apricot cultivars (‘Lasgerdi’ and ‘Shahrodi’) were harvested at the commercial ripening stage, and fruits were immerged in 1, 2, 3 ...

  16. Peach and apricot stone combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynak, B.; Atimtay, Aysel T. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Topal, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2005-07-25

    In this study, a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 mm inside diameter and 900 mm height was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry. A lignite coal was also burned in the same combustor. The combustion characteristics of the wastes were compared with that of a lignite coal that is most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate), the variation of emissions of various pollutants was studied. Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from peach and apricot stones quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of fruit stones increases, the combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. The results of this study have shown that the combustion efficiencies ranged between 98.8% and 99.1% for coal, 96.0% and 97.5% for peach stone and 93.4% and 96.3% for apricot stones. The coal has zero CO emission, but biomass fuels have very high CO emission which indicates that a secondary air addition is required for the system. SO{sub 2} emission of the coal is around 2400-2800 mg/Nm{sup 3}, whereas the biomass fuels have zero SO{sub 2} emission. NO{sub x} emissions are all below the limits set by the Turkish Air Quality Control Regulation of 1986 (TAQCR) for all tests. As the results of combustion of two biomass fuels are compared with each other, peach stones gave lower CO and NO{sub x} emissions but the SO{sub 2} emissions are a little higher than for apricot stones. These results suggest that

  17. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots.

  18. Application of Photothermal Methods for Quantification of Carotenoids in Apricot Jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Stéger-Máté, M.; Végvári, Gy

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes, found in a diversity of fruit-containing foods, are important sources of antioxidants; a good example is apricot jam. In the study described in this paper, both the total carotenoid content (TCC) as well as the content of $$\\\\upbeta $$β-carotene in six different apricot jams were quant

  19. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  20. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

    2014-11-01

    The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87 mg gallic acid equiv./100 g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72 mg rutin equiv./100 g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14 mg/100 g honey in LH and 42.65 mg/100 g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06 mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23 mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60 mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots. PMID:25408327

  1. Preparation of microporous activated carbons based on carbonized apricot shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pavlenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of applying the method of thermo-oxidative modification of fiber, based on the shell of apricot along with producing on its base microporous activated carbons that have high specific surface area and a significant amount of micropores were presented. The paper contains analysis and interpretation data of changes in the structure and composition of samples, which occurring as a result of thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Morphological features of the surface of produced activated carbons were studied by using SEM microscopy; the pore structure and specific surface area were investigated using the method of low-temperature nitrogen adsorption.

  2. Molecular characterization of apricot germplasm from an old stone collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martín

    Full Text Available Increasing germplasm erosion requires the recovery and conservation of traditional cultivars before they disappear. Here we present a particular case in Spain where a thorough prospection of local fruit tree species was performed in the 1950s with detailed data of the origin of each genotype but, unfortunately, the accessions are no longer conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. However, for most of those cultivars, an old stone collection is still preserved. In order to analyze the diversity present at the time when the prospection was made and to which extent variability has been eroded, we developed a protocol in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. to obtain DNA from maternal tissues of the stones of a sufficient quality to be amplified by PCR. The results obtained have been compared with the results from the profiles developed from apricot cultivars currently conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. The results highlight the fact that most of the old accessions are not conserved ex situ but provide a tool to prioritize the recovery of particular cultivars. The approach used in this work can also be applied to other plant species where seeds have been preserved.

  3. 78 FR 1127 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... apricots enter fresh market channels, thereby ensuring consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and... fresh market channels, thereby ensuring consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and improving returns... shipped to fresh markets, thereby affecting consumer demand. There is also concern that if overall...

  4. Organoleptic and Nutritional evaluation of Apricot products developed for Hypertensive patients

    OpenAIRE

    A Mundeja; Harsha Hirdyani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. Dietary modifications include DASH diet with less sodium and high potassium and fiber intake. Aim: Development of value added products using dried apricots for hypertensive patients. Methodology: Dried apricot was selected based on its nutritional quality and high potassium content and was incorporated at different % levels in the formulation of two basic tea time snacks i.e. muffins and cookies. The products were stu...

  5. The Effects of Different Pruning Treatments on Seasonal Variation of Carbohydrates in Hacihaliloglu Apricot Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Naim M. DEMIRTAS; Bolat, Ibrahim; Sezai ERCISLI; Ikinci, Ali; Handan OLMEZ; Sahin, Mustafa; Mustafa ALTINDAG; Belgin CELIK

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-year-old apricot trees from the Hacihaliloglu apricot cultivar were pruned in a series of five treatments. In all treatments, one-third of annual shoots (33.3%) were removed between 1999 and 2003. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves were determined. The starch, total sugar, reducing sugar and sucrose contents in shoots were also determined. In addition, seasonal variation of carbohydrates was studied. The treatments did not affect the c...

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Asadi, M; Etemad, M.; Mahzouni, P.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzen...

  7. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  8. Electron beam irradiation of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical, sensory, and microbial quality parameters of electron beam (EB)-irradiated and non-irradiated sun-dried apricots were periodically evaluated to optimize the EB irradiation of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance. The sun-dried apricots were treated with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 kGy of EB and subsequently stored at ambient temperature. EB treatment at 1.0–3.0 kGy proved to be beneficial for retaining high levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total sugars, and color without any significant effect on sensory properties. Doses of 1.0–3.0 kGy retained the β-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to 8.21%, 9.27%, and 10.43% compared with 6.09% in control samples after 10 months of storage. After 10 months of storage, the maximum losses of ascorbic acid were 37.8% in control samples and 35.5% in 3.0 kGy-irradiated samples. Titratable acidity and total sugars were significantly enhanced immediately after 1.0–3.0 kGy irradiation treatment, and both parameters showed no significant change after 10 months of storage. Samples subjected to EB treatment at 3.0 kGy maintained a high overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots. Decreased number of viable microorganisms to below detection limits were observed after 3.0 kGy irradiation, and compared with the control, the logarithmic reductions after 10 months of storage were 0.98 for yeast and mold count, as well as 1.71 for bacterial count. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation was used for sun-dried apricots quality maintenance. • The chemical, sensory, and microbial quality parameters of apricots were evaluated. • 1.0–3.0 kGy proved to be beneficial for retaining high levels of apricots quality. • 3.0 kGy of irradiation maintained a high overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots. • 3.0 kGy of irradiation reduced the viable microorganisms to below detection limits

  9. Apricot Kernel Oil Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Associated Immunosuppression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Honglei; Yan, Haiyan; Tan, Siwei; Zhan, Ping; Mao, Xiaoying; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhouping

    2016-08-01

    The effects of dietary apricot kernel oil (AKO), which contains high levels of oleic and linoleic acids and lower levels of α-tocopherol, were evaluated in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Rats had intraperitoneal injection with cyclophosphamide to induce immunosuppression and were then infused with AKO or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect antimicrobial factors in lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory factors in hepatocytes. Hematoxylin & eosin staining was conducted prior to histopathological analysis of the spleen, liver, and thymus. Significant differences were observed between the immune functions of the healthy control group, the normal saline group, and the AKO group. Compared to the normal saline-treated group, lymphocytes isolated from rats administered AKO showed significant improvement in immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, IgG, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (p cyclophosphamide-associated organ degeneration. These results suggested that AKO may enhance the immune system in vivo. These effects may reflect the activities of intermediate oleic and linoleic acid metabolites, which play a vital role in the immune system, and the α-tocopherol in AKO may further enhance this phenomenon. Thus, the use of AKO as a nutritional supplement can be proposed to ameliorate chemotherapy-associated immunosuppression. PMID:27262314

  10. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  12. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  13. Impact of additives on corrosion rate of cans filled with pieces of apricot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarization techniques are used for testing the impact of different compounds (additives on tinplate corrosion, using pieces of apricot dipped in syrup with and without nitrate addition as electrolyte solution, at the same time using filled cans as electrolytic cell and operating electrode. This procedure determined the intensity of inhibiting tin dissolving with some of the used additives like sodium-benzoate, potassium-sorbate sodium-lauril-sulphate and p-aminobenzoate acid. Adding these additives to canned pieces of apricot in syrup led to inhibiting of tin dissolving, which was experimentally proved.

  14. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, Anita; László PALKOVICS

    2013-01-01

    During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid) in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of ...

  15. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    OpenAIRE

    Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Safieh VATANDOOST; Kaveh, Hamed; Tamas Peter NAGY

    2012-01-01

    Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of �Jumbo Cot�, �Tom Cot�, �Gold Strike�, �Gold Bar�, Bergeron�, �Bergarouge�, �Sweet Cot�, �Yellow cot� and �Zebra� apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) consumption...

  16. Improvement of efficiency of oil extraction from wild apricot kernels by using enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Bisht, Tejpal Singh; Sharma, Satish Kumar; Sati, Ramesh Chandra; Rao, Virendra Kumar; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Chopra, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate and standardize the protocol for enhancing recovery of oil and quality from cold pressed wild apricot kernels by using various enzymes. Wild apricot kernels were ground into powder in a grinder. Different lots of 3 kg powdered kernel were prepared and treated with different concentrations of enzyme solutions viz. Pectazyme (Pectinase), Mashzyme (Cellulase) and Pectazyme + Mashzyme. Kernel powder mixed with enzyme solutions were kept for 2 h at 50(±2) °C...

  17. Utilization of wild apricot kernel press cake for extraction of protein isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P. C.; Tilakratne, B. M. K. S.; Gupta, Anil

    2010-01-01

    The kernels of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) stones are utilized for extraction of oil. The press cake left after extraction of oil was evaluated for preparation of protein isolate for its use in food supplementation. The apricot kernels contained 45–50% oil, 23.6–26.2% protein, 4.2% ash, 5.42% crude fibre, 8.2% carbohydrates and 90 mg HCN/100 g kernels, while press cake obtained after oil extraction contained 34.5% crude protein, which can be utilized for preparation of protein isolates. The me...

  18. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers' evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  19. Organoleptic and Nutritional evaluation of Apricot products developed for Hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mundeja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. Dietary modifications include DASH diet with less sodium and high potassium and fiber intake. Aim: Development of value added products using dried apricots for hypertensive patients. Methodology: Dried apricot was selected based on its nutritional quality and high potassium content and was incorporated at different % levels in the formulation of two basic tea time snacks i.e. muffins and cookies. The products were studied for their organoleptic and nutritional parameters. Results: Products incorporated with 15% of apricots were most acceptable by the panel members having potassium content of 4.9 ± 0.07 and 4.2 ± 0.05 %, in muffins and cookies respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of muffin was found to be 6.96 ± 1.17, 10.79 ± 0.11 and 0.84 ± 0.05% respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of cookies were found to be 5.86± 0.09, 10.02 ±0.12 and 1.41 ±0.07% respectively. Conclusion: Considering the potassium content and nutritional and organoleptic evaluation it was concluded that apricot incorporated products developed were acceptable by people and inclusion of such fortified common daily use snacks will help community to maintain a healthy life.

  20. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26948641

  1. Status of Apricot Industry in France%法国杏产业现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙猛; 刘威生

    2012-01-01

    杏是法国最重要的核果类果树,目前总产量仅次于意大利,在欧盟国家中排名第二。该文对当前法国杏的产区分布、经营模式、品种结构、砧木类型、栽培模式、主要病虫害等产业环节进行了较为详细的介绍,以期为我国杏产业的发展提供思路和借鉴。%Apricot is the most important stone fruit trees in France,Apricot total output is second in the EU countries. In the article, the writer introduces in detail the distribution of production area, the mode of pro- duction, the structure of varieties, the type of rootstocks, cultivation patterns, major pests and diseases on apricot in current france, in order to provide directions and experience in the future apricot industry.

  2. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  3. Apricot melanoidins prevent oxidative endothelial cell death by counteracting mitochondrial oxidation and membrane depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Cossu

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are thought to be due to phytochemicals contained in fresh plant material. However, whether processed plant foods provide the same benefits as unprocessed ones is an open question. Melanoidins from heat-processed apricots were isolated and their presence confirmed by colorimetric analysis and browning index. Oxidative injury of endothelial cells (ECs is the key step for the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, therefore the potential protective effect of apricot melanoidins on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative mitochondrial damage and cell death was explored in human ECs. The redox state of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments was detected by using the redox-sensitive, fluorescent protein (roGFP, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was assessed with the fluorescent dye, JC-1. ECs exposure to hydrogen peroxide, dose-dependently induced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation. Additionally detected hydrogen peroxide-induced phenomena were MMP dissipation and ECs death. Pretreatment of ECs with apricot melanoidins, significantly counteracted and ultimately abolished hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. In this regard, our current results clearly indicate that melanoidins derived from heat-processed apricots, protect human ECs against oxidative stress.

  4. Effect on effective diffusion coefficients and investigation of shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apricot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togrul, Inci Turk; Ispir, Ayse [Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This article represents the results of the variation in density and shrinkage of apricots during its osmotic dehydration. Shrinkage was investigated by means of dimensionless volume, diameter and length. Various osmotic agents such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltodextrin and sorbitol were used. It was found that the shrinkage of apricots could be well correlated with the moisture content of the sample during osmotic dehydration. The relationship between dimensionless parameters and moisture content was investigated by using eight non-linear models for each osmotic agent. It was find that the following proposed model can be confidently use for explaining the effect of shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apricots.V/V{sub 0},D/D{sub 0},L/L{sub 0},{rho}/{rho}{sub 0}=a+b. exp (cX)+d. exp (e.X{sup f})In addition, the osmotic dehydration kinetics of apricots with and without shrinkage was studied. The effective diffusivities calculated from the diffusional model with and without shrinkage varied from 10.342 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s to 5.139 x 10{sup -9} and from 1.755 x 10{sup -10} and 0.767 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  6. Effects of Seedling and GF-31 Rootstocks on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Table Apricot Cultivars Grown in Mersin

    OpenAIRE

    SON, Levent

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in Mut-Mersin between 1997 and 2001 to determine the effects of seedling and GF-31 rootstocks on the yield and quality of fruits of Tokaloğlu, Precoce De Tyrinthe, Joubert Foulon, Canino, Sakıt 6, Beliana, Priana and Early Kishnevski table apricot cultivars. Fruit yields were highest on apricot seedling rootstocks for all cultivars. Yields (kg tree-1) ranged between 14.66 kg (Tokaloğlu) and 63.06 kg (Priana) on apricot seedling rootstocks and between 13.6 kg (Sak...

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Asadi, M; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in male Wistar rats. Treatments were started 6 h after colitis induction and continued every 24 h for 5 days. Apricot kernel extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o. and 100, 400 mg/kg i.p.) and apricot kernel extract/oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o.) were used as experimental treatments and prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) was used as reference drug. On the day 6, colon tissue was removed and macroscopic and pathologic parameters were evaluated. Ulcer index and total colitis index as representative of macroscopic and histologic parameters respectively showed ameliorating effects in experimental groups especially those treated by intraperitoneal administration route. Results also demonstrated that oil fraction was not able to potentiate the effects of extract. These data suggest that apricot kernel extracts (with or without oil) can be introduced for further mechanistic and clinical studies as a complementary medicine for inflammatory bowel disorders. PMID:25657793

  8. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  9. Protective Effects of Prunus armeniaca L (Apricot on Low Dose Radiation-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KURUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate radiation-induced kidney damage and the protective effect of apricot against it using histological parameters. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups each containing 10 Sprague Dawley rats as follows: Regc: Rats on a regular diet (control diet for 28 weeks; control group. Regx: Rats on a regular diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Aprc: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks; control for no XRE. Aprx: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Reg+Aprc: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, followed by an apricot diet for the following 20 weeks; control. Reg + Aprx: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week, followed by an apricot diet for 20 weeks. RESULTS: The kidneys of the control groups showed normal kidney histology, whereas Regx group showed major histopathological changes, such as glomerular collapse, hemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. The Aprx and Reg+Aprx groups showed smaller amounts of degeneration. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we suggest that agents with antioxidant properties such as apricot may have a positive effect in the treatment of renal diseases.

  10. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  11. Study on Supercooling Point and Freezing Point in Floral Organs of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under the environment of an artificial climate chamber, supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP) in flower and young fruit at different development stages and freezing injuries of floral organs were studied. The apricot cultivars tested were Kety, Golden Sun and Honghebao. With the development of flower buds, SCP and FP increased, which indicated that their cold resistance decreased. SCP and FP varied with different floral organs. For different apricot cultivars, it was found that, the lower SCP or FP in floral organs was, the more resistant capacity the cultivar had, and the larger the temperature interval from SCP to FP was. SCP was not a constant value, but a range. Frequency distribution of SCP in petals was more dispersing than that in stamens and pistils. Floral organs could maintain a supercooling state to avoid ice formation, but they were sensitive to freezing. Once floral organs froze, they turned brown after thawing.

  12. Application of Photothermal Methods for Quantification of Carotenoids in Apricot Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Stéger-Máté, M.; Végvári, Gy.

    2015-09-01

    Carotenes, found in a diversity of fruit-containing foods, are important sources of antioxidants; a good example is apricot jam. In the study described in this paper, both the total carotenoid content ( TCC) as well as the content of \\upbeta -carotene in six different apricot jams were quantified using traditional (UV-VIS) spectrophotometry (SP), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS), and the optothermal window (OW) method. Unlike SP and HPLC, LPAS and the OW methods require the minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of the TCC. Results were verified versus data obtained with SP as the reference technique. It was shown that LPAS and the OW method (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results with R2=0.9884 and 0.9766 for LPAS and OW, respectively.

  13. Improvement of efficiency of oil extraction from wild apricot kernels by using enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Tejpal Singh; Sharma, Satish Kumar; Sati, Ramesh Chandra; Rao, Virendra Kumar; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Chopra, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate and standardize the protocol for enhancing recovery of oil and quality from cold pressed wild apricot kernels by using various enzymes. Wild apricot kernels were ground into powder in a grinder. Different lots of 3 kg powdered kernel were prepared and treated with different concentrations of enzyme solutions viz. Pectazyme (Pectinase), Mashzyme (Cellulase) and Pectazyme + Mashzyme. Kernel powder mixed with enzyme solutions were kept for 2 h at 50(±2) °C temperature for enzymatic treatment before its use for oil extraction through oil expeller. Results indicate that use of enzymes resulted in enhancement of oil recovery by 9.00-14.22 %. Maximum oil recovery was observed at 0.3-0.4 % enzyme concentration for both the enzymes individually, as well as in combination. All the three enzymatic treatments resulted in increasing oil yield. However, with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination, maximum oil recovery of 47.33 % could be observed against were 33.11 % in control. The oil content left (wasted) in the cake and residue were reduced from 11.67 and 11.60 % to 7.31 and 2.72 % respectively, thus showing a high increase in efficiency of oil recovery from wild apricot kernels. Quality characteristics indicate that the oil quality was not adversely affected by enzymatic treatment. It was concluded treatment of powdered wild apricot kernels with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination was highly effective in increasing oil recovery by 14.22 % without adversely affecting the quality and thus may be commercially used by the industry for reducing wastage of highly precious oil in the cake.

  14. Mechanical property evaluation of apricot fruits under quasi-static and dynamic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, E.; H Barikloo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some forces and impacts that occur during transporting and handling can reduce the apricot quality. Bruise damage is a major cause of fruit quality loss. Bruises occur under dynamic and static loading when stress induced in the fruit exceeds the failure stress of the fruit tissue. Needless to say that physical and mechanical properties of fruits in the design and optimization of systems related to production, processing and packaging of the products are important. Harvesting, tr...

  15. Antioxidant and Sensorial Properties of Polyfloral Honey with Dried Apricots after One Year of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vulić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenol (TPh and flavonoid (TFd contents, antioxidant and sensorial properties of polyfloral (PH, and polyfloral honey after one year of storage (PHs with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40% were evaluated. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 1.86 times for PH40. After storage time, TPh of PH40s increased slightly lower (1.77 times, compared to PHs. TFd slightly increased, approximately 3.23-fold, from PH to PH40, while PHs showed increase of 5.15-fold for PH40s. Antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. EC50OH varied from 3.36 for PH to 2.29 mg/mL for PH40 and from 3.48 for PHs to 2.68 mg/mL for PH40s; EC50DPPH ranged from 30.60 for PH to 14.95 mg/mL for PH40 and from 31.22 for PHs to 17.43 mg/mL for PH40s; RP0.5 ranged from 66.37 for PH to 31.83 mg/mL for PH40 and from 67.99 for PHs to 35.03 mg/mL for PH40s. Statistical analysis suggested that TPh and TFd were associated with antioxidant activity and colour. Sensory parameters, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory qualities. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory properties were promoted after addition of dried apricots and these parameters stayed improved, since antioxidant compounds present in dried apricots aided in maintenance of honey properties along one year of storage.

  16. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Zivoli; Lucia Gambacorta; Luca Piemontese; Michele Solfrizzo

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  17. Specific heat of solutions of system apricot oil-n-hexane depending on temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to specific heat of solutions of system apricot oil-n-hexane depending on temperature and pressure. Thus, the results of studies of specific heat of system oil-n-hexane at 293-423 K temperature range and 0.101-49.1 MPa pressure range are considered. On the basis of conducted studies the state equation is defined. By means of state equation it is possible to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of studied solutions.

  18. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Evica MRATINIĆ; Bojan POPOVSKI; Tomo MILOŠEVIĆ; Melpomena POPOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control) such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness), arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X...

  19. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of �Jumbo Cot�, �Tom Cot�, �Gold Strike�, �Gold Bar�, Bergeron�, �Bergarouge�, �Sweet Cot�, �Yellow cot� and �Zebra� apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  20. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  1. Biological properties of late-season apricot cultivars in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apricot cultivar assortment in Serbia is characterized by a small number of cultivars and a short period of maturing. Most apricot fruits are harvested in the season of cultivar ‘Hungarian Best’ or at a short time afterwards. There is particularly a lack of early- and late-maturing cultivars of high quality fruit. This study was aimed at evaluating of 14 introduced apricot cultivars of late maturing time in order to recommend the best of them for growing in the Belgrade region. The study was carried out at the Experimental station ‘Radmilovac’ of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade over a period of five years (2009-2013. The experimental orchard was established in 2007, the rootstock was Myrobalan seedling, and tree spacing was 4.5 x 3 m. Control cultivar for comparison was ‘Hungarian Best’, which is the most grown apricot cultivar in Serbia. Flowering of introduced cultivars ranged from three days before to three days after the control cultivar (‘Hungarian Best’, while the maturation time was 7 to 15 days after the control. Compared with the control cultivar, significantly higher yield was achieved in seven cultivars (‘Harogem’, ‘Umberto’, ‘Litoral’, ‘Sophia’, ‘Harlayne’, ‘Bergarouge’, and ‘Silistrenska Kompotna’, while significantly higher fruit weight was achieved in two cultivars (‘Cegledy Arany’ and ‘Sophia’. Compared to the control higher content of soluble solids was found in four cultivars (‘Kabaasi’, ‘Late Dryanovska’, ‘Harlayne’, and ‘Silistrenska Kompotna’. Cultivar ‘Sophia’ got the best score for fruit appearance, while cultivars ‘Late Dryanovska’ and ‘Silistrenska Kompotna’ got the best scores for taste. Among studied apricot cultivars, for the cultivation in the Belgrade region, the following cultivars can be recommended as promising: ‘Sophia’ for fresh consumption, and ‘Harlayne’ and ‘Silistrenska Kompotna’ for processing. In addition

  2. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita VÉGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of the leaves and shoots with symptoms were macerated and spread on King’s medium B. After 24 hours of incubation at 26 °C, bacteria morphologically similar to E. amylovora were detected. Isolate induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ‘White Burley’ leaves. Biochemical test was also used for identification, and the result of API 20E kit (Biomérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France, demonstrate that the bacterium belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. A pathogenicity tests were positive on young apricot shoots and immature fruits. For molecular identification of the pathogen the 16S rDNA region was amplified from isolate Ea-ApricotPo1 with a general bacterial primer pair (63f forward and 1389r reverse. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM T-Easy plasmid vector (Promega, Madison, WI USA and were transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α cells. A recombinant plasmid (2A2.5 was sequenced by M13 forward and reverse primers. The sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. HF546214 and showed 99-100% sequence homology with a number of E. amylovora isolates, including type strain FN666575 with 100% similarity. On the basis of the symptoms, colony morphology, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence homology, the pathogen was identified as E. amylovora. This is a first record of a natural outbreak of fire blight on apricot in Hungary.

  3. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-06-27

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma. PMID:17530862

  4. Technical Regulations for Cultivating Seedlings of Shushanggan apricot%“树上干”杏育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛桂芝; 王瑾; 尚振江; 林德胜

    2014-01-01

    “树上干”杏是一种营养丰富、经济价值高的经济林树种,既可鲜食也可制干,是杏仁、杏肉兼用的优良品种。从“树上干”杏圃地选择、种子处理、播种及土肥水管理等方面对“树上干”杏育苗技术进行归纳总结,为“树上干”杏的科学发展提供理论依据。%As an economic tree, Shushanggan apricot has abundant nutrients and high economic value which can be eat as fresh fruit as well as drying treatment, is a combination variety of almond and apricot meat. The paper summarized the cultivation technologies of seedlings of Shushanggan apricot from some aspects such as selection of apricot nursery, seed treatment, sowing, soil fertilizer and water management, aiming at providing theoretical basis for the scientific development of Shushanggan apricot.

  5. Simple and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricots (prunus armeniaca L.) by means of reflectance colorimetry and photoacoustic spectrometry spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Buijnsters, J.; Vegvari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performan

  6. Effects of Sulphurization Duration of Doses and Cold Storage on SO2 Content of Dried Apricot Fruits of cv. ‘Hacihaliloglu’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir OZTURK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out between 2004 and 2005 years in Malatya Fruit Research Institute. The fumigation of 1600, 1800 or 2000 g SO2 were applied for 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hr after harvest on dried ‘Hacihaliloglu’ apricot fruits. The loss of SO2, product moisture (%, product temperature, acidity (%, pH and the colour of the apricot fruits were determined after the drying processes on the wooden trays following the SO2 fumigation and during storage periods. The results showed that the average level of the SO2 in the dried apricots was found as 2000 ppm after fumigation as requirement of European regulations. Dried apricot fruits had 2174 ppm of SO2 in 2004 and 1586 ppm of SO2 in 2005 at the beginning of storage and these amounts were decreased to 1284 and 1091 ppm at the end of 12 months of storage in normal atmospheric conditions. The loss of SO2 amount in dried apricots was found to be directly proportional with the initial quantity of SO2. When the level of SO2 in dried apricots was decreased to 1500 ppm, the quality of the product was also decreased and the colour of dried apricots are darkened. As a result of this study, can be recommended that the dried apricots including 2000 ppm SO2 should be marketed after 6 months of storage.

  7. Method for the isolation of citric acid and malic acid in Japanese apricot liqueur for carbon stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Oe, Takaaki; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-02-15

    A method for detecting the undeclared addition of acidic ingredients is required to control the authenticity of Japanese apricot liqueur. We developed an analytical procedure that minimizes carbon isotope discrimination for measurement of the δ(13)C values of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur. Our results demonstrated that freeze-drying is preferable to nitrogen spray-drying, because it does not significantly affect the δ(13)C values of citric acid and results in smaller isotope discrimination for malic acid. Both 0.1% formic acid and 0.2% phosphoric acid are acceptable HPLC mobile phases for the isolation of citric and malic acid, although the δ(13)C values of malic acid exhibited relatively large variation compared with citric acid following isolation using either mobile phase. The developed procedure allows precise δ(13)C measurements of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur. PMID:27664615

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for dodine in pome fruit, apricots and olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Portugal, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the company Agriphar to lower the existing MRL for dodine in apricots to reflect a less critical European use. The applicant also submitted additional residue trials on apples and a new freezer storage stability study in high oil content matrices to confirm the MRLs derived for pome fruit and olives in the previously issued EFSA reasoned opinion. The lowering of the MRL for apricots is justified as for the existing MRL acute consumer intake concerns cannot be excluded. According to EFSA, the submitted data are sufficient to confirm the MRL proposal of 0.9 mg/kg for pome fruits as derived in the previous EFSA reasoned opinion. The MRL proposal of 0.09 mg/kg for apricots has been derived, in accordance with the provisions of the EU guidance document on extrapolation from residue trials on peaches and apples. Although the data are compliant with the data requirements, EFSA recommends performing additional trials on apricots to confirm that the MRL is sufficient to cover the use on apricots. The new freezer storage stability study submitted for dodine in high oil content matrices confirms the validity of the residue trials on olives. Thus, the data gap identified in the previous opinion with regard to the MRL for olives (20 mg/kg is sufficiently addressed. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the new intended less critical uses on pome fruit and apricots which result in lower MRL proposals compared to the existing MRLs, will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  9. Identification of differentially-expressed genes associated with pistil abortion in Japanese apricot by genome-wide transcriptional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shi

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of pistil abortion widely occurs in Japanese apricot, and imperfect flowers with pistil abortion seriously decrease the yield in production. Although transcriptome analyses have been extensively studied in the past, a systematic study of differential gene expression has not been performed in Japanese apricot. To investigate genes related to the pistil development of Japanese apricot, high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina was employed to survey gene expression profiles from perfect and imperfect Japanese apricot flower buds. 3,476,249 and 3,580,677 tags were sequenced from two libraries constructed from perfect and imperfect flower buds of Japanese apricot, respectively. There were 689 significant differentially-expressed genes between the two libraries. GO annotation revealed that highly ranked genes were those implicated in small molecule metabolism, cellular component organisation or biogenesis at the cellular level and fatty acid metabolism. According to the results, we assumed that late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA, Dicer-like 3 (DCL3 Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase 2 (XTH2, Pectin lyase-like superfamily protein (PPME1, Lipid transfer protein 3 (LTP3, Fatty acid biosynthesis 1 (FAB1 and Fatty acid desaturase 5 (FAD5 might have relationships with the pistil abortion in Japanese apricot. The expression patterns of 36 differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time (RT-PCR. This is the first report of the Illumina RNA-seq technique being used for the analysis of differentially-expressed gene profiles related to pistil abortion that both computationally and experimentally provides valuable information for the further functional characterisation of genes associated with pistil development in woody plants.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yiğit

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study describes the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of sweet and bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels. The antioxidant properties of apricot kernels were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity and total phenol content measured with a DPPH test, the thiocyanate method and the Folin method, respectively. In contrast to extracts of the bitter kernels, both the water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69% and total phenolic content (7.9 ± 0.2 µg/mL were detected in the methanol extract of sweet kernels (Hasanbey and in the water extract of the same cultivar, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of each active extract were determined. The most effective antibacterial activity was observed in the methanol and water extracts of bitter kernels and in the methanol extract of sweet kernels against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the methanol extracts of the bitter kernels were very potent against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (0.312 mg/mL MIC value. Significant anti-candida activity was also observed with the methanol extract of bitter apricot kernels against Candida albicans, consisting of a 14 mm in diameter of inhibition zone and a 0.625 mg/mL MIC value.

  11. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  12. The Effects of Different Pruning Treatments on Seasonal Variation of Carbohydrates in Hacihaliloglu Apricot Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim M. DEMIRTAS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve-year-old apricot trees from the Hacihaliloglu apricot cultivar were pruned in a series of five treatments. In all treatments, one-third of annual shoots (33.3% were removed between 1999 and 2003. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves were determined. The starch, total sugar, reducing sugar and sucrose contents in shoots were also determined. In addition, seasonal variation of carbohydrates was studied. The treatments did not affect the carotenoid content of leaves, but they statistically affected the total chlorophyll content. The highest total chlorophyll content in leaves was 5.27 mg/g, and it was found in the post-harvest summer/winter pruning treatment. The highest average total sugar content (6.25% was observed in the post-harvest summer pruning treatment, while the lowest (2.56% was found in the post-harvest summer/winter and control treatments. The highest starch content (8.18% was found in October from the post-harvest summer/winter treatment, whereas the lowest value (3.59% was obtained in March from the winter pruning treatment. Summer pruning treatments promoted an accumulation of carbohydrates.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of apricot seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Ahn, Jeong-Hyun; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Lee, Eun Sook; Kwak, Jin-Hwan; Min, Yu-Hong

    2014-12-01

    In traditional oriental medicine, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed has been used to treat skin diseases such as furuncle, acne vulgaris and dandruff, as well as coughing, asthma and constipation. This study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial potential of the essential oil obtained from apricot seeds (Armeniacae Semen). The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Benzaldehyde (90.6%), mandelonitrile (5.2%) and benzoic acid (4.1%) were identified. Disc diffusion, agar dilution and gaseous contact methods were performed to determine the antimicrobial activity against 16 bacteria and two yeast species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 250 to 4000, 500 to 2000 and 250 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory doses by gaseous contact ranged from 12.5 to 50, 12.5 to 50 and 3.13 to 12.5 mg/L air for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast strains, respectively. The essential oil exhibited a variable degree of antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and yeasts tested. PMID:25219371

  14. Extraction and characterization of pectin methylesterase from Alyanak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, M Ümit; Şener, Aysun

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine some of the biochemical properties of pectin methylesterase (PME) from Alyanak apricot which is an important variety grown in Malatya region of Turkey. The enzyme had high activity in a pH range of 7.0-8.0 with the maximal activity occurring at pH 7.5. However, the enzyme activity at high and low pH values was very low. The optimum temperature for maximal PME activity was found to be 60 °C. The activity of PME has been enhanced by NaCl, particularly at 0.15 M. Km and Vmax values for Alyanak apricot PME using apple pectin as substrate were found to be 1.69 mg/mL (r(2) = 0.992) and 3.41 units/mL, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 30-45 °C/10 min whereas it lost nearly all of its activity at 80 °C/10 min. Ea and Z values were found to be 206.1 kJ/mol (r(2) = 0.993) and 10.62 °C (r(2) = 0.992), respectively.

  15. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  16. The effect of various drying techniques on apricot volatiles analysed using direct thermal desorption-GC-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göğüş, Fahrettin; Ozel, Mustafa Z; Lewis, Alastair C

    2007-09-15

    The volatile constituents obtained from dried Sekerpare-type apricots by direct thermal desorption were examined using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS). Various commercially used drying techniques (sun, hot air and microwaves) were employed to dry the apricot samples before desorption. Some apricots were dried using only a desiccator and the volatile desorbed from these was used as a standard. Limonene (16.33%); (E)-2-hexenal (9.32%); gamma-decalactone (7.89%); butyl acetate (6.94%); beta-ionone (5.96%); acetic acid (4.83%) and isobutanal were found to be the major components in the desiccator-dried samples. This is the first study to report the detection of isobutanal, tridecanol and 1-pentadecanol as dried apricot constituents. The profiles of the volatiles desorbed changed when other drying techniques (sun, hot air, and microwaves) were used. The major components found in samples dried by these three methods were 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2,3-dihydro-4-H-pyran-4-one and furfural. PMID:19073034

  17. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  18. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 31577-31578, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0039), in which we announced the availability, for... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which...

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing maximum residue level (MRL for acetamiprid in apricots and tree nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Greece, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Nisso Chemical Europe GmbH to set an import tolerance for the active substance acetamiprid in cherries, cucurbits, peaches/nectarines, apricots, peas without pods, plums and tree nuts from United States of America (USA. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. EFSA considered only the Maximum Residue Level (MRL requests submitted for tree nuts and apricots because for all commodities the existing European Union MRLs are set at the same level or higher than the requested import tolerance. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.7 or 0.8 mg/kg for apricots and 0.06 or 0.07 mg/kg for tree nuts. EFSA considers that adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of acetamiprid in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the use of acetamiprid on apricots and tree nuts in USA will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  20. Influence of Putrescine Application on Storability, Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Two Iranian Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The limited postharvest storage life of apricot is the focus of this study. Presenting a solution to improve the postharvest storage of studied apricot cultivars is the goal. Studding the effect of different concentration of postharvest putrescine on quality attributes and antioxidant activity of two apricot cultivars during storage is the approach taken. The two apricot cultivars (‘Lasgerdi’ and ‘Shahrodi’ were harvested at the commercial ripening stage, and fruits were immerged in 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM putrescine as well as distilled water (control for 5 min, then fruits were packed in boxes with polyethylene cover and stored at 4°C and 95% relative humidity for 20 days. The changes in weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturity index, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity were estimated after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days during storage. The results showed that the weight loss, total soluble solids, pH and maturity index increased significantly while the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity decreased significantly during storage for both cultivars. During storage, a significant difference between control and putrescine treatments in all measured parameters is observed. The putrescine treatments reduced significantly the weight loss and maintained their firmness. In this condition, the highest and lowest of titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in treatments of 4 mM putrescine and control, respectively. The data revealed that the quality of apricot fruits was improved by the use of putrescine treatment due to its effect on delaying the ripening processes.

  1. An S-locus independent pollen factor confers self-compatibility in 'Katy' apricot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zuriaga

    Full Text Available Loss of pollen-S function in Prunus self-compatible cultivars has been mostly associated with deletions or insertions in the S-haplotype-specific F-box (SFB genes. However, self-compatible pollen-part mutants defective for non-S-locus factors have also been found, for instance, in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca cv. 'Canino'. In the present study, we report the genetic and molecular analysis of another self-compatible apricot cv. termed 'Katy'. S-genotype of 'Katy' was determined as S(1S(2 and S-RNase PCR-typing of selfing and outcrossing populations from 'Katy' showed that pollen gametes bearing either the S(1- or the S(2-haplotype were able to overcome self-incompatibility (SI barriers. Sequence analyses showed no SNP or indel affecting the SFB(1 and SFB(2 alleles from 'Katy' and, moreover, no evidence of pollen-S duplication was found. As a whole, the obtained results are compatible with the hypothesis that the loss-of-function of a S-locus unlinked factor gametophytically expressed in pollen (M'-locus leads to SI breakdown in 'Katy'. A mapping strategy based on segregation distortion loci mapped the M'-locus within an interval of 9.4 cM at the distal end of chr.3 corresponding to ∼1.29 Mb in the peach (Prunus persica genome. Interestingly, pollen-part mutations (PPMs causing self-compatibility (SC in the apricot cvs. 'Canino' and 'Katy' are located within an overlapping region of ∼273 Kb in chr.3. No evidence is yet available to discern if they affect the same gene or not, but molecular markers seem to indicate that both cultivars are genetically unrelated suggesting that every PPM may have arisen independently. Further research will be necessary to reveal the precise nature of 'Katy' PPM, but fine-mapping already enables SC marker-assisted selection and paves the way for future positional cloning of the underlying gene.

  2. Scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    an exposure of 0.105 mg/kg bw associated with a non-toxic blood cyanide level of 20 micro mol (µM), and applying an uncertainty factor of 1.5 to account for toxicokinetic and of 3.16 to account for toxicodynamic inter-individual differences. In the absence of consumption data and thus using highest intakes......Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot kernels and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. Cyanide is of high acute toxicity in humans. The lethal dose is reported to be 0.5–3.5 mg/kg body weight (bw). An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg bw was derived from...... the ARfD is 0.06 and 0.37 g in toddlers and adults, respectively. Thus the ARfD would be exceeded already by consumption of one small kernel in toddlers, while adults could consume three small kernels. However, consumption of less than half of a large kernel could already exceed the ARfD in adults....

  3. Biochemical studies of some non-conventional sources of proteins. Part 7. Effect of detoxification treatments on the nutritional quality of apricot kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Adawy, T A; Rahma, E H; el-Badawey, A A; Gomaa, M A; Lásztity, R; Sarkadi, L

    1994-01-01

    Detoxification of apricot kernels by soaking in distilled water and ammonium hydroxide for 30 h at 47 degrees C decreased the total protein, non-protein nitrogen, total ash, glucose, sucrose, minerals, non-essential amino acids, polar amino acids, acidic amino acids, aromatic amino acids, antinutritional factors, hydrocyanic acid, tannins and phytic acid. On the other hand, removal of toxic and bitter compounds from apricot kernels increased the relative content of crude fibre, starch, total essential amino acids. Higher in-vitro protein digestibility and biological value was also observed. Generally, the detoxified apricot kernels were nutritionally well balanced. Utilization and incorporation of detoxified apricot kernel flours in food products is completely safe from the toxicity point of view. PMID:8145802

  4. Effects of Low Temperature Stress and INA Bacteria on Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Induction Kinetics in Young Fruit of Two Apricot Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-min; MENG Qing-rui; PENG Wei-xiu; WANG Xue-dong; ZHANG Yuan-hui; SUN Fu-zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; LI Shao-hua

    2002-01-01

    Effects of low temperature and INA bacteria on the change of chlorophyll a fluorescence inyoung fruit from two apricot cultivars were investigated. Low temperature decreased the potential activity(Fv/Fo) ,conversion efficiency of primary light energy (Fv/Fm)of PS Ⅱ and photochemical quenching (qP) inyoung fruit of two apricot cultivars. Low temperature enhanced non-photochemical quenching qN, decreasingthe quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transfer. The presence of ice nucleating active (INA) bacteria in-tensified the effects of low temperature, raised the injury temperature threshold from - 4℃ to - 2 - - 3℃.INA bacteria can be a factor to induce frost susceptibility of apricot fruit. The amount of damaged PS Ⅱ activi-ty center was related to apricot fruit size and cultivar.

  5. Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Abstract - The effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers were evaluated on biochemical markers involved in the quality of apricots (sugars, organic acids and free acidity) and technological qualities (phenolic compounds: substrates of the enzymatic browning reaction). Apricot fruits (cv. Canino) were picked in the Marrakech area (Morocco). An experimental design was carried out with four factors: N, P and K, each one at two lev...

  6. Ume (Japanese Apricot-Induced Small Bowel Obstruction with Chronic Radiation Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Hashimoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stricture formation is recognized as one of the complications of chronic radiation enteritis. Here, we present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction 16 years after pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer. Computed tomographic (CT scan of the abdomen demonstrated a 1-cm foreign body in the terminal ileum. Laparotomy revealed a stone of ume (Japanese apricot stuck in an ileal stricture, leading to complete impaction and perforation. She was successfully treated with ileocecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis without any complication. Pathological study revealed that the low compliance caused by fibrosis of the bowel wall prevented the small ume stone from passing through the irradiated ileum. Our case implies the specific risk of food-induced small bowel obstruction in patients with a history of pelvic irradiation.

  7. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-19

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  8. Phenology, production and fruit quality of new Czech apricot cultivars in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating of 14 new apricot cultivars created at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice in the Czech Republic in order to recommend the best of them for growing in the Belgrade region. The study was carried out at the Experimental station ‘Radmilovac’ of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade over a period of five years (2009-2013. The experimental orchard was established in 2007, the rootstock was Myrobalan seedling, and tree spacing was 4.5 x 3 m. The control cultivar for comparison was the clone of ‘Velkopavlovická’ cultivar (type of ‘Hungarian Best’, LE-12/2. Flowering of introduced cultivars started from three days before to one day after the control cultivar, while the maturation time ranged from 19 days earlier in cultivar ‘Leskora’ to 12 days after the control in cultivar ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926. Compared with the control cultivar, significantly higher yield was achieved only in cultivar ‘Palava’, while significantly higher fruit weight was recorded in three cultivars: ‘Candela’ (LE-2927, ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926 and ‘Betinka’ (LE-3276. Cultivars ‘Sophia’ and ‘Betinka’ got the best scores for fruit appearance, while cultivars ‘Marlen’ and ‘Lebona’ ranked the highest for fruit taste. Among studied apricot cultivars, for the cultivation in the Belgrade region, the following cultivars can be recommended as promising: ‘Palava’ (early season, ‘Betinka’ (mid-season and ‘Sophia’ (late season. Regarding the large size and attractive appearance of fruits, these cultivars are more suitable for fresh consumption, but they can also be used for processing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  9. The effects of mulch types on earliness, fruit set ratios, and yield for apricot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu YAMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to enhance earliness and fruit set, which is a crucial factor in apricot production. The study was conducted on an apricot orchard located in Serinyol town of Antakya between 2010 and 2011. In the experiment, ‘Ninfa’, ‘Bebeco’, ‘Aurora’ and ‘Roksana’ cultivars were used. The experimental cultivars were planted on 3 x 6 m in 2006 as one-year-old plants budded on seedling rootstocks. The plants have been irrigated by drip irrigation since their transplantation. In the experiment, there were four treatments as follows: control, transparent polyethylene mulch, organic mulch, and transparent polyethylene mulch + organic mulch. As plastic mulch, a 0.02 mm (UV+AB transparent plastic 1.60 cm in width; and, wheat straw as organic mulch was used. The experiment was designed as split-plot experimental design with 5 replications having 1 tree in each replication. The mulch was applied based on the physiological stages of the trees; prior to break of dormancy and opening of the buds. In the study, phenological observations (first flowering, full flowering and the end of the flowering as well as fruit set ratios, the status of vegetative development and yield were determined. As a result, in the both years, the flowering and fruit set ratios of control trees were found lower than the organic mulch or plastic mulch treated trees. Mulching treatments were enhanced 2-4 days earliness compared to control treatment for fruit maturity; and transparent polyethylene mulch + organic mulch was found partially better than the others two mulching treatments.

  10. Bitter apricot essential oil induces apoptosis of human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keyou; Yang, Wenhua; Li, Zhe; Jia, Wangwang; Li, Jiazhou; Zhang, Pengfei; Xiao, Tiancun

    2016-05-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the world's population. Conventional therapeutic approaches are not effective or necessarily safe for treating symptoms due to the serious side effects and resistance to currently prescribed drugs. Traditionally, in oriental medicine, apricot seed (Semen Armeniacae amarum) is used to treat skin diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of action has not been systematically elucidated. In the present study, the anti-proliferative effect of bitter apricot essential oil (BAEO) on cultured HaCaT cells was evaluated and the mechanism of action investigated. BAEO was isolated by hydrodistillation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified benzaldehyde (75.35%), benzoic acid (6.21%) and mandelonitrile (5.38%). HaCaT cell growth, measured by sulforhodamine B assay (SRB), was inhibited by BAEO with an IC50 value of 142.45 μg/ml. Apoptosis of HaCaT cells treated with BAEO was detected by cell cycle, flow cytometry, and western blot analyses. These measurements revealed G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, elevated numbers of early and late stage apoptotic cells, and caspases-3/8/9 and PARP activation. Z-VAD-FMK, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, attenuated BAEO-induced apoptosis. Also, increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 levels suggest that BAEO-induced apoptosis is mediated through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, reduced Rel/NF-κB levels suggest that BAEO-mediated apoptosis is also associated with inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. These data suggest that BAEO is a naturally occurring material that functions as a potent pro-apoptotic factor for human keratinocytes. Thus, it is a promising candidate to treat psoriasis. PMID:26971222

  11. Survey of Apricot Tree Disease in Southern Xinjiang%新疆南疆杏树病害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋萍; 赵莉; 李文慧; 阿依努尔·塔依尔

    2012-01-01

    The result of survey about apricot disease species and occurrence in July and August, 2010 showed that there were ten species of apricot diseases in southern Xingjiang. There were fungal and bacterial hole disease, yellow synthetic symptom and chloroyic leaf roll in leaf. There were gummosis disease, decayed disease and wood rotten disease in branches and trunks. There were rotten disease in roots and stems of seedings. There were cracks, spots disease in fruits (its pathogen is the same as leaf-hole) and mouldy rotten disease of fruits in storage. Apricot gummosis and hole disease occurred universally; Apricot chloroyic leafroll existed only in Luntai county and spreaded rapidly. The average infection rate was 94. 8%,the average index of disease was 45. 5 in the field investigation of major planting territories in southern Xinjiang. The situation of disease occurrence was comparatively severe. The state of disease of Luntai county was not serious,the most serious in Kuche apricot garden,the state of disease of Hetian and Kashi was between Luntai and Kuche. Eventually the gummosis cause was analysed and the strategy of preventing apricot gummosis disease was presented.%2010年7月至8月对新疆南疆杏树病害调查结果表明:南疆杏树现有10种病害,叶部病害有真菌性穿孔病、细菌性穿孔病、黄化综合症、褪绿卷叶病;枝干病害有流胶病、腐烂病及立木腐朽病;根部病害有苗木根腐病;果实病害主要有裂果病、果斑病(病原同穿孔病)及贮藏期果实霉烂.穿孔病、流胶病普遍发生;褪绿卷叶病仅分布于轮台,扩展蔓延速度快.南疆杏树主栽区流胶病平均发病株率为94.8%,平均病情指数为45.5,病情较严重,轮台杏园发病相对最轻,库车杏园的病情最严重,和田、喀什介于两者之间.最后分析了流胶原因并提出防治策略.

  12. Mechanical property evaluation of apricot fruits under quasi-static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some forces and impacts that occur during transporting and handling can reduce the apricot quality. Bruise damage is a major cause of fruit quality loss. Bruises occur under dynamic and static loading when stress induced in the fruit exceeds the failure stress of the fruit tissue. Needless to say that physical and mechanical properties of fruits in the design and optimization of systems related to production, processing and packaging of the products are important. Harvesting, transport, packaging and transportation of fruits and vegetables, result in their bruising which can cause loss of marketability of the fruit by consumers. The term of ‘absorbed energy’ could be used to express the quantity of damage done on the fruit and the high the absorbed energy, the higher the damage on the fruit. The object of this research was due to the importance of apricot fruit and lack of information about the mechanical behavior. Materials and Methods: In this study, apricot fruit variety “Ziaolmolki” was examined to determine some physical and mechanical properties. In order avoid any damage, the fruits were carefully harvested from trees and gathered in plastic boxes in a row, to prevent damage to the apricots. For determination of mechanical properties and levels of impact energy used test axial machine and pendulum device, respectively. Dependent variables (acoustics stiffness, radius of curvature, color characteristic a* and b*, Brix percentage, penetration force, penetration work and penetration deformation and independent variables (impact energy in three levels, temperature and color in 2 levels each were selected and analyzed by block designs with factorial structure. In the experimental design, the fruits were stored in two temperature levels, 3oC and 25oC. Two areas of any fruit (red and yellow areas were subjected to 3 impact energy levels. For each of the 8 levels, 8 fruit samples were selected. Overall, 96 fruits {8 (number

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  14. Adsorption of gold ions from industrial wastewater using activated carbon derived from hard shell of apricot stones - an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mansooreh; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2008-09-01

    In this study, hard shell of apricot stones was selected from agricultural solid wastes to prepare effective and low cost adsorbent for the gold separation from gold-plating wastewater. Different adsorption parameters like adsorbent dose, particle size of activated carbon, pH and agitation speed of mixing on the gold adsorption were studied. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions, more than 98% of gold was adsorbed onto activated carbon after only 3h. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Isotherms have been used to obtain thermodynamic parameters. Gold desorption studies were performed with aqueous solution mixture of sodium hydroxide and organic solvents at ambient temperatures. Quantitative recovery of gold ions is possible by this method. As hard shell of apricot stones is a discarded as waste from agricultural and food industries, the prepared activated carbon is expected to be an economical product for gold ion recovery from wastewater. PMID:18178431

  15. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.; Zayed, R.; Abozid, M.; Asker, M. M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO) and pumpkin kernel oil (PO) on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over...

  16. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves in ruminant using in situ method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chemical composition and in situ rumen dry matter degradability (DMD of some tree species (cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves were determined. Crude protein (CP concentration varied from 6.76% for almond tree to 2.76% for cherry tree, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, from 29.2, 20.8% for apricot tree to 20.8 and 15.8% for almond tree leaves respectively. Polyphenol and tannin composition measured from 3.49, 1.2% for almond tree to 1.51 and 0.61% for apricot tree, respectively. In situ rumen degradability was carried out in three fistulaed Taleshi native male cattle which were incubated at times of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hour. Almond leaves had higher potential degradation (a+b for dry matter (92.37% and cherry leaves showed lower potential degradation (84.12%, respectively. Effective rumen degradable dry matter at rate of 0.05/h varied from 69.86% for almond tree to 52.20% for cherry leaves. Results showed that the almond leaves were higher in nutritive value than cherry and apricot leaves. Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant’s nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of these resources.

  17. Fruit Quality and Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Cultivars as Affected by Genotypes and Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan CALISKAN; Safder BAYAZIT; Ahmet SUMBUL

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted over two growing seasons (2010 and 2011) to evaluate effects on fruit quality and phytochemical properties of new Turkish cultivars, hybrid between Irano-Caucasian- and European eco-geographic groups, and some important apricot cultivars in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Fruit quality characteristics, sensory traits, and phytochemical parameters were investigated. The data showed that considerable variation existed in fruit quality and phytochemical prope...

  18. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  19. Impact of different drying parameters on color, β-carotene, antioxidant activity and minerals of apricot (Prunus armeniacaL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bige İNCEDAYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apricot is one of the fruits dried by using different methods, such as sun, convective or microwave drying. The effects of drying methods on the components of this fruit differ depending upon the temperature or time parameters. In this research, the impacts of convective, microwave and microwave–convective drying techniques on color, β-carotene, minerals and antioxidant activity of apricots were investigated. The color values (L*, b*,ΔEab, h° and C*ab of dried fruit were decreased, while the a* values increased. Compared with a fresh sample, the dried apricots showed a 1.4-3.9-fold proportional increase in β-carotene based on the increment of dry matter. The samples dried at high temperature and microwave levels, at 75 °C+90 watt and 75 °C+160 watt, showed lower antioxidant activity. Of the different drying treatments, the microwave-convective method (50 °C+160 watt obtained a higher β-carotene content while maintaining antioxidant activity with a short drying time.

  20. Species of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Apricot and the Relationship Between Their Activity and Flower Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fu-Zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; YANG Jian-min; CAO Xiao-yu; TANG Chao-rong; MENG Qing-rui

    2001-01-01

    During 1996- 1997, sixty samples were collected from apricot in Hebei Province, from which nineteen ice nucleation active bacterial strains were isolated. Nine stains were identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae by bacteriological determination, while the others were Erwinia uredovora. Assay of ice nucleation activity (INA) showed the activity of the Pseudomonas strains was higher than that of the Erwinia.According to the number of bacterial cells required to produce one ice nucleus active at - 3℃, four stains was classified as strong ones, three as medium-strong, the remainder as weak. In general, the INA of these strains were regarded as medium-strong. Under stress of Iow temperatures, treatment of INA bacteria can greatly raised relative electric conductivity of petals and permeability of cell membrane. The treated petals showed symptoms of serious frost at - 3 - - 4℃ and had supercooling points of 2 - 3℃ higher than controls. Our results demon strated that INA bacteria are one major factor to incite frost damage to apricot flowers. We may reduce frost injury to apricot during flowering phage through control of INA bacteria.

  1. Fruit Quality and Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. Cultivars as Affected by Genotypes and Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan CALISKAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted over two growing seasons (2010 and 2011 to evaluate effects on fruit quality and phytochemical properties of new Turkish cultivars, hybrid between Irano-Caucasian- and European eco-geographic groups, and some important apricot cultivars in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Fruit quality characteristics, sensory traits, and phytochemical parameters were investigated. The data showed that considerable variation existed in fruit quality and phytochemical properties of Turkish, and foreign apricot cultivars based on genotypes and growing seasons. The new hybrid cultivar ‘Çağataybey’ contained the highest total soluble solid content (14.6%, rich total phenolic (93.9 mg GAE 100g-1 fw, and total antioxidant capacity levels (9.8 mmol Fe2+ kg-1 fw, and >50% of blush color on the fruit peels among the cultivars. The fructose and sucrose values showed positively significant correlations with total phenolics (r = 0.55 and r = 0.69, at p< 0.05, respectively. The authors had estimated that the data will be useful for breeding studies to improve fruit quality and nutritional contents of apricot cultivars.

  2. Comparison of various easy-to-use procedures for extraction of phenols from apricot fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitka, Ondrej; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Skalickova, Sylvie; Sobrova, Pavlina; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N) using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM), quercitrin (4 µM) and quercetin (4 µM). Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was found in amounts of

  3. Comparison of Various Easy-to-Use Procedures for Extraction of Phenols from Apricot Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Adam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM, quercitrin (4 µM and quercetin (4 µM. Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was

  4. 世界杏研究态势分析%Analysis of Situation and Tendency of Apricot Research in World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立娟; 苑兆和; 尹燕雷; 招雪晴; 李英朋

    2014-01-01

    基于Web of Science数据库,利用文献计量学方法,分析了2001~2012年世界发表杏文献的类型、年度发文量,居世界前20名国家、机构、作者、期刊和学科归属等情况。结果表明:检索到2001~2012年间全球共发表杏文献1617篇,文献类型以学术论文为主;论文产出量逐年升高,2011年文献量最高(202篇),约是2001年的3.48倍;土耳其、西班牙、意大利、美国和法国文献量居世界前5位;西班牙国家土壤和应用生物学研究委员会、法国农业科学研究院、土耳其伊诺努大学、土耳其阿塔图克大学和意大利博洛尼亚大学杏文献数量位居前列,南京农业大学和中国农业大学分别位居世界第十和第十九位;最有学术影响力的作者来自西班牙;主要的核心期刊是《Scientia Horticulturae》《Hortscience》《Journal of Horticultural Science Biotechnology》《Food Chemistry》和《Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry》;主要的研究学科是农业、食品科学与技术、植物科学、化学和工程学。%The published apricot literatures in the world from 2001 to 2012 were studied by using bibliometric method based on Web of Science database .The published apricot literature type , the number of annual literature , and the top 20 countries , research institutes, core authors, key journals and disciplines in the world were analyzed .The results indicated that a total of 1617 apricot literatures in the world during 2001~2012 were searched .The literature type of apricot was mainly academic paper .The output of apricot literature increased year by year in the world .The number of apricot literature was the highest (202) in the year 2011, which was about 3.48 times of that in the year 2001.The top five literature-prolific countries were Turkey , Spain, Italy, the Unit-ed States and France .The top institutions with high academic achievement were CEBAS CSIC , INRA, Inonu

  5. Growth and Evaluation of Almond-Apricot in Baiyushan Hilly Area%白于山区仁用杏生长状况与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白岗栓; 杜社妮; 侯喜录

    2004-01-01

    In Baiyushan hilly area, the roots system of almond-apricot mainly distributes vertically in the subsoil from 30 cm to 80 cm and horizontally distributes from 50 cm to 180 cm around the trunk. There are three growing peaks of the roots in a year and July-peak is the tallest one. From March to July is water losing period in subsoil of almond-apricot orchard, water losing is mainly from the aubsoil above 200 cm. There are three growing peaks for extending shoots and only one peak for fruit shoots in a vear. Fruit set percentage of almond-apricot is 15.61 %, of which short fruit branches are 22.62%, long fruit branches are 8.56%. Although there are differences in the growth of almond-apricot trees gown in slope lands with different elevation,aspects, and slopes, all trees grow well. Except frostbite harming, Baiyushan hilly area could be a better commodity production base of almond-apricot.

  6. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  7. Chemical Composition of Apricot Pit Shells and Effect of Hot-Water Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Corbett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, wheat straw, and nut shells show promise as feedstocks for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their relatively high polysaccharide content and low or no nutritional value for human consumption. Apricot pit shells (APS were studied in this work to assess their potential for use in a biorefinery. Hot water extraction (HWE; 160 °C, 2 h, proposed to remove easily accessible hemicelluloses, was performed to evaluate the susceptibility of APS to this mild pretreatment process. The chemical composition of APS before and after HWE (EAPS was analyzed by standard methods and 1H-NMR. A low yield of the remaining HW-extracted APS (~59% indicated that APS are highly susceptible to this pretreatment method. 1H-NMR analysis of EAPS revealed that ~77% of xylan present in raw APS was removed along with ~24% of lignin. The energy of combustion of APS was measured before and after HWE showing a slight increase due to HWE (1.61% increase. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS, proposed as a quick non-invasive method of biomass analysis, was performed. NIRS corroborated results of traditional analysis and 1H-NMR. Determination of antioxidizing activity (AOA of APS extracts was also undertaken. AOA of organic APS extracts were shown to be more than 20 times higher than that of a synthetic antioxidizing agent.

  8. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars. PMID:18541164

  9. Stability of astaxanthin in yogurt used to simulate apricot color, under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cerezal Mezquita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate astaxanthin to yogurts with different fat content to match apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. color. The samples containing astaxanthin were stored at 5 ± 3 °C, and color stability and astaxanthin content were determined by colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Yogurt samples were analyzed in triplicate every 24 hours for one week and subsequently every week for 3 more weeks There were no significant differences (p < 0.05 between astaxanthin concentration values at 0 and 28 days for both samples; therefore, it can be said that the fat content in the yogurt had not effect on the stability of pigment. The low dispersion of the data showed uniformity in the three chromaticity coordinates L*, a*, b* throughout the storage period for both types of yogurt. Values of ∆E ≥ 5.0 were not obtained at any time during storage, indicating high stability of the pigment.

  10. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evica MRATINIĆ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04, soluble solids content in ZO-1/03, titratable acidity in ZL-2/03, SS/TA ratio in ZL-1/03, and fruit mass and flesh/stone ratio in DL-1/1/04 genotype. The most number of genotypes have orange and deep orange skin and flesh colour, respectively, whereas sweet kernel taste was predominant in most genotypes. Regarding physical-mechanical properties, the superior fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter and surface area observed in DL-1/1/04 genotype, whereas the highest sphericity and surface area observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04 genotypes. Also, the series of genotypes evaluated have better chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties than Hungarian Best (control. Finally, information about these properties is very important for understanding the behaviour of the product during the postharvest operations.

  11. 两种杏的幼胚培养%Young embryo culture on two apricot varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑华; 王延秀; 陈佰鸿; 朱永超; 党兆霞

    2015-01-01

    Embryo rescue techniques are the effective ways to overcome the fruit tree hybrid embryos early abortive.In order to find out basic methods of immature embryo culture into seedlings,two apricot varieties (cvs.‘Yellow River’and ‘Golden Sun’)with different developmental stages of young embryo was used as materials.The influence of embryo age,the basic medium and plant growth regulator was stud-ied on young embryo germination and seedling.The results showed that the genotype,embryo development index (PF),medium significantly affected young embryo germination and seedling.Different varieties along with the increase of PF value in the young embryo germination rate.PF value of ‘Yellow River’apricot at 0.92 had the highest germination rate,with 61.90%.PF value of ‘Golden Sun’’apricot at 0.95 had the highest germination rate,with 71.00%.The optimum medium for young embryo germination ‘Yellow Riv-er’was MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+0.1 mg/L+IAA GA 2.0 mg/L,germination rate was 55.67%.The opti-mum medium for young embryo germination'Golden Sun'was 1/2 MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+IAA 0.1 mg/L, germination rate was 88.67%.The optimum transgenerational medium for ‘Yellow River’was MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L + IAA 0.5 mg/L,seedling rate was 75.00%.The optimum transgenerational medium for‘Golden Sun’was MS+6-BA 0.25 mg/L+ IAA 0.1 mg/L,seedling rate was 44.44%.Two apricot germ, The rooting rate of young shoots in 1/3 MS medium was higher than that in 1/2 MS medium.%胚挽救技术是目前克服果树杂种胚早期败育的有效途径,为了探明‘黄河’‘金太阳’两个杏品种幼胚培养成苗的基本方法,以两种杏不同发育期的幼胚为试验材料,利用组织培养的方法研究了胚龄、基本培养基、植物生长调节剂等因素对幼胚萌发、成苗的影响.结果表明:基因型、胚发育指数(PF)、培养基均显著影响幼胚萌发与成苗.不同品种均随 PF 值的增大幼胚萌发

  12. Effects of Sulphurization Duration of Doses and Cold Storage on SO2 Content of Dried Apricot Fruits of cv. ‘Hacihaliloglu’

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Kadir; Konak, Ramazan; Bulent OZTURK; ATAY, Salih; Belgin CELIK; Makbule YANAR; Mehmet Naim DEMİRTAS; Sezai ERCISLI

    2011-01-01

    The study was carried out between 2004 and 2005 years in Malatya Fruit Research Institute. The fumigation of 1600, 1800 or 2000 g SO2 were applied for 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hr after harvest on dried ‘Hacihaliloglu’ apricot fruits. The loss of SO2, product moisture (%), product temperature, acidity (%), pH and the colour of the apricot fruits were determined after the drying processes on the wooden trays following the SO2 fumigation and during storage periods. The results showed that the average...

  13. 杏果糕的加工工艺研究%Study on Processing Technology of Apricot Fruit Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯智德; 林银巧; 王陈强; 江英

    2014-01-01

    以杏为原料生产杏果糕,选用卡拉胶、果胶复配型胶凝剂,并确定了杏糕的最佳配方为:原杏果浆45%、麦芽糖浆30%、复合胶2.5%、蔗糖20%。杏糕的工艺参数为:熬煮温度为95~100℃,熬煮后可固含量为45%~50%,烘烤条件为第一阶段,65℃烘烤4h,第二阶段,50℃,正面干燥18h,反面干燥6h,所制得的杏果糕色泽金黄,表面光滑,富有弹性,柔韧、爽滑可口、风味浓厚。%Apricot was chosen to prepare fruit jelly by pectin and carrageenan complex. The optimum conditions were as follows:the original apricot puree 45%, maltose syrup 30%, carrageenan and pectin (1:1) 2.5%, sugar 20%. Apricot jelly processing parameters were as follows:solids content of 45%to 50%at boiling temperature of 95~100℃;and the fruit jelly at 65℃baked for 4h in the first stage, as well as the second stage, the fruit jelly at 50℃was dried for 18h, then opposite dried for 6h. The fruit jelly was in golden color, smooth, flexible, slippery and delicious.

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 degree centigrade 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 degree centigrade), 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil), 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell), 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O{sub 2}/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97%) followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%), palmitic (3.35-5.93%), linolenic (0.73-1.03%) and stearic (1.10-1.68%) acids. The contents of {alpha}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleo chemical applications. (Author) 55 refs.

  15. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fenpyrazamine in almonds, grapes, apricots, peaches and strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Austria, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Sumitomo Chemical Agro Europe SAS to set import tolerances for the active substance fenpyrazamine in almonds, grapes and strawberries from the United States of America (USA. Austria received a second application from the above cited company to modify the existing MRLs for fenpyrazamine in peaches, including nectarines, apricots and strawberries reflecting the intended uses in the EU. Austria proposed the MRL of 3 mg/kg in strawberries, peaches and apricots, 0.01 mg/kg in almonds, which corresponds to the limit of quantification (LOQ, whereas no amendment of the existing MRL of 3 mg/kg for grapes was required. Austria drafted two separate evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive the following MRL proposal: 0.01*mg/kg for almonds, 3 mg/kg for strawberries and 4 mg/kg for peaches, including nectarines and similar hybrids. An amendment of the existing MRL on grapes is not necessary, while the data are not sufficient to propose a MRL for the intended uses on apricots. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of fenpyrazamine in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of fenpyrazamine on almonds, grapes, peaches and strawberries will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  16. Effect of nitrogen form (ammonium and nitrate) on quantitative and qualitative indices of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Apricot parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, H.; M. Babalar; H. Lesani; Naderi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of nutrient solutions on quantitative and qualitative indices of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana cv. Apricot parrot) were studied in a completely randomized design with 5 nutrient solutions, 4 experimental units and 3 replications. Plants were fed with five nutrient solutions (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) having NH4+-N/total N ratios of 0, 0.038, 0.074, 0.11 and 0.14, respectively. All nutrient solutions had similar concentrations of mineral elements. The five treatments consisted of 2.5 meq/L tot...

  17. High-level genetic diversity and complex population structure of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L. in China as revealed by nuclear SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    Full Text Available Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L., an ecologically and economically important tree species with a high degree of tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, is widely distributed across the mountains of northeastern and northern China, eastern and southeastern regions of Mongolia, Eastern Siberia, and the Maritime Territory of Russia. However, few studies have examined the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Using 31 nuclear microsatellites, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot sampled from 22 populations across China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 33, with an average of 19.323 alleles. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.037 to 0.874 and 0.040 to 0.924 with average values of 0.639 and 0.774, respectively. A STRUCTURE-based analysis clustered all of the populations into four genetic clusters. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between all population pairs. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance attributed about 94% of the variation to within populations. No significant difference was detected between the wild and semi-wild groups, indicating that recent cultivation practices have had little impact on the genetic diversity of Siberian apricot. The Mantel test showed that the genetic distance among the populations was not significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.4651, p = 0.9940. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot in China to date, and it provides valuable information for the collection of genetic resources for the breeding of Siberian apricot and related species.

  18. Effects of various sulphuring methods and storage temperatures on the physical and chemical quality of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Ali Levent; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Aksu, Özge Turfan; Koç, Betül Erkan; Yemiş, Oktay; Özkan, Mehmet

    2013-12-15

    The effects of different sulphuring methods, i.e. sulphuring by "burning the elemental sulphites (BES)," "SO2 gas from liquified SO2 tank (SG)" and "dipping into sodium metabisulphite solution (DSM)" on the colour (brown colour formation and carotenoid degradation) and the loss of SO2 in apricots from Hacıhaliloğlu and Kabaaşı varieties stored at 5, 20 and 30 °C for a year were investigated. There were significant effects of variety, sulphuring method and especially storage at 30 °C on the brown colour formation and loss of SO2 (P0.05). The changes in L(*), b(*) and C(*) values were directly associated with β-carotene content and browning values. The most suitable method for all samples, except for Hacıhaliloğlu variety stored at 30 °C (BES), is SG, because the samples retained their attractive golden yellow colour during storage.

  19. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium (q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG 0), enthalpy (ΔH 0) and entropy (ΔS 0) were determined and the positive value of (ΔH) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  20. Study on Preservability of the Low-sugar Preserved Apricots%低糖杏脯保藏性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖亮; 许建; 李瑾瑜; 朱正兰; 李焕荣

    2013-01-01

    Taking saimaiti apricots in Kuche Xinjiang as raw material,the preservability of low-sugar preserved apricots was researched.Sensory quality,color stability,microbiological stabilization as evaluation index,the influences of water content of preserved apricots,different color fixative,color fixative dosage,and water activity of preserved apricots on preservability of products were studied.The resuits showed that the effect of water content was significant on microbiological stabilization but not on the color stability.0.1% sulfite addition level of protection was available to good color effect.The storage stability of low-sugar apricot was good and had the best taste and good color when the moisture content of low-sugar apricot was in the range of 19% to 21% with vacuum packaging low-temperature storage.%以新疆库车赛买提杏为原料制作低糖杏脯,并研究其保藏性.以低糖杏脯的感官品质、色泽稳定性、微生物稳定性为评价指标,研究杏脯水分含量、护色剂种类及添加量、杏脯水分活度等因素对制品保藏性的影响.试验结果表明,低糖杏脯在贮藏过程中,水分含量对其色泽稳定性影响不显著,但对其微生物稳定性影响显著.低糖杏脯在加工过程中采用0.1%亚硫酸盐护色,控制水分含量(20±1)%左右,采用真空包装,在常温贮藏条件下能够保证低糖杏脯品质的稳定性.

  1. Studies on Diversity of Arthropod Community in Orchards of Apricot-wheat Intercropping System%不同树龄杏麦间作园节肢动物群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滋林; 赵莉; 范毅; 张鲁豫; 贾晓江

    2011-01-01

    The series dynamics were systematically studied to reveal the composition structure and species diversity of arthropods community in different aged apricot orchard under apricot-wheat intercropping system. The survey uncovered that 189 species in 61 families from 13 orders were obtained from young apricot orchards intercropped with wheat,and 192 species in 59 families from 13 orders of old apricot orchards intercropped with wheat,and 120 species in 46 families from 12 orders of old apricot orchards intercropped without wheat. Homoptera insects were the dominant herbivorous groups. There are more arthropod species in old apricot orchards than young apricot orchards intercropped with wheat. The result showed that species diversity related to the phenological period of the apricots and were affected by the intercropping plants and environment coditions. The related correlations between different subunit systems were analyzed with Jaccard similarity indexes and cluster methodology. The result showed that apricot orchards intercropped with wheat can increase the arthropod species and improve the stability of the apricot system.%为揭示在杏麦间作模式下不同树龄杏园节肢动物群落的组成结构及多样性时序动态,调查发现在幼龄的杏麦间作园有节肢动物13目61科189种,老龄杏麦间作园有节肢动物13目59科192种,老龄不间作杏园有节肢动物12目46科120种,同翅目昆虫为优势种,是主要的植食性类群,间作小麦的老龄杏园比幼龄杏园聚集着较为丰富的物种.杏园节肢动物群落的物种多样性与杏树的物候期有关,并受间作物和环境条件的影响,用Jaccard 相似性系数和系统聚类法分析了各亚系统之间的相关关系,结果表明杏园间作小麦可以增加杏园节肢动物的物种数和提高系统的稳定性.

  2. Comparison of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction with Simultaneous Steam Distillation Extraction for the Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in Chinese Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-xia; CHEN Xue-sen; WANG Xin-guo; CI Zhi-juan; LIU Xiao-li; HE Tian-ming; ZHANG Li-jie

    2006-01-01

    Volatile constituents in fully mature fruits of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Xinshiji were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SSDE) and then analyzed using capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 70 components were identified by HSSPME, including 20 esters, 19 hydrocarbons, 5 alcohols, 5 ketones, 4 acids, 4 lactones, 3 aldehydes, and 10 miscellaneous components, with the esters being the dominant constituent. On the basis of the odor unit values, it is believed that the following compounds probably contributed to the fresh apricot odor: hexyl acetate, β-ionone, butyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal,linalool, limonene, γ-decalactone, and hexanal. A total of 49 components were also detected by SSDE, including 13 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 9 esters, 4 ketones, 4 lactones, 2 acids, and 1 miscellaneous component, of which the monoterpene alcohols were the dominant constituents. It could be judged from the odor unit values that the following compounds were the major contributors to boiled apricot aroma: β-ionone, linalool, hexyl acetate, γ-dodecalactone, γ-decalactone, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, γ-octalactone, phenylacetaldehyde, butyl acetate, limonene, α-terpineol, and δ-decalactone.The results show that HS-SPME is a simple, rapid, and solvent-free method, which is an alternative to the classical SSDE.

  3. 乌鲁木齐南山杏树种植气候条件分析%Analysis on Cultivation Climate Conditions of Apricot Trees in Nanshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉萍

    2012-01-01

    Based on the climate data from Urumqi Nanshan mountains, the climate conditions for planting apricot trees were analyzed. The results showed that heat, frost-free period, precipitation, sunshine intensity and other weather conditions in Urumqi Nanshan mountains are fit for the growth of apricots. In order to avoid freezing disaster in winter, apricot trees should be planted in a strong temperature inversion area. Frost Damage rate was 19.6% which was within mild risk degree during the flowering and fruiting period in spring. This study provides reference for the reasonable adjustment of cropping industry in local area.%利用乌鲁木齐南山山区历史气象资料,进行了杏树种植的气候条件分析。结果表明:乌鲁木齐南山的热量、无霜期、降水、光照等气候条件基本可以满足杏树的生长需求;为了避免冬季冻害,应选择在逆温强的地带发展杏树;春季花果期霜冻灾损率为19.6%,处于中轻度风险区。

  4. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L. Germplasm using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Niu

    Full Text Available Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has been applied in a vast range of studies of gene expression analysis. However, real-time PCR data must be normalized with one or more reference genes. In this study, eleven putative consistently expressed genes (ACT, TUA, TUB, CYP, DNAj, ELFA, F-box27, RPL12, GAPDH, UBC and UBQ in nine Siberian Apricot Germplasms (including much variability were evaluated for their potential as references for the normalization of gene expression by NormFinder and geNorm programs. From our studies, ACT, UBC, CYP, UBQ and RPL12 as suitable for normalization were identified by geNorm, while UBC and CYP as the best pair by NormFinder. Moreover, UBC was selected as the most stably expressed gene by both algorithms in different Siberian Apricot seed samples. We also detected that a set of three genes (ACT, CYP and UBC by geNorm as control for normalization could lead to accurate results. Furthermore, the expression levels of oleosin gene were analyzed to validate the suitability of the selected reference genes. These obtained experimental results could make an important contribution to normalize real-time PCR data for gene expression analysis in Siberian Apricot Germplasm.

  5. Studies on the Stability of Apricot Nectar Beverage%新疆小白杏果汁饮料的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岳成; 鲍若晗; 陈杰; 叶安丹

    2012-01-01

    The stability of apricot nectar beverage made from concentrated apricot pulp produced in Sinkiang was studied. Single factor test and rotation-regression-orthogonal experiments were carried out to investigated the effect of different stabilizer on the stability of apricot beverage. The mathematical evaluation model was set up based on 3 main component indexes selectcd by principal component analysis with sedimentation, absorbance of supernatant, sensory assessment and viscosity as evaluating index, the compound stabilizer was optimized as pectin 0.35%o, gellan 0.18%o, xan-than 0.10%o.%以新疆浓缩小白杏浆还原加工成50%果肉型杏汁饮料,采用单因素和三元二次回归正交旋转组合实验.以离心沉淀率、上清液吸光度、感官稳定性和黏度为指标,评价不同稳定剂对杏汁的稳定效果.通过因子分析提取3个主成分指标,构建综合评价模型,筛选出最佳复配稳定剂组合为:果胶0.35%、结冷胶0.18%、黄原胶0.10‰.

  6. Study on Technology of Low-souger and Sulfur-free Preserved Apricots%无硫低糖杏脯生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 张永茂

    2011-01-01

    以鲜杏为原料,以氯化钙、氯化钠、柠檬酸、D-异抗坏血酸钠作为护色剂,通过单因素及L16(45)正交试验,研究不同护色剂对杏脯质量的影响,确定无硫低糖杏脯生产的最佳的无硫护色工艺条件为:杏果经清洗、去皮、硬化后在含0.3%氯化钙、0.6%柠檬酸、0.6%氯化钠、0.3%D-异抗坏血酸钠制得的护色液烫漂,再放入0.5%的明胶溶液中浸胶,用40%的糖液第一次糖煮,真空糖渍24h,再用45%糖液进行第二次糖煮,真空糖渍24h,用55-65℃温度的烘房烤制,制得的杏脯品质最好.该方法与传统果脯生产方法相比,具有产品安全性高、含糖量低等优点.%Fresh apricots as raw materials and calcium chloride, sodium chloride, citric acid, and D-erythorbate sodium as color protection, effects of different color protection on apricot quality was determine by a single factor and through L16(45) orthogonal experiment.The best conditions of sulfur-free low-sugar apricot production are apricot fruit by washing, peeling, after hardening in calcium chloride containing. The solution was composed of 0.3% calcium chloride,0.6% citric acid, 0.6% sodium chloride, and 0.3% D-sodium erythorbate,protect the color obtained by blanching liquid, then add 0.5% gelatin solution, 40% of the sugar with sugar and cook for the first time, vacuum sugar stains 24h, then 45% sugar the second sugar boiling liquid, vacuum vugar stains 24h, with 55 - 65 ℃ temperature drying room, roasted,apricot obtained the best quality. Compared with the traditional methods, our method has advantages of having safe products and low sugar content.

  7. 复合护色剂对杏片干制中护色效果的研究%Color-preservation effects of compound reagent on dried apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过利敏; 邹淑萍; 孟伊娜; 张谦

    2012-01-01

    Choosing Saimaiti-apricots,one of main cultivars in Xinjiang, as the main raw material,effects of different inhibitors on browning degree of fresh-cut apricot during solar-drying were investigated.The results showed that 0.1%-0.2% citric acid, Vc 〉 0.02%, 0.1% - 0.2% NaCI and sodium sulfite 〉 0.02% showed good anti- browning effects on fresh-cut apricots during solar-drying period.q (34) test showed that the optimum compound reagent for color-protection of fresh-cut apricots was a mixture of 0.1% citric acid, 0.03% Vc, 0.1% NaCI and 0.04% sodium sulfite.After using the compound reagent,the fresh-cut apricot slices had maintained its original color and the value were:L * =22.92,a, =9.26,b * = 19.4.%以新疆主栽品种赛买提杏为主要原料,开展不同褐变抑制剂对鲜切杏片在太阳能干制(solar-drying,简称sD)过程中护色效果的研究。实验结果表明,柠檬酸在初始浓度范围0.1%-0.2%、抗坏血酸浓度在〉0.02%、氯化钠在初始浓度范围0.1%-0.2%、亚硫酸钠浓度在〉0.02%时,对鲜切杏片的褐变均有抑制作用。采用k(3。)正交实验,利用各种护色剂的协同作用,最终得到最佳的复合护色液:O.1%柠檬酸+0.03%抗坏血酸+0.1%氯化钠+0.04%亚硫酸钠。经复合护色液处理后的鲜切杏片在干制后色差值为:L*=22.92,a*=9.26,b%=19.4,均比对照高,能较好地维持其原有色泽。

  8. Study of the Technology of Spray Drying for Apricot Powder%杏粉喷雾干燥工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 于佳佳; 陈恺; 朱正兰; 李焕荣

    2012-01-01

    [目的]试验以浓缩杏浆为原料,经稀释、二次均质、喷雾干燥工序生产杏粉.[方法]采用单因素实验和正交实验研究进风温度、出风温度、雾化器转速、浆料可溶性固形物含量对杏粉的色泽、含水率、得率的影响.[结果]最终确定了杏粉最佳喷雾干燥工艺参数为:进风温度155℃,出风温度75℃,蠕动泵转速为29r/min,浆料可溶性固形物含量为11%时,所得杏粉的L值为69.35、b值为31.28、水分含量3.5%、集粉率56%.[结论]杏粉果香浓郁、色泽最佳.%[Objective]In this study, concentrated apricot pulp was used as raw materials, and through dilution, the second homogenization treatment, apricot beverage powder was successfully produced by sprayed drying procedure. [Method]Single - factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were applied to study the effect of inlet and outlet temperatures, atomizer rotating speed, pulp soluble solids content on apricot powder color, moisture content, and the yield. [Result] Ultimately the best apricot powder spray process parameters were determined; the inlet temperature should be at 1551, the outlet temperature 75?, peristaltic pump speed 29 r/min, pulp soluble solids content was 11% ; the apricot power L value was 69.35; 6 value 31.28; moisture content was 3.5% ; collection rate of the powder was 56%. [Conclusion] The product is fruity and the color is appealing.

  9. Seasonal Variation of Cumulative CO2 Emission from a Vertisol Under Apricot Orchard in Semi-Arid Southeast Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting the CO2 emission from agricultural practices is crucial for global warming.A study was performed in an apricot orchard field in the experimental farm of the Harran University,Southeast Turkey,to i) quantify weekly and seasonal variations of the CO2 emissions from a Vertisol under apricot orchard; ii) evaluate the difference in CO2 emission between the area under trees and rows; and iii) assess the relationships between the amounts of CO2 emissions and environmental parameters for better use and management of the soils from the view point of carbon balance and flux in a semi-arid environment under drip irrigation.Soil CO2 emission measurements were performed during May 2008 and May 2010,from both under tree crowns (CO2-UC) and between tree rows (CO2-BR),on a weekly basis in southeast Turkey with a semi-arid climate.CO2 emissions were statistically correlated with weather and soil parameters such as air temperature,relative humidity,rainfall,soil water content,and soil temperature at various depths from 5 to 100 cm.The weekly emissions ranged from 82 to 1 110 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 and from 96 to 782 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 in CO2-UC and CO2-BR,respectively.Increase in CO2 emission in the second year was due to increases in mean air and soil temperatures.The weekly and monthly cumulative CO2 emissions were positively correlated with the air and soil temperatures.Multiple linear regression analysis explained 35% and 83% variations in average weekly and monthly CO2 emissions,by using meteorological data.Including the interaction effects of meteorological parameters in regression equations nearly doubled the variance explained by the regression models.According to stepwise regression analysis,soil and air temperatures were found to have the most significant impact on the temporal variability of the soil CO2 emission.

  10. Creating New Germplasm by Distant Hybridization in Stone Fruits:Ⅱ-Embryo Rescue and Hybrid Identification Between Plum and Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-hua; CHEN Xue-sen; FENG Bao-chun; LIU Huan-fang; ZHENG Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Embryo abortion stage and rescue system of hybrids were studied in the distant hybridization between plum and apricot. Identification of the hybrids was also made. The results showed:(1)Embryo abortion started from three weeks after pollination.(2)The germination and growth of embryos were different at different growth stages,which could germinate and grow with PF value> 0.5,but failed with PF value< 0.5. In embryo rescue system of hybrids,the best germination and differentiation medium was MS + 6-BA 2 mg L-1+ IAA 0.3 mg L-1,the rate of germination and differentiation reached up to 80%,bud induction and multiplication medium was MS + 6-BA 1.5 mg L-1+ IAA 0.3 mg L-1,rooting medium was 1/2 MS + IAA0.8mgL-1. Some hybrids were transplanted into the field successfully.(3)Leaf shape investigation and identification by S allele-specific PCR and RAPDs showed that the hybrids were true ones.

  11. Determination of seventeen polar/thermolabile pesticides in apples and apricots by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrostlíková, Jitka; Hajslová, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomás; Stĕpán, Radim; Poustka, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approach for the determination of widely used representatives of polar/thermolabile pesticides in fruits was developed and validated. The group of pesticides comprised benzimidazoles and azoles (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil, propiconazole, prochloraz, epoxiconazole, flusilazole, tebuconazole, bitertanol); N-methylcarbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, methiocarb); and phenylureas and benzoylphenylureas (linuron, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, teflubenzuron, flufenoxuron). Matrixes (apple, apricot) were extracted with acetonitrile and crude extracts were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using either mixed cation exchange or hydrophilic lipophilic balance cartridges. LC separation of pesticides was performed on a reversed-phase column, Discovery C18. Electrospray ionization and ion trap MS/MS detection were applied. For most pesticides, overall recoveries ranged from 75 to 122%, and repeatability (as relative standard deviation) from 5 repetitive determinations of recovery ranged from 3 to 21%. Carbofuran was the only compound for which recovery was not satisfactory due to its loss in the SPE cleanup step. Limits of detection were 0.1-3 microg/kg for benzimidazole and azole fungicides and carbamate insecticides. For urea insecticides, detection limits were slightly higher (3-10 microg/kg). PMID:12852583

  12. 水杨酸处理对杏果实贮藏品质的影响%Effect of salicylic acid treatment on storage quality of apricot fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭科燕; 左宝莉; 贾盼盼; 朱璇

    2012-01-01

    研究了水杨酸处理赛买提杏后对其采后贮藏品质的影响。在0.05MPa负压下,将杏果实分别浸泡于浓度为0.002、0.01、0.05g/L的水杨酸溶液中。将处理后的杏果实取出晾干,于4℃,RH90%~95%条件下贮藏。定期测定杏果实贮藏期间的失重率、硬度、叶绿素、维生素C、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、发病率。结果显示,0.01g/L水杨酸处理的杏果实贮藏品质最好,能有效地抑制杏果实贮藏期间的失重率上升,硬度的下降,延缓叶绿素和维生素C含量的下降,减少杏果实中可溶性固形物和可滴定酸的损耗,降低杏果实腐烂率。%Effects of salicylic acid treatments on the postharvest quality of Saimaiti apricots were investigated.The apricots were immersed in 0.002,0.01,0.05g/L salicylic acid with a negative pressure of 0.05MPa.Then the apricots were air-dried and packaged,stored

  13. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’)

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR; Hassan BAYAT; Hossein NEAMATI

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA) plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs) of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and were ...

  14. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Gato; Motoi Tamura; Yuriko Ohnishi; Tatsuya Kotani

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal w...

  15. 苦杏仁去皮热风干燥适宜温度提高油脂品质%Suitable hot air drying temperature improving quality of apricot kernel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦中高; 吕真真; 刘杰超; 张春岭; 刘慧; 杨文博; 王思新

    2016-01-01

    为探索适宜的杏仁热风干燥温度,以热烫去皮处理后的湿杏仁为试验材料,研究了热风干燥不同温度对杏仁及其油脂的感官、理化和营养品质的影响。结果表明,经热烫去皮、干燥处理后可以得到颜色较浅的杏仁油,有利于提高杏仁油的感官品质,但会造成杏仁油过氧化值显著升高(P0.05);过氧化值呈上升趋势,且80℃以上干燥处理显著高于40℃和60℃干燥处理(P<0.05);总不饱和脂肪酸、油酸、亚油酸、十七碳烯酸、二十碳烷酸的比例及β-生育酚、δ-生育酚及总生育酚含量总体呈下降趋势,棕榈油酸、棕榈酸、硬脂酸的比例和β-谷甾醇、总甾醇含量总体呈升高趋势。低温干燥有利于提高杏仁油中生育酚含量,而提高干燥温度则有利于杏仁油中植物甾醇含量的提高。尤其是干燥温度为80℃以上时,杏仁油的品质变化加快。因此,为提高杏仁油理化与营养品质,杏仁脱皮后的干燥宜在80℃以下的较低温度条件下进行。研究结果可为杏仁干燥和高品质杏仁油加工提供参考。%In order to explore optimal drying method and technological conditions, the effects of different conditions of hot air drying on sensory quality, physico-chemical characteristics and nutrition properties of apricot kernels and apricot kernel oil were studied using the wet apricot kernels after decorticating with blanching treatment as test materials. The apricot kernels with a moisture content of 4.61% were blanched in boiling water for 10 min and decorticated, and then the decorticated wet apricot kernels with a moisture content of 17.93% were dried with hot air at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120℃) till the moisture content of apricot kernels was decreased to about 4%-5%. After extracting the oils from cooled apricot kernels using the petroleum ether with boiling point from 60 to 90℃ under ultrasonic

  16. Effect of nitrogen form (ammonium and nitrate on quantitative and qualitative indices of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Apricot parrot

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    H. Abbasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of nutrient solutions on quantitative and qualitative indices of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana cv. Apricot parrot were studied in a completely randomized design with 5 nutrient solutions, 4 experimental units and 3 replications. Plants were fed with five nutrient solutions (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 having NH4+-N/total N ratios of 0, 0.038, 0.074, 0.11 and 0.14, respectively. All nutrient solutions had similar concentrations of mineral elements. The five treatments consisted of 2.5 meq/L total N, and concentration of all the nutrients was 8.4 meq/L. Based on the results, increasing the ammonium level in nutrient solutions decreased N and total protein storage in the bulbs, but increased N concentration in the shoots. The ammonium level had no significant effect on potassium concentration of shoots, but increased phosphorus concentration in the shoots. Maximum calcium and magnesium concentration in shoots, wet weight and length and diameter of flowering stem were obtained in plants fed with S2 solution. Increasing the ammonium level increased number of bulblets, but decreased their size. Increasing the ammonium level decreased time to flowering of bulbs. The highest longevity of cut flowers was observed in plants fed with S2 solution. In general, based on the results of this research, with increasing the ammonium level in the nutrients solution, the qualitative traits of tulip, such as length and diameter of flowering stem, were increased, but longevity of cut flowers and number of produced bulblets were decreased.

  17. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. varieties from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 °C, 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 °C, 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil, 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell, 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O2/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97% followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%, palmitic (3.35-5.93%, linolenic (0.73-1.03% and stearic (1.10-1.68% acids. The contents of α-, γ-, and δ-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleochemical applications.Se han analizado las características físico-químicas de aceites de semillas de frutos de cuatro variedades diferentes de albaricoque, Halmas, Nari, Travet y Charmagzi (Prunus armeniaca L.. La producción de aceites de las semillas de albaricoque (hueso osciló entre 32,23-42,51%, mientras que las proteínas, fibra y cenizas dieron valores de 13,21-20,90%, 5,13-9,81% y 2,11-3,89%, respectivamente. Los aceites extraídos presentaron valores promedio de índice de yodo, de 96,4-106,3 (g de I/100 g de aceite; densidades a 24 °C de 0,87-0,93 mg/mL, índices de refracción (40

  19. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  20. Effects of simulated transport vibration on respiratory pathways and qualities of Xinjiang apricot fruit%模拟运输振动对新疆杏呼吸途径和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘俨; 车凤斌; 董成虎; 张辉; 孟新涛; 张婷

    2015-01-01

    Effects of simulated transport vibration on respiratory pathways and qualities in Xinjiang apricot were studied based on the similarity simulation. About 1.50 t fresh apricots (Xiao baixing) in physiological maturity stage were packaged in plastic crates and transported in a refrigerated truck at the average velocity of 60 km/h.X-axial (lateral), Y-axial (longitudinal) and Z-axial (vertical) vibration accelerations of apricot crates in refrigerated truck were measured using digital 3-dimensional (3D) acceleration recorders with a sampling rate of once every 2.0 seconds during the 10-hour highway transportation. A vibration simulation platform (self-triturating equipment) loaded 120 kg apricots packaged in plastic crates where the vibration of horizontal direction and vertical direction both initiated from 0 to 8.0 Hz with 1.0 Hz rise every 5 minutes. During the simulation, vibration was measured with 3D acceleration recorders sampling once every 50 ms to select the proper vibration frequency close to the real transportation. According to the repeatable measurements, the simulated vibration was 57.60%-67.75% similar to real transportation at 0.5 Hz. Frequencies of low acceleration vibrations on lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions were higher than real transport. Apricots were divided into 2 groups: one group was stored in static state for 20 d at 3℃; the other group was stored for 17 days 3 days after the simulated transport under the selected vibration condition at 3℃. The differences between simulated transport and static storage in respiratory pathways, firmness, SSC (soluble solid content) and pericarp color of apricots were analyzed.The total respiration rate of apricot reached peak in the first 2-day simulated transport vibration, which was earlier 8 days than the apricot in static storage, and the peak value raised by 3.26 times. Apricot TCAC (tricarboxyficacid cycle) respiration rate reached peak in first 2-day simulated transport vibration

  1. 杏皮渣中类胡萝卜素的提取工艺研究%Study on Extraction of Carotenoids from Skin Residue of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贸; 刘昌蒙

    2013-01-01

    类胡萝卜素普遍存在于动物、高等植物等中的黄色、橙红色或红色的色素之中,具有广泛的生理活性,如抗氧化、防癌症、预防夜盲症等.随着对天然类胡萝卜素制品的需求量的增加,果渣或其他下脚料成为获取天然类胡萝卜素的新途径之一.本文中合理利用杏酒发酵过程中的下脚料-杏皮渣,以无水乙醇∶丙酮(3∶7)为提取溶剂,结果表明当料液比为1∶15、提取温度55℃、提取时间120 min、重复操作2次时,类胡萝卜素的得率最高,可达228.62 μg/g.%Carotenoids are groups of important bioactive compounds, which possess important physiological functions as anu'oxidant, anti-aging, and preventing cancer or cardiovascular disease. With the growing demand of natural Carotenoids, people focus on the pomace or some processing wastes, gradually. In consideration of comprehensive utilization of the waste from apricot wine fermentation- residues, the effect of organic solvents on carotenoids from apricot residues was researched in this paper. The experimental results showed that the best solvent was the mixture of absolute ethyl alcohol-acetone (3:7) and the optimal parameters were as follows: the Carotenoids were extracted at 55 ℃ for 120minutes, at the ratio between material and solvent of 1:15, operated twice totally. Under the conditions, the yield of Carotenoids from apricot skin residue could reach up to228.62 μg/g.

  2. The Effect of Weather Conditions on Fruit Skin Colour Development and Pomological Characteristics of Four Apricot Cultivars Planted in Donja Zelina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardica Milinović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted on four apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivars of different ripening periods in Donja Zelina, during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Trees were planted in 2006, and grafted on a WaxWa rootstock. During 2010 growing season, ground- and over-colour of the fruit skin was measured from 97 to 114 days after full bloom (DAFB for cultivars ‘Hargrand’, ‘Harlayne’ and ‘Harogem’ and from 81 to 99 DAFB for cultivar ‘Pinkcot®’ colorimetrically multiple times in intervals of three to four days using the change in ground-colour of fruit skin from green to green – yellow as a indicator for fi rst measurement determined by colour chart for apricots. At harvest in 2010 and 2011, fruit weight, height, width and thickness, fruit flesh firmness and soluble solids content were determined as well.The most intensive changes were recorded in value a* of fruit skin ground- and over-colour in all four cultivars during the last 10 days before harvest in 2010, and ranged from 19.33 in cv. ‘Hargrand’ to 30.55 in cv. ‘Harogem’. Cv. ‘Pinkcot®’ and cv.‘Harogem’ have developed higher b* values of fruit skin ground-colour then cultivars ‘Hargrand’ and ‘Harlayne’ in 2010, reaching values of 47.79 and 47.30, respectively.At harvest in 2011, values a* and b* were signifi cantely lower then in 2010 for all four cultivars, however bigger differences were recorded in cv. ‘Harogem’ and cv. ‘Pinkcot®’. For measured pomological characteristics at harvest, significant differences were observed between cultivars in both growing seasons for all measured characteristics, except for cv. ‘Hargrand’. The biggest difference in fruit weight, height, width and thickness was observed in cv. ‘Harlayne’.Results suggest that high temperature fluctuations and below average precipitations influenced the fruit skin colour and quality parameters of apricots in the sense of smaller chromaticity values.

  3. The Effect of Weather Conditions on Fruit Skin Colour Development and Pomological Characteristics of Four Apricot Cultivars Planted in Donja Zelina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardica Milinović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted on four apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivars of different ripening periods in Donja Zelina, during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Trees were planted in 2006, and grafted on a WaxWa rootstock. During 2010 growing season, ground- and over-colour of the fruit skin was measured from 97 to 114 days after full bloom (DAFB for cultivars ‘Hargrand’, ‘Harlayne’ and ‘Harogem’ and from 81 to 99 DAFB for cultivar ‘Pinkcot®’ colorimetrically multiple times in intervals of three to four days using the change in ground-colour of fruit skin from green to green – yellow as a indicator for fi rst measurement determined by colour chart for apricots. At harvest in 2010 and 2011, fruit weight, height, width and thickness, fruit flesh firmness and soluble solids content were determined as well.The most intensive changes were recorded in value a* of fruit skin ground- and over-colour in all four cultivars during the last 10 days before harvest in 2010, and ranged from 19.33 in cv. ‘Hargrand’ to 30.55 in cv. ‘Harogem’. Cv. ‘Pinkcot®’ and cv. ‘Harogem’ have developed higher b* values of fruit skin ground-colour then cultivars ‘Hargrand’ and ‘Harlayne’ in 2010, reaching values of 47.79 and 47.30, respectively.At harvest in 2011, values a* and b* were signifi cantely lower then in 2010 for all four cultivars, however bigger differences were recorded in cv. ‘Harogem’ and cv. ‘Pinkcot®’. For measured pomological characteristics at harvest, significant differences were observed between cultivars in both growing seasons for all measured characteristics, except for cv. ‘Hargrand’. The biggest difference in fruit weight, height, width and thickness was observed in cv. ‘Harlayne’.Results suggest that high temperature fluctuations and below average precipitations influenced the fruit skin colour and quality parameters of apricots in the sense of smaller chromaticity values.

  4. 凉山州鲜食杏采果后的管理技术措施%Post-Harvest Management of Fresh-Edible Apricot in Liang Shan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元良; 陈雪梅; 王凤屏; 李瑞成; 余启茂

    2012-01-01

    简述四川凉山州鲜食杏金太阳、凯特等优良品种在采果后、落叶前应采用的肥水管理、整形修剪、病虫害防治、促花等管理技术措施,以促进树体的生长发育,提高产量。%In this paper, post-harvest management of two fresh-edible apricot cuhivars ( Golden Sun and Kate ) was described briefly. Fertilizer and water management, training and pruning, disease and insect prevention and promoting flowering are very important for tree growth and yield.

  5. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  6. 杏核的活性壳:一种用于黄金回收的有价值的吸附剂%Activated Hard Shell of Apricot Stones: A Promising Adsorbent in Gold Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansooreh Soleimani; Tahereh Kaghazchi

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon has been proven to be an effective adsorbent for the recovery of a wide variety of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this research, the activated hard shell of Iranian apricot stones was used for gold recovery from electro-plating wastewater. The effect of parameters such as dose and particle size of adsorbent,pH, agitation speed of mixing on the gold recovery was investigated. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions more than 98% of gold ions were adsorbed onto activated carbon after just 3 h. In addition, the adsorbed gold could be eluted from this adsorbent by improved striping method. The process involves contact of gold-laden adsorbent with a strong base at ambient temperatures followed by elution with an aqueous solution con-taining an organic solvent. It was found that activated hard shell of apricot stones has the potential to replace im-ported commercial activated carbons in gold adsorption processes.

  7. 杏棉间作复合系统对棉花产量及纤维品质的影响%Effect of apricot-cotton intercropping system on fiber quality and yield of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光磊; 陈耀锋; 万群芳; 张玉东; 陈瑞萍; 曹春波

    2011-01-01

    以大田棉花为对照(CK),研究了环塔里木盆地杏、棉间作系统对棉花的产量和纤维品质特性的影响.结果表明:杏、棉间作下棉花的产量及其构成因素相比对照均有不同程度的减小,且随着距杏树垂直距离的增加,其变化呈偏态分布趋势;在杏、棉间作区,棉花的比强度、伸长率和马克隆值明显减少,而纤维长度、整齐度、黄度和纺纱指数则形成了明显的增加区和降低区,表明杏、棉间作对棉花产量和纤维品质的影响很大.%With the ingle cropping of cotton as CK, the effect of apricot-cotton intercropping on fiber quality characteristics and yield of cotton around Tarim Basin was studied. The results showed that the trend of changes in the yield and its components of cotton was in partial distribution tendency in the apricot-cotton intercropping system, which were lower than those in CK. In apricot-cotton intercropping, the strength, elongation and Micronaire value of cotton were significantly reduced, but the fiber length, uniformity, yellowness and CSP of cotton increased obviously in some areas but reduced in others. The experiment showed that the apricot-cotton intercropping had great effect on fiber quality and yield of cotton.

  8. Analysis of Sugars and Organic Acids in Fruits of Zhenzhuyouxing Apricot by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%珍珠油杏果实搪酸组分的高效液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 杨建明; 李慧峰; 李林光

    2011-01-01

    Zhenzhuyouxing apricot was a rare local variety in Shandong Province. The sugars and organic acids in the apricot fruits were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the soluble sugars in the fruit flesh included sucrose, glucose and fructose. The content of sucrose taking up 70. 53% of total sugars was substantially higher than the contents of the other two sugars. The organic acids in the fruit flesh included oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, of which, malic acid taking up 58.58% of total acids was the dominant acid, then the citric acid. According to the classification of apricot cultivars, Zhenzhuyouxing apricot belonged to the malic - acid type.%以山东省珍稀地方名产珍珠油杏为试材,采用高效液相色谱技术对其果实的糖酸组分进行了分析.结果表明:珍珠油杏果实含有3种糖组分:果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖;5种有机酸组分:草酸、苹果酸、乙酸、柠檬酸、琥珀酸.糖组分以蔗糖含量最高,占糖总量的70.53%,其次为葡萄糖,果糖含量最低;有机酸组分以苹果酸较高,占酸总量的58.58%,柠檬酸次之,琥珀酸、乙酸、草酸含量较低.珍珠油杏属于苹果酸型杏品种.

  9. Research of Vibration Device of Fresh Apricot Dryer based on Infrared Ray%基于红外线的鲜杏干燥机振动装置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉陇; 姚伟; 史增录; 张学军; 孙杰; 沈唯; 冯一洪

    2014-01-01

    The infrared radiation heat flux density of drying process is high, resulting in uneven heating of fresh apricot-sided, which af-fects the drying quality. The vibration device of fresh apricot dryer was designed. Dynamics analysis of the dryer vibration device was made and experiments were conducted to test the maximum vibration velocity of fresh apricot on the vibration device with a view of pro-viding a theoretical basis for the design and improvement of the vibration device.%针对红外辐射干燥过程中辐射的热流密度高,造成鲜杏单面受热出现阴阳面,影响干燥品质等问题,设计一种鲜杏干燥机的振动装置。通过对干燥机振动装置的动力学分析,以及鲜杏在振动装置上可承受的最大振动速度的分析与试验,为振动装置的设计及改进提供理论依据。

  10. 新疆轮台小白杏的太阳能制干工艺研究%Research of different drying process for white apricot of LUN-tai in XinJiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟伊娜; 马燕; 邹淑萍; 张谦; 过利敏; 张平

    2013-01-01

    With white apricot as the main materials that one of main cultivars in Luntai of Xinjiang,solar drying(SD)appliance was used as a single greenhouse device as controls.The main purpose on study was to investigate different solar-drying process and drying characteristics of solar-dryer for white apricot through comparing the apricot moisture content,water activity and the changes of color difference of the two kinds of devices in drying.The results showed that the drying-period of white apricot was 10d under SD appliance,compared with house drying,with the drying time shorter,the final product-quality were better.Weight loss ratio of white apricot was 28.9%,water activity was 0.45,and L value,a value and b value were 42.7,20.1 and 31.8,respectively.%以新疆轮台县主栽杏品种~小白杏作为实验材料,以单一温室装置为对照,采用自主研发的5HT-2农副产品太阳能干燥(solar-drying SD)装置,通过对比杏子在该装置与温室装置的干燥过程中水分含量、水分活度及色差等指标的变化情况,开展制备新疆轮台小白杏杏干的太阳能干燥实验研究.结果表明:SD装置有利于缩短杏子的干燥时间,SD装置中小白杏干燥时间为10d,较温室缩短1d;杏干优级品率高;温室小白杏杏干的失重率为28.9%、水分活度为0.45、色差值为L值为42.7,a值为20.1,b值为31.8.

  11. Establishment and evaluation of primary core collection of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris) germplasm%普通杏(Prunus armeniaca)初级核心种质资源的构建及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章秋平; 刘威生; 刘宁; 张玉萍; 郁香荷; 孙猛; 徐铭

    2009-01-01

    核心种质的构建不仅能够提高种质圃资源的保存效率、方便资源的管理,而且有利于种质资源的深入研究和种质创新.以国家果树种质熊岳李杏圃中保存的447份普通杏为材料,利用40个农艺性状的鉴定数据,对核心种质构建的几种聚类取样方案进行比较,明确了杏初级核心种质构建的最佳取样方案.在按品种类群分组的基础上,采用S策略经过多次聚类抽样,获得由111份种质材料组成的初级核心样本集,占总体样本比例25%.对该初级核心种质遗传多样性进行检测和评价,结果表明本研究所构建的初级核心种质能够很好地保留普通杏种质资源的遗传多样性.%The core collection has been well accepted as a useful way to improve the efficiency of crop germplasm evaluation, conservation and utilization.In order to characterize and utilize the germplasm more efficiently for further apricot improve-ment,the available morphological and agronomic data of apricot were analyzed for developing a core collection.Total of 447 accessions of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris L.) gcrmplasm collected by the Xiongyue National Germplasm Repository for Plums and Apricots and 40 agronomic traits of them were used for studying the optimal clustering method for primary core collection of apricot.The whole collection was grouped by origin locations, then based on the data of the agronomic traits, the accessions in each origin location were clustered by SPSS program.The primary core collection consisting of 111 accessions, which was 25% of the whole collection, were randomly selected by Improved Least Distance Stepwise Sampling strategy (ILDSS) form this group whole collection accessions.The genetic diversity of primary core collection were compared with the whole collection,which showed that the genetic variation in the primary core collection was well presented in the whole col-lection based on comparison of diversity index of the involved

  12. 大果早熟杏新品种'岱玉'%A New Large Fruit and Early Maturing Apricot Cultivar 'Daiyu'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵进红; 王玉山; 冯殿齐; 赵勇; 刘忆谊

    2011-01-01

    ‘Daiyu’ is a new superior cultivar selected from populations of local aprioct in Mountain Taishan. The fruit is large. The average fruit weight is 105 g. The content of soluble solids is 14.5%. It has sweet taste, excellent quality, sugary almond and fruit storability and transport. The fruit development period is about 60 days, 20 days earlier than ‘Katy’ apricot. It is resistant to bacterial shot-hole and brown rot, with high and stable yielding.%'岱玉'杏是从泰山地方杏种群中选育出的优良新品种.果个大,平均单果质量105 g,可溶性固形物含量14.5%,品质上等,仁甜,果实耐贮运.果实发育期60 d左右,比'凯特'杏早熟20 do丰产,稳产,抗细菌性穿孔病及褐腐病.

  13. Effects of new dietary fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on gut function and intestinal microflora in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Ohnishi, Yuriko; Kotani, Tatsuya; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects. PMID:21731428

  14. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Gato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF or cellulose (CF diet (control for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. The fecal lipids content (% DW of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058. Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.

  15. 杏皮渣醋酸发酵醋酸菌的分离筛选和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Acetic Acid Bacteria for Fermentation of Brewing Vinegar from Apricot Dreg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 张富县; 艾乃吐拉·马合木提; 傅力

    2013-01-01

    [目的]筛选获得适宜杏皮渣醋发酵的醋酸菌并对其进行鉴定,为杏皮渣醋质量及产量的提高奠定基础.[方法]在杏皮渣汁自然发酵液、固态发酵醋醅和杏园的土壤中分离醋酸菌,对分离菌株进行产酸曲线的测定及生理生化鉴定,对产酸量高的菌株进行16S rDNA序列测定并建立系统发育树,对其进行鉴定.[结果]共分离得到6株菌,其中Ac01、Ac02、Cp01、Cp02和Tr01属于醋酸菌属.初步判定,在杏皮渣汁的自然发酵液中分离的Ac01和Ac02可能属于醋化醋杆菌(Acetobacter aceti),菌株Ac02醋酸产量在分离菌株中最高,可达到3.04 g/100 mL,其16S rDNA序列与Acetobacter pomorum strain LMG 18848 16S rDNA序列相似度大于99%.[结论]在杏皮渣汁自然发酵液中分离得到的菌株Ac02为醋杆菌属(Acaobacter)的Acetobacter pomorum strain LMG 18848,是一株在杏皮渣醋生产中有应用潜力的醋酸菌.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to screen and identify the acetic acid bacteria strain for brewing vinegar from apricot dregs and lay the foundation for the improvement of the quality and yield of apricot dregs vinegar.[Method] The acetic acid bacteria were isolated from the natural fermentation broth of apricot dregs juice,the solid fermentative substrate of vinegar and the orchard soil,the curve of acid production was measured and the experiments of biochemical identification of each selected strain were conducted.The strains which could produce the highest acid were identified by 16S rDNA sequence and by the phylogenetic tree.[Result] Six strains were isolated,Ac01,Ac02,Cp01,Cp02 and Tr01 were identified as Acetobacter.Ac01 and Ac02 separated from the natural fermentation broth of apricot dregs juice may belong to Acetobacter aceti after the preliminary determination,the acetic acid yield of the strain Ac02 can reach 3.04 g/100 mL.The similarity of 16S rDNA sequence is more than 99% between Ac02 and Acetobacter pomorum strain

  16. Research of extraction technology of the melanin from core-shell of wild apricots using response surface analysis%响应面法对山杏核壳黑色素提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 张乔会; 蓝晶晶; 王建中

    2012-01-01

    With less utilization, core-shell of wild apricot was the scarps of production. On the basis of single factor experiments,the optimum conditions for the extraction of the melanin from core-shell of wild apricot were obtained through Box-Benhnken center-united experiment design and response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimum conditions of extraction of the melanin from core-shell of wild apricot were as follows: liquid ratio 1:20, temperature 60℃,alkali concentration tmol/L,time 4h.Under this condition,the maximal yield of melanin was up to 8.33%.%山杏核壳是生产中的下脚料,开发利用较少。以山杏核壳为原料提取黑色素,通过响应面法优化工艺条件。在单因素实验基础上选取实验因素与水平,根据Box—Benhnken中心组合实验设计原理采用四因素三水平的响应面分析法。得到最佳提取工艺为:料液比1:20,温度60℃,碱液浓度1mol/L,时间4h;在此条件下,提取得率可达8.33%。

  17. 1-MCP/肉桂/OHAA复合保鲜剂对小白杏贮藏效果研究%Fresh-keeping effect of 1-MCP/Cinnamon/OHAA compoumd preservatives used in the preservation of apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述刚; 于军; 黄英; 许倩

    2013-01-01

    OHAA(Oxyethyene higher aliphatic alcohol)and extracts from cinnamon were chosen as the freshkeeping materials.The different preservation effects on apricots by using]-MCP,]% OHAA and extracts from cinnamon were discussed under such conditions (the storage temperature was about (0 ± 1)℃ and the relative humidity was about 80%~90%).The results showed that after storage for 56d,examined by such indexes as decay rate,weightlessness rate,hardness,soluble solids and Vc content 1.0mg/L 1-MCP for 48h and coated by 1 % OHAA/0.18% cinnamon extracts could significantly prolong the storage of apricot.After being processed by the conditions,apricot were better than other control groups,the treatment could prolong the storage period of apricot,it played a significant storage effect.%以环氧乙烷高级脂肪醇(Oxyethyene higher aliphatic alcohol,OHAA)、肉桂提取物为保鲜材料,在贮藏温度为(0±1)℃、相对湿度为80% ~90%的贮藏条件下,探讨1-MCP、OHAA和肉桂提取物对小白杏的贮藏保鲜效果.实验结果表明:经过56d的贮藏,无论从腐烂率、失重率、硬度变化,还是可溶性固形物、Vc含量等指标均可看出经1%OHAA/0.18%肉桂提取物复合处理的小白杏(经过1.0mg/L1-MCP熏蒸48h)保鲜效果显著;处理后的杏果均优于其它对照组,说明该处理能延长小白杏贮藏期,起到了明显的贮藏保鲜效果.

  18. Initial Research of Apricot Fruit Harvesting Vibration Energy Transfer%杏果树激振收获能量传递的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建清

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the apricot fruit harvest mechanical vibration.According to the Xinjiang field fruit harvesting requirements, introduces the basic principle of energy transfer test vibration harvesting process, through vibration test of fruit trees in different position of external excitation force, data acquisition output by using the strain data acquisition system, with high-speed photography of apricot trees dynamic real-time image capture process record. Through the acquisition of strain data and image motion analysis processing.Obtained in process of vibration type recovery, energy transfer and the clamping position on.When selecting the excitation point branch holding the best location point is 27.5mm, the branches reach resonance frequency, obtain the maximum energy;energy loss processes in the branches in the energy transfer;the angle of branch and trunk is of the smaller to get more energy, more conducive to fruit vibration off.To provide theoretical basis and technical guidance for the further research of vibration type fruit mechanical.%为解决杏果实机械振动式采收的问题,根据新疆实地果品采收要求,介绍了激振式收获过程能量传递试验的基本原理,并通过在果树不同位置外加激振力进行振动试验,利用应变数据采集系统进行数据采集输出,借助高速摄像对果树振动过程进行实时图像捕捉记录。通过对采集应变数据及图像进行运动分析处理可知:在振动式采收过程中,能量传递与夹持位置有关。当选取树枝上激振点距夹持点的最佳位置为27.5mm 时,树枝上达到共振频率,获得的能量最大;能量在树枝传递的过程中存在能量的损失;分支与主枝干夹角越小,获得的能量越大,越有利于果实振动脱落。该研究可以为水果机械振动式的进一步研究提供理论基础和技术指导。

  19. 仁用杏品种的引种栽培及适应性研究%Introduction Cultivation & Adaptation of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建玲; 马建成

    2012-01-01

    张掖市寺大隆林场于2001年引进仁用杏良种龙王帽、一窝蜂等品种,通过设点定植观察,4个品种的综合性状都表现出良好的栽培适应性,龙王帽结果性状尤为明显,平均株产2.77kg,最高株产8k。干仁质量从大到小排列:龙王帽、优一、一窝蜂、白玉扁,龙王帽丰产性好且杏仁口感好,香甜无余苦。同时,从其抗旱性、抗寒性、抗病虫能力上对不同仁用杏品种进行研究,逐步摸索出一套适应张掖市特殊气候条件早果丰产栽培技术措施:%Longwangmao & Yiwofeng and other species were introduced to Sidalong forest farm of Zhangye city in 2001. Through the point of colonization observation, integrated traits of the 4 varieties show good adaptability; character of fruitage of Longwangmao is particularly significant, the average yield being 2.77 kg, the highest strain capacity being 8 kg. Dry kernel weight are in decreasing order : Longwangmao, Youyi, Yiwofeng , Baiyubian ; the high yield of Longwangmao is good and the almond taste good, no more than a hitter sweet. From its drought resistance, cold resistance, resistant ability to disease & insect, different apricot varieties were studied simultaneously; a set of early-fruiting & high-yielding cultivation techniques to adapt to the special climate were gradually worked out in Zhangye city.

  20. Optimization of Extraction Process for Melanin Pigment from Apricot Kernel Skin%杏仁种皮黑色素提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巨秀; 李红姣; 赵忠; 夏秋敏; 朱海兰

    2012-01-01

    Melanin is a kind of complex polymeric phenolic compound,which can be used in the field of medicine,cosmetics,food and electron.In this work,melanin was extracted from apricot kernel skin by alkaline extraction,acid hydrolysis,and repeated precipitation,and one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods were used to optimize four extraction conditions including NaOH concentration,extraction temperature,extraction time and material-to-liquid ratio based on melanin yield.Three extraction conditions except extraction time had a highly significant effect on melanin yield(P 0.01),and could be ranked in descending order of importance as follows: extraction temperature NaOH concentration material-to-liquid ratio.The optimal extraction conditions were NaOH concentration of 0.4 mol/L,extraction temperature of 80 ℃,and extraction duration of 6 h,and material-to-liquid ratio of 1:20.Under these conditions,the yield of melanin was 7.2%.%以杏仁种皮为试验材料,采用碱溶解酸沉淀的方法提取黑色素,以氢氧化钠溶液浓度、提取温度、提取时间、料液比为考察因素,以黑色素得率为指标,通过单因素和正交试验,研究山杏种皮黑色素的提取工艺。结果表明:氢氧化钠浓度、提取温度、料液比3个因素对黑色素的得率均表现出极显著(P〈0.01)影响;3个因素对黑色素提取得率影响的主次顺序为提取温度〉氢氧化钠浓度〉料液比;最佳工艺为氢氧化钠浓度0.4mol/L、提取温度80℃、提取时间6h、料液比1:20(g/mL),黑色素得率达到7.2%。

  1. Identification of the pathogens of postharvest apricot fruit diseases and indoor screening of fungicides%杏采后病害病原菌鉴定及室内药剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 徐秉良; 梁巧兰; 张文利; 吴步梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To identify the main pathogens causing fruit rot of storage apricots and screen the effective fungicides, so as to prolong the storage period of apricots and decrease the losses. [Method] Isolation and identification, as well as pathogenicity test and return inoculation experiments were made for the pathogen causing fruit rot of storage apricots in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province. The effective fungicides for the main pathogens were also screened in the laboratory. [Result] Six fungi were identified as the pathogens causing fruit rot of storage apricots, which were Trichothecium roseum Lk. Ex Fr., Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., Rhizopus nigricans (Ehrenb), Penicillium frequentans, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey. The main pathogens causing postharvest diseases of apricots were A. Alternata, R. Nigricans and T. Roseum. The isolation frequencies of them were 28. 5%, 48. 9% and 9. 4%, respectively. After artificial inoculation with or without wounds, the incidence of fruits infected by A. Alternata, R. Nigricans and T. Roseum were 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively. The results of chemical screening showed that, in PDA media plate, the fludioxonil (50%WP) and iprodione (50% SC) were most effective in controlling the three main pathogens, and the average effect reached more than 94%. The test of fungicides antisepsis of fruits showed that apricots were dipped in the 9000× diluted solution of fludioxonil (50%WP) or in the 1000 X diluted solution of iprodione (50%SC) for 3 min and stored at room temperature (25℃) for 7 days and 13 days. The control effects of fludioxonil against T. Roseum, A. Alternata and R. Nigricans were 78.3%/65%, 79% /67.5% and 80.3%/69.6%, respectively, and the con-trol effects of iprodione were 76%/64.3%, 78. 3%/64.4% and 78.6%/66.4%, respectively. [Conclusion] Theresults may provide a reference for the control of postharvest diseases of apricots.%[目的]确定引起杏采后病害的主要病原菌及

  2. 壳寡糖对杏果实抗病性及活性氧代谢的影响%Effect of Oligochitosan Treatment on Induce Disease Resistance and Active Oxygen Metabolism in Apricot Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿衣木古丽·艾赛提; 王英; 贾盼盼; 朱璇

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the effect of oligochitosan treatment on active oxygen metabolism of apricot fruits. The Saimaiti apricot fruit (Prunus armeniacal) was used as materials and treated by vacuum infiltration 0.50%oligochitosan solution (molecular weight:5,000 u). The treated apricot fruit were stored at 4℃, 90%-95%RH. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) the related active oxygen metabolism, super oxygen anion (O2-·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content were determined. Results indicated that the disease incidence in oligochitosan -treated fruits was significantly lower than that in control fruits. Oligochitosan treatment accelerated H2O2 content and ·production rate. The activities of SOD,POD,APX and CAT were enhanced. The studies suggested that oligochitosan-treated can decreased the disease incidence , accelerated biosynesis of hydrogen H2O2,enhanced activities of SOD,CAT,POD and APX, improved the disease resistance of apricot fruits.%为研究壳寡糖处理对杏果实贮藏期间抗病作用中活性氧变化的影响。以新疆塞买提杏为试验材料,选用分子量5000 u、浓度为0.50%的壳寡糖对杏果实进行减压渗透处理。处理后的杏果实贮藏在温度为4℃、RH 90%~95%的冷库中,定期测定杏果实接种发病率、病斑直径、超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide dismutase, SOD)、过氧化氢酶(Catalase, CAT)、过氧化物酶(Peroxidase, POD)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(Ascorbate peroxidase, APX)的活性和超氧阴离子(Superoxide anion,·)产生速率及过氧化氢(Peroxide, H2O2)的含量。结果表明,壳寡糖处理的杏果实发病率显著低于对照果实,且可诱导杏果实早期·和H2O2的含量的积累,并使·产生速率和H2O2含量在杏果实贮藏后期保持在较低水平,增强了杏果实中SOD、CAT、POD和APX的活性。说明壳寡糖处理

  3. Effect of Oligochitosan Treatment on Induce Disease Resistance and Active Oxygen Metabolism in Apricot Fruits%壳寡糖对杏果实抗病性及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿衣木古丽·艾赛提; 王英; 贾盼盼; 朱璇

    2015-01-01

    为研究壳寡糖处理对杏果实贮藏期间抗病作用中活性氧变化的影响。以新疆塞买提杏为试验材料,选用分子量5000 u、浓度为0.50%的壳寡糖对杏果实进行减压渗透处理。处理后的杏果实贮藏在温度为4℃、RH 90%~95%的冷库中,定期测定杏果实接种发病率、病斑直径、超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide dismutase, SOD)、过氧化氢酶(Catalase, CAT)、过氧化物酶(Peroxidase, POD)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(Ascorbate peroxidase, APX)的活性和超氧阴离子(Superoxide anion,·)产生速率及过氧化氢(Peroxide, H2O2)的含量。结果表明,壳寡糖处理的杏果实发病率显著低于对照果实,且可诱导杏果实早期·和H2O2的含量的积累,并使·产生速率和H2O2含量在杏果实贮藏后期保持在较低水平,增强了杏果实中SOD、CAT、POD和APX的活性。说明壳寡糖处理可降低果实发病率,诱导活性氧的迸发和相关抗氧化酶酶活性的显著增强,提高了果实的抗病性。%The objective of the study was to explore the effect of oligochitosan treatment on active oxygen metabolism of apricot fruits. The Saimaiti apricot fruit (Prunus armeniacal) was used as materials and treated by vacuum infiltration 0.50%oligochitosan solution (molecular weight:5,000 u). The treated apricot fruit were stored at 4℃, 90%-95%RH. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) the related active oxygen metabolism, super oxygen anion (O2-·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content were determined. Results indicated that the disease incidence in oligochitosan -treated fruits was significantly lower than that in control fruits. Oligochitosan treatment accelerated H2O2 content and ·production rate. The activities of SOD,POD,APX and CAT were enhanced. The studies suggested that oligochitosan-treated can decreased the disease incidence

  4. Identification of Self-incompatibility SFB Genes for Apricot Cultivars in Xinjiang Area%新疆主栽杏品种自交不亲和SFB基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月霞; 冯建荣; 王大江; 樊新民; 姜新

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify SFB gene associated with self-incompatibility of apricot cultivars in Xinjiang area systematically, five pairs of primers designed according to the conserved sequences of Rosaceae SFB were used for specific PCR amplification of 25 mainly apricot cultivars in Xinjiang. The specific fragments amplified successfully were cloned and sequenced. The results showed: The primer combination Ⅱ-l、 Ⅳ-2, 1- Ⅰ、 1-Ⅱ was the best optional; Five different size fragments and 14 different genes were cloned from 18 apricot cultivars. Searches for homology with our sequences publicly available DNA databases revealed 2 SFB gene fragments (SFB-36, SFB-42) had been deposited in the GenBank (Accession No: EF062342) as SFB-13, and the other 12 SFB gene fragments were novel SFB genes,temporarily named as: SFB-30, SFB-31, SFB-32, SFB-33, SFB-34, SFB-35, SFB-37, SFB-38, SFB-39,SFB-40, SFB-41 and SFB-43. Comparison of amino acid sequences of this 14 SFB gene fragments in apricot revealed three conserved regions and two high variability regions. Sixty-two SFB genes in Rosaceae Prunus genus were used to form their phyligenetic tree. The evolutionary relationships showed SFB genes did not form a distinct cluster within species. Intra-species similarity was not higher than inter-species one.%为系统鉴定新疆主栽杏品种自交不亲和SFB基因型,以新疆25个主栽杏品种为试材,利用蔷薇科保守序列设计引物对叶片基因组DNA进行SFB基因特异PCR扩增,筛选出有效的扩增引物;对成功扩增的杏品种的特异条带克隆测序,在GenBank上进行BLASTN比对,确定各品种的SFB基因型.结果显示:引物组合Ⅱ-1,Ⅳ-2,1-Ⅰ,1-Ⅱ对新疆杏品种的扩增效果最好,成功地在18个品种上扩增出了5种大小不同的条带,14种不同的基因型,其中两个基因(SFB-36,SFB-42)与GenBank上已经登录的SFB-13 (the Accession No.EF062342)为同一基因,其余12个为新基因,暂命名为:SFB-30,SFB-31,SFB-32

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel protein by Alcalase and its antioxidative activity%杏仁蛋白Alcalase水解工艺及其体外抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽媛; 仇农学; 刘宁

    2009-01-01

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel protein was hydrolyzed with Alcalase protease for its more comprehensive use. To estimate the hydrolysis effects, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. On the basis of single factor tests, the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined by orthogonal experiments by investigating the DH and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The results indicated that the optimal conditions of preparing the apricot kernel protein hydrolysates with strong antioxidant capacity were as follows: pH 8.0, temperature 55 ℃, ratio of enzyme concentration to substrate concentration 4%, substrate concentration 5%. Under such conditions, the DH was 21.02% and the DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the hydrolysate was 66.13%.%为深入开发利用杏仁蛋白资源,采用Alcalase蛋白酶水解杏仁蛋白,以水解度为指标对酶解过程进行研究,在单因素试验基础上以水解度和DPPH自由基清除率为指标进行酶解正交试验.结果表明制备抗氧化能力较强的杏仁蛋白水解物的最佳条件为:pH 8.0,温度55 ℃,酶底比4%,底物浓度5%.在此条件下进行水解试验,水解度为21.02%,水解物对DPPH自由基的清除率为66.13%.

  6. 不同施肥方式对山区杏树养分吸收及产量的影响%Effects of different fertilizing methods on nutrient uptake and yield of apricot in mountainous areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟军; 王红; 张爱军; 张瑞芳; 赵斌; 周大迈

    2011-01-01

    针对太行山区杏树肥料利用效率低的问题,以5 a生金太阳杏树为供试材料,通过田间试验研究3种施肥方式(滴灌施肥、环状施肥、不施肥)对土壤养分、叶片、果实养分浓度及产量、品质的影响。结果表明,与不施肥相比,施肥可以提高100 cm土层养分含量、叶片、果实全氮磷钾浓度及果实品质,与环状施肥相比,滴灌施肥方式下土壤养分含量更高。滴灌施肥叶片全氮浓度比不施肥、环状施肥分别提高9.1%和0.6%,滴灌施肥和环状施肥总糖含量分别比不施肥提高了16.36%和11.47%,滴灌施肥和环状施肥处理下单株产量分别比不施肥处理提高34.75%和34.48%。滴灌施肥方式下土壤养分、叶片、果实浓度、总糖及果实产量均为最高,是杏树施肥最佳方式。%To solve the low use effencicy of fertilizer in the orchards of Taihang Mountain area,the field experiment was conducted with 5-years-old apricot sol aureus trees,designed to have three different fertilizing methods(fertigation,deep-ditch fertilization and no fertilization).The effects of these treatments on the soil nutrients,leaf and fruit nutrient concentration,yield and quality of apricot were evaluated.The results obtained were as follows: fertilization could increase the soil nutrient concentration within 100 cm in depth and the total nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium concentration of leaf and fruit;compared with deep-ditch fertilization,fertigation treatment had higher soil nutrient concentration;compared with non-fertilization and deep-ditch fertilization,fertigation treatment could increase the leaf total nitrogen concentration by 9.1% and 0.6%,respectively.The total sugar contents increased under fertigation and deep-ditch fertilization by 16.36% and 11.47%.The yield per plant increased under fertigation and deep-ditch fertilization by 34.75% and 34.48%.Fertigation method resulted in the highest soil nutrient,leaf and fruit

  7. 新疆库车县杏树流胶病发生危害的调查研究%Survey and Research on Occurrence and Damage of Apricot Tree Gummosis Disease in Kuche,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋萍; 阿依努尔·塔依尔

    2011-01-01

    In July,2010, a survey about occurrence and damage of apricot gummosis disease was made in Kuche county,Xinjiang. The result showed that the average incidence of disease was 95. 6%,the highest was 100% and the average index of disease was 58. 9,the highest index was 85. 0 in the field and apricot orchards. There are two main gummosis types, a lenticels and wonud gummosis, the latter was aroused by mechanical blemish, insect population and crack of tree bark et al. The proportion of the gummosis type was different because of the specific situation and management level of the orchard. With time going on, the colour of new glue in that very year was gradually deepening and the glue liquids from insect holes were bright yellow originally, and finally became white. The quality of the glue gradually became hard, there were bona-breakings on it. When the glues met with rain,they would turn to be soft. When dissecting gummosis scab organizations, there were browning rot of different degrees in ill parts and the glue liquid flew from formed laminar flow between phloem and xylem.%2010年7月对新疆库车县杏树流胶病发病情况进行了调查.结果表明,被调查杏园的田间平均发病率为95.6%,最高100%;平均病情指数为58.9,最高85.0.流胶主要有皮孔流胶和伤口流胶两大类型,其中伤口流胶又可分为机械损伤、虫口、树皮裂缝等情况,其所占比例因果园的具体情况不同而异.一般当年新出胶液随时间的延长颜色逐渐加深变褐色,由虫口流出的胶液初为透亮淡黄色最后变为白色.胶体质地逐渐变硬并出现龟裂,遇雨后变软;解剖流胶病斑组织,可见发病部位有不同程度的褐变腐烂,胶液由韧皮部和木质部间的形成层流出.

  8. 三种无公害农药对杏坚球蚧的防治试验%Three Types of Biologically Rational Pesticides in Control of Apricot Stone Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀文; 尚华

    2011-01-01

    应用石硫合水剂、阿维高氯、腊蚧灵三种农药对杏坚球蚧进行防治试验。结果表明:阿维高氯、石硫合水剂、腊蚧灵和对照四种处理的种群趋势指数分别为0.4148、0.8328、4.9908、6.3925,这说明阿维高氯和石硫合水剂处理区的杏坚球蚧种群数量呈显著下降趋势,而腊蚧灵和对照区的仁用杏球坚蚧种群数量呈明显增长趋势;应用阿维高氯和石硫合水剂防治杏球坚蚧效果良好。%Lime sulphur,abamectin betacypermethrin,scale insect kills as well as CK were applied to control the apricot stone shells.The results showed that the index of population trends of the four treatments were 0.4148、0.8328、4.9908、6.3925,respectively.Quantity of the insects was obviously decreased with the treatments of lime sulphur and abamectin betacypermethrin while the quantity of insects with other two treatments was significantly increased.

  9. 仁用杏叶及中草药提取液对黄瓜黑星病菌的抑制作用及对黄瓜植株酶活性的影响%The Effect of Kernel Apricot Leaves and Different Chinese Herbmedicine on Cladosporium cucumerinum and Activities Enzyme on Cucumber Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓锦; 孙占祥; 杨宁; 蒋爱丽; 李柱; 王建坤

    2013-01-01

    [Aims] The aim of the research was to explore the reasonable application of kernel apricot leaves and different Chinese herbmedicine on the control of Cladosporium cucumerinum. [Methods] Effect of kernel apricot leaves and different Chinese herbmedicine (ZY, RXY, HB) on the performance of cucumber seedling infected by pathogen (C. cucumerinum) was studied in green house. [Results] The results showed that, the fungi of Cladosporium was inhibited by 3 kernel apricot leaves and different Chinese herbmedicine, especially for the RYX. About 22.83% pathogen was inhibited on the RXY treatment compared with the control, and about 12.69 and 18.49% pathogen was inhibited by ZY and HB, separately. The defense system (POD and SOD) of cucumber was induced and strengthened by these kernel apricot leaves and different Chinese herbmedicine while the plant was attacked by pathogen of C. cucumerinum.%[目的]探索仁用杏叶及中草药植物源提取液对黄瓜黑星病的抑制效果.[方法]选择仁用杏叶及中草药提取液,以黄瓜主栽品种津绿3号为材料,通过盆栽试验对黄瓜黑星病预防效果进行研究.[结果]中草药制剂(黄柏、金银花、丁香、荷叶提取液混配)、仁用杏叶提取液和黄柏叶提取液3种植物提取液对黑星病菌都有一定抑制作用,仁用杏叶提取液效果最显著,该处理对黄瓜黑星病菌的抑制效果达22.83%.黄瓜植株遭受黑星病原菌侵害后,施用仁用杏叶及中草药植物源提取液的黄瓜植株中抗氧化酶(POD和SOD)活性上升,黄瓜植株对黑星病菌抵抗能力增强.

  10. THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON COLD RESISTANCE OF VARIANT APRICOTS TREATED BY NITROGEN IRON IMPLANTATION%氮离子注入变异杏抗寒性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗磊; 张丽君; 冯殿齐; 刘静; 王玉山; 赵进红

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the changes in the activities of some protective enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), the contents of soluble protein, free proline and malondialde-hyde (MDA) as well as freezing resistance (expressed as LT50) were investigated in detail using three variant a-pricot species, which were treated by nitrogen iron implantation, to elucidate their physiological mechanisms to low temperature and analyze the physicochemical differences between the variant plants and the wild ones after freezing treatment. The results showed that: ①Compared with the controls, the LT50 of Kaite, Meite and Jin-taiyang apricot were lower than that of 2.6℃, 1. 8℃ and 0.9℃, respectively. ②With the temperature decreasing, the content of soluble protein in variant plants were gradually higher than that in controls (P < 0.05 ). ③ The change trend of MDA content was gradually higher, while it is obviously lower in variant plants, compared to controls(P<0.05). Based on the studies mentioned above, it can be concluded that; compared to the controls, the freezing treatment perhaps started the expression of the cold - resistant genes and effectively decreased the membrane lipid peroxidation of the variant plants, therefore, the stability of the cell membrane was increased and the cold resistance was eventually enhanced.%以三个杏树品种凯特、美特和金太阳的氮离子注入变异植株为试材,采用人工低温冷冻处理,通过对不同温度处理后枝条的半致死温度LT50,膜保护性酶SOD、POD和CAT活性,可溶性蛋白质、游离脯氨酸和丙二醛(MDA)的含量等指标的具体变化进行系统分析,探讨了它们对低温胁迫的适应机理,并进一步对比分析了变异植株和相应的栽培品种(对照)的抗寒性差异.结果表明:①凯特、美特和金太阳变异植株的LT50分别低于相应对照2.6℃、1.8℃和0.9℃;②随着处理温度的降低,变异植株的可

  11. Effect of Ethylene Inhibitors on Quality Attributes of Apricot cv. Modesto and Patterson during Storage Efecto de los Inhibidores de Etileno sobre Atributos de Calidad de Damascos, Variedades Modesto y Patterson durante Almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Valdés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. fruit are highly susceptible to flesh softening, loss of flavor and fruit decay, particularly during postharvest storage. Most of these quality changes observed during fruit ripening are under ethylene regulation. We performed a study with the objective of determining the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG applications on quality attributes of Modesto and Patterson apricot cultivars. 1-MCP was applied at a rate of 1000 and 10 000 nL L-1 of SmartFresh™, and AVG at a rate 100 and 1000 mg L-1 of Retain®. Quality evaluations were performed after 20 and 30 days of cold storage and after a shelf-life period of 3-4 days at 20 °C. In general, both ethylene inhibitors were effective in reducing the ethylene production rate, especially in Patterson. Fruit softening and color development showed ethylene-dependent behavior, with significant reductions for both varieties in fruit treated with 1-MCP and AVG. On the other hand, soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity showed an ethylene-independent pattern, i.e. they were not affected by ethylene inhibitors applications. Among volatile compounds identified, esters and aldehydes showed ethylene-dependent behavior in both varieties. On the other hand, alcohols and terpenes were not affected by ethylene inhibition, suggesting ethylene-independent behavior.El damasco (Prunus armeniaca L. es muy susceptible al ablandamiento de la pulpa, pérdida de sabor y pudriciones, especialmente durante postcosecha. Muchos de estos cambios que ocurren durante maduración son regulados por etileno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el cambio de la calidad de damascos var. Modesto y Patterson tratados con 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG. Las dosis utilizadas fueron de 1000 y 10 000 nL L-1 de 1-MCP (SmartFresh™, 100 y 1000 mg L-1 de AVG (Retain® 15% p/p y su respectivo testigo. Las evaluaciones se realizaron

  12. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  13. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Mustafayev, Eldar; Candresse, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus) and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV) for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina) from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV) has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus) in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus) may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070. PMID:26086395

  14. Nondestructive detection of dried apricots quality based on machine vision and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technology%基于机器视觉和近红外光谱技术的杏干品质无损检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星奕; 钱媚; 徐富斌

    2012-01-01

    干果品质直接影响其市场销售.该研究以杏干为对象探讨用机器视觉和近红外光谱技术快速无损检测干果内外品质的方法.拍摄杏干4个不同位置的彩色图像,用基于区域骨架化的填充法分割杏干,提取每种角度下的面积.从100个正常杏干样本中随机挑选75个为校正集,25个为预测集,用多元线性回归对杏干的实际质量和4个面的面积建模,得到校正集和预测集相关系数分别为0.9374和0.9307,杏干质量分级的准确率为90%.提出用基于平均灰度的区域增长法提取杏干缺陷,缺陷检测的准确率为84.5%.采用SNV对杏干近红外光谱进行预处理,然后分别采用偏最小二乘法(PLS)、向后区间偏最小二乘法(biPLS)及联合区间偏最小二乘法(siPLS)建立杏干糖度预测模型.结果表明,当全光谱范围被划分为22个子区间,优选出区间[17、2、3、9、20、13、7、18、15、11、6],主因子数为10时建立的biPLS糖度模型性能最好.其校正集相关系数和校正均方根误差分别为0.8983和1.23,预测集相关系数和预测均方根误差分别为0.8814和1.46.研究表明,机器视觉结合近红外光谱技术能对杏干内外品质进行综合检测,也可为其他干果的品质检测提供借鉴.%Quality is the most important factor for marketing of dried fruits. The machine vision and near infrared spectroscopy were explored to detect the external and internal quality of dried apricots nondestructively. Color images of dried apricots in four different locations were captured, the filling algorithm based on the regional skeleton was used for segmentation of dried apricots on those images and then area of dried apricot was calculated. Among 100 normal samples, 75 samples were randomly selected as calibrating set, 25 samples were used as forecast set. Evaluation model based on co-relationship between actual weight and pixels of dried apricots was developed via multiple linear

  15. THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON COLD RESISTANCE OF VARIANT APRICOTS TREATED BY NITROGEN IRON IMPLANTATION%氮离子注入变异杏抗寒性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗磊; 冯殿齐; 刘静; 王玉山; 赵进红

    2011-01-01

    以三个杏树品种凯特、美特和金太阳的氮离子注入变异植株为试材,采用人工低温冷冻处理,通过对不同温度处理后枝条的半致死温度LT50,膜保护性酶SOD、POD和CAT活性,可溶性蛋白质、游离脯氨酸和丙二醛( MDA)的含量等指标的具体变化进行系统分析,探讨了它们对低温胁迫的适应机理,并进一步对比分析了变异植株和野生型植株(对照)的抗寒性差异.结果表明,与对照相比,低温处理可能启动了相关抗寒基因的表达,有效地减弱了变异植株细胞膜脂过氧化作用,增加了膜稳定性,进而引起了抗寒性的提高.%In this article, the changes in the activities of some protective enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) , the contents of soluble protein, free proline and malondialde-hyde (MDA) as well as freezing resistance (expressed as LT50) were investigated in detail using three variant apricot species, which were treated by nitrogen iron implantation, to elucidate their physiological mechanisms to low temperature and analyze the physicochemical differences between the variant plants and the wild ones after freezing treatment. Based on the studies mentioned above, the main results were as follows: compared to the control, the freezing treatment perhaps started the expression of the cold - resistant genes and effectively decreased the membrane lipid peroxidation of the variant plants, therefore, the stability of the cell membrane was increased a lot and, eventually, the cold resistance was enhanced.

  16. Study on cotton yield and components in apricot-cotton intercropping system%杏棉间作对棉花产量及其构成因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红国; 王飞; 张巨松; 王军; 曹公利; 敬碧; 余永江

    2011-01-01

    在新疆南疆自然生态条件下,研究了杏棉间作对棉花产量及其构成因素的影响.结果表明:间作棉花的LAI在整个生育期低于单作,且峰值出现早,后期下降缓慢,比单作低15.9%;叶片的净光合速率Pn与SPAD值联系密切,盛花期前叶片的Pn、SPAD值增长快,间作的叶片Pn和SPAD值均低于单作;间作棉花地上部干物质快速积累持续期比单作少10.7 d,最大积累时问间作棉花比单作早4.7 d,最大积累量间作比单作少0.42g/(d·株);间作棉花的"三桃"(伏前桃:伏桃:秋桃)比例为0.14:1:0.14;皮棉产量为1 395.3 kg/hm2,比单作低41.2%;经济收入间作比单作高37.8%.%Under the natural environment in south Xinjiang , we studied the effect of apricot~cotton intercropping on cotton yield and yield components , aimed at providing the theoretical basis for efficient cultivation technology of cotton in the apricotrxotton intercropping system . The results showed : The LAI of intercropped cotton was lower than that of sole cotton through the whole growth stage , and the peak of LAI appeared earlier and LAI of intercropped cotton decreased slowly at the later stage , and was lower than that of sole cotton by 15 .9% ; There was a close relation between leaf Pn and its SPAD value , before peak flowering , both the leaf Pn of intercropped cotton and sole cotton increased fast and so was the leaf SPAD value , but both of which were lower than that of sole cotton ; The fast accumulating period of dry mat- ter above ground of intercropped cotton was shorter than that of the sole cotton by 10 .7 days , and the max dry matter ac-cumulation time of intercropped cotton appeared earlier than that of sole cotton by 4 .7 days, and the max dry matter ac-cumulation amount was less than that of the sole cotton by 0 .42 g per plant; The ratio of the three kinds of bolls of inter- cropped cotton was 0 ,14!l!0 .14, and the lint yield was 1 395 .3 kg/hm lower than that of the sole cotton by 41

  17. 果梅PmKNAT2基因全长cDNA克隆及表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis ofPmKNAT2Gene from Japanese Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海龙; 宋娟; 高志红; 倪照君; 章镇

    2014-01-01

    Objective] This paper aims to isolate thePmKNAT2gene from Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) cv ‘Daqiandi’, and analyze the structure and expression pattern of this gene, for further studying the molecular mechanism of Japanese apricot pistil abortion and molecular breeding.[Method] Specific primers were designed based on the peach sequence (EF093491) in NCBI, which is the highest homologue with peach geneKNOPE2. The improved CTAB method was used to isolate total RNA and the full length of PmKNAT2cDNA was obtained by using RT-PCR and RACE. The sequencing data were assembled by DNAMAN software; BLASTn and BLASTp in NCBI were used to do the similarity analysis. PmKNAT2gene structural characteristics were analyzed by the following software: DNAMAN was used to analyze the ORF and amino acid sequences and MEGA4.0 was used to create the phylogenetic tree; the protein molecular weight and isoelectric point were speculated by using Bioxm2.6; the conserved domain structure of protein was predicted by Conserved Domains program in NCBI; the protein secondary structure was predicted by using SOPMA program. The fusion expression vector PJIT166-PmKNAT2-GFP was constructed and then introduced into onion epidermal cells by the particle bombardment method; green fluorescence was monitored under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the expression pattern ofPmKNAT2in different developmental stages of flower buds and different flower organs.[Result] The full length ofPmKNAT2cDNA was 1 402 bp and contained 47 bp 5′UTR, 293 bp 3′UTR and a 1 062 bp ORF which encoded a 353 amino acids polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 40.14 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.85. Protein structure analysis showed thatPmKNAT2 contained two kinds of domain namely MEINOX area (KNOXⅠand KNOXⅡ) and HD area, which indicated that it belongs to the KNOX protein. Similarity analysis showed that the predictive amino

  18. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  19. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... biological controls, and phytosanitary treatment. The fruit would also have to be imported in commercial... to pests, and is often grown with little or no pest control. Monitoring and Oversight Under proposed.... 319.56-58 and following pest control guidelines, when necessary, to reduce quarantine pest...

  20. Composition and oil characteristics of apricot, peach and cherry kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazos, Evangelos S.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Se han obtenido huesos de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza de vegetales procesados y se han separado y analizado las pepitas después de eliminar las cascaras. El aceite crudo, extraído con éter de petróleo, fue 38’4, 48’0 y 26’0% de materia seca de pepitas de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente; el contenido en proteina cruda fue 21’2, 26’7 y 25'3%; fibra bruta 5'0, 5’4 y 9’5%; hidratos de carbono totales 32'4, 16'0 y 34’5% de los cuales 9’3, 7’1 y 11’3% fueron azúcares reductores: y ceniza 3’0, 4’0 y 4’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado en las pepitas cantidades considerables de K, P, Mg y Ca; se han tabulado valores para 15 minerales. Las características del aceite fueron: índice de iodo 105, 97, 116; índice de saponificación 195, 201, 198; materia insaponificable 0’95, 1’60, 3’12%; índice de refracción (40°C 1’4635, 1’4622, 1’4693; y gravedad específica (20°C 0’9227, 0’9158, 0’9419 para aceite de pepita de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente. El ácido graso dominante fue el oleico (68’0, 69’0, 46’0% respectivamente seguido por el linoleico (24’2, 22’0, 41’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado también en concentraciones traza C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C15:0, C15:1, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0 y C20:1. El esterol principal fue el β-sitosterol alcanzando alrededor del 90%, seguido por el campesterol. Se han encontrado asimismo colesterol, estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol. Δ7-estigmasterol y Δ7-avenasterol.

    Se han obtenido huesos de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza de vegetales procesados y se han separado y analizado las pepitas después de eliminar las cascaras. El aceite crudo, extraído con éter de petróleo, fue 38’4, 48’0 y 26’0% de materia seca de pepitas de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente; el contenido en proteina cruda fue 21’2, 26’7 y 25'3%; fibra bruta 5'0, 5’4 y 9’5%; hidratos de carbono totales 32'4, 16'0 y 34’5% de los cuales 9’3, 7’1 y 11’3% fueron azúcares reductores: y ceniza 3’0, 4’0 y 4’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado en las pepitas cantidades considerables de K, P, Mg y Ca; se han tabulado valores para 15 minerales. Las características del aceite fueron: índice de iodo 105, 97, 116; índice de saponificación 195, 201, 198; materia insaponificable 0’95, 1’60, 3’12%; índice de refracción (40°C 1’4635, 1’4622, 1’4693; y gravedad específica (20°C 0’9227, 0’9158, 0’9419 para aceite de pepita de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente. El ácido graso dominante fue el oleico (68’0, 69’0, 46’0% respectivamente seguido por el linoleico (24’2, 22’0, 41’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado también en concentraciones traza C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C15:0, C15:1, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0 y C20:1. El esterol principal fue el β-sitosterol alcanzando alrededor del 90%, seguido por el campesterol. Se han encontrado asimismo colesterol, estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol. Δ7-estigmasterol y Δ7-avenasterol.

  1. Intussusception caused by dried apricot: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Puckett

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Bezoars are an extremely rare cause of intussusception in adults. A high level of suspicion needs to exist in the presence of a history of eating dried fruit, history of gastric surgery, diabetes mellitus, and problems with mastication. Various treatment modalities exist to treat obstructions secondary to bezoars, including open reduction and removal of bezoar via enterotomy.

  2. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic... pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or...

  3. 78 FR 79573 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ....) Auersw. I. Eficacia de materias activas. Bolet n Sanidad Vegetal y Plagas 4: 315-321. S nchez OL, Garcia MT. 2007. Gnomonia. Apiognomonia erythrostoma. Fichas t cnicas de Sanidad Vegetal. Ficha 10. Junta de.... Laboratorio de Diagnostico del Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal. Junta de Extremadura. We reviewed the...

  4. 7 CFR 922.306 - Apricot Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... paragraph (a) or in containers having inside dimensions of 161/8×111/2 inches with 43/4-inch end pieces and... handled are also subject to all applicable grade, size, quality, maturity and pack regulations which...

  5. S-genotypes identification of 40 local varieties of Chinese plum and Chinese apricot%中国李、杏S基因鉴定及其在远缘杂交中的应用(Ⅲ)——中国李、杏40个地方品种S基因型的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌云塔娜; 杜红岩; 李洪果; 杨绍彬

    2011-01-01

    用蔷薇科S基因4对引物对40个李、杏地方品种的S基因进行PCR扩增、测序确定了40个李、杏品种的S基因型.‘蜜李’、‘水晶李’、‘不祥李’的S基因型均为Sc/Se;‘空心李’、巴塘李’的S基因型均为S10/S11;‘绥棱红李’、‘早黄李’的S基因型均为S10 /Sg;‘离核1号’、‘离核4号’的S基因型均为S11/Se.其他品种的S基因型如下:‘新疆1号’S17/S8、‘朱砂李’S11 /S8、‘、‘平顶香’Sk/Se、‘大青稞’S10/S8、‘连平三花李’S10/S6、‘早李’S10/S15、‘李子梅’S10/S22、‘横道河子大红李’S17/S10、‘苹果李’S15/S16、‘紫云鸡血李’S17/S11、‘芙蓉李’Si/Se、‘早熟李’S9/S18、‘金沙李’S18/S10、‘大黄李’S10/Sg、‘秋红李’Sb/Sg、‘康什李’S10/Se、‘奉化李’S7/Sb、、‘灰子李’S17/S32、‘早熟红李砧’S18/S9、‘孔雀蛋实生’S10/S8、‘无名李’S17/S8、‘五香李’Sk/Se、‘奈曼晚熟’S22/S11、‘巴斗杏’S11/S26、‘黑叶杏’S8/S27、‘9803’S12/S3、‘金奎’S22/S17、‘五月李’S10/S8、‘晚熟黄李砧’S8/Sx.%Based on S gene structure of Rosaceae,four pairs of primers have been designed to amplify the S gene of 40 cultivars of apricot and plum. Sequencing and bioinformatics analysis show that 'Mili', 'Shuijingli'and'Buxiangli' has the same S-genotype Sc/Se; 'Kongxinli', 'Batangli' has the same S-genotype S10/S11 ; 'Suilinghongli', 'Zao-huangli' has the same S-genotype S10/Sg; 'Liheyihao',' Lihesihao' has the same S-genotype S11 /Se. Other cultivars'S-genotypes are showed as follows: ' Xinjiangyihao' S17/Sg, ' Zhushali 'S11/S8, ' Pingdingxiang 'Sk/Se, 'Daqingke' Sio/Ss. 'Lianpingsanhuali' S10/S6, 'Zaoli' S10/S15, 'Lizimei' S10/S22, ' Hengdaohezidahongli' S17/ S10, 'Pingguoli' Sis/Sis, ' Ziyunjixueli' S17/S11. 'Furongli' Si /Se, 'Zaoshuli' S9/S18, 'Jinshali' S18/S10, 'Dahuangli' S10/Sg, 'Qiuhongli' Sb/Sg, 'Kangshili' S10/Se

  6. Comparison of Various Easy-to-Use Procedures for Extraction of Phenols from Apricot Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtech Adam; Boris Krska; Miroslava Beklova; Josef Zehnalek; Otakar Rop; Sylvie Skalickova; Pavlina Sobrova; Jiri Sochor; Rene Kizek; Ondrej Zitka

    2011-01-01

    Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric a...

  7. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide treatment should be avoided. PMID:26881727

  8. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these hi

  9. 78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... businesses may obtain information on complying with this and other marketing order and agreement regulations by viewing a guide at the following Web site: http://www.ams.usda.gov/MarketingOrdersSmallBusiness... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Gclust Server: 29034 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29034 DME_CG33553_62473051 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(405) 2063 Doa: Darkener of apricot...ences(405) Sequence length 2063 Representative annotation Doa: Darkener of apricot

  11. Cultivation Techniques on Apricot in Hualong County%化隆县杏树栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽莉; 韩学良

    2006-01-01

    杏属蔷薇科(Rosaceae)李属(Prunusl)。杏的适应性很强,对冬季低温抵抗力强,遇-30℃的温度仍能安全越冬;喜光照,生长期光照充足,果实品质好,含糖量高;其根系发达,抗旱能力较强;喜干燥气候。杏的果实成熟期早,肉酸甜多汁,杏仁营养丰富,商品价值较高。

  12. Research on air drying apricot after different treatments%杏的自然风干试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志龙; 高振江; 张春敏; 马玲绢

    2006-01-01

    选用两种杏,就葡萄促干剂及气体射流冲击烫漂对杏的干燥特性和色泽的影响进行了研究.结果表明:杏经不同的处理,表现出不同的干燥特性;相同处理间不同杏,表现出相近的干燥特性;其中经BDP处理的杏的干燥速率最快;不同的处理方式对杏的色泽(L*、a*和b*)都有很大的影响,其中对b*值的影响最显著,烫漂是b*减少的主要原因.

  13. Jujube dry apricot compound beverage development%红枣杏干复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜海燕; 田洪磊; 李伟朝; 詹萍

    2009-01-01

    以红枣、杏干为原料,用正交实验设计,主要研究了枣汁、杏汁浸提的最佳工艺条件和最佳澄清条件以及最佳复合饮料配方.结果表明,干枣和水用量比为1∶8,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间100 min;杏干和水用量比为1∶10,浸提温度40 ℃,浸提时间100 min.最佳澄清条件为:在温度45℃下,枣汁加入浓度为0.005%的果胶酶,杏汁加入浓度为0.002%的果胶酶,澄清时问为2.5 h.复合饮料最佳配方为杏汁:枣汁(v/v)为1∶1.5,蔗糖7%,柠檬酸0.1%.

  14. Processing Technology of Non-sulfur Dried Apricots%无硫杏干加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 龚鹏; 车玉红; 郝庆

    2008-01-01

    新疆南部环塔里木盆地是我国杏干的主要产区,目前大多采用传统熏硫加露天暴晒的方式进行制干,生产出的杏干不仅残硫量高,外观品质差,而且卫生状况也无法得到有效的保障,极大地影响了杏干的商品价值。为了降低生产成本,简化制作工序,提高商品价值,现介绍一种简易制作优质无硫杏干工艺。

  15. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the... the importation of those commodities from South Africa. We are making the pest risk analysis...

  16. 杏的无硫护色工艺研究%RESEARCH ON TECHNOLOGY OF ANTIBROWNING WITHOUT SULPHITE OF THE APRICOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂玲

    2008-01-01

    研究杏的无硫护色工艺.结果表明:杏片的厚度、护色工艺影响护色效果.将4mm-5mm杏片浸泡于0.3%a-环状糊精+0.2%葡萄糖酸锌复合液中.热烫2mim.经此处理的杏片仍保持杏原有的橙黄色,具有良好的感官效果.为了防止破碎的杏浆料的褐变,采用90℃下热烫2min以钝化多酶氧化酶(PPO),防止有酶参与的酶促褐变.

  17. 杏的无硫护色工艺研究%RESEARCH ON TECHNOLOGY OF ANTIBROWNING WITHOUT SULPHITE OF THE APRICOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂玲

    2009-01-01

    研究杏的无硫护色工艺.结果表明:杏片的厚度、护色工艺影响护色效果.将4mm~5mm杏片浸泡于0.3%β-环状糊精+0.2%葡萄糖酸锌复合液中,热烫2 min,经此处理的杏片仍保持杏原有的橙黄色,具有良好的感官效果.为了防止破碎的杏浆料的褐变,采用90℃下热烫2min以钝化多酶氧化酶(PPO),防止有酶参与的酶促褐变.

  18. Integrated mRNA and miRNA transcriptome reveal a cross-talk between developing response and hormone signaling for the seed kernels of Siberian apricot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Wang, Jia; An, Jiyong; Liu, Lili; Lin, Zixin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Libing; Ma, Chao; Shi, Lingling; Lin, Shanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, our transcriptomic analysis has identified some functional genes responsible for oil biosynthesis in developing SASK, yet miRNA-mediated regulation for SASK development and oil accumulation is poorly understood. Here, 3 representative periods of 10, 30 and 60 DAF were selected for sRNA sequencing based on the dynamic patterns of growth tendency and oil content of developing SASK. By miRNA transcriptomic analysis, we characterized 296 known and 44 novel miRNAs in developing SASK, among which 36 known and 6 novel miRNAs respond specifically to developing SASK. Importantly, we performed an integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA transcriptome as well as qRT-PCR detection to identify some key miRNAs and their targets (miR156-SPL, miR160-ARF18, miR164-NAC1, miR171h-SCL6, miR172-AP2, miR395-AUX22B, miR530-P2C37, miR393h-TIR1/AFB2 and psi-miRn5-SnRK2A) potentially involved in developing response and hormone signaling of SASK. Our results provide new insights into the important regulatory function of cross-talk between development response and hormone signaling for SASK oil accumulation. PMID:27762296

  19. Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Photosynthesis in Apricot Trees%一氧化氮对杏叶片光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师守国; 李善菊; 童斌; 任小林

    2005-01-01

    以山杏(Armerniaca vulgaris Lam)叶片为试材,叶面喷施外源一氧化氮(Nitric Oxide, NO)供体硝普钠(Sodium Nitroprusside,SNP),研究其对杏叶片净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)以及叶绿素含量的影响.结果表明,在一定浓度范围内,杏叶片Pn、叶绿素含量随处理浓度的升高而增加,其中以100 μmol/l处理最高.SNP处理后,叶片的Tr均低于对照而Ci均不同程度有所升高.

  20. 杏叶片与果实总RNA提取方法研究%Study on Methods for RNA Extraction from Apricot Leaf and Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓颖; 曹雪; 房经贵; 章镇

    2010-01-01

    以杏叶片及幼果为材料,分别从操作耗时、RNA质量和产量等方面比较了CTAB法、改良CTAB法、Trizol法、SDS-苯酚法和改良SDS法5种不同的RNA提取方法.结果表明:5种方法均能从幼嫩叶片中提取到总RNA;经电泳检测,28S rRNA和18S rRNA两条主带清晰,A260/A280均大于1.8;其中以Trizol法提取效果最佳,改良CTAB法次之,产量分别达到了839.25μg/g和395.21μg/g.在果实RNA提取过程中,改良SDS法以及改良CTAB法能有效减少果实RNA的提取中酚类物质和多糖等杂质的影响,获得质量较高的RNA,二者产量分别为352.65μg/g和361.95μg/g.每种方法提取的叶片和果实的RNA经反转录后形成cDNA,并进行RT-PCR扩增,成功扩出看家基因泛素蛋白UBQ片段,说明了RNA质量能够满足文库构建、基因克隆等研究需要.

  1. Study on the anti-browning technology of ‘Shushanggan' apricot dried artificially%人工干制树上干杏的防褐变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤尧; 张文涛; 高凯; 李喜宏; 齐威; 王威

    2015-01-01

    为有效解决树上干杏人工干制过程中的褐变问题,优化树上干杏的护色干制工艺条件,以色度、感官评分为响应值,选择热烫温度、热烫时间及护色剂VC浓度为实验因子,进行响应面分析.得到最优护色参数:热烫温度95.6℃,热烫时间4.62 min,护色剂VC浓度1.63%.实验结果表明树上干杏护色干制工艺合理可行,能有效抑制干制过程中的褐变.

  2. Dried apricots infrared radiation characteristics and mathematical models%杏子红外辐射干燥特性及数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超新; 张学军; 史增录; 孙杰

    2015-01-01

    为了改善杏子在传统干燥过程中卫生条件差、能耗大、干燥后品质不高、环境污染等问题,将红外辐射干燥应用到杏子干燥.研究了杏子在不同干燥条件下的干燥特性曲线,求出不同条件下有效水分扩散系数并建立了数学模型.结果表明:随着辐射温度和辐射距离减少,物料的有效水分扩散系数不断增加,且辐射温度对杏子红外辐射干燥影响更明显;在干燥过程中杏子水分比的变化规律符合以Page模型为基础的数学模型.

  3. 促干剂在鲜杏制干工艺中的应用%Preliminary Study on Dry-promoter to Dry Technology of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车玉红; 杨波; 龚鹏; 郝庆

    2009-01-01

    通过应用促干剂对色买提杏和木格亚格杏进行制干试验.结果表明:促干剂加快杏干前期失水速率,但色泽均比对照略深,制干时间变化不明显.经促干剂处理后,出干率比对照均有所提高,色买提杏提高了3.5%,木格亚格杏提高了1.5%.促干剂不影响杏干商品品质,可在制干中应用.

  4. 喷雾干燥杏子固体饮料工艺研究%Study on the technology of spray drying for apricot beverage powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟佳佳; 周家华; 常虹; 兰彦平

    2009-01-01

    以新疆色买提杏子为原料,经前处理、酶解、打浆、调配、胶磨、均质和喷雾干燥等工序生产出杏子固体饮料,采用正交设计对酶解工艺、喷雾干燥工艺参数以及稳定剂进行了优选.结果表明:果胶酶浓度0.12 mL/kg,纤维素酶浓度0.08 mL/kg,酶解温度40℃,反应时间为90min时酶解效果最佳;喷雾干燥最佳工艺参数为进口温度170℃,进样速率6.6 mL/min,风速35m3/h;复合稳定剂最佳配方是CMC 0.3%,海藻酸钠0.06%,黄原胶0.12%.

  5. Processing Technology of Low Sugar Dried Apricot in Xinjiang%新疆地区低糖杏脯加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凯; 王继勋; 卢春生

    2007-01-01

    新疆南疆地区光热资源丰富,气候干燥,昼夜温差大,病虫害少,是我国杏树主产区之一。该地区产的鲜杏个头大,颜色鲜艳,果实含糖量高,不仅适合鲜食,也适合制成各种杏的加工产品。低糖杏脯是杏加工产品之一,它的含糖量能够降低到40%~50%,并能保持杏的原果味,适宜新的消费趋势。

  6. Study on the extraction and stability of pigment from apricot by products%杏渣色素的提取及稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘杨; 王桓; 敬思群

    2009-01-01

    以加工杏浓缩浆副产品-杏渣为原料,对杏渣色素的提取及稳定性进行了系统研究,结果表明:杏渣色素的最大吸收波长λmax=410nm,最适宜的提取剂为乙醇,最佳的提取条件为:提取剂浓度为70%,提取时间为2.5h,提取温度为70℃.该色素耐光、耐热性好,抗氧化性,抗还原性较强,在碱性条件下较稳定,常用的食品添加剂蔗糖、葡萄糖、苯甲酸钠、维生素C以及金属离子Fe3+、Mg2+、Al3+、Ca2+、Cu2+对该色素无明显影响.而食盐和柠檬酸对该色素有一定的增色作用.

  7. A new pest in apricot fruit——Eurytoma maslovskii%危害杏果的新害虫——太谷桃仁蜂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维升

    2000-01-01

    @@ 太谷桃仁蜂 Eurytoma maslovskii Nikolskaya,又名太谷广肩小蜂,国内分布于河北、辽宁等地,对桃果危害严重时,造成大幅度减产,是一种重要的种实害虫.近年在辽宁朝阳发现该虫转移寄主危害山杏Prunus sibirica L及大扁杏Prunus sibirica var suavos-perma,使山杏、大扁杏核产量徘徊不前.

  8. 温室金太阳杏的无公害栽培%Pollution-less Cultivation Technique of Gold Sun Apricot in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武正成

    2009-01-01

    金太阳杏,果实较大,平均单果重66.9g。果实近圆形,端正,果顶平,缝合线浅,不明显,两半部对称。果面光滑,有光泽,果面金黄色至橙红色,外观美丽。果肉黄色,肉厚1.46cm,肉质细嫩,纤维少,汁液较多,香气浓,味甜微酸,品质佳。离核,核小,可食率96.8%。抗裂果,较耐贮运。结果早,

  9. Antioxidants: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not contain a balance of vitamins, minerals and enzymes and can actually have a negative effect on ... apricots, papayas, mangoes, peaches, pumpkin, apricots, broccoli, sweet potatoes and squash. It can also be found in ...

  10. RESEARCH ON THE GERMPLASM OF PRUNUS ARMENIACA L. AT THE REGIONAL CENTRE FOR APPLIED SCIENCE, SILISTRA, BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. LYUBENOV

    2005-01-01

    The selection of individuals adaptable to environment and with high fruit quality in the case of apricot-trees is the main aim presented in this paper. The study of the rich genetic resources (3600 of seedlings) created in the Regional Centre of Applied Science - Silistra, Bulgaria, allows us to enrich the genetic fund of that plant species. By primary estimation of 1217 apricot seedlings are selected apricot elites that are studied through comparative assay with reference cultivars. The next...

  11. 复方杏苏止咳糖浆制备及质量标准研究%Study on the Preparation and Quality Standard of Compound Apricot Sue Cough Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程多武

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立复方杏苏止咳糖浆的制备及质量标准.方法:用水提取制备复方杏苏糖浆,以单味样品和缺味样品做对照,以薄层色谱法鉴别紫苏和麻黄.结果:在薄层色谱法中均能检出紫苏叶、麻黄.结论:该方法可靠,结果稳定,制备工艺简单,重现性好,可有效控制制剂质量.

  12. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the SFB Gene from Saimaiti Apricot%赛买提杏自交不亲和SFB基因全长的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚兰; 李淑玲; 曹晓艳; 刘月霞; 冯建荣

    2014-01-01

    [目的]克隆新疆主栽杏(Prunus armeniaca)赛买提自交不亲和性花粉SFB基因全长序列,为今后通过分子改良培育具有自交亲和性的赛买提杏奠定基础.[方法]通过RT-PCR法克隆获得赛买提杏花粉SFB基因中间片段,RACE技术克隆cDNA全长,DNAMAN预测其氨基酸序列,并将编码蛋白与自交亲和的杏SFBC基因进行比对.[结果]克隆到1个全长为1 373 bp的SFB基因,命名为SFB60(GenBank登录中).该基因包含1个1 122 bp的开放阅读框,编码373个氨基酸.与SFBC基因相比,该蛋白有2个变异区(V1和V2)和2个高变区(HVa和HVb),N端有一段由42个氨基酸组成的F-box结构域,而SFBC基因缺少2个高变区.[结论]获得了赛买提杏花粉自交不亲和SFB60基因cDNA全长序列,为进一步以分子育种的方法来改良赛买提杏的研究奠定了基础.

  13. Detection and sequence analyses of S-RNase gene in eleven Chinese apricot(Prunus armeniaca)cultivars%11个中国杏品种S-RNase基因的检测与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 谷超; 张绍铃; 张树军; 宋宏峰; 赵习平; 刘铁铮

    2008-01-01

    以11个未知基因型的中国杏品种为试材,根据李属植物S-RNase基因保守区设计2对引物组合检测各品种S-RNase基因,共获得22条等位扩增片段,电泳检测表明所有品种的扩增条带集中在300~1 100 bp的范围内,且表现出一定的长度多态性.序列分析进一步确定22个S-RNase基因为10个不同的等位基因,其中6个为首次发现,根据GenBank中已登陆的杏S-RNase基因的顺序,分别命名为S19、S20、S23、S24、S25、S26,序列登陆号为:EF185300、EF185301、EU037262、EU037263、EU037264、EU037265.推导氨基酸序列的同源分析表明,杏的S-RNase与李属植物的S-RNase表现较高的同源性,为59.3%~100%;与苹果和梨的S-RNase同源性较低,为19.6%~31.6%.试验确定11个中国杏品种资源的自交不亲和基因型分别为:'大果杏'S19/S20,'张公园'S24/S25,'二红'S9/S11,'黄口外'S11/S26,'植丸子'S11/S17,'宇宙红'、'大丰'S17/S23,'超仁'、'虹桥'S8/S11,'冀光'、'中华大杏梅'S8/S9;部分品种的田间杂交授粉座果与花粉管荧光显微镜观察证实了所鉴定基因型的可靠性.

  14. Research of Inhibition of Postharvest Brown Rot in Apricot Fruit by Chinese Herbs%鹿蹄草等中草药对香白杏采后褐腐病抑制效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振宇; 艾启俊; 吴小虎; 张伟

    2007-01-01

    在离体和活体条件下,对鹿蹄草、厚朴等中草药单剂以及鹿蹄草为主的各种中草药复配组合对香白杏采后褐腐病菌的抑制效果进行研究.结果表明,11号(鹿蹄草+厚朴+大黄)复配组合在离体试验中抑菌效果最佳,10 mg/mL浓度的抑制率达89.77%;该组合的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC)分别为1.25 mg/mL,2.5 mg/mL.活体抑菌测定结果表明,11号复配组合对香白杏褐腐病菌有不同程度的延缓侵染与抑制作用,但不能完全防治;0.10 mg/mL扑海因与11号组合20 mg/mL(4级浓度)能完全抑制香白杏褐腐病菌的发生与蔓延.

  15. 杏核壳制备高品质活性炭的工艺及其再生研究%Study on the Preparation and the Regeneration of Activated Carbon from Apricot Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝明明; 王亮; 赵小忠

    2010-01-01

    以杏核壳为原料,采用微波辐照氯化锌法制备高品质活性炭.考察了活化温度、活化时间和料液比等因素对活性炭亚甲基蓝吸附值和碘吸附值的影响.最佳工艺条件为:微波功率700 W,微波时间7 min,氯化锌浓度50%,活化温度800℃,活化时间90 min,料液比1∶3,在此工艺条件下的碘吸附值为1670.25 mg/g,亚甲基蓝吸附值为200.0 mL/g.利用处理过枸杞油的活性炭,采用微波辅助法再生.通过试验,得出最佳的再生条件为:再生剂浓度9%,微波功率700 W,微波时间9 nun,在此工艺条件下,再生率可达85%.

  16. 新疆霍城县大西沟野杏果实表型多样性研究%Study on the Daxigou Wild Apricot Fruit Phenotypic Diversity in Huocheng County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩; 廖康; 刘娟; 徐桂香; 孙琪; 司洪章; 杨新峰

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究新疆野杏种质资源的果实经济性状多样性,为野杏的开发利用奠定基础.[方法]观察和测定新疆霍城县大西沟自然分布的野杏果实性状,通过Excel2010和DPS7.05数据处理软件计算各性状的平均值、标准差、极值,变异系数、Simpson多样性指数和主成分分析,利用MEGA软件的UPGMA方法进行聚类分析.[结果]66株大西沟野杏果实的28个表型性状分析中,变异系数在0% ~ 53.99%,变异系数最大的是核粘离和果形,而果实大小和果核核仁大小的变异系数较低,野杏果实果面均有茸毛,核仁都是苦杏仁;多样性指数在5.7189~6.0444,具有丰富的多样性;主成分分析中,前6个主成分累计贡献率为86.57%,各主成分的贡献率以此递减,所以前6个主成分是野杏果实形态28个性状的重要主成分;基于野杏果实性状将66株野杏分为6大类.[结论]新疆霍城县大西沟野杏具有丰富的多样性,在表型性状中,各个性状的变异程度较大,果实、果核和核仁大小较稳定,是野杏的评价及分类的重要依据.果形、果实整齐度、单果重、鲜核重、鲜仁重、风味、果肉汁液、硬度和可溶性固形物、核粘离等表型性状有较大差异.

  17. 碱性蛋白酶Alcalase水解杏仁蛋白制备ACE抑制肽%Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides by Alcalase Enzymatic Hydrolysis from Apricot Kernel Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 仇农学

    2009-01-01

    采用Alcalase蛋白酶水解杏仁蛋白,以水解度(DH)及水解产物对血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)的抑制率为指标进行酶解工艺优化.结果表明,较大活性的ACE抑制肽的最佳水解条件为:pH值7.0,温度50℃,酶底比4%,底物质量分数为2%.该条件下经60 min水解,其水解度为12.23%,得到ACE抑制肽的IC50值为0.85 mg/mL.

  18. Study on the Drying Technology and Drying Characteristics of Solar-dryer for High-quality Dried Apricot%优质杏干的太阳能干燥特点及其工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过利敏; 张谦; 赵晓梅; 邹淑萍; 刘路

    2008-01-01

    通过阐述2005~2008年在新疆南疆三地州采用标准化自制BG双波太阳能干燥(Solar-drying,简称SD)装置连续4年开展优质杏干的SD工艺研究,分析了影响SD的主要因素,并提出了相应的工艺措施以指导实际生产.研究表明,影响杏干SD特性的主要因素前期为排湿、中后期为温度,并且SD干燥温度应控制在40~60℃.还重点介绍了2008年6~8月在喀什地区泽普县进行赛买提杏的SD工艺研究.当装载量为60 kg时,赛买提杏干的实际SD干燥时间为10 d;杏干脱水率为1.804 kg/(m2·d),杏干优级品率达85%,分别是露天摊晒方式的1.9和2.8倍.可见,利用该装置在南疆地区进行SD杏干的生产是可行的,干燥效率高,产品品质好.

  19. 植物精油对杏干优势微生物的抑制效果研究%Study on antimicrobial activity of essential oils of dried apricots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚茹; 周林燕; 李淑荣; 曹珍珍; 张乐; 魏明; 聂莹; 唐选明

    2014-01-01

    以新疆小白杏为实验材料,研究新疆小白杏杏干在储藏期间微生物含量变化,通过分离、纯化从杏干上得到3株优势霉菌,形态观察初步鉴定为根霉菌、链格孢菌和青霉菌.选取9种植物精油对杏干上的混合菌进行抑菌实验,根据抑菌率筛选出3种抑菌活性较强的精油,并通过测定抑菌圈直径和最低抑菌浓度(MIC)进一步研究这3种精油对杏干上优势霉菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,9种植物精油对杏干上微生物均有一定的抑制作用,其中肉桂精油、月桂精油和茴香精油具有较强的抑菌性,且异味较小,对3种优势霉菌也有显著的抑制作用,抑菌活性显著优于卡那霉素,抑菌效果依次为:肉桂精油>月桂精油>茴香精油,肉桂精油可以作为天然保鲜剂用于杏干制品,达到抑菌和延长货架期的目的.

  20. Study on the Dried Technology and the Selection of Dried Varities for Apricot%新疆杏制干品种的筛选及制干工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱杰; 傅力; 张大海; 徐麟; 康竹君; 寇美林; 廖康

    2010-01-01

    [目的]筛选适宜的杏制干品种并对其制干工艺进行研究.[方法]对大胡安娜、佳娜丽、库买提、赛买提等46个杏品种的鲜杏自然晾晒制干,通过对46个品种的杏干果肉的总糖、总酸、制干比等指标测定及感官评价,筛选出适宜的杏制干品种.以库买提为原料,通过采用促干剂、蒸汽漂烫、NaHSO_3溶液浸泡、漂烫结合NaHSO_3溶液浸泡等处理方法,经过自然晾晒得到杏干,并对杏干的总糖、总酸、制干比、水分、残留SO_2量进行测定以确定最佳制干工艺.[结果]适宜的制干品种为大胡安娜、黑叶杏、库买提、佳娜丽等.最佳制干工艺条件为整果经90℃热水漂烫3 min,再浸泡于浓度为3.75 g/L的NaHSO_3溶液中1 h后晾晒.[结论]采用该工艺提高了制干速率,制干时间缩短2 d,且杏干感官品质好.

  1. Research of sulfur free color protecting liquid on color keeping effects of freeze dried apricot%无硫护色液对冻干杏干护色效果影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璇; 赵丽芹

    2014-01-01

    本文以兰州大接杏为原料,采用无硫护色液对真空冷冻干燥的杏干进行护色工艺研究.以明度值和色差值作为影响杏干褐变的指标,通过实验最终得到一种替代亚硫酸盐的无硫护色液:杏干冻干之前,在柠檬酸0.4%、抗坏血酸0.06%、氯化钠0.1%、焦磷酸钠0.04%的护色液中浸泡10min,冻干后测得杏干的色差值△E为6.96,此时杏干颜色保持最好.

  2. Modification of Biodiesel and Preparation Process of Bio-kerosene from Apricot Oil through Olefin Metathesis Reaction%交叉易位改性生物柴油与合成轻质燃油的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科

    2014-01-01

    文章以大豆油、山杏油为例,分别探讨了烯烃易位反应对生物柴油的改性以及合成提取一种碳数类似煤油的轻质燃油的全新方法,其步骤主要是:首先将油脂与甲醇酯交换得到脂肪酸甲酯;再将甲酯与3-己烯等烯烃通过交叉易位合成一些列碳数在9到16的烯烃燃料油;如需提炼轻质燃油可通过精馏将烯烃燃料油与饱和脂肪酸甲酯分离即可.

  3. 不同IBA和6-BA浓度对巴斗杏离体腋芽增殖的影响%The Effect of Different Factors on the Proliferation of Croton Apricot Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪玲; 余如刚; 宋运贤

    2010-01-01

    本研究以淮北巴斗杏茎段为外植体,以MS为基本培养基,研究不同浓度6-BA和IBA对芽增殖的影响.结果表明:采用4、5月份巴斗杏茎段,0.1%升汞灭菌时间8 min,6-BA浓度1.0 mg/mL,IBA浓度为0.1mg/L时茎段增殖和生长最适宜.

  4. The Effect of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Cold Resistance of Apricot Flower Organs%冰核细菌对杏花器官抗寒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建民; 孟庆瑞; 彭伟秀; 李绍华; 孙福在; 赵廷昌

    2002-01-01

    从田间采取两个仁用杏品种的大蕾期花枝,在室内进行水培.对花器官人工接种冰核(INA)细菌,置于模拟自然霜夜的半导体制冷电脑控温和自动记录的人工霜箱内,研究INA细菌对花器官抗寒性的影响.结果表明:杏花器官抗寒性顺序为花瓣>雄蕊>雌蕊.未接菌仁用杏花器官能抵抗-4~-6℃低温,而INA细菌能提高仁用杏花器官相对电导率,破坏膜保护酶SOD、POD的活性,使细胞积累大量自由基,并增强膜脂过氧化作用,加剧MDA含量的积累,使花器官发生严重褐变乃至死亡.INA细菌能在-2~-3℃诱发细胞结冰,使组织冰点提高2℃左右,因此,INA细菌可诱发和加重霜冻害.

  5. Experiment of Three Insecticides for Controlling Aphids in Apricot Field%3种杀虫剂对杏树桃粉大尾蚜的防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海斌; 张坤鹏; 杨福; 于欣; 张学萍; 孙瑞红

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] Neonicotinoid and triazine ketones insecticides were selected to carry out the effective test against Hyalopterus arundinis to clarify the control effect, optimal concentration and persistence. [Methods] "DMRT" method was used to analyze variance and Duncan-style with new multiple range to test the significance of differences. [Results] Acetamiprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L and imidacloprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L showed good control against Hyalopterus arundinis. After 21 days control effect reached 99.78-100%, obviously higher than pymetrozine 50% WG 166.7, 250 mg a.I./L. There is no evident difference of corrective effect between acetamiprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L and imidacloprid 5% EC 16.7, 25 mg a.I./L. [Conclusions] In practical application, acetamiprid 5% EC 16.7 mg a.I./L and imidacloprid 5% EC 16.7 mg a.I./L should be used alternately to prevent development of pest resistance.%[目的]选取新烟碱类和三嗪酮类杀虫剂,通过对桃粉大尾蚜Hyalopterus arundinis的药效试验,明确3种药剂的防治效果、适宜质量浓度、持效期.[方法]采用“DMRT”法进行方差分析,并用邓肯氏新复极差法检验差异显著性.[结果]5%啶虫脒EC、5%吡虫啉EC 16.7、25 mg a.i./L,防治桃粉大尾蚜效果均较好,药后21 d的防治效果为99.78%~100%,明显高于50%吡蚜酮WG 166.7、250 mg a.i./L的防效.并且5%啶虫脒EC及5%吡虫啉EC各药剂处理间校正防效无显著差异.[结论]在实际应用中建议交替使用啶虫脒和吡虫啉,防止害虫抗药性的产生.

  6. Optimization of Culture Medium for Testing Apricot Pollen Viability and Study of the Storability of the Fruit%杏花粉活力测定培养基筛选及耐贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓芹; 王玲丽; 逯东阳; 孙慧瑛; 廖康

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective and Method]The pollen viability of Dahuangxing cultured in vitro on agar medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid were compared, and the optimum medium was used to test the pollen vitality which was stored at three different temperatures. [ Result ] The results showed that the medium with 15% sucrose, 0.01% boric acid and 1% agar is the best for germination, and besides, stored in dry and closed condition, the pollen vigor at three different temperatures from high to low always was; - 18℃, 4-5℃, room temperature, while the decrease amplitude of the pollen viability was just the opposite. [Conclusion]The pollen viability stored at - 18℃: still could reach to 30.00% one year later, while stored at 4 - 5℃ the pollen viability would be lost after storage for eleven months, and the room temperature kept the pollen vigor only for 3 months.%[目的]以固体琼脂培养基离体培养‘大黄杏’品种花粉,比较不同浓度蔗糖、硼酸对花粉离体萌发的影响.[方法]用筛选出的最适培养基测定三种贮藏温度条件下花粉活力变化.[结果]‘大黄杏’品种最适萌发培养基为:l5%蔗糖+0.01%硼酸+1%琼脂;干燥密闭条件下,为期1年贮藏于三种温度条件下花粉活力大小依次均为:-18℃>4~5℃>室温,活力下降幅度由大到小则依次均为:室温>4 ~5℃>- 18℃.[结论]花粉于-18℃贮藏后1年活力仍达30.00%,4~5℃在贮后第11个月丧失活力,而在室温下贮藏3个月花粉即失去活力.

  7. 冰核细菌对仁用杏花粉超微结构的影响%Effect of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Ultrastructure of Apricot Variety Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟秀; 杨建民; 张芹; 孟庆瑞; 李绍华; 孙福在; 赵廷昌

    2001-01-01

    应用透射电镜对几个仁用杏品种接种冰核细菌并低温处理后的花粉超微结构进行观察,发现冰核细菌对花粉的超微结构有很大影响:(1)使花粉壁的覆盖层在某些区域解体消失或整个花粉外壁缺失;(2)使花粉中的细胞器受到破坏,包括线粒体被膜不完整,嵴呈囊泡状;内质网呈同心圆卷绕或折叠状排列包围部分细胞质而形成膜内含物;核糖体数量明显减少等.因为花粉中细胞器的破坏,花粉细胞内部形成一些空腔,花粉失去生活力.接种冰核细菌并低温处理比单纯低温处理对花粉超微结构的破坏程度加重.

  8. 冰核细菌对仁用杏胚珠超微结构的影响%Effect of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Ultrastructure of Apricot Varieties Ovule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟秀; 杨建民; 张芹; 孟庆瑞

    2004-01-01

    应用透射电镜对两个仁用杏品种‘白玉扁’和‘一窝蜂’接种冰核细菌并低温处理后的胚珠超微结构进行了观察,发现冰核细菌对胚珠的超微结构有一定影响:(1)使珠心细胞发生严重的质壁分离,细胞质中存在大量泡状结构,线粒体的内部结构完全被破坏,呈透明状,而且有些珠心细胞中形成同心圆状的多膜内含物;(2)使胚囊中卵细胞的细胞核外膜膨胀,甚至核膜局部解体,细胞质中细胞器减少.这些变化致使胚珠发育不正常,影响受精而导致减产或绝收.接种冰核细菌并低温处理比单纯低温处理对胚珠超微结构的破坏程度重.

  9. Advances in research on ice nucleation active bacteria and frost injury of apricot in blooming period%INA细菌与杏花期霜冻害研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣艳; 付占芳; 李绍华; 李松涛; 蒋士君

    2005-01-01

    综述了植物上存在的冰核细菌(INA细菌)种类与分布、影响冰核活性的成冰因素、INA细菌诱发植物霜冻机理的研究进展,重点介绍了杏INA细菌种类、活性及其年消长规律,阐述了INA细菌的存在对杏花器官组织结构、内源激素和可溶性蛋白含量的影响及INA细菌加重杏花晚霜冻害的特点,以及初步报道了应用筛选出的几种药剂在试验室内杀灭杏INA细菌及破坏冰核活性的研究结果.并对今后防御杏晚霜冻害的研究与应用进行了展望.

  10. 北京地区杏树冰核活性细菌种类及其消长动态规律的研究%Ice-Nucleation-Active Bacterial Species and Their Dynamics in Beijing's Apricot Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣艳; 徐曼; 付占芳; 孙福在; 李松涛; 杨建民; 李绍华

    2007-01-01

    [目的]弄清冰核活性细菌(INA细菌)在杏树上分布种类及分布与年消长动态规律,对于通过防治INA细菌防御杏树晚霜冻害具有重要的意义.[方法]对北京杏主产区27个杏栽培品种及山杏进行调查,采用形态及生理生化方法进行种类鉴定,采用小液滴冻结法测定冰核活性.[结果]共分离到22株-5℃有活性INA细菌菌株,被确定为2个属中的3个种: 假单胞菌丁香致病变种(Pseudomonas syringae pv.syringae)10株,占45.5%;成团泛生菌(Pantoea agglomerans)9株,占40.9%;凤梨泛生菌噬夏孢子致病变种(Pantoea ananas pv.uredovora)3株,占13.6%.成团泛生菌为杏树上首次发现的INA细菌,'玉巴达'杏树上的INA细菌(P.Agglomerans)数量分布存在3个高峰期:花期(3月末至4月初)、果实发育期(5至6月初)、越冬初期(12月),夏秋季及寒冬难以分离到INA细菌.[结论]INA细菌分布数量与杏树所处地理位置及生态条件有关,杏不同器官上分离到的INA细菌的频率也存在差异.

  11. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., huckleberries. (5) Cherries, plums, prunes. (6) Oranges, citrus citron, grapefruit, kumquats, lemons, limes, tangelos, tangerines. (7) Mangoes, persimmons. (8) Peaches, apricots, nectarines. (9) Beans, peas,...

  12. 75 FR 36059 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... peaches and pears), 920 (California kiwifruit), 922 (Washington apricots), 923 (Washington cherries), 924 (Oregon/ Washington prunes), 925 (California table grapes), 927 (Oregon/ Washington pears), and...

  13. 7 CFR 319.37-3 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune), Cydonia spp. (quince), Chaenomeles spp. (flowering quince... Prunus spp. (almond, apricot, cherry, cherry laurel, English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune)...

  14. Drug: D06708 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ants and expectorants D06708 Apricot kernel; Kyounin Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D06708 Apricot kernel PubChem: 47208359 ... ...22], Glycolipid [CPD:C05005], Phospholipid [CPD:C00865] Prunus armeniaca [TAX:36596] Same as: E00080 Therapeutic category: 5100 Rosac...eae (rose family) Prunus armeniaca seed Major component:

  15. Drug: D04331 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e as: E00025 Therapeutic category: 2241 Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus armeniaca s...ents D04331 Apricot kernel water (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D04331 Apricot kernel water PubChem: 17398056 ...

  16. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., cherry laurel, English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune), diseases (i), (ix) through (xvii), and.... (j)(1) Seeds of Prunus spp. (almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, plum, and prune, but not species in... visual examination and indexing. (2) Seeds of Prunus spp. (almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, plum,...

  17. Gclust Server: 50369 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50369 DME_CG3019_45553877 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(3) 176 su(w[a]): suppressor of white-apricot...ed Sequences(3) Sequence length 176 Representative annotation su(w[a]): suppressor of white-apricot

  18. AcEST: DK960312 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 57 7e-08 sp|P12297|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Dros......97|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Drosophila melanogaster GN=su(w[a]) PE=1 SV=3 Length =

  19. EST Table: FS762412 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS762412 E_FL_fcaL_30I19_F_0 10/09/28 79 %/104 aa ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot...9/10 79 %/104 aa gi|189241909|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] FS918661 fcaL ...

  20. AcEST: BP917836 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K6_DROYA Suppressor of white-apricot OS=Drosophila... 34 4.5 tr|A5KBF6|A5KBF6_PLAVI Putative uncharacterized...T N L N LGP + + RFGQ Sbjct: 14 RMRDNQSKRLKRSHTQDTTNELQDNLLGPEQAGVVISRFGQ 54 >tr|B4PXK6|B4PXK6_DROYA Suppressor of white-apricot

  1. AcEST: DK951843 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Dros... 33 0.78 sp|P0C7A5|SEMG2_PONPY Semenogelin-2 OS=Pongo pygmae... Sbjct: 109 LECKLL----PDKAKVNSGN 124 >sp|P12297|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Drosophila

  2. EST Table: CK518444 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK518444 rswjb0_007121.y1 10/09/29 85 %/184 aa ref|XP_395279.3| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot...09|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] CK485791 swj ...

  3. EST Table: CK533661 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK533661 rswgb0_001680.y1 10/09/29 82 %/218 aa ref|XP_395279.3| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot...09|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] CK485791 swg ...

  4. AcEST: DK961093 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 97|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Dros... 38 0.049 sp|Q6BHF8|ATG23_DEBHA Autophagy-relate...EEEEVST 1399 >sp|P12297|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Drosoph...tr|Q4RJV3|Q4RJV3_TETNG Chromosome 9 SCAF15033, whole genome shot... 42 0.053 tr|B3P9D6|B3P9D6_DROER Suppressor of white-apricot

  5. RESEARCH ON THE GERMPLASM OF PRUNUS ARMENIACA L. AT THE REGIONAL CENTRE FOR APPLIED SCIENCE, SILISTRA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LYUBENOV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of individuals adaptable to environment and with high fruit quality in the case of apricot-trees is the main aim presented in this paper. The study of the rich genetic resources (3600 of seedlings created in the Regional Centre of Applied Science - Silistra, Bulgaria, allows us to enrich the genetic fund of that plant species. By primary estimation of 1217 apricot seedlings are selected apricot elites that are studied through comparative assay with reference cultivars. The next step of the selection cycle will be the official registration of the elites for commercial aim by the State Variety Committee and a forthcoming dissemination.

  6. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  7. 7 CFR 922.52 - Issuance of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED... average prices are expected to exceed the parity level; (3) Fix the size, capacity, weight,...

  8. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat iron deficiency. Good sources of iron include: Apricots Chicken, turkey, fish, and other meats Dried beans, ... Professor of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. ...

  9. When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beta carotene. Grapefruit juice, orange juice, papaya nectar, apricot nectar, and carrot juice are good choices. Avoid ... Baxley EG, Cline MK, Sakornbut EL, eds. Family Medicine Obstetrics . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008: ...

  10. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large orange, and 1/4 cup of dried apricots or peaches. Vary your veggies. Eat more: dark ... involved in their activity Return to top What medicines are approved for long-term treatment of obesity? ...

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tortillas Fruits and vegetables ••Dried fruit, such as apricots, dates, prunes, and raisins ••Fresh fruit, such as ... liquid should I drink each day? 4. What medicines are okay for me to take? 5. What ...

  12. Encopresis (Soiling)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole-grain pancake mix and top with peaches, apricots, or grapes. Top high-fiber cereal with fruit. ... trying to), sitting on the toilet, or taking medicines. Whatever you do, don't blame or yell — ...

  13. How Is Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chickpeas Dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and apricots Prune juice Iron-fortified cereals and breads You ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Medicines Your doctor may prescribe medicines to help your ...

  14. Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pinto beans) Dried fruits (such as prunes, apricots, and figs) Fresh fruits and vegetables (eat at ... other treatments, your doctor may also recommend: Prescription medicine, such as lubiprostone, to help relieve your symptoms ...

  15. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tofu Dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and apricots Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables Prune ... C than canned ones. If you're taking medicines, ask your doctor or pharmacist whether you can ...

  16. Small Steps, Big Rewards: Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large orange, and 1/4 cup of dried apricots or peaches). Vary your veggies. Eat more dark ... 200 partner organizations. David Marrero, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Indiana University School of ...

  17. Breastfeeding - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fruit: 1/2 cup fruit juice Apples Apricots Peaches 1/2 cup cut up fruit, such ... cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines pass into mother's milk. ...

  18. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... applesauce, mashed potatoes, low-fat cottage cheese, and dry toast. Eat foods that are high in potassium (bananas, potatoes, and apricots) when you have diarrhea. Eat enough protein and calories to keep your weight up.

  19. ウメ輪紋ウイルス発生地域における媒介虫アブラムシ類の特定

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 康太; KIMURA, Kota

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, PPV) is the most important virus affecting commercial Prunus species. In Japan, PPV was first detected Japanese apricot of Tokyo in 2009. PPV can be transmitteb by several aphid species, however vectors in Japan are not yet known. Aphids were collected weekly in 2011 and 2012 within two Japanese apricot orchards by using yellow sticky trap. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of PPV from single aphid, and the aphid identification usin...

  20. Studies on the Cold Hardiness of Some Temperate Zone Fruit Species and Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    KÜDEN, Ayzin B.; KÜDEN, Ali; PAYDAŞ, Sevgi; KAŞKA, Nurettin; İMRAK, Burhanettin

    1998-01-01

    The research was carried out on apple, peach, nectarine and apricot cultivars during 1992-1994. In this work, the cold hardiness of apple, peach, nectarine and apricot cultivars were investigated. For this purpose, the relationship between the carbonhydrates or plant nutrient elements and the cold hardiness of the cultivars were investigated by viability tests. According to the results, apples and among them Granny Smith and Starkrimson cultivars, J.H. Hale and Monroe peach cultivars amon...

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHR879 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e. 46 1.1 1 CV053095 |CV053095.1 EST 12543 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II ...Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone bge018d09q 5', mRNA sequence. 46 1.1 1 CV052987 |CV052987.1 EST 12435 Half... 1 CV052615 |CV052615.1 EST 12063 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library P

  2. Extracellular ligninolytic enzymes production by Pleurotus eryngii on agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet (MCC58) was investigated for its ligninolytic ability to produce laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzymes through solid-state fermentation using apricot and pomegranate agroindustrial wastes. The reducing sugar, protein, lignin, and cellulose levels in these were studied. Also, the production of these ligninolytic enzymes was researched over the growth of the microorganism throughout 20 days, and the reducing sugar, protein, and nitrogen levels were recorded during the stationary cultivation at 28 ± 0.5°C. The highest Lac activity was obtained as 1618.5 ± 25 U/L on day 12 of cultivation using apricot. The highest MnP activity was attained as 570.82 ± 15 U/L on day 17 in pomegranate culture and about the same as apricot culture. There were low LiP activities in both cultures. The maximum LiP value detected was 16.13 ± 0.8 U/L in apricot cultures. In addition, AAO activities in both cultures showed similar trends up to day 17 of cultivation, with the highest AAO activity determined as 105.99 ± 6.3 U/L on day 10 in apricot cultures. Decolorization of the azo dye methyl orange was also achieved with produced ligninolytic enzymes by P. eryngii using apricot and pomegranate wastes. PMID:24279903

  3. Comparison of the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium between perfect and imperfect flowers in Japanese apricot(Prunus mume)%果梅完全花与不完全花氮磷钾质量分数比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 高志红; 章镇; 徐军霞; 侯计华

    2009-01-01

    果梅不完全花的形成和营养水平关系密切.为研究果梅完全花与不完全花营养水平的差异,测定并分析了4个果梅品种完全花与不完全花不同发育时期的氮磷钾质量分数.结果表明,4个果梅品种完全花中氮元素的质量分数大于不完全花中氮的质量分数,但是磷元素质量分数要比不完全花磷的质量分数低.各品种钾元素质量分数变化比较复杂,在小蕾期完全花钾的质量分数大于不完全花,而在开花期完全花钾质量分数小于不完全花钾的质量分数.各品种完全花与不完全花中氮、磷、钾质量分数在不同时期的变化趋势不相同.试验结果为研究果梅雌蕊败育提供了一定的营养学数据,也为进一步探索雌蕊败育问题的解决方案打下了基础.

  4. 晚秋叶面喷施氮肥对设施凯特杏新梢生长和果实发育的影响%Effect of foliar nitrogen fertilization on the shoots growth and fruit development of protected apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安宁; 王金政; 张利

    2007-01-01

    试验结果表明,晚秋叶面喷施不同浓度的尿素水溶液,显著增加设施凯特杏前期的新梢生长量,对果实的纵横径也有不同程度的影响.以3%的尿素浓度更适宜于在设施内杏树晚秋叶面追肥中应用.

  5. Effect of Planting Density and Topdressing Nitrogen on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Yield of Wheat under Apricot-Wheat Intercropping%杏麦间作模式下小麦光合速率、叶绿素荧光及产量对追氮量和播种密度的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏芝; 陈兴武; 雷钧杰; 乔旭; 赵奇; 高永红

    2015-01-01

    为给杏麦间作模式下小麦合理施氮和播种提供依据,以主栽小麦品种新冬20号为材料,在播前基施农家肥(牛羊粪)15 t·hm-2、尿素150 kg·hm-2和磷酸二铵375 kg·hm-2条件下,设置不追肥(CK)、追施尿素300 kg·hm-2(N1)、追施尿素450 kg·hm-2 (N2)和追施尿素600 kg·hm-2 (N3)四个追氮量水平,以及375万粒·hm-2 (M1)、525万粒·hm-2 (M2)和675万粒·hm-2 (M3)三个播种密度水平,分析了追氮量和播种密度对杏麦间作模式下小麦光合速率、叶绿素荧光参数、干物质积累及产量的影响.结果表明,小麦旗叶光合速率(Pn)、光系统PSⅡ的实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、开放的PSⅡ反应中心所占的比例(qP)及干物质积累量、籽粒产量均随追氮量的增加而增加;旗叶Pn、ΦPSⅡ、qP及干物质积累量、穗粒数、千粒重均随密度的增大而降低,而穗数和籽粒产量随着密度的增大而增大.施氮量与密度互作存在一定的互作效应.在N3M1条件下小麦拔节至灌浆期具有较高的Pn和ΦPSⅡ及较低的NPQ,单株地上部生物量及穗干重均显著高于其他处理,进而获得较高的穗粒数、千粒重和籽粒产量.因此在杏麦问作模式下,通过合理种植密度与增施氮肥可在改善小麦叶片光合性能、增加光合物质累积量的同时,促进光合物质向籽粒的分配,进而实现小麦高产.

  6. Pragmatic analysis of traditional Chinese short cartoons---Applying Qian Guanlian′s Pragmatic Theory to analyzing Jia′er Selling Apricots%中国传统动画短片的语用学分析--运用钱冠连“三带一理论”分析《贾二卖杏》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰; 刘金梅

    2013-01-01

    Animation production needs more creation of the story plot and language besides the technical support .Creativity and inspiration derive from the artists′experience in real life or what they have witnessed and heard in daily lives .The Chinese traditional short cartoon, with its unique design of the text creativity and story ideas , plays an important role in today′s anima-tion industry.This paper takes the text of the short cartoon “Jia′Er Sells Apricots” as the example of analysis, which is pro-duced by Nanjing Film Produce Plant in 1984.The authors have employed the pragmatic theory developed by Qian Guanlian to analyze the construction mode of the conversational texts and to elaborate their linguistic features so as to explore the pragmatic value of the traditional Chinese short cartoon′s conversational text.%  动画片的制作,除了需要技术支撑,更需要优秀的故事情节和文字创意。中国传统动画在文本创意和故事构想设计上具有其独到之处,并在今天的动画业界依然适用。本文以1984年由南京电影制片厂出品的动画短片《贾二卖杏》的文本为例,依据钱冠连的语用学“三带一理论”分析中国传统动画短片中会话语言的构建模式,并阐述其文本特点,旨在探索中国传统动画短片会话文本的语用价值。

  7. Rapid Determination of Organic Acids and Vitamin in Ju'lu Apricot by a Multi-wavelength Analysis%多波长快速测定巨鹿杏中有机酸和维生素含量及多地域杏产品比对研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峥颢; 苏耀辉; 牟霜; 庞艳苹; 李佩珊; 魏聪聪

    2013-01-01

    本文采用高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器法(HPLC-DAD)快速检测杏中水溶性有机酸(苹果酸,柠檬酸和琥珀酸)和维生素(维生素C、维生素B1、维生素B2)含量.以0.5 mmol/L磷酸-乙腈为流动相,随着时间推移改变流速和流动相比例,13min内梯度洗脱,采用多检测波长210 nm,254 nm和270 nm条件下,可使所测有机酸和维生素实现快速较好地分离.方法的稳定性在0.75~2.12%范围内,精密度在0.94~1.55%之间,回收率测定结果为96.7~101.9%.采用本方法测定不同地域杏样品,提出巨鹿杏的特征性品质.

  8. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc.) no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc.) in adventicious rooting

    OpenAIRE

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER; FERNANDO MENDES PEREIRA; JAIR COSTA NACHTIGAL

    2002-01-01

    O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc.) é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente...

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis of Stone Fruits Such as Peach, Plum, Apricot, Mume and Cherry Based on ITS Sequences%基于ITS序列探讨核果类果树桃、李、杏、梅、樱的系统发育关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳玲; 徐立铭; 程中平

    2007-01-01

    测定了桃属(Amygdalus L.) 8个野生种的ITS序列,并结合GenBank中已有的3个近缘属(李属、杏属和樱属)18个代表种的ITS数据,组成数据距阵,应用PAUP程序中的最大简约法构建了核果类果树桃李杏梅樱的系统发育关系.结果表明:基因树上,桃李杏梅樱类植物被分成2大分支,樱属(Cerasus Mill.)各个种构成一单系分支(CladeⅠ),并与其余各属构成另一单系分支,形成姊妹群关系位于系统发育树的基部,自展支持率分别为68%;而李属(Prunus L.)、杏属(Armeniaca Mill.)和桃属(Amygdalus L.)聚在一起构成另一个单系分支(CladeⅡ),得到了Bootstrap值的有力支持(100%),表明它们三属之间可能存在很近的亲缘关系或具有共同的起源.在CladeⅡ分支内又分成两支,一支为桃属,一支为李属和杏属,其自展支持率为100%和54%.最后根据ITS基因树并结合各属的形态特征及地理分布讨论了核果类果树的进化和分类问题.

  10. Influence of INA Bacteria on the Content of ABA, IAA and Soluble Protein in Flower Organs of Apricot%冰核活性细菌(INA bacteria)对杏花器官ABA、IAA和可溶性蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑞; 杨建民; 樊英利; 赵树堂; 孙福在; 赵廷昌; 李绍华

    2002-01-01

    试验以2个杏品种花器官为试材,研究低温及INA细菌处理下,花瓣、雄蕊及雌蕊ABA、IAA、可溶性蛋白质含量变化.结果表明:随温度下降,未接菌杏花器官内ABA和可溶性蛋白质含量呈上升趋势,-5℃是花器官的受害温度.接种INA细菌后,ABA、可溶性蛋白质含量下降,杏花器官在-3~4℃受到伤害.接种INA细菌与对照花器官间ABA与可溶性蛋白质含量差异达显著或极显著水平.在低温及INA细菌影响下,IAA在杏花器官间无规律变化.

  11. 杏树上冰核细菌种类及其冰核活性与杏花霜冻关系的研究%Species of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Apricot and the Relationship Between Their Activity and Flower Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙福在; 赵廷昌; 杨建民; 曹晓宇; 唐朝荣; 孟庆瑞

    2000-01-01

    近年从我国河北省仁用杏树上采集了60个标样,从中分离到19株冰核细菌菌株,经细菌学鉴定确认是2个属中的2个种:Pseudomonas syringae pv.syringae Van Hall 1920,有9株,占47.3%; Erwinia uredovora (Pon et a l.)Dye 1963,有10株,占52.6%,前者冰核活性高于后者.按-3℃产生一个冰核所需细菌数量差异来划分冰核活性等级,测定结果表明,强菌株有4株,占21.1%; 中等菌株有3株,占15 .8%;弱菌株有12株,占63.1%;总体冰核活性属于中等.研究INA细菌与花瓣霜冻关系结果表明 ,在低温胁迫下,INA细菌能大幅度提高花瓣相对电导率值,增大细胞原生质膜渗透性,提高过冷却点2~3℃,能在-3~-4℃引起花瓣结冰而发生严重霜冻,比未接INA细菌的对照提高结冰温度2℃左右.该结果证明了INA细菌是诱发和加重杏树花期霜冻的重要因素.

  12. Fruit pomace and waste frying oil as sustainable resources for the bioproduction of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follonier, Stéphanie; Goyder, Miriam S; Silvestri, Anne-Claire; Crelier, Simon; Kalman, Franka; Riesen, Roland; Zinn, Manfred

    2014-11-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to petrol-derived polymers, whose break-through has been prevented by high production cost. Therefore we investigated whether wastes from the food industry (nine types of fruit pomace including apricots, cherries and grapes, and waste frying oil) could replace the costly sugars and fatty acids typically used as carbon substrates for the bacterial fermentations. A selection of enzyme preparations was tested for converting the residual polysaccharides from the pomaces into fermentable monosaccharides. From the pomace of apricots, cherries and Solaris grapes, 47, 49 and 106gL(-1) glucose were recovered, respectively. Solaris grapes had the highest sugar content whereas apricots contained the fewest growth inhibitors. These two pomaces were assessed for their suitability to produce mcl-PHA in bioreactor. A 2-step fermentation was established with Pseudomonas resinovorans, hydrolyzed pomace as growth substrate and WFO as mcl-PHA precursor. Solaris grapes proved to be a very promising growth substrate, resulting in the production of 21.3gPHA(Lpomace)(-1) compared to 1.4g PHA (L pomace)(-1) for apricots. Finally, capillary zone electrophoresis analyses allowed monitoring of sugar and organic acid uptake during the fermentation on apricots, which led to the discovery of reverse diauxie in P. resinovorans.

  13. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg-1) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg-1) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg-1). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  14. Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts from Monofloral Bee Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongcheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen has been used for many years in traditional medicine and supplementary nutrients. Bee pollen is mainly composed of nutrients and bioactive substances which might act as potential antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors. In this study, 14 species of monofloral bee pollen from China were collected to analyse their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Our results revealed that virtually all the bee pollen samples possessed powerful antioxidant or tyrosinase inhibitory activities. These properties varied greatly depending on the fl oral species and extraction solvents. To extract phenolics of various species of bee pollen, the most effective solvent may be a solvent which is a 75 wt. % ethanol/water. Extracts of wuweizi, rape, phellodendron, apricot, and dandelion pollen had stronger antioxidant activities; on the other hand, those of apricot, camellia, and sunflower presented excellent tyrosinase inhibitory activities. In addition, we may have found a novel discovery: that apricot pollen exhibits both powerful antioxidant and strong tyrosinase inhibitory activities.

  15. Production of Whey Powder Added Fruit Beverages and Some Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Ece Argan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, functional fruit beverages were produced by mixing whey with fruit concentrates (apple and cherry or pulp (apricot at certain amounts, and some physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the beverages were revealed during storage. While the highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (TEAC were determined in beverages with cherry juice, TEAC values of the products changed based on fruit types used in the beverages during storage. In addition, it was determined that fruit type had significant effect on acidity, invert sugar, total sugar and total phenol of beverages. Beverage with apricot pulp was the most liked product by consumers.

  16. Quality evaluation of cold-pressed edible oils from Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinovic Velickovska, Sanja; Bruhl, Ludger; Mitrev, Sasa; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Matthaus, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and quality of eight pure cold-pressed oils and two blend oils from Macedonia were examined in this work. The highest level of oleic acid was determined in apricot kernel oil and rapeseed oil with abundance of 70.9 and 59.2%, respectively. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen for flaxseed and hemp seed oil with abundance of a-linolenic acid of 55.1% for flaxseed oil and linoleic acid of 57.4% for hemp seed oil. Apricot kernel oil and r...

  17. Characterization of biochar and bio-oil samples obtained from carbonization of various biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcimen, Didem; Ersoy-Mericboyu, Ayseguel [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical-Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell are important biomass residues obtained from the food processing industry in Turkey and they have a great importance as being a source of energy. In this study, the characteristics of bio-oil and biochar samples obtained from the carbonization of apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell were investigated. It was found that the biochar products can be characterized as carbon rich, high heating value and relatively pollution-free potential solid biofuels. The bio-oil products were also presented as environmentally friendly green biofuel candidates. (author)

  18. High-specificity quantification method for almond-by-products, based on differential proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Shifeng; Huang, Jingmin; Lai, Xintian; Du, Yegang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Bifang; Feng, Ronghu; Yang, Guowu

    2016-03-01

    A highly specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol has been developed to identify and classify almond products based on differential proteomic analysis. We applied two-dimensional electrophoresis to compare the differences between almond and apricot kernels to search for almond-specific proteins. The amino acid of apricot Pru-1 was sequenced and aligned to almond Pru-1. One peptide, RQGRQQGRQQQEEGR, which exists in almond but not in apricot, was used as hapten to prepare monoclonal antibody against almond Pru-1. An optimized ELISA method was established using this antibody. The assay did not exhibit cross-reactivity with the tested apricot kernels and other edible plant seeds. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.5-100μg/g based on different food samples. The recoveries of fortified samples at levels of twofold and eightfold LOD ranged from 82% to 96%. The coefficients of variation were less than 13.0%. Using 7M urea as extracting solution, the heat-treated protein loss ratios were 2%, 5% and 15% under pasteurization (65°C for 30min), baking (150°C for 30min) and autoclaved sterilization (120°C for 15min), respectively. PMID:26471588

  19. High-specificity quantification method for almond-by-products, based on differential proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Shifeng; Huang, Jingmin; Lai, Xintian; Du, Yegang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Bifang; Feng, Ronghu; Yang, Guowu

    2016-03-01

    A highly specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol has been developed to identify and classify almond products based on differential proteomic analysis. We applied two-dimensional electrophoresis to compare the differences between almond and apricot kernels to search for almond-specific proteins. The amino acid of apricot Pru-1 was sequenced and aligned to almond Pru-1. One peptide, RQGRQQGRQQQEEGR, which exists in almond but not in apricot, was used as hapten to prepare monoclonal antibody against almond Pru-1. An optimized ELISA method was established using this antibody. The assay did not exhibit cross-reactivity with the tested apricot kernels and other edible plant seeds. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.5-100μg/g based on different food samples. The recoveries of fortified samples at levels of twofold and eightfold LOD ranged from 82% to 96%. The coefficients of variation were less than 13.0%. Using 7M urea as extracting solution, the heat-treated protein loss ratios were 2%, 5% and 15% under pasteurization (65°C for 30min), baking (150°C for 30min) and autoclaved sterilization (120°C for 15min), respectively.

  20. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks for apricot and plums offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soil borne diseases, waterlogging, calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling and cl...

  1. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2015-01-01

    identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while...

  2. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specify by name) Cotton Tobacco Flaxseed, peanuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds, other oil crops (system must... must specify by name) Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, cherries, coffee, dates, figs, grapes... crops (system must specify by name) Grass seeds, legume seeds, other seed crops (system must specify...

  3. Lipid transfer protein : a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; Vries, de S.C.; Gautier, M.F.; Ciurana, C.L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R.C.; Ree, van R.

    2000-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly

  4. 233西番莲%Passionflower1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 又名 Apricot Vine, Corona De Cristo, Fleischfarbige, Fleur De La Passion, Flor De Passion, Madre Selva, Maypop, Maypop Passion Flower, Passiflora, Passiflorae herba, Passiflore, Passiflorina, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Passionaria, Passionblume, Passionflower Herb, Passionsblumenkraut,Purple Passion Flower, Water Lemon, Wild Passion Flower.

  5. 75 FR 13282 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ..., and Quince; and Stone Fruit: Apricot, Cherry, Peach, Nectarine, and Plum. Contact: James M. Stone, (703) 305-7391, stone.james@epa.gov . 5. Registration Numbers: 264-718, 264-719, 264-850. Docket Number..., soursop, biriba, avocado, small vine climbing fruits except fuzzy kiwifruit (crop subgroup 13-07F),...

  6. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cherry virus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, Hiroaki; Nijo, Takamichi; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Keima, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2016-01-01

    The 5'-terminal genomic sequence of Cherry virus A (CVA) has long been unknown. We determined the first complete genome sequence of an apricot isolate of CVA (7,434 nucleotides [nt]). The 5'-untranslated region was 107 nt in length, which was 53 nt longer than those of known CVA sequences. PMID:27284130

  7. 78 FR 9851 - Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... the regulations. However, in a final rule published in the Federal Register on May 27, 2011 (76 FR.... (pear), Prunus spp. (almond, apricot, cherry, cherry laurel, English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune), Cydonia spp. (quince), Chaenomeles spp. (flowering quince), and Rubus spp....

  8. 75 FR 61694 - Notice of Request for Extension of the Organic Assessment Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ..., Fresh pears and peaches grown in California; 922, Apricots grown in designated counties in Washington; 923, Sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington; 924, Fresh prunes grown in designated...; 989, Raisins produced from grapes grown in California; and 993, Dried prunes produced in...

  9. 40 CFR 407.61 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., slices and other similar styles of apples, apricots, figs, peaches, pears, prunes, canned extracted prune juice and pulp from rehydrated and cooked dehydrated prunes; but not including dates or raisins. (i) The... provided below, the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part...

  10. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2011-11-23

    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  11. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946..., measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  13. 7 CFR 922.10 - Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size. 922.10 Section 922.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the blossom end,...

  14. EST Table: FS911565 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0/09/10 78 %/161 aa gnl|Amel|GB19218-PA 10/09/10 83 %/161 aa gi|189241909|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] FS918661 fufe ...

  15. Gclust Server: 23111 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 23111 DME_CG3019_116007124 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(403) 279 su(w[a]): suppressor of white-aprico...elated Sequences(403) Sequence length 279 Representative annotation su(w[a]): suppressor of white-apricot

  16. EST Table: FS779323 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /09/10 79 %/201 aa gnl|Amel|GB19218-PA 10/09/10 75 %/196 aa gi|189241909|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] FS779323 fcaL ...

  17. EST Table: FS791410 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0/09/10 75 %/133 aa gnl|Amel|GB19218-PA 10/09/10 81 %/133 aa gi|189241909|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] FS918661 ffbm ...

  18. EST Table: FY020340 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 11/11/04 79 %/249 aa gnl|Amel|GB19218-PA 11/11/04 75 %/246 aa gi|189241909|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] FS779323 bmov ...

  19. EST Table: FS936163 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0/09/10 77 %/159 aa gnl|Amel|GB19218-PA 10/09/10 83 %/159 aa gi|189241909|ref|XP_970822.2| PREDICTED: similar to Darkener of apricot CG33553-PG [Tribolium castaneum] FS918661 fwgP ...

  20. AcEST: DK949624 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-rich 8 OS... 84 1e-15 sp|P12297|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Dros... 80 1e-14 sp|Q105...AKQARNSQFDFL 243 >sp|P12297|SUWA_DROME Protein suppressor of white apricot OS=Drosophila melanogaster GN=su(...P9D6_DROER Suppressor of white-apricot OS=Drosophila... 81 7e-14 tr|B4L3T2|B4L3T2_DROMO GI15614 OS=Drosophil...VKQGSNPMFGFL 694 +VKQGSNP FGFL Sbjct: 180 RVKQGSNPTFGFL 192 >tr|Q5N8K0|Q5N8K0_ORYSJ Gene suppressor-of-white-apricot...36 tr|A2WU48|A2WU48_ORYSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Oryza... 155 2e-36 tr|Q5N8K0|Q5N8K0_ORYSJ Gene suppressor-of-white-apri

  1. 7-O-methylpelargonidin glycosides from the pale red flowers of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi

    2013-08-01

    Two new anthocyanidin glycosides were isolated from the pale red flowers of Catharanthus roseus 'Equator Apricot with Red Eye', and identified as 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-galactopyranoside] and 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-(beta-galactopyranoside) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:24079176

  2. Dicty_cDB: SSL893 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f, mRNA sequence. 52 5e-06 2 CB82174...7 |CB821747.1 EST 2598 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone be003m23 3'

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSD525 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1369 |CB821369.1 EST 2220 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone be002d22... to V-type H+-ATPase 16 kDa subunit, mRNA sequence. 52 0.006 1 CB822417 |CB822417.1 EST 3268 Half-Ripe Apric

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHA720 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0027O11f, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 1 CB822147 |CB822147.1 EST 2998 Half...22172 |CB822172.1 EST 3023 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunus armeniaca cDNA clone be005f1

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHA579 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available V052777 |CV052777.1 EST 12225 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunu...s armeniaca cDNA clone bge017e02q 5', mRNA sequence. 52 0.006 1 CB821170 |CB821170.1 EST 2021 Half-Ripe Apri

  6. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  7. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  8. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  9. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  10. Detection of irradiated fruits and vegetables by gas-chromatographic methods and electron spin-resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, S.E.A. (National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Gas chromatographic methods detected some hydrocarbons esp. 17:1, 16:2, 15:0 and 14:1 in irradiated, Avocado, Papaya, Mangoes with 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 kGy and Apricot with 0.5 and 3.0 kGy. The detection of hydrocarbons was clearly at high doses but the low doses need more sensitive conditions using Liquid-Liquid-Gas chromatographic method as used here. Using Electron Spin-Resonance, produce a specific signal from irradiated onion (dried leaves) as well as apricot (hard coat of kernels) after some weeks of irradiation process but not clear with the other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  11. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  12. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali.

  13. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  14. Effect of combination methods on insect disinfestation and quality of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried apricots, dates, figs and raisins were irradiated with 0.25 kGy after packaging in clear and colored polyethylene (0.04 mm) and subsequently stored for one year at 10°E, 15°E, 20°EC, and room temperatures (10–36°EC). Influence of this treatment on insect infestation, and changes in the color and ascorbic acid was studied. the results revealed that dates and raisins were infested by Tribolium castaneum while apricots and figs by Corcyra cephalonica and Cadra cautella. Low dose radiation treatment (0.25 kGy) alone was not effective in controlling insect infestation. However, radiation treatment in combination with low temperatures (10-20°EC) checked infestation for one year and resulted in a better product than any other treatment tested. Storage of dry fruits in colored polyethylene protected their color and ascorbic acid more than clear polyethylene during one year storage. (author)

  15. Detection of irradiated fruits and vegetables by gas-chromatographic methods and electron spin-resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas chromatographic methods detected some hydrocarbons esp. 17:1, 16:2, 15:0 and 14:1 in irradiated, Avocado, Papaya, Mangoes with 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 kGy and Apricot with 0.5 and 3.0 kGy. The detection of hydrocarbons was clearly at high doses but the low doses need more sensitive conditions using Liquid-Liquid-Gas chromatographic method as used here. Using Electron Spin-Resonance, produce a specific signal from irradiated onion (dried leaves) as well as apricot (hard coat of kernels) after some weeks of irradiation process but not clear with the other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  16. Influence of gamma rays and some pre and post harvest treatments on behavior of some fruits during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apricot fruits usually harvested relatively mature but hard enough to withstand-post harvest handling through the marketing chain. These fruits have considerably lower edible quality than tree-ripened fruit. Fruit quality can be improved by delaying harvest least until physiological maturation is completed on the tree (Bonghi et al. 1999) Apricots containing 11% soluble solids concentration, or higher are in high demand by consumers, as fruit have developed considerable taste, aroma and handling for long distance markets. (Kader, 1999). These fruit will be highly perishable, so rapid cold storage to the lowest safe temperature and supplementary treatments (Mc Donald et al, 1999) such as irradiation with the recommend doses (Sillano et al, 1994) or pre-storage heat treatments will be necessary to retard ripening (mainly softening) during 1-2 weeks post harvest life necessary for distribution to distant markets (Mc Donald et al 1999). Therefore, one can conclude that spraying Canino apricot and Dessert Red peach trees with calcium chloride at 5% or Soya bean oil at 2% showed beneficial effects as pre harvest treatments where they increased fruit firmness and improved fruit quality and prolonged storage and marketing periods as well as decreasing weight loss and percentage of discarded fruits. In addition, spaying Manfaloti pomegrates trees with CaCl2 solution at 7.5% or Soya bean oil at 4% gained the same results.As for the post harvest treatments, results indicated that subjecting Canino apricots and Dessert Red peaches to gamma radiation at 0.5 K.Gy and pomegrates to 1.0 K.Gy proved to be the best treatments where they reduced respiration rate and loss in fruit weight and improved fruit quality and prolonged both storage and marketing periods

  17. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  18. Significant effect of accidental pollinations on the progeny of low setting Prunus interspecific crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Daorden Álvarez, María Elena; García Martín, Elena; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of fortuitous pollination on interspecific hybridizations of the plum rootstock Myrobalan with the apricot cultivars 'Moniquí' and 'Moniquí Borde' was assessed in this work. Progeny was originated through hand pollination of emasculated flowers of three Myrobalan clones, without bagging, in 1998 and 1999. Fruit set was low and variable among years (1.8-8.0%), but higher than the level of accidental pollination measured with emasculated and non-pollinated flowers (1.2%). Molecula...

  19. Applicazioni industriali e di ricerca della spettroscopia NIR per la valutazione di indici qualitativi di prodotti alimentari

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi, Florina Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    In the present work qualitative aspects of products that fall outside the classic Italian of food production view will be investigated, except for the apricot, a fruit, however, less studied by the methods considered here. The development of computer systems and the advanced software systems dedicated for statistical processing of data, has permitted the application of advanced technologies including the analysis of niche products. The near-infrared spectroscopic analysis was applied to th...

  20. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lepore; Damiano Gustavo Mita; Nadia Diano; Ines Delfino; Flora Zenone; Carlo Camerlingo

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of ...

  1. Effects of precooling and degreening treatments on the susceptibility of peach and citrus to handling damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Garcia Garcia, F.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical damage to fruits results from a combination of fruit properties and of damage inflicting effects by the handling equipment. Treatments were applied to fruits which affect mechanical damage susceptibility: precooling for stone fruits and degreening to citrus fruits. Laboratory tests (compression, impact, tumbling, abrasion) and field tests (damage in the handling lines) were applied to (3) peach, (2) apricot, (2) orange and (1) lemon varieties. Hydroor-air-cooling influence positive...

  2. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apricots, fresh (2 = 1/2 cup) Artichoke, globe Asparagus spears Avocado, black or green skin   (g)  1 ... 128    (g)  New England clam chowder or potato asparagus or broccoli corn celery chicken mushroom with whole ...

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  4. 40 CFR 180.261 - N-(Mercaptomethyl) phthali-mide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphoro-dithioate) and its oxygen analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 20 Alfalfa, hay 40 Almond, hulls 10 Apple 10 Apricot 5 Blueberry 10 Cattle, fat 0.2 Cattle, meat 0.1 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.1 Cherry 10 Cotton, refined oil 0.2 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1... 0.1 Kiwifruit 25 Milk 0.1 Nectarine 5 Nut, tree, group 14 0.1 Pea, dry, seed 0.5 Pea, field, hay...

  5. Pseudomnas syringae: A pathogen of fruit trees in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2009-01-01

    Data about symptomatology, pathogenicity and bacteriological characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae, and PCR methods for fast and reliable detection of the pathogen are given in this paper. P. syringae has been experimentally proved as a pathogen of pear, apple, apricot, plum cherry, and raspberry, and pathogen strains have also been isolated from necrotic peach buds. Two pathogen varieties, syringae and morsprunorum, were found in our research in Serbia, the former being dominant on fruit t...

  6. Graft Incompatibility Influence on Assimilating Pigments and Soluble Sugars Amount of some Pear (Pyrus sativa) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghii CIOBOTARI; Maria BRINZA; Aliona MORARIU; Gica GRADINARIU

    2010-01-01

    Graft incompatibility in fruit trees is one of the greatest obstacles in rootstocks and cultivars breeding. The mechanism in which incompatibility is expressed is not yet fully understood and several hypotheses have been advanced in an attempt to explain it. In many cases (pear on quince grafts, apricot on Prunus grafts), incompatibility is manifested by the breaking of the trees at the point of the union particularly when they have been growing for some years. Many reports focus on this prob...

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans-Himalayan cold desert

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Priyanka; BAJPAI, Prabodh Kumar; Tayade, Amol Bapurao; CHAURASIA, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Ravi Bihari; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan plants are widely used in traditional system of medicine both as prophylactics and therapeutics for high altitude maladies. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds of methanol and n-hexane extracts of the phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. Methods The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-...

  8. Analysis of the relationship between the structure and aromatic properties of chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Barbara; Guzowska-Swider, Barbara

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the relationship between the structure and odour properties of a selection of chemical compounds. The research concerns five groups of esters, each with a different smell: almond, apricot, apple, pineapple and rose. The supposed relationship between the smell and certain selected attributes of each molecule was examined by various pattern recognition techniques using programs developed in the Department of Computer Chemistry at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  9. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Halenár; Marína Medveďová; Nora Maruniaková; Dagmara Packová; Adriana Kolesárová

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON). Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illn...

  10. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Dehelean; Dana Alina Magdas

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy meta...

  11. Technical communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, D.A.

    Bitter almond oil (benzaldehyde), a flavoring compound used in many foods, was isolated from apricot kernels; 2 synthetic benzaldehyde samples were obtained from commercial sources. All samples were analyzed for radiocarbon (/sup 14/C) content. The natural sample yielded a value consistent with its natural origin (approximately 116% of Modern Standard Activity), while the synthetic samples were devoid of /sup 14/C activity as expected for a petrochemical material. Implications for quality control of bitter almond oil are discussed.

  12. Influence of host plant species on the development and reproduction of hawthorn spider mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dingxu; Hou Yueli; Shen Zuorui

    2006-01-01

    A leaf disc bioassay was employed to investigate the influence of host species of deciduous fruit trees,like apple,peach,plum,cherry and apricot,on the development and reproduction of the hawthorn spider mite Tetranychus viennensis Zacher in the laboratory under conditions of 25±1℃,60±10% RH and a photoperiod of 16 h: 8 h light:dark.This was done by determining the duration of each life stage of the mites,the intrinsic rate of population increase (Tm),mean generation time (T) and net reproductive rate (R0)of the spider mites on each of the host plant species.Differences in life table parameters of the spider mite among host plants were analyzed with the jack-knife method.The results indicated that plum might be the best suitable plant for the spider mite among the plants tested due to shorter developmental period and higher intrinsic rate of increase,whereas cherry and apricot were least suitable due to their long developmental duration and low intrinsic rates of increase.When the spider mites were transferred from apple to other fruit trees,negative effects on developmental duration, fecundity and life table parameters were found in the first generation,but the effects faded out in succeeding generations.When transferred onto plum and peach,the spider mite adapted to the new hosts in the second generation;however,on cherry and apricot,it adapted in the third generation.

  13. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Niazi, N S; Kohn, J S

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00-2.84 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g(-1)). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts.

  14. 基于高速摄像技术落果运动规律的研究%Researching the Movement of Fruit Dropping Based on High-speed Camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕梦璐; 王春耀; 罗建清; 蔡菲; 张敏敏

    2015-01-01

    研究枝干和杏果实在落果过程中的瞬时速度及位移变化规律,为振动机械化采收提供必要的理论依据。通过机械振动装置对杏树进行振动采收试验,借助高速摄像仪对振动采收过程进行跟踪拍摄记录,利用 Phantom软件对图像进行分析、计算。由分析可知:在受迫振动中同枝干、不同位置的杏果实瞬时速度的变化规律有6个阶段,所在枝干的瞬时速度峰值出现时刻都较杏果实瞬时速度峰值出现的早;杏果实瞬时速度的变化周期与所在枝干瞬时速度的周期变化相近,约为70~80ms,完全分离前的6~10ms,杏果实与所在枝干的相对瞬时速度达到最大。结果证明:振动采收时使用高速摄像装置进行速度分析,可以较好地得到落果的运动规律,直观地了解整个落果过程并且量化杏果实的力学性能参数。%In order to research the instantaneous velocity and displacement variation of branches and apricot fruit in the fruit dropping for vibration to provide the necessary theoretical basis in mechanical harvesting .By mechanical vibration device for doing apricot harvest vibration test , using high-speed camera for tracking and recording vibration harvesting process , and using Phantom for analyzing and calculate .By forced vibration analysis shows that the instantaneous velocity of apricot fruit have six stages at the different variation positions in the same branches ,where the branches of the instanta-neous velocity peak moments are more earlier than the instantaneous velocity peak moments of apricot fruit ,the changing cycle of instantaneous velocity of apricot fruit instantaneous speed are similar to the branches ,about 70ms to 80ms.Be-fore 6-10 ms completely separated ,the relative instantaneous velocity of apricot fruit and the branches is maximized .The results prove that the use of high-speed analyzing the velocity in the vibration harvesting , you can get

  15. Effects of Seasonal Changes (The Spring and The Autumn on Microbial Population of the Surface Soils Planted the Various Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial population of soil and its structure is affected with chemical and biological changes such as plant-root secretions. Upper layer of the soil is exposed to mixture of stems, fruiting bodies and leaves of trees. Seven trees growing at same area were chosen. Their upper layers of the soil were collected from depth 5-10 cm as samples in spring and autumn. Their microbial populations were investigated in order to determine in terms of climate changes. In order to determine the number of the total microorganisms, gram-negative bacteria and spore-forming bacteria (cfu/g were used by the serial dilution techniques. As a result, the highest numbers of microorganisms from the soil of the apple tree were determined as the total microbial count in the autumn, although the lowest number of microorganisms was obtained from the soil of the pine tree. However, the number of the gram-negative bacteria was the highest in the soil of linden tree, although the number of gram negative bacteria was the lowest in the soil of apricot, mulberry and apple trees. For spore - forming bacterium, the highest number from the mulberry soil and the lowest number from the linden tree have been obtained. In the spring, the highest numbers of microorganisms from the soil of the apple tree were obtained as the total microbial count, although the lowest number of microorganisms was obtained from the soil of the apricot tree. For the number of the gram-negative bacteria was the highest in the soil of walnut tree, although the number of gram negative bacteria was the lowest in the soil of apricot trees. However spore - forming bacterium, the highest number from the soil of the poplar tree and the lowest number from the mulberry tree have been obtained. In general, the rich diversity of the microbial population was shown morphologically in autumn.

  16. Detection of irradiated fruits by gas-chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Dien, S; Farag, A

    1996-06-01

    To detect those fruits which have been subjected to low-dose irradiation (0.5-3 kGy), two methods of chromatography (GC-MS and LC-LC-GC-FID) were used to determine the radiolytic compounds of lipids formed after irradiation, such as alkanes and alkenes. Extraction of volatile hydrocarbon compounds from some parts of irradiated fruits, e.g. the flesh (avocado), seeds (papaya) and kernels (mango and apricot) was carried out. The analysis of hydrocarbons by GC-MS proved the suitability of using C17:1, C16:2, C15:0 and C14:1 as markers for avocados irradiated with a low dose (0.75 kGy). The same indicators appeared following the analysis of papayas and mangoes irradiated with 1.5, and 3.0 kGy. Also, C15:0, C14:1 and C16:3 can be used to identify apricots irradiated with a low dose (0.5 kGy). The detection of alkenes was only improved by a more selective isolation, e.g. of dienes or trienes by LC-LC-GC-FID. Within a few minutes, apricots and avocados irradiated at low doses (0.5 and 0.75 kGy) can be recognized by the indicators C16:2, C17:2 and C16:3, without interfering peaks. In all cases, C16:1, C16:2, C16:3 as well as significant amounts of C17:2 can be used as markers for fruit irradiation.

  17. Regulated deficit irrigation can decrease soil CO2 emissions in fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Acosta, José Alberto; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Faz, Angel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area have created a growing interest in water conservation. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils, by decreasing microbial and root activity in response to decreased soil moisture levels. An experiment was established in four orchards (peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape) to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on soil CO2 emissions. Two irrigation treatments were assayed: full irrigation (FI), and RDI, irrigated as FI except for postharvest period (peach, apricot, Saturn peach) or post-veraison period (grape) were 50% of FI was applied. The application of deficit caused a significant decrease in CO2 emission rates, with rates in average of 90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 120 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 and 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 lower than FI during the period when deficit was applied for peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape. This confirms the high effectiveness of the RDI strategies not only to save water consumption but also to decrease soil CO2 emissions. However, monitoring during longer periods is needed to verify that this trend is long-term maintained, and assess if soil carbon stocks are increase or most CO2 emissions derive from root respiration. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  18. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bupirimate in several crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Makhteshim-Agan Holland B.V. to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance bupirimate in apricots, peaches, strawberries, grapes, blackberries, dewberries, cucurbits, herbs and globe artichokes. In order to accommodate for the intended uses, The Netherlands proposed to raise the existing MRLs for bupirimate and for its metabolite ethirimol. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to provisionally derive MRL proposals for bupirimate of 0.3 mg/kg for peaches, apricots and cucurbits with inedible peel, 1.5 mg/kg for grapes and cane fruit, 2 mg/kg for strawberries, 3 mg/kg for courgettes. No change to the existing MRL for cucumbers is necessary. To cover the uses of bupirimate, an amendment of the MRLs for ethirimol is necessary for cane fruits and cucurbits with inedible peel only, to 0.1 and 0.08 mg/kg respectively. No MRLs are proposed for fresh herbs and globe artichokes. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bupirimate and ethirimol in the commodities under consideration. Based on the preliminary risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of bupirimate on apricots, peaches, grapes, strawberries, cane fruits, courgettes, cucumbers and cucurbits with inedible peel will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  19. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA, inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%, with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%. Western   blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. 

  20. Monitoring of multiple pesticide residues in some fruits in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twenty samples of different fruits including apple, apricot, persimmon, chiku, citrus, grapes, guava, mango, papaya, peach, plum and pomegranate procured from different selling points of Karachi, Pakistan during 2008-2009, were analyzed for monitoring of multiple pesticide residues using GC/FID and HPLC/UV. The results showed exceeding level of contamination. On an average 62.5% samples contained residues of pesticides while 22% samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as given by FAO/WHO (Anon., 2000). (author)

  1. A Survey of Study on Lactase Isolated from Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 General situation of lactase distributionLactase ( β-D-galactosidase EC 3. 2. 1. 23 )[1] generally exists in microorganism and many kinds of animals and plants like almond,apricot,peach,soybean,coffee bean and snail. In microorganism category,mold and yeast can produce this enzyme.Due to the fact that yeast is safe,unvirulent and easy to culture,using it as a source of enzyme seems relatively ideal.Thus,a lot of studies corresponding to this field has been conducted[2].

  2. 40 CFR 180.511 - Buprofezin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 0.05 Cherimoya 0.30 Citrus, dried pulp 7.5 Citrus, oil 80 Coffee, green bean 0.35 Cotton, gin... Acerola 0.30 Almond 0.05 Almond, hulls 2.0 Apricot 9.0 Atemoya 0.30 Avocado 0.30 Banana 0.20 Bean, snap... 6.0 Loganberry 0.30 Lychee 0.30 Mango 0.90 Milk 0.01 Okra 4.0 Olive 3.5 Olive, oil 4.8 Papaya...

  3. Low-calorie marmalades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Saša R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from insulin-dependent (Diabetes Melitus type I and insulin-independent (Diabetes Melitus type II is huge, and the number of potential diseased is in permanent rise. For that reason products with reduced amount of sugar have become very popular. Factory "Srbijanka" Valjevo manufactures reduced–sugar marmalades from apricot peach, strawberry, apple and orange. Low–metoxyl pectins and high-grade locust bean gum were used as gelation agents. Sensory evaluation and energy value of these marmalades were determined and all samples were highly graded. All marmalades belonged to the group of low-calorie (dietetic products.

  4. Antibacterial Effect of Untreated and Treated (Decolorized Dyes by Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity (antibacterial effect of untreated and treated (decolorized dyes on a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. Low cost and easily available two agricultural residues (cotton stalk and apricot seed as biosorbents were used to remove Astrazone Black and Astrazone Yellow from aqueous solution. The removal of these dyes with agricultural wastes reduced the toxic effect on P. aeruginosa. This reduction in toxic effect is important both in respect of environmental biotechnology and waste detoxification. This study showed that these agricultural byproducts can be used for decolorization and detoxification of dyes.

  5. MK615 decreases RAGE expression and inhibits TAGE-induced proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhki; Sakuraoka; Tokihiko; Sawada; Toshie; Okada; Takayuki; Shiraki; Yoshikazu; Miura; Katsuya; Hiraishi; Tatsushi; Ohsawa; Masakazu; Adachi; Jun-ichi; Takino; Masayoshi; Takeuchi; Keiichi; Kubota

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the proliferative effect of advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) and the role of their cellular receptor(RAGE) on hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cells,and the inhibitory effects of MK615,an extract from Japanese apricot,against AGEs were also evaluated.METHODS:Two HCC cell lines,HuH7 and HepG2,were used.Expression of RAGE was investigated by poly-merase chain reaction,Western blotting,and flow cytemetry(FACS).The effect of MK615 on RAGE expression was also evaluated by FACS.The proliferat...

  6. Skladování peckového ovoce

    OpenAIRE

    ČÍŽKOVÁ, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis on the theme storage of fruits contains theoretical and practical part deals with with the cultivation/grow (dala bych ale spíš cultivation), harvesting and processes which take place during storage of stone fruit. The practical part is focused on the storage of stone fruit, apricot specifically at two different temperatures of 5 ° C and 18 ° C. For the experiment were selected varieties Betinka and Bergeron, was observed weight loss, health condition, and weight of the fruit ...

  7. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV) IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-01-01

    The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the pres...

  8. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa; Rabasco Alvarez, Antonio M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range ...

  9. Peking Chutney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    2 pounds (about 4 cups of pulp) of ripe Ming Tomb persimmons1 1/2 cups of light or dark Turpan raisins (haven’t recently been to Turpan? then any raisins will do)2 cups of dried apricots from Turpan2 freshly picked tart apples from Maoling, tomb of the 9th Emperor of the Ming Dynasty2 tablespoons of fresh ginger 1 green chili pepper chopped 1 tablespoon of mustard seed3 1/2 cups water1 1/2 cups white vinegar (I used rice wine vinegar) 1 1/4 cups brown sugar

  10. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  11. Linkage map positions and allelic diversity of two Mal d 3 (non-specific lipid transfer protein) genes in the cultivated apple (Malus domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. S.; Weg, van de, H; Schaart, J.G.; Meer, van der, D; Kodde, L.P.; Laimer, M; Breiteneder, H; K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) of Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apricot, cherry, plum and apple, represent major allergens for Mediterranean atopic populations. As a first step in elucidating the genetics of nsLTPs, we directed the research reported here towards identifying the number and location of nsLTP (Mal d 3) genes in the apple genome and determining their allelic diversity. PCR cloning was initially performed on two cultivars, Prima and Fiesta, parents of a core apple...

  12. Study on the selection of superior rootstocks for plum trees%李树优良砧木选择试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建英; 孙志; 李万强; 黄志龙

    2013-01-01

      通过对张掖市小红李、榆叶梅等5种李树砧木根皮率、树高、冠径、嫁接亲和性、生长与结果测试分析,认为本地实生小红李、榆叶梅为李子良种的优良砧木,榆叶梅有一定的矮化性,适于密植;山桃次之;毛桃不适于作抗寒性差品种的砧木;山杏作砧木,盛果期李子品质下降,忌大面积推广。%The paper analyzing the percetage of root bark, tree height, crown diameter, graft compatibility and growth of five plum tree’ s rootstocks such as small red plum and flowering plum etc. The small red plum and flowering plum are good rootstocks for plum. Dense planting is suitable for flowering plum because of its dwarfed nature. Wild peach can’t be used as rootstock for species which had poor cold resistence. Taking apricot as the rootstock resulted in a decline in plum quality in full fruit period, so apricot can’t be popularized.

  13. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  14. Analysis and risk assessment of 4(5)-methylimidazole in brown colored foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) levels in various 144 brown coloured foods and beverages were determined. The brown coloured foods and beverages were 62 processed sauces, 40 coffee, 9 caramel syrups, 18 red ginseng juice and 15 Japanese apricot fruit juice. The amount of 4(5)-MI in brewed coffee (1821.3 ng/g) was the highest level among the samples. The 4(5)-MI concentration in processed sauce (47.6 ng/g) was the lowest level among the samples. The levels of 4(5)-MI in various samples were found as follows: 47.6-1748.5 ng/g in processed sauces, 64.1-1821.3 ng/g in commercial coffee, 115.5-491.9 ng/g in caramel syrups, 91.0-854.1 ng/g in red ginseng juice and 137.6-587.4 ng/g in Japanese apricot fruit juice. Based on the 4(5)-MI levels, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and chronic daily intake (CDI) were calculated. EDI and CDI of red ginseng juice was the highest among all samples, and they were 1618.6 and 1256.8 ng/kg bw/day, respectively.

  15. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xihong; Li, Dingxu; Li, Zheng; Zalom, Frank G; Gao, Lingwang; Shen, Zuorui

    2012-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apricot, Prunus armeniaca L.; plum, Prunus salicina L.; peach, Prunus persica L.; jujube, Zizyphus jujuba Will.; apple, Malus domestica Mill.; and pear, Pyrus sorotina Will) on the development and life table parameters of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions. Peach fruit moth developed faster (12.48 d) and had the highest preimaginal survival rate (50.54%) on plum compared with the other host plants. Adult longevity was significantly longer on jujube for both female and male moths. Adult females from larvae reared on jujube and peach laid significantly greater numbers of eggs (214.50 and 197.94 eggs per female, respectively) compared with those reared on the other four host plants. Life-table parameters were calculated for each host plant and compared by jackknife procedures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was significantly greatest on plum (0.1294 eggs per female per d), followed by jujube and apricot (0.1201 and 0.1128 eggs per female per d), respectively. Implications of the various measures of population performance are discussed.

  16. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Rana; V Chandel; Y Kumar; R Ram; V Hallan; A A Zaidi

    2010-12-01

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91–100% and 70–98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV.

  17. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

  18. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for formetanate in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Italy herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the company Gowan Comercio Internacional e Servicos, Limitada, to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance formetanate in apricots, peaches/nectarines, table and wine grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, cucumbers, courgettes, gherkins, melons, pumpkins, watermelons, lettuce and scarole. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for all crops, except apricots. Adequate multi-residue methods are available to determine formetanate and its salts in high water and high acid content matrices with a combined LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. EFSA concludes that for the intended use on courgettes, cucumbers, strawberries, and peppers an acute consumer exposure concerns cannot be excluded and thus the intended uses cannot be supported. For all the other crops under consideration which were sufficiently supported by data EFSA concluded that the intended uses of formetanate will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  19. The application of sheet filters in treatment of fruit brandy after cold stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljić Uroš D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common use of sheet filtration for clarification of fruit brandies, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of its application on the stability and composition of volatile compounds of apricot brandy after cold stabilisation. Cold stabilisation treatment involved holding of the brandy at -1°C during 24 hours. Five depth filter sheets with the nominal retention rate of 0.3 μm, 0.5-0.7 μm, 0.7-1.0 μm, 1.0-2.0 μm and 2.5-4.0 μm, were tested in the study. It was shown that all assessed filter sheets were efficient in removing chill haze by significantly reducing the content of fatty acid esters (primarily ethyl palmitate and ethyl laurate. Other volatile and aromatic compounds were not significantly influenced by the applied treatments. However, the filter sheets with higher nominal retention rate (> 0.7 μm, had a smaller impact on the sensory characteristics of the apricot brandy. The re-exposure to lower temperatures did not lead to chill haze formation in any sample obtained after sheet filtration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  20. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  1. Levels of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead in fruits and vegetables grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteef, Mohammed D Y; Fawy, Khaled F; Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S M; Idris, Abubakr M

    2015-11-01

    The levels of four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were evaluated in two fruit types (apricot and fig), a fruity vegetable (tomato), and three leafy vegetables (arugula, spinach, and lettuce) that are commonly grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for quantification. The quality of results was checked by a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1570a). Good recovery values in the range of 87-104% were achieved. Metals were quantified in washed and unwashed samples to evaluate the effect of washing. Statistically, no significant difference was noticed (p>0.05), except for Zn in arugula and Cu in apricot and spinach. The levels of metals found in the analyzed fruits and vegetables were in their normal ranges in crops and not posing any serious risks to the consumers in Aseer Region. The toxic elements Pb and Cd were well below the maximum levels set in the Saudi and international food standards. Zn and Cu levels were comparable to the ranges reported in worldwide previous studies.

  2. Multifrequency EPR study on freeze-dried fruits before and after X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, A. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-09-15

    X-, K- and Q-band EPR studies on lyophilized whole pulp parts of blue plum, apricot, peach, melon as well as achens and pulp separately of strawberry before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples show in X band a weak singlet EPR line with g=2.0030+/-0.0005, except melon, which is EPR silent. Immediately after irradiation all samples exhibit complex fruit-depending spectra, which decay with time and change to give, in ca. 50days, an asymmetric singlet EPR line with g=2.0041+/-0.0005. Only apricot pulp gave a typical ''sugar-like'' EPR spectrum. Singlet EPR lines recorded after irradiation in X -band are K- and Q-band resolved as typical anisotropic EPR spectra with g{sub ||}=2.0023+/-0.0003 and g{sub -}bar =2.0041+/-0.0005. In addition, K- and Q-band EPR spectra of all samples show a superposition with the six EPR lines of Mn{sup 2+} naturally present in the fruits. The saturation behavior of the EPR spectra of achens of lyophilized and fresh strawberry is also studied. The differences in g factors of samples before and after X-ray irradiation might be used for the identification of radiation processing of fruits in the case of pulp and the differences in the EPR saturation behavior might be used for the achens of strawberry.

  3. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rendina

    Full Text Available Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  4. [Effects of low temperature and weak light on the functions of photosystem in Prunus armeniaca L. leaves in solar greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Zhang, Li-tao; Wang, Jia-Xi; Wang, Shao-Min; Gao, Hua-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (PhiPSII), photochemical quenching (qp), and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in light (Fv'/Fm') of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) leaves in solar greenhouse were measured, and the effects of low temperature (7 degrees C) and weak light (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) PFD) on the photoinhibition of PS I and PS II were investigated. The results showed that the optimal temperature for the photosynthesis of apricot leaves was around 25 degrees C, and the photosynthetic capacity was reduced greatly by the low temperature and weak light, inducing a markedly increased excitation press (1-qp) and in turn, resulting in photoinhibition. The functions of both PS I and PS II were damaged by the low temperature and weak light. Comparing with those only subjected to low temperature, the leaves subjected to both low temperature and weak light had a decreased activity of PS I, with a decrement of 28.26% within 2 h, but their maximal photochemical effeciency of PS II (Fv/Fm) had little change in the same period, suggesting that under low temperature and weak light, PS I was more suffered from photoinhibition than PS II.

  5. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  6. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Matthäus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa, were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil. The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol.

  7. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  8. Chapter 5. Uranium extraction technology from mine and drainage waters of uranium industry wastes. 5.4. Sorbent selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to sorbent selection. In sulfuric solutions, the uranium is found as [UO2(SO4)2 ]4-, which is produced in result of uranium ores leaching by sulfuric acid and the ratio depends on SO42-, UO22+ concentration and on the ph medium. Thus, the mine waters of Kiik-Tal settlement and the technical waters of Taboshar settlement also contain ions SO42- and UO22+. In principle, uranium can be absorbed from sulfuric solutions either by cation exchangers or by anion exchangers, which has been proved by practice. Component extraction sorption effectiveness, in case of uranium, is determined by its extraction degree (%), cleaning and concentration. These are the main sorption tasks. The basic requirements for the process are: maximum sorbent capacity and selectivity by good kinetic sorption indicators and uranium regeneration. Minimum required parameters which should be of interest to a production engineer are: sorption capacity, number of sorption stages, one-time sorbent loading, solution contact duration, desorption conditions. All these parameters are directly or indirectly related and reflect the basic physicochemical regularities of sorption statics and kinetics, and also depend a lot on the apparatus process design. Taking all this into account, apricot shells as sorbent was used. Apricot shells are a cheap and accessible material - canning plants' waste in the North of Tajikistan, which compiles hundred tons every year. The swelling ability of shell is 17%. A number of tests were carried out for optimal sorption regime determination.

  9. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS. AN EFFECT OF SONICATION AND SAMPLE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Braniša

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls and carotenoids are abundant pigments in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. In this study we verified the applicability of two previously developed UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of chlorophylls (a, b and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene or total carotenoids. The pigments were extracted from the strawberries, apricots and raspberries in both the acetone-water and acetone-hexane mixtures. Based on the statistical evaluation of the results the combination of mechanical disruption and sonication of fruit samples seems to be a suitable way to improve the pigment extraction efficiency from fruits in both types of solvents. In the case of apricot and raspberry fruit extracts the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids calculated from the proposed equations was comparable to those published by other authors. However, the spectrophotometric determination of β-carotene content in strawberry acetone-hexane extract appeared to be problematic mainly due to the fact that carotenoids exhibited overlapping chlorophyll absorption bands. Overlap of bands leads to the negative values calculated from the proposed equation for the β-carotene content. The results indicate the limitations in use of the proposed set of equations for plant samples with comparable amounts of studied pigments.

  10. On Risk Assessment and Application of Agricultural Meteorological Disasters%果树农业气象灾害风险评估与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦平; 姚晓红; 刘晓强; 许赟恺; 强玉柱

    2015-01-01

    灾害风险评估是一项新型研究课题,目前比较普遍的研究方法是灾害风险等级评估。以甘肃天水食用杏为例,从分析影响杏产量形成的气象因素入手,利用统计学方法和风险原理,构建了“基于杏产量损失的农业气象灾害风险评估”、“基于不同农业气象灾害类型的灾害风险评估”和“基于不同农业气象灾害类型和灾害贡献率的灾害风险评估”3种农业气象灾害等级风险评估模型,对1982-2011年30a农业气象灾害对食用杏产量形成影响进行了综合风险评估,灾年(包括小灾、中灾、大灾和特大灾)评估以“基于不同农业气象灾害类型和灾害贡献率的灾害风险评估”方法准确率最高,为90%;“基于杏产量损失的农业气象灾害风险评估”居次,准确率80%,以上2种评估方法评估效果都比较理想,可为多年生果树作物气象灾害风险评估研究提供参考,对农业防灾减灾有一定的指导意义。%Disaster risk assessment is a new research topic and the assessment of disaster risk level is the common research method for the moment .Taking the apricot in Gansu Tianshui as an example and start‐ing with the influence of meteorological factor on apricot yield ,In statistical method and risk theory ,three agricultural meteorological disaster risk level assessment models have been constructed .Including agricul‐ture meteorological disaster risk assessment based on the loss of apricot yield ,disaster risk assessment based on the different types of agricultural meteorological disasters and disaster risk assessment based on the different types and the disaster contribution rate of agricultural meteorological disasters .Through the comprehensive risk assessment to the influence of agricultural meteorological disaster on apricot yield from 1982 to 2011 ,the result shows that the disaster years (including mild ,moderate ,severe and the worst

  11. 不同用途杏品种群的AFLP分析%Genetic analysis of apricot(Armeniaca) by fluorescent-AFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊环; 王玉柱; 孙浩元; 杨丽

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the genetic structure and genotypic diversity among the different apricot cultivar groups classified according to the use purpose,population genetic structure of 49 apricot accessions was studied using fluorescent-AFLP markers.The results showed that the average number of polymorphic loci was 183.9,the percentage of polymorphic loci was 85.1% by 8 pairs of PstⅠ/ MseⅠprimers in common apricot of five groups.Nei's gene diversity(H=0.184),Shannon information index(I= 0.295),observed number of alleles(Na=1.851),and effective number of alleles(Ne=1.294) at species level were higher than ones at group level with significant differences.At group level,the four parameters of the cross-breeding cultivar group were all higher than ones of other four groups.Genetic differentiation coefficient(Gst=0.267 9) for four apricot groups showed that apricot genetic variation was mainly within the groups and accounted for 73.21% of total variations.Nei's unbiased measure of genetic identity(IN) and genetic distance(D) were evaluated and the results showed that the genetic similarity between cultivar group for kernel consuming and ornamenting cultivar group was the highest(IN=0.985 0,D=0.015 1).Compared for other four groups,the cultivar group for flesh and processing was the most close to the cross-breeding cultivar group in genetic distance(IN=0.946 3;D=0.056 5).AFLP markers were used in cluster analysis with UPGMA and three groups of similar accessions were identified when the coefficient was 0.537:(ⅰ) the group for flesh market and processing,(ⅱ) the proup for kernel consuming and ornamenting cultivar group and(ⅲ) the group including 3 introduced cultivar and 9 cross-breeding accessions.%利用荧光AFLP技术,对49个隶属于不同用途的杏种质资源的遗传多样性和群体遗传结构进行了研究,结果表明,8对EcoRⅠ/PstⅠ引物平均扩增多态带数量为183.9,

  12. 岩松鼠的食物贮藏行为%Food-hoarding behaviour of David's rock squirrel Sciurotamias davidianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路纪琪; 张知彬

    2005-01-01

    Food storage is an important adaptation of some animal species to the temporal variation or unpredictable food supplies. David's rock squirrel Sciurotamias davidianus occurs in mountainous and hilly areas of north China. Food-hoarding behaviour of this species was unknown. We set up four semi-natural enclosures in the Donglingshan Mountain area near Beijing, and investigate the hoarding strategy of 12 David's rock squirrels and their response to perceived pilferage on seeds of walnuts Juglans regia and wild apricot Prunus armeniaca. The results show that: 1) David's rock squirrels hoarded food items in both larder and scatter patterns but more items were scatter hoarded; 2) when confronted by perceived pilferage on hoarded food, David's rock squirrels increased both larder hoarding and scattered hoarding; 3) none of the seeds of wild apricot and walnut were eaten at the feeder. David's rock squirrels consumed more seeds of wild apricot than that of walnuts outside nest boxes; 4) David's rock squirrels only scatter hoarded walnuts; and 5) seeds of walnuts were transported greater distances than that of wild apricot. The result suggests that David's rock squirrels might play different roles in natural regeneration of walnuts and wild apricots[Acta Zoologica Sinica 51(3):376-382,2005].%食物贮藏是许多动物对不可预见的食物供应变化的一种重要适应.岩松鼠(Sciurotamias davidianus)为中国特有物种,广泛分布于华北地区的山地和丘陵地带.作者在北京市东灵山地区建造半自然围栏(4 m×3 m× 1 m),以核桃(Juglans regia)和山杏(Prunus armeniaca)种子为备选食物,对岩松鼠(12只)的食物贮藏行为进行了研究.数据的统计分析采用SPSS for Windows进行.研究结果表明:1)岩松鼠表现出集中和分散两种食物贮藏方式,而分散贮藏是其偏好的贮藏方式;2) 当遇到贮藏食物被盗窃时,岩松鼠倾向于搬运更多的食物进行集中和分散贮藏;3)岩松鼠没有在食

  13. Activation analysis of microelement contents in food stuff of traditional children food in Republics Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent years Hematogists and Pediatricians pay more attention to the issue of disturbance of microelement homeostasis which is the most important in formation of microelementosis in children. To prevent and to treat the deficient forms of microelementosis the determination of microelement contents in traditional food of the population in any particular region is an issue of great importance. Provision of school age children with essential microelements and deficiency of many micronutrients are not sufficiently studied. In this aspect the issue of microelement contents in food stuffs of the children of Zarafshan valley is not enough investigated. Therefore, it is advisable to study the specific weight of microelements such as iron, zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese in vegetable and animal products and phytomedium which are consumed as the traditional food of the population of this region. We have studied 47 types of food stuffs mainly of vegetable and animal origin as well as widely used phytomedium. Microelement concentration in food stuffs were defined by neutron-activation analysis method worked out at Nuclear Physics Institute Republic of Uzbekistan. For the first time we have investigated national dishes - sumalak, halisa, shinni which are the essential part of traditional food of Central Asian population and the contents of microelements being studied. As per results of investigation it was found out that the most highest contents of iron was in dried apricot (358 mg/kg), then in black (180 mg/kg) and white (110 mg/kg) raisins. National dish - shinni ( the grapes syrup) contained iron equal to 103 mg/kg, local apple - 100 mg/kg. It should be noted that not only raisins and shinni are rich with iron but the decoction from wild vineyard stalks too which contains 366 mg/l. Moderate iron contents ( 50-100 mg/kg) was found in the following dried fruits: blackberry, haw, bitter and sweet almond, dried fig, and mulberry. Low concentration of iron (less

  14. Quantitative Determination of Three Active Constituents%高效液相色谱测定3种活性成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英婕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and bitter apricot seed in Xiao'er Feire Kechuan Oral Solution by high performance liquid chromatography.Methods ARP-HPLC method was estab-lished, with emethanol-acetonitrile-water (v ∶v ∶v=9 ∶9 ∶82, adding 1% triethylamine) used as the mobile phase, and 210 nm was the detecting wave length.Results The method has higher precision and repeatability.The recovery rate of Ephedrine Hydrochlo-ride was 99.42%, RSD (%) =0.38, the rate recovery of pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride was 99.23%, RSD (%) =0.35, and the recovery rate of Bitter Apricot Seed was 99.32%, RSD (%) =0.43.Conclusion With the advantages of simplicity, sensitive-ness and accuracy, the method can be used to determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and bitter apricot seed.%目的:采用高效液相色谱测定小儿肺热咳喘口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量。方法采用RP-HPLC 法测定,选择流动相为:甲醇-乙腈-水(9∶9∶82,加0.1%三乙胺),检测波长为210 nm。结果此方法精密度高,重现性好,盐酸麻黄碱平均回收率为99.42%, RSD (%)=0.38,盐酸伪麻黄碱平均回收率为99.23%, RSD (%)=0.35,苦杏仁苷平均回收率为99.32%, RSD (%)=0.43。结论此方法简便、灵敏、准确,可用于盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量测定。

  15. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  16. Control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Near East region using the sterile insect technique. Subregional proposals to eradicate the Medfly and establish fruit fly free areas in Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, The Syrian Arab Republic and the territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, is the single most important pest species affecting fresh fruits and vegetables within the Mediterranean region, but especially the Near East. For a wide range of commercial crops, including most citrus varieties, mangoes, grapes, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, plums, figs, dates, persimmons, papayas, peppers and tomatoes, it is the only economically important fruit fly in the region. This document, prepared at the request of Member States in the Near East region and developed by a group on international experts in fruit fly control, outlines plans to eradicate the medfly from three subregions of the Near East. The objective is the eradication of the medfly and establishment of fruit fly free areas within participating countries in order to reduce pesticide applications and to enable fresh fruit exports without post-harvest treatments. 12 refs, 6 figs, 19 tabs

  17. Two new species of Romulea (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the west­ ern Karoo, Northern Cape and notes on infrageneric classification and range extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Romulea are described from Northern Cape, raising the number of species in southern Africa to 76. R. collina J.C.Manning & Goldblatl is endemic to the Hantamsberg near Calvinia. It is distinguished in subgenus Spatalanthus by its clumped habit, yellow flowers with dark markings in the throat, and short papery bracts. A re-examination of rela­tionships within the subgenus suggests that section Cruciatae is not monophyletic and it is accordingly no longer recog­nized as separate from section  Spatalanthus. R. eburnea J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is a distinctive species of subgenus Spatalanthus from the Komsberg near Sutherland. It is distinguished by its golden yellow flowers with the apical third of the tepals coloured pale creamy apricot, bracts with broad, translucent margins and tips, and an unusually long perianth tube, 10-13 mm long.

  18. Thougths Emerged From the Anaphylactic Reactions Due to Fresh Prict Test with Fruit; are We Aware of the Potantial Danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kutlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic approach for food allergy is to avoide taking the food which is known to be allergic to the person. Minimal contact with allergen even such as skin prict test may also trigger the severe anaphylactic reactions. We want to share our exprience about a patient who exprienced anaphylaxis after fresh prick allergy skin test with fresh fruit (peach, apricot, plumb that we performed in our clinic. We belive that the patients who are known to have severe allergic reaction story must avoid to work in food proccesing and storage works, in case any contact with wounded skin area may result in severe allergic reaction [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 435-436

  19. Characterization of bio-oil obtained from fruit pulp pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbay, Nurguel [Bozueyuek Vocational School, Bilecik University, Bozueyuek, Bilecik (Turkey); Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Burcu Uzun, Basak; Eren Puetuen, Ayse [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    Apricot pulps was pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and steam velocity on the product yields and liquid product composition with a heating rate of 5{sup o}C/min. Final temperature range studied was between 300 and 700{sup o}C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 550{sup o}C. Liquid product yield increased significantly under nitrogen and steam atmospheres. For the optimum conditions, pyrolysis of peach pulp was furthermore studied. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR. In addition, gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer was achieved on all pyrolysis oils. Characterization showed that bio-oil could be a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. (author)

  20. Characterization and Properties of Activated Carbon from Several Nut Shells%几种干果核壳活性炭的表征与性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 张宏; 李庆; 刘娴

    2014-01-01

    以南疆地区盛产的巴旦杏核壳、核桃壳和白杏核壳为原料,采用微波辐照磷酸法分别制备了巴旦杏核壳活性炭( BAC)、核桃壳活性炭( HAC)和白杏核壳活性炭( XAC),干果核壳基质活性炭的制备工艺:10 g干果核壳以固液比1:3(g:mL)浸渍40%磷酸24 h,微波功率640 W,活化时间16 min。采用物理吸附仪、扫描电镜(SEM)、傅里叶红外光谱( FT-IR)、X射线衍射( XRD)等表征方法比较研究了不同种类干果核壳活性炭性能差异。结果表明:巴旦杏核壳、核桃壳和白杏核壳活性炭的热分解过程、残留基团基本一致,活性炭晶型均以非晶态为主。3类干果核壳活性炭表面分布着大量孔洞,且孔洞主要为0.4~1.2 nm的微孔和3~6 nm的中孔。其中,白杏核壳活性炭的性能最优,BET比表面积达981.5 m2/g,总孔容达0.570 cm3/g,亚甲基蓝吸附值达269.6 mg/g,碘吸附值达1162.8 mg/g。%A series of activated carbon was prepared using almond shell, walnut shell and white apricot shell as raw materials by microwave radiation with H3 PO4 as activating agent. Activated carbon was carbonized and activated by the nut shell immersed in the mass fraction of H3 PO4 40% solution, liquid ratio 1:3. After 24 h of immersion, the microwave with power of 640 W irradiated for 16 min. Pyrolysis mechanism, micromorphology, microstructure, components, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and pore size distribution of activated carbon were analyzed by TG, XRD, FT-IR, SEM, BET etc. The activated carbon obtained from nut powder by almond shell, walnut shell and white apricot shell have the approximate consistent on the thermal decomposition process and functional groups. They are a typical non-graphitizable. The nut shell of activated carbon has abundant interconnected pores and pore spaces, which size is about 0. 4 to 1. 2 nm of micropore and 3 to 6 nm of mesopore. It is shown that white apricot shell activated carbon has porous

  1. Characterization of bio-oil obtained from fruit pulp pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbay, Nurguel [Bozueyuek Vocational School, Bilecik University, Bozueyuek, Bilecik (Turkey); Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Burcu Uzun, Basak [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Eren Puetuen, Ayse [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: aeputun@anadolu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    Apricot pulps was pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and steam velocity on the product yields and liquid product composition with a heating rate of 5 deg. C/min. Final temperature range studied was between 300 and 700 deg. C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 550 deg. C. Liquid product yield increased significantly under nitrogen and steam atmospheres. For the optimum conditions, pyrolysis of peach pulp was furthermore studied. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR. In addition, gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer was achieved on all pyrolysis oils. Characterization showed that bio-oil could be a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock.

  2. Laboratory scale anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestions that were fed waste apple, corn cobs, apple press cake, extracted sugarbeet pulp, pineapple pressings or asparagus waste were stable in trials lasting up to 226 days. Loading rates of 3.5-4.25 kg/m/sup 3/ day and conversions of 88-96% of the organic solids fed were obtained by ensuring adequate levels of alkalinity, nitrogen and other nutrients during digestion. Gas yields ranged from 0.429 to 0.568 litre (50-60% methane) per gram organic solids fed. For reasons not understood, gas yields from digestion of apricot waste declined after 63 days from 0.477 to 0.137 litre/g of feedstock. 22 references.

  3. A STUDY ON THE ECONOMIC FOREST PATTERN OF DOUBLE-TERRACED FIELD WITH SLOPE INTERVAL IN THE CALCAREOUS ROCK AREA OF TAIHANG MOUNTAIN%太行山石灰岩区隔坡复式梯田山地经济林模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王棣; 李勇; 刘劲; 张云龙; 龚怀勋

    1999-01-01

    The pattern of economic forest of double-terraced field with slope interval was studied systematically, including the measures of increasing soil moisture, fertilization and fruit yield. The results showed that soil moisture of double-terraced field with slope interval(main terrace) in growing season was 2.1% higher than that of ternace without slope interval. The yield of dry grass in auxiliary terrace was 1kg/m2, which can be used in burying fresh grass into soil of main terrace or covering the surface of the main terrace soil, so as to increase the soil nutrient contents of the main terrace. The kernel yield of 5-year-old individual apricot tree with sweet kernel increased 69.4% compared with terrace without slope interval. And there was significant difference in tree growth between terrace with and without slope interval.

  4. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    were characterised by floral and fruity flavours, such as banana, peach/apricot and strawberry, while the remainder were mainly described by less desirable flavours for white wine, such as chemical, cheese and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression of the sensory and instrumental analyses...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...... precise product mapping on quantitative differences between wine samples. Hence, the modified Flash Profile was used in the studies on co-fermentations as a sensory screening method. Different indigenous non-Saccharomyces yeasts were used in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase the flavour...

  5. 厨神%A GREAT COOK--Joseph Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.

  6. 分子感官科学及其在食品感官品质评价方面的应用%The Concept of Molecular Sensory Science and Its Application on Food Sensory Quality Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋焕禄

    2011-01-01

    文中介绍了分子感官科学概念的由来,综述了应用分子感官科学技术鉴定酱油、杏、桃子、梨以及香糯竹叶中气味活性化合物,以及鉴定Gouda奶酪、Cheddar奶酪、小麦面筋水解物、鸡汤中的滋味活性化合物。%The conception of molecular sensory science is introduced in the paper. The identification of aromaactive compounds from soy sauce, apricot, peach, pear and bamboo leaf were summarized. The identification of tasteactive compounds from Gouda cheese, Cheddar cheese, enzymatic hydrolyzed wheat gluten and chicken broth by the technology of molecular sensory science were also reviewed.

  7. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  8. Isolated median sensory neuropathy after acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Hyun, Jung Keun; Lee, Seong Jae

    2008-12-01

    A 47-year-old left-handed man presented with pain and numbness in his left thumb and index finger after acupuncture treatment on an acupoint in his left wrist. A technique of herbal acupuncture, involving the use of a needle coated with apricot seed extract, was used. Median nerve conduction study showed an absence of sensory nerve action potential in the left index finger, whereas the results were normal in all other fingers. The radial and ulnar nerves in the left thumb and ring finger, respectively, showed no abnormality. Infrared thermography of the left index finger showed severe hypothermia. The patient was diagnosed as having an isolated injury to the sensory nerve fibers of the median nerve innervating the index finger. This is the first case report of complications from an herbal acupuncture treatment, and it highlights the possibility of focal peripheral nerve injury caused by acupuncture. PMID:19061751

  9. A case of radiation enteritis with intestinal obstruction due to incarceration of foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Hidehiro; Isobe, Tsugumasa; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Imahori, Tsutomu; Naka, Fumihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Ida, Masahiro; Matsubara, Fujitsugu [Tatsunokuchi Houju Memorial Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A 66-year-old woman was seen at the hospital because of an abdominal pain and vomiting. There were previous histories of undergoing ileocecal resection 30 years and total hysterectomy with irradiation for uterine cancer 29 years earlier. Abdominal CT showed a shadow of foreign body, and barium enema revealed a filling defect in the ileum and stenosis at the anastomosis. In addition to these findings the patient deposed that she had ingested a seed of `ume` (Japanese apricot). The patient was diagnosed as intestinal obstruction due to the foreign body and underwent an operation. The postoperative course is good, however, this patient has many other disorders probable resulting from irradiation, such as stenosis of ureter, cutaneous pigmentation and tumor, adenoma of the rectum. Long term and periodic follow-up is important for the patient entertaining possible occurrence of other disorders and second cancer. (author)

  10. Insect attack and nutritional losses in stored dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried fruits and nuts were assessed for insect and nutritional losses, during 3-12 months storage, under controlled laboratory conditions. Losses were generally storage and commodity dependant. The insect progeny production and percent weight loss, caused by Tribolium castaneum (herbs), in all the commodities, varied from 10 - 120.75 and 0.78 -28.34, respectively. In nutritional aspect, colour, acidity and ascorbic acid decreased while reducing sugars increased during storage. The results based on all parameters showed that during 12 months storage, almond, groundnut, pine nut, walnut and chickpea suffered significantly higher P< 0.05) losses (9.01 - 28.34%) as compared to fig, apricot, date, raisin and mulberry (1.09 - 1.81%). (author)

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean and tropical fruits compared with common food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, M A; Jiménez, A M; Martínez-Tomé, M

    2001-12-01

    Several Mediterranean and tropical fruits have been analyzed in order to assess their antioxidant activity compared with that of common food additives (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT] and propyl gallate). Among Mediterranean fruits, red grape and plum were more effective (P plum > apricot > white grape > melon > red grape > mandarin > watermelon > peach > medlar > apple > orange > cherry > strawberry. However, the four varieties of pear were poor scavengers (P lime > passiflora > kumquat > avocado > pineapple > physalis > papaya fruit > carambola > mango > banana. All Mediterranean fruits showed an effect on hydrogen peroxide except peach. Tropical fruits also had a strong effect on hydrogen peroxide except avocado, which had no effect. The effect of Mediterranean and tropical fruits on the protection factor of refined olive oil, analyzed by the Rancimat method and compared with common food additives, was clear. Watermelon conferred a significantly (P < 0.05) greater protection than the other Mediterranean fruits. Among tropical fruits, physalis had the most stabilizing effect.

  12. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  13. Characterization of bio-oil obtained from fruit pulp pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apricot pulps was pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and steam velocity on the product yields and liquid product composition with a heating rate of 5 deg. C/min. Final temperature range studied was between 300 and 700 deg. C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 550 deg. C. Liquid product yield increased significantly under nitrogen and steam atmospheres. For the optimum conditions, pyrolysis of peach pulp was furthermore studied. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. In addition, gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer was achieved on all pyrolysis oils. Characterization showed that bio-oil could be a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock

  14. A Course in Science and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

  15. 厨神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.……

  16. Diversity among Pseudomonas syringae strains originating from fruit trees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Žarko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread and economically important plant pathogen, one found on a number of hosts, including fruit trees, field crops, vegetables, and ornamental plants. This bacterium has been experimentally identified as a parasite of pear, apple, apricot, peach, cherry, sour cherry, plum, and raspberry. The present study was designed to establish differences between strains isolated from fruit trees in Serbia. The pathogenic and biochemical characteristics of isolates were studied. The BOX-PCR method was used to generate genomic fingerprints of Pseudomonas syringae isolates and to identify strains that were previously not distinguishable by other classification methods. Different Bacillus sp. strains were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity against Pseudononas syringae isolates. Bacillus sp. strains show inhibitory activity only against P. syringae isolates that originated from peach. The obtained results demonstrate that the population of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae from the fruit trees in Serbia is very diverse.

  17. Pseudomnas syringae – a Pathogen of Fruit Trees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about symptomatology, pathogenicity and bacteriological characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae, and PCR methods for fast and reliable detection of the pathogen are given in this paper. P. syringae has been experimentaly proved as a pathogen of pear, apple, apricot, plum cherry, and raspberry, and pathogen strains have also been isolated from necrotic peach buds. Two pathogen varieties, syringae and morsprunorum, were found in our research in Serbia, the former being dominant on fruit trees.The most reliable method for detection of this bacteria is PCR, using BOX and REP primers. This method has also revealed significant differences among the strains originating from fruit trees in Serbia. Thus, it was proved that the population of P. syringae in Serbia is heterogeneous, which is very important for future epidemiologocal studies. Control of this pathogen includes mechanical, cultural and chemical measures, but integrated approach is very important for sustainable control.

  18. The S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, SFB, is defective in self-compatible haplotypes of Prunus avium and P. mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Yamane, Hisayo; Watari, Akiko; Kakehi, Eiko; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2004-08-01

    Many Prunus species, including sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, of the Rosaceae, display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The specificity of this outcrossing mechanism is determined by a minimum of two genes that are located in a multigene complex, termed the S locus, which controls the pistil and pollen specificities. SFB, a gene located in the S locus region, encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the self-incompatibility reaction. This study characterizes SFBs of two self-compatible (SC) haplotypes, S(4') and S(f), of Prunus. S(4') of sweet cherry is a pollen-part mutant (PPM) that was produced by X-ray irradiation, while S(f) of Japanese apricot is a naturally occurring SC haplotype that is considered to be a PPM. DNA sequence analysis revealed defects in both SFB(4') and SFB(f). A 4 bp deletion upstream from the HVa coding region of SFB(4') causes a frame-shift that produces transcripts of a defective SFB lacking the two hypervariable regions, HVa and HVb. Similarly, the presence of a 6.8 kbp insertion in the middle of the SFB(f) coding region leads to transcripts for a defective SFB lacking the C-terminal half that contains HVa and HVb. As all reported SFBs of functional S haplotypes encode intact SFB, the fact that the partial loss-of-function mutations in SFB are present in SC mutant haplotypes of Prunus provides additional evidence that SFB is the pollen S gene in GSI in Prunus. PMID:15272875

  19. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  20. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for isopyrazam in pome fruits, various stone fruits and oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Syngenta Crop Protection UK Ltd to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance isopyrazam in pome fruits, stone fruits and oilseeds. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of isopyrazam, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg to 0.7 mg/kg in pome fruits, 1.5 mg/kg in apricots and peaches, including nectarines and 0.4 mg/kg in linseed, poppy seed, mustard seed and rape seed. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.7 mg/kg for the intended use on pome fruits, 1.5 mg/kg for the intended use on peaches and 0.4 mg/kg for the intended use on rape seed, linseed, mustard seed and poppy seed. The intended use on apricots is not adequately supported by residue data and no MRL proposal can be therefore derived. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of isopyrazam in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of isopyrazam on pome fruits, peaches, rape seed, linseed, mustard seed and poppy seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  2. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  3. Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits and Vegetables Common in the Croatian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-uzelac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the polyphenol content (total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in selected fruits (apple, ‘Idared’; apricot, ‘Madjarska najbolja’; blueberry, ‘Bluecrop’; mandarin, ‘Kuno’; orange, unknown; sour cherry, ‘Marasca’; strawberry, ‘Maya’ and peach, ‘Redhaven’ and vegetables (broccoli, ‘Belstar’ -flower and steam; cauliflower, ‘Favola’; kale, ‘Melissa’ and leek-leaf and root -unknown commonly consumed in the Croatian diet. Total phenols, flavonoids and nonflavonoids were measured calorimetrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as the standard; anthocyanins were determined using bisulphite bleaching method using cyanidin-3-diglucoside as standard, whereas antioxidant capacity was measured using DPPH method. The highest total polyphenols were observed in sour cherry as 2560 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW, followed by blueberry, orange, mandarin, strawberry, apple, apricot, and peach. Among vegetables the highest concentration of total polyphenols was determined in kale (1039 mg GAE/kg FW followed by broccoli flower, broccoli steam, leek leaf, leek root and cauliflower. In all investigated fruits, as well as vegetables, total flavonoids were predominant polyphenols. Total nonflavonoids were present in low concentration especially in leek leaf, broccoli flower and leek root. The highest antioxidant capacity in fruit and vegetables was determined in samples with higher concentration of flavonoids. In selected fruits, there was a distinct correlation between total phenols or flavonoids and antioxidant capacity, while in vegetable the correlation was not observed.

  4. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fenpyroximate in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the company Nichino Europe Co Ltd. to modify the existing MRLs for fenpyroximate in various crops. In order to accommodate for the authorized uses in European Member States, the EMS Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs of fenpyroximate in peaches, raspberries, blackberries, peppers and beans (with pods and to lower MRLs for citrus fruit, loquat, quinces, medlar, plums, apricots, wine grapes and strawberries. No need to modify MRLs was identified for apples, pears, tomatoes and aubergines. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the submitted residue data are sufficient to support the lowering of the existing EU MRLs for citrus fruit, pome fruit, plums, wine grapes and strawberries. The submitted residue data on raspberries, blackberries, peppers and beans (with pods substantiate the proposal to raise the existing EU MRL. The submitted residue data on peaches, tomatoes and aubergines confirm the existing EU MRL. For apricots insufficient data were provided to support the authorized use. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the raising of the existing EU MRLs for fenpyroximate in raspberries, blackberries, peppers and beans (with pods and the maintaining or lowering of the existing EU MRLs for other crops under consideration, will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern. Data gaps regarding the lack of processing studies and rotational crop studies identified by the peer review are confirmed in the current assessment and have to be further considered in the framework of the MRL review according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005.

  6. 气相色谱法分析北方水果中膳食纤维的单糖组成%Determination of Monosaccharide Composition in Dietary Fiber of Fruits in Northern China by GC Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明霞; 李媛; 张飞; 何童森; 侯栋; 王洋; 崔同

    2012-01-01

    Using GC method analyzed dietary fiber (DF) contents and monosaccharide composition of seven kinds of northern China fruits (apple, pear, peach, apricot, Chinese hawthorn, strawberry and mulberry). The results indicated that total dietary fiber (TDF) contents in these fruits was between 0.26% (apricot) and 1.17%(peach), SDF/TDF ranged from 38.5% (apricot) to 86.3% (peach). Calacturonic acid was the main component in SDF, between 33.1% (mulberry) and 91.1% (Chinese hawthorn). The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), not only had a high content of galacturonic acid (4.5% and 46.5%), but also had a considerable contents of arabinose (9.4% and 37.7%), galactose (8.3% and 24.2%), xylose (8.7% and 20.3%) and fucose (8.0% and 23.7%), the ratio of glucose ranged between 0.7% (peach) and 15.6% (Chinese hawthorn), the ratio of mannose and rhamnose was below 6%. Different kinds of fruits had significantly different monosaccharide composition in DF.%采用糖腈乙酰化衍生GC法分析中国北方地区7种水果(苹果、梨、桃、杏、山楂、草莓和桑椹)膳食纤维(DF)的含量和单糖组成,结果表明这些水果中总膳食纤维(TDF)含量在0.26%(杏)~1.17%(桃)之间,其中水溶性膳食纤维(SDF)占TDF的比例在38.5%(杏)~86.3%(桃)之间.半乳糖醛酸是SDF的主要成分,占33.1%(桑椹)~91.1%(山楂)之间.不溶性膳食纤维中除含有较高比例的半乳糖醛酸(4.5%~46.5%)外,阿拉伯糖(9.4%~37.7%)、半乳糖(8.3%~24.2%)、木糖(8.7%~20.3%)和岩藻糖(8.0%~23.7%)也有相当含量,葡萄糖的比例在0.7%(桃)~15.6%(山楂)之间,甘露糖和鼠李糖的比例在6%以下.不同水果之间DF的单糖组成差异明显.

  7. Authenticity assessment of gamma- and delta-decalactone from prunus fruits by gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Appel, Markus; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Authenticity assessment of gamma-decalactone (1) and delta-decalactone (2) from peach (Prunus persica var. persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina) was performed using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) mode. In addition, commercially available synthetic (nature-identical) 1 and 2 as well as biotechnologically produced samples (declared to be "natural") were characterized by their delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values. For the Prunus fruits under study, rather narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data of 1, varying from - 34.6 per thousand to - 38.4 per thousand and -160 per thousand to -206 per thousand, respectively, were obtained. Synthetic references of 1 showed delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data ranging from -27.4 per thousand to -28.3 per thousand and -151 per thousand to -184 per thousand, respectively. Samples of 1 declared to be "natural" exhibited ranges from -28.1 per thousand to -29.2 per thousand and -192 per thousand to -286 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. For 2 from peach, apricot, and nectarine, delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values ranging from -34.0 per thousand to -37.9 per thousand were determined; the delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) values ranged from -171 per thousand to -228 per thousand. The delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data for synthetic 2 were -28.2 per thousand and -171 per thousand, respectively, that is, similar to those of 2 from "natural" origin, ranging from -27.7 per thousand to -30.1 per thousand and -185 per thousand to -230 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. GC-C/P-IRMS allowed clear-cut analytical differentiation of the synthetic and "ex-plant" origin of 1 and 2, whereas narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data were found for samples of

  8. Bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of a single meal of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides: a crossover study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Klaus; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    The acute toxicity of cyanide is determined by its peak levels reached in the body. Compared to the ingestion of free cyanide, lower peak levels may be expected after consumption of foods containing cyanogenic glycosides with the same equivalent dose of cyanide. This is due to possible delayed and/or incomplete release of cyanide from the cyanogenic glycosides depending on many factors. Data on bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides as presented herein were necessary to allow a meaningful risk assessment for these foods. A crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy adults who consumed persipan paste (equivalent total cyanide: 68 mg/kg), linseed (220 mg/kg), bitter apricot kernels (about 3250 mg/kg), and fresh cassava roots (76-150 mg/kg), with each "meal" containing equivalents of 6.8 mg cyanide. Cyanide levels were determined in whole blood using a GC-MS method with K(13)C(15)N as internal standard. Mean levels of cyanide at the different time points were highest after consumption of cassava (15.4 µM, after 37.5 min) and bitter apricot kernels (14.3 µM, after 20 min), followed by linseed (5.7 µM, after 40 min) and 100 g persipan (1.3 µM, after 105 min). The double dose of 13.6 mg cyanide eaten with 200 g persipan paste resulted in a mean peak level of 2.9 µM (after 150 min). An acute reference dose of 0.075 mg/kg body weight was derived being valid for a single application/meal of cyanides or hydrocyanic acid as well as of unprocessed foods with cyanogenic glycosides also containing the accompanying intact β-glucosidase. For some of these foods, this approach may be overly conservative due to delayed release of cyanide, as demonstrated for linseed. In case of missing or inactivated β-glucosidase, the hazard potential is much lower. PMID:25708890

  9. The effect of soil sterilization on the 137Cs transfer from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus). Transfer experiment involving sterilized soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different types of soil were collected at each of three locations: a persimmon orchard, an ume (Prunus mume, so to speak, 'a Japanese apricot') orchard, and a paddy field located 50-55 km northwest from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The goal was to investigate the involvement of microbes inhabiting these soils on the behavior of 137Cs. The soils were sterilized with gamma ray irradiation for 30 hours (absorbed dose of 60 kGy) or with high-pressure steam (autoclave sterilization) at 121°C for 20 minutes. A radish cultivar (Raphanus sativus var. sativus) was then cultivated in those soils for 45 days, and the harvested taproots and leaves were testing using a Ge semiconductor detector for concentration of 137Cs. The result showed that the concentration of 137Cs in radishes cultivated in the sterilized soils with autoclave sterilization or gamma ray irradiation were significantly higher than in those cultivated in the unsterilized soils. An increase in the plant available 137Cs could be caused by NH4+ arisen from the multiple effects of the structural change of the soil, decomposition of organic matter, and/or extinction of the microbes by sterilization. (author)

  10. Analysis of Volatile Components of Plum%梅果挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫民; 王之建; 吴晓红; 苗彩芬; 魏玉琪; 李琼

    2011-01-01

    The volatile components of plum were identified by method of HS-SFME -GC-MS. There were 66 volatile compounds, including 8 alcohols,4 lactones,12 aldehydes,23 esters,2 ketones,8 acids,7 terpenes and terpene alcohols and 2 aromatic compounds. The reason was analyzed why plum sends forth the aromas of peach,milk and apricot in the early,middle and late stages of aroma production.%采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了梅果的挥发性成分,共鉴定出66种挥发性成分,其中醇类8种、内酯类4种、醛类12种、酯类23种、酮类2种、酸类8种、萜烯及萜烯醇类7种以及其他芳香族类化合物2种.分析了梅果发香前、中和后期分别具有桃香、果香奶香和杏香的原因.

  11. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples. PMID:26718308

  12. Time and speed of fruit drying on batch fluid-beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Bauman; Z Bobić; Z Ðaković; M Ukrainczyk

    2005-10-01

    Drying of particles (pieces) in a fluidized bed affords better quality of end products, especially for better product structure and its shorter reconstitution time. Fluid-bed drying of different fruit particles has been investigated. Starting water content varies from grape berries 81·5% and peach 87·7% to apricot 86·9%. The temperature of fluidization varies from 70°C to 100°C at air velocities from 0·98 ms-1 to 5·2 ms-1. The product should be dried fruit with 10% to 14% of water content with good rehydration quality that varies from 8 to 20. Experimental data have been measured, relevant values have been calculated and a mathematical model introduced. The results have shown that drying of fruit in a fluidized bed produces dry fruit particles of improved quality in a much shorter time, with improved rehydration times and qualities, than in continuous belt-driers that are generally used.

  13. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples.

  14. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  15. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H2 O and MeOH: H2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  16. Co-combustion of agricultural wastes in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseyin Topal; Aysel T. Atimtay [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    In this study a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) of 125 mm inside diameter and 1800 mm height was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry, and sunflower stems produced as a waste from the edible oil industry with a lignite coal. Lignite coal is a coal most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NOx and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters the variation of emissions of various pollutants were studied. During combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from agro-wastes quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the riser. The temperature profiles along the bed and the rise also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter content of agro-waste increases, the combustion efficiency increases and the combustion takes place more in the upper region of the riser. These results suggest that agro-wastes are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production by using CFBC in countries where agricultural activities are heavy. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The emissions from a space-heating biomass stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncu, T.; Pinar, Y. [Agricultural Machinery Department, Agricultural Faculty, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139, Samsun (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, the flue gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and soot from an improved space-heating biomass stove and thermal efficiency of the stove have been investigated. Various biomass fuels such as firewood, wood shavings, hazelnut shell, walnut shell, peanut shell, seed shell of apricot (sweet and hot seed type), kernel removed corncob, wheat stalk litter (for cattle and sheep pen), cornhusk and maize stalk litter (for cattle pen) and charcoal were burned in the same space-heating biomass stove. Flue gas emissions were recorded during the combustion period at intervals of 5min. It was seen from the results that the flue gas emissions have different values depending on the characteristics of biomass fuels. Charcoal is the most appropriate biomass fuel for use in the space-heating biomass stoves because its combustion emits less smoke and the thermal efficiency of the stove is approximately 46%. (author)

  18. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  19. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  20. Air pollution studies by plants growing near some industrial objects of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves and seeds of many popular kinds of plants in Uzbekistan was used to study atmospheric pollution near such industrial objects as Tadjik aluminum factory (TadAF), Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent institute of nuclear physics (INP). Leaves of fruit plants: vineyard, tomato and apple, apricot, quince, peach, persimmon, pomegranate, mulberry trees as well as leaves of technical crops: cotton, corn, mint and clover, which grow near above specified objects and also seeds of water-melon, tomato, aubergine, bulgarian pepper, pumpkin, grapes, cherry and persimmon from areas near aluminum factory were sampled. The purpose of choice of so much investigated vegetation was to select plants which can be used as biomonitors and which best accumulate in themselves the most harmful pollution from soil and air in order to subsequent destruction of these collector plants will be made. Investigations were conducted by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical methods. Tashkent State Agrarian University has used the alternative methods. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant leaves and seeds have been developed. (author)

  1. Radiation processing of fruits: application to strawberries and prunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the shelf-life of fresh fruit by means of low-dose irradiation (radurization) is not a new idea: experiments in that field started in the early sixties. These experiments have actually proved that, in some cases, irradiation can achieve shelf-life extension, either through a delay in ripening (bananas), or through rot inhibition (soft cherries, apricots, tomatoes, strawberries). Alas, they have also highlighted the intolerance showed by a number of fruits when radurized: irradiation is apt to have them ripen more rapidly (peaches, nectarines) or to soften them too much (pears, table grapes, oranges, apples, plums, grapefruit, melons, honeydew melons). Even in those cases where irradiation results in a benefit, this benefit varies depending on the variety of fruit involved, as can be seen from a deep survey of the irradiation of strawberries. Preservation of dehydrated fruit is a different matter. Prunes, for instance, would be contamined by molds, wasn't it for the addition of sorbic acid during the fabrication process. Ionization of prunes can allow producers to avoid the use of a chemical, and to keep the prunes at a greater degree of humidity

  2. Rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal for the assessment of oxidative degradation and safety of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbanini, Simone; Matera, Riccardo; Valvassori, Alice; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-04-15

    A novel method for the UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of (E)-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is described. The method is based on derivatization of 4-HNE with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (1) or 4-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazine (2) in acetonitrile in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst at room temperature and allows complete analysis of one sample of vegetable oil in only 21 min, including sample preparation and chromatography. The method involving hydrazine 1, implemented in an ion trap instrument with analysis of the transition m/z 337→154 showed LOD=10.9 nM, average accuracy of 101% and precision ranging 2.5-4.0% RSD intra-day (2.7-4.1% RSD inter-day), with 4-HNE standard solutions. Average recovery from lipid matrices was 96.3% from vaseline oil, 91.3% from sweet almond oil and 105.3% from olive oil. The method was tested on the assessment of safety and oxidative degradation of seven samples of dietary oil (soybean, mixed seeds, corn, peanut, sunflower, olive) and six cosmetic-grade oils (avocado, blackcurrant, apricot kernel, echium, sesame, wheat germ) and effectively detected increased 4-HNE levels in response to chemical (Fenton reaction), photochemical, or thermal stress and aging, aimed at mimicking typical oxidation associated with storage or industrial processing. The method is a convenient, cost-effective and reliable tool to assess quality and safety of vegetable oils.

  3. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dehelean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature.

  4. Polyphenols: Potential Future Arsenals in the Treatment of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solayman, Md; Ali, Yousuf; Alam, Fahmida; Islam, Md Asiful; Alam, Nadia; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.

  5. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Results: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  6. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  7. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  8. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjing Shang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  9. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  10. Fabrication method and microstructural characteristics of coal-tar-pitch-based 2D carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Mohammad; Khosravi, Hamed; Mirhabibi, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    The lignin-cellulosic texture of wood was used to produce two-dimensional (2D) carbon/carbon (C/C) composites using coal tar pitch. Ash content tests were conducted to select two samples among the different kinds of woods present in Iran, including walnut, white poplar, cherry, willow, buttonwood, apricots, berry, and blue wood. Walnut and white poplar with ash contents of 1.994wt% and 0.351wt%, respectively, were selected. The behavior of these woods during pyrolysis was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis. The bulk density and open porosity were measured after carbonization and densification. The microstructural characteristics of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the density of both the walnut and white poplar is increased, and the open porosity is decreased with the increasing number of carbonization cycles. The XRD patterns of the wood charcoal change gradually with increasing pyrolysis temperature, possibly as a result of the ultra-structural changes in the charcoal or the presence of carbonized coal tar pitch in the composite's body.

  11. Status of Fruit Farming in Central Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ali Shah,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was conducted in four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa namely Charsadda, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar during January February, 2013 to examine the status and factors affecting fruit orchards. A total of Sixty four fruit orchards growers were interviewed on the basis of land acquisition. Data indicates that farmer areas for citrus and planted Stone fruit such as peach, plum and apricot were declined in the last 10 years while the area under pear and loquat were increased. The study results also indicate that a number of factors were affecting fruit orchards. These problems were ranked as (1 diseases/insects, followed by (2 high price, (3 water shortage problem, (4 adulteration in inputs, (5 marketing problem and (6 non-availability of credit. It is concluded that various factors are responsible for the decline in production of fruit orchards. It is thus, recommended that agriculture department should regularly disseminate technical-know-how regarding improved fruit orchards management practices through training, field days and workshop and other awareness programmes for fruit orchards growers. The government should also keep check and balance on price and quality of inputs to encourage fruit orchard growers to increase their production.

  12. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  13. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide. PMID:23775756

  14. Test of different biomass into the IISc open-top co-current gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, P. [Xylowatt SA, Chatel-St-Denis (Switzerland); Hasler, P. [Verenum SA, Zuerich (Switzerland); Dasappa, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Combustion Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory, Bangalore (India)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the efforts made to demonstrate the technical feasibility of combined heat and power generation using wood gasification. The report describes a project involving a small open-top gasifier based on a design realised by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). The tests made with various wood fuels such as clean wood chips, waste-wood chips, pecan nut shells, crushed oak briquettes, wood pellets, coffee hull pellets and chicken litter pellets are described and the results of measurements made concerning particulate matter, tar and certain organic compounds are presented. The discussion of the results shows that certain types of biomass can easily be used as a fuel for the small gasifier whereas others, such as coffee hull pellets, are less suitable. The report suggests that other possible fuels, such as olive and apricot stones, sludge from waste water treatment plant or plastic residue from refuse treatment should be tested in the gasifier. These tests could also provide the opportunity of testing appropriate gas treatment equipment at the same time.

  15. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Zhang, Shujuan; Arneborg, Nils; Bredie, Wender L P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers. PMID:25053038

  16. Evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of oenological colorimetric indexes, CIELAB parameters, total phenols and antioxidant activities has been studied in different fruit wines made from black mulberry, blackberry, quince, apple, apricot, melon, red raspberry, bilberry, sour cherry and strawberry. The highest value of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were determined in bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines (61.80%, 1161 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 60.00%, 1232 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 58.10%, 1081 mg/l gallic acid equivalents), respectively. The highest values for A420 nm, A520 nm, A620 nm, the proportion of blue, wine colour, wine total colour of pigments, wine polymeric pigment colour and K-K values logarithmic colour intensity) were determined in bilberry fruit wine. Positive correlation was found between antioxidant activities and total phenols (r=0.958, P = 0.001). The results of grouping of different parameters in n-dimensional space with different fruit wines demonstrated the importance of bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines as natural antioxidants and colourants. PMID:16849114

  17. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and strobilurin fungicides in particle phase atmospheric samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids and strobilurin fungicides in the particle phase fraction of atmosphere samples. Filter samples were extracted with pressurized solvent extraction, followed by a cleanup step with solid phase extraction. Method detection limits for the seven neonicotinoid insecticides and six strobilurin fungicides were in the range of 1.0-4.0 pg/m(3). Samples were collected from June to September 2013 at two locations (Osoyoos and Oliver) in the southern Okanagan Valley Agricultural Region of British Columbia, where these insecticides and fungicides are recommended for use on tree fruit crops (apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots) and vineyards. This work represents the first detection of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin in particle phase atmospheric samples collected in the Okanagan Valley in Canada. The highest particle phase atmospheric concentrations were observed for imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin at 360.0, 655.6, and 1908.2 pg/m(3), respectively.

  19. A Rapid Protocol of Crude RNA/DNA Extraction for RT-qPCR Detection and Quantification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, Stefano; Terlizzi, Federica; Lanzoni, Chiara; Poggi Pollini, Carlo; Ratti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to develop a rapid and sensitive method for phytoplasma and virus detection. Taking our cue from previous works, different rapid sample preparation methods have been tested and applied to Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum ('Ca. P. prunorum') detection by RT-qPCR. A duplex RT-qPCR has been optimized using the crude sap as a template to simultaneously amplify a fragment of 16S rRNA of the pathogen and 18S rRNA of the host plant. The specific plant 18S rRNA internal control allows comparison and relative quantification of samples. A comparison between DNA and RNA contribution to qPCR detection is provided, showing higher contribution of the latter. The method presented here has been validated on more than a hundred samples of apricot, plum and peach trees. Since 2013, this method has been successfully applied to monitor 'Ca. P. prunorum' infections in field and nursery. A triplex RT-qPCR assay has also been optimized to simultaneously detect 'Ca. P. prunorum' and Plum pox virus (PPV) in Prunus. PMID:26742106

  20. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırcı, Gözde Türköz; Yaman Acay, Dilek Bengü; Bakırcı, Fatih; Ötleş, Semih

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey. A total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. The samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. The analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) confirmed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a multi-residue extraction procedure (the QuEChERS method). The results were evaluated according to maximum residue limits (MRLs) for each commodity and pesticide by Turkish Regulation. All pomegranate, cauliflower and cabbage samples were pesticides-free. A total of 754 samples contained detectable residues at or below MRLs, and 48 (8.4%) of the fruit samples and 83 (9.8%) of the vegetable samples contained pesticide residues above MRLs. MRL values were most often exceeded in arugula, cucumber, lemon, and grape commodities. All detected pesticides in apricot, carrot, kiwifruit and leek were below the MRLs. Acetamiprid, chlorpyriphos and carbendazim were the most detected pesticide residues.

  1. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTECTED AREA “CHINAR DERE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POPOVA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil types in the protected area “Chinar dere”, village of Topolovo, municipality of Assenovgrad, were studied. For this purpose, 4 soil samples from depth of 0-20cm and from different locations in the area – under cereal plants, sunflower, vineyard, and natural meadows, were collected. The soil samples were analyzed with respect to humus content, mechanical characteristics, sorption capacity, pH in water and in KCL, and exchangeable acidity /H+ and AL+/. On the basis of the conducted analyses the soil types were defined as koluvium soils suitable for growing various vineyard cultivars, and among the fruit cultivars they are suitable for growing plums, cherries, sour cherries, walnuts, apricots, and peaches. These soil types are also suitable mainly for growing small-leaved tobacco, and in the higher regions – raspberries. In the case when the subterranean waters are closer to the surface, the soils are suitable for growing forage crops or can be used as meadows.

  2. Genomic analyses of cherry rusty mottle group and cherry twisted leaf-associated viruses reveal a possible new genus within the family betaflexiviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D E V; Susaimuthu, J; Eastwell, K C

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that closely related viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae are associated with a number of diseases that affect sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and other Prunus spp. Cherry rusty mottle-associated virus (CRMaV) is correlated with the appearance of cherry rusty mottle disease (CRMD), and Cherry twisted leaf-associated virus (CTLaV) is linked to cherry twisted leaf disease (CTLD) and apricot ringpox disease (ARPD). Comprehensive analysis of previously reported full genomic sequences plus those determined in this study representing isolates of CTLaV, CRMaV, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus revealed segregation of sequences into four clades corresponding to distinct virus species. High-throughput sequencing of RNA from representative source trees for CRMD, CTLD, and ARPD did not reveal additional unique virus sequences that might be associated with these diseases, thereby further substantiating the association of CRMaV and CTLaV with CRMD and CTLD or ARPD, respectively. Based on comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values, phylogenetic relationships with other triple-gene block-coding viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae, genome organization, and natural host range, a new genus (Robigovirus) is suggested. PMID:25496302

  3. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans. PMID:22119904

  4. MK615: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Torii, Mitsuo; Tokuda, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    The oral cavity is inhabited by over 500 different bacterial species. Dental caries and periodontitis are major bacterial infectious diseases in the oral cavity. Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., which is a variety of Japanese apricot known as Ume in Japanese, has been a traditional Japanese medicine for centuries, and is a familiar and commonly consumed food. The health benefits of Ume are now being widely recognized. Recent studies showed that MK615, an extract of compounds from Ume, has strong anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential role of MK615 in the antimicrobial field remains unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that MK615 has antimicrobial activities against a range of oral bacterial pathogens. Here, we show that MK615 may be a potent inhibitor of the growth of some oral bacteria and an inhibitor of biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiological agent of human dental caries. Our findings suggest that MK615 has potential as a therapeutic agent for treating and preventing oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. PMID:21565449

  5. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

  6. A Rapid Protocol of Crude RNA/DNA Extraction for RT-qPCR Detection and Quantification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Minguzzi

    Full Text Available Many efforts have been made to develop a rapid and sensitive method for phytoplasma and virus detection. Taking our cue from previous works, different rapid sample preparation methods have been tested and applied to Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum ('Ca. P. prunorum' detection by RT-qPCR. A duplex RT-qPCR has been optimized using the crude sap as a template to simultaneously amplify a fragment of 16S rRNA of the pathogen and 18S rRNA of the host plant. The specific plant 18S rRNA internal control allows comparison and relative quantification of samples. A comparison between DNA and RNA contribution to qPCR detection is provided, showing higher contribution of the latter. The method presented here has been validated on more than a hundred samples of apricot, plum and peach trees. Since 2013, this method has been successfully applied to monitor 'Ca. P. prunorum' infections in field and nursery. A triplex RT-qPCR assay has also been optimized to simultaneously detect 'Ca. P. prunorum' and Plum pox virus (PPV in Prunus.

  7. MK615 attenuates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release via MAPK inactivation in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yoko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Takashi; Tokuda, Masayuki; Matsuyama, Takashi; Noma, Satoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Torii, Mitsuo; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kawahara, Ko-Ichi

    2009-11-01

    The Japanese apricot, known as Ume in Japanese, has been a traditional Japanese medicine for centuries, and is a familiar and commonly consumed food. The health benefits of Ume are now being widely recognized and have been strengthened by recent studies showing that MK615, an extract of compounds from Ume, has strong anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential role of MK615 in the periodontal field remains unknown. Here, we found that MK615 significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major etiological agent in localized chronic periodontitis, in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. MK615 markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is associated with pro-inflammatory mediator release pathways. Moreover, MK615 completely blocked LPS-triggered NF-kappaB activation. The present results suggest that MK615 has potential as a therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. PMID:19706286

  8. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women. PMID:24319483

  9. A natural therapeutic approach for the treatment of periodontitis by MK615.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Tatsuyama, Syoko; Miyashita, Keiko; Emoto, Makiko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tokuda, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. Gingival fibroblasts are the most abundant cells in periodontal tissues and they participate actively in the host inflammatory response to periodontal pathogens that is known to mediate local tissue destruction in periodontitis. The Japanese apricot, known as Ume in Japanese, has been a traditional Japanese medicine for centuries and is a familiar and commonly consumed food. The health benefits of Ume are widely recognized and have been confirmed in recent studies showing that MK615, an extract of compounds from Ume, has strong anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential role of MK615 in oral health is unknown. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory activities of MK615 could be exploited to inhibit the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by periodontal bacterial pathogens, such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Here, we show that LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts was dose-dependently inhibited by MK615. As a potent inhibitor of the inflammatory responses induced by periodontal pathogens, MK615 merits further testing as a therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. PMID:26305447

  10. Graft Incompatibility Influence on Assimilating Pigments and Soluble Sugars Amount of some Pear (Pyrus sativa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghii CIOBOTARI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Graft incompatibility in fruit trees is one of the greatest obstacles in rootstocks and cultivars breeding. The mechanism in which incompatibility is expressed is not yet fully understood and several hypotheses have been advanced in an attempt to explain it. In many cases (pear on quince grafts, apricot on Prunus grafts, incompatibility is manifested by the breaking of the trees at the point of the union particularly when they have been growing for some years. Many reports focus on this problem in order to understand the mechanisms of graft development. These reports refer to both cytological and biochemical responses occurring at an early phase in response to grafting, as well as to the consequences of these events on the future graft response. In this experiment, we tried to highlight how affinity between scion and rootstock can influence the photosynthetic apparatus and carbohydrates synthesis. The results showed that grafting affinity has an influence on total assimilating pigments content. Thus, on the pear cultivars grafted on an incompatible rootstock (cultivars/Cydonia oblonga the total pigments content ratio (reported to the ungrafted rootstock ranged between 0.58 and 0.69. However, the combinations had a ratio ranging between 0.79 and 0.98. Nevertheless, the assimilating pigments ratio reduction had no influence on photosynthetic rate. The soluble sugars amount was close in both variants (cultivars/Cydonia oblonga and cultivars/Pyrus sativa.

  11. MK615, a Prunus mume Steb. Et Zucc ('Ume') extract, attenuates the growth of A375 melanoma cells by inhibiting the ERK1/2-Id-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Matsushita, Shigeto; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2012-06-01

    The Japanese apricot, a commonly consumed food called 'Ume' in Japan, has been used for a traditional Japanese medicine for centuries. MK615, an extract of compounds from 'Ume', has strong antitumorigenic and antiinflammatory effects including the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibition of cytokine production mediated via the inhibition of MAPKs signaling including ERK-1/2, JNK and p38MAPK. The inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id-1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, is essential for DNA binding and the transcriptional regulation of various proteins that play important roles in the development, progression and invasion of tumors. In melanoma, Id-1 is constitutively expressed in the late and early stages, suggesting it as a therapeutic target in patients with melanoma. This study reports that MK615 profoundly reduced both the mRNA- and protein expression levels of Id-1 and inhibited cell growth in A375 melanoma cells. MK615 markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is associated with Id-1 protein expression in A375 cells. Id-1-specific RNAi induced the death of A375 cells. Moreover, the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased by both MK615 and Id-1-specific RNAi in A375 cells. The results suggest that MK615 is a potential therapeutic agent for treating malignant melanoma. PMID:22076920

  12. THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS WITH CYANOCUPROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M

    1916-08-01

    Cyanocuprol is markedly effective in tuberculosis, and we believe that it will play an important part in clinical medicine. It may be used more generally than tuberculin. The amount of the dose is closely related to the reaction and the final results. It should be determined for each patient after a careful examination of his symptoms. The maximum dose of 8.5 cc. should in no case be exceeded. The shortest interval between injections should be 2 weeks. If the drug is given after a shorter interval, no improvement is observed and the effects are sometimes dangerous. In order to obtain the best results the patient should be placed under conditions of complete physical and mental rest after the injection; this applies even to light cases. Care should also be taken to secure rest for the lesion. During the period of the treatment irritants to the lesion, such as potassium iodide or tuberculin, should be avoided; apricot juice, guaiacol and its derivatives, and iodol are contraindicated. No marked idiosyncrasy has been noted and no accumulative effects have been observed. PMID:19868034

  13. A randomized, controlled trial comparing traditional herbal medicine and neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of seasonal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Shigeki; Kashiwagi, Kenichiro; Ajisaka, Kazuhiko; Masui, Shinta; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2012-08-01

    The herbal medicine, maoto, has been traditionally prescribed to patients with influenza in Japan. To better understand the efficacy of maoto for the treatment of influenza, a randomized trial was conducted for comparison with oseltamivir or zanamivir. Adult patients with influenza symptoms, including fever, positive for quick diagnostic kit for influenza within 48 h of fever onset were assessed for enrollment. The data of 28 patients randomly assigned to maoto (n = 10), oseltamivir (n = 8), or zanamivir (n = 10) were analyzed for the duration of fever (>37.5°C) and total symptom score from symptom cards recorded by the patient. Viral isolation and serum cytokine measurements were also done on days 1, 3, and 5. Maoto granules, a commercial medical dosage form, are made from four plants: Ephedra Herb, Apricot Kernel, Cinnamon Bark, and Glycyrrhiza Root. Median durations of fever of patients assigned maoto, oseltamivir, or zanamivir were 29, 46, or 27 h, respectively, significantly different for maoto and oseltamivir. No significant between-group differences were found in total symptom score among three groups. Viral persistent rates and serum cytokine levels (IFN-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) during the study period showed no differences among three groups. The administration of oral maoto granules to healthy adults with seasonal influenza was well tolerated and associated with equivalent clinical and virological efficacy to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:22350323

  14. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Seob Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell extracts in ovariectomized (OVX rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women.

  15. BLOOD REGENERATION IN SEVERE ANEMIA : XIV. A LIVER FRACTION POTENT IN PERNICIOUS ANEMIA FED ALONE AND COMBINED WITH WHOLE LIVER, LIVER ASH AND FRESH BILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F S; Whipple, G H

    1929-01-31

    A liver extract No. 343, N.N.R. known to be fully potent in pernicious anemia shows but 10 to 20 per cent of the potency of whole liver feeding in severe continuous secondary anemia due to bleeding in dogs. There are wide individual variations which are not noted with whole liver feeding. Supplementing this liver extract with whole bile does not modify the reaction. Supplementing this liver extract with liver ash or apricot ash shows the sum of the two expected feeding reactions. When we supplement this liver extract with small amounts of whole liver (50 to 100 gm.) we may observe hemoglobin and red cell production in excess of the sum of the expected separate reactions. Whether the liver extract increases the potency of the whole liver feeding or vice versa, it suggests similar possibilities in various human secondary anemias. Liver and kidney fractions of varied types deserve much study to ascertain their effect upon widely divergent types of human anemias. PMID:19869543

  16. AN APPROACH TO FARMING AND CATTLE BREEDING PRACTICES EMERGED IN THE TYNDALL COMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW BACK TO THE PAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Omarovich Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of historical sources.The author did due diligence to examination of the terrace-land cultivation by the Tindal people, which was the core occupation for all highlander inhabitants of Dagestan. The Tindal people grow mainly barley, wheat, rye, oat, millet, beans; since the XIX century the local inhabitants have introduced corn and potatoes.The Tindal people paid a specific attention to the gardening. Basically, the Tindal cultivated apples, apricots, pears, plums, nuts, etc., The gardening, although having not taken a key position in the economic life of the Tindal people, had been of enormous significance for the overall business operations of the highlanders.The Tindal people mostly used to cultivate land manually. They used the following instruments of labour: mattock, plough, wooden plough with an iron ploughshare (bezzi, entirely wooden plough (Rukia.

  17. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is widely used as a fumigant for the control of pests of stored grain, legumes, oil seeds, dry fruits and nuts, pest of timber, soil insects, soil nematodes, soil pathogens of plants, and as a quarantine treatment against pest of fresh horticultural products, and pests and diseases in propagation material. The global phase-out of MBB in advanced countries by 2005 and in developing countries by 2015 under the Montreal Protocol, because of its ozone depleting property, has prompted increasing interest in the use of irradiation as an alternative to MB for insect control in food and agricultural commodities in recent years. Irradiation at fairly low doses, of the order of 1 kGy or less is an effective alternative to chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of radiation processing include short treatment time in comparison to several days of exposure required in chemical fumigation, no undesirable chemical residues in the food, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the organoleptic, physicochemical and functional properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot,raisin and hazelnut. One of the main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. In Turkey, the new legal regulations on food irradiation were published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. (3 tables and 10 refs. included)

  18. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot, raisin and hazelnut. One of main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. Using MB is very effective for controlling stored product insects in Turkey. MB has also listed as an ozone depleting substance and worldwide production will be phased out in the near future, than Turkey will be faced very serious problem for export dry fruits and hazelnut. Use of irradiation to disinfest agricultural products has obvius advantages, most of which are influenced by environmental, cultural, economic, commercial and govermental factors. The first two factors, effectiveness and economy, are adressed principally. Research conducted world-wide in the past four decades have shown that radiation processing is an effective and safe method for controlling insect pests of stored products. Irradiation offers an effective alternative quarantine treatment which is more environmentally friendly and sustainable as compared to fumigants. In view of the phasing out of the currently used post harvest chemical fumigants, irradiation either alone or in conjuction with other post-harvest procedures can contribute towards the goals of achieving food security in developing and less developed countries by effectively reducing post-harvest losses

  19. Determination of antioxidant properties of aromatic herbs, olives and fresh fruit using an enzymatic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, L; Bonanni, A; Favero, G; Tomassetti, M

    2003-04-01

    The aim was to experimentally evaluate the antioxidant capacity of different fresh aromatic herbs (field balm, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, sage, sweet basil), several varieties of olives from Central Italy ('Carboncello', 'Rosciolo', 'Olivastro', 'Coratello', 'Leccino', 'Frantoio') and several types of fresh fruit (apple, apricot, banana, cherry, fig, grape, medlar, melon, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, water melon, yellow plum) using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) biosensor developed by the present authors. Measurements were carried out by comparing the biosensor response to the concentration of superoxide radical produced in solution using a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system in the presence and absence of the antioxidant sample considered. Tests carried out on different samples of fruit and aromatic herbs showed that the homogenised samples had better antioxidant properties than the centrifuged ones (obtained by centrifuging the homogenate), which sometimes gave extremely low antioxidant capacity values. The reliability of the proposed method was checked by comparing the trend of some experimental results found using the SOD biosensor with those reported in the literature obtained using the classic (ORAC) method. The precision of this method of analysis was found to be good for samples of aromatic herbs (RSD%

  20. Polyphenols: Potential Future Arsenals in the Treatment of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solayman, Md; Ali, Yousuf; Alam, Fahmida; Islam, Md Asiful; Alam, Nadia; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents. PMID:26601968

  1. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Serological and molecular detection of Prune dwarf virus infecting stone fruits of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, a central region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourolah Soltani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prune dwarf virus (PDV is one of the major positive RNA viruses which cause economical damages in stone fruit trees. The symptoms of PDV vary between different stone fruits namely sour and sweet cherry, almond, peach, apricot and plum including leaf narrowing, leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, mosaic, leaf whitening, leathery leaf, bushy branches and stunt trees. During the years 2011 and 2012, 251 leaf samples were collected for detection of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province. DAS-ELISA test proved PDV presence serologically. Then, total RNA were extracted and tested by two-step RT-PCR which replicated partial and full coat protein sequence of PDV. One hundred and eighty one out of total samples (251 samples showed PDV infection using serological and two-step RT-PCR assays, hence, incidence of PDV in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province was confirmed. This is the first report of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province and in Iran.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

    2006-05-01

    The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

  4. Land Capability Classification for Crop and Fruit Product Assessment Using GIS Technology. Case Study: The Niraj River Basin (Transylvania Depression, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Maria ROȘCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficient capitalisation of agricultural land is dependent on determining the environmental suitability of the area and on identifying the most appropriate culture types for a particular terrain. Because of its complex landforms, the anthropic pressure and the irrational use of land on large surfaces, the Basin of Niraj River was the object of a reorganising process in the production activities, by emphasising the agricultural land use as a resource for sustainable development, which has been too long underexploited.  The technique of capability classification, in collaboration with the GIS techniques of spatial analysis, represents one of the most facile and concrete ways of identifying and creating an inventory of lands which fulfil the best conditions for the creation of orchards, through the use of specific indicators: climatic, morphometric, morphologic, pedologic. The present study created a new GIS model of spatial analysis, which could offer a new approach to the classical method of land capability classification. The identification of the areas which are suitable for fruit tree cultivation was based on this model by integrating the specific indicators into databases and GIS spatial analysis equations. The results of this study highlights the maps of the land favorability for apple trees, pear trees, plum trees, cherry trees, peach trees and apricot trees and a geodatabase materialization in the maps of quality classes for orchards.

  5. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2010-06-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1alpha, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.

  6. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  7. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.

  8. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  9. A study of dietetic on the diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyeun Baek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the dietary therapy. 2. Methods of the preparation for use as therapeutics were decoction, pulvis, gruel, medicinal wine, cake, tea, paste and gelatin and etc. 3. Frequently used materials were sesame oil, honey, ear mushroom, shiitake mushroom, kelp, walnut seed, hemp seed, groundnut, glutinous rice, apricot stone, yellow bean peel, radish, potato, spinage, and spring onion. Conclusion : Though dietary therapy for the diarrhea is not based on clinical or experimental data, but through experience. It is mostly based on Yin-Yang and five elements, visceral manifestation, channels and their collateral channels and chinese herbal medicine theories. If we use them properly according to oriental medicine method, it will be effective on treating and preventing the diarrhea.

  10. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  11. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  12. Application potential for some sugar substitutes in some low energy and diabetic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1997-06-01

    Preparation of acceptable low energy fiber enriched and diabetic jams, cakes and biscuits using different formulas of sucrose substitutes with the partial replacement of wheat flour with bran as a source of dietary fibre, was studied. Special care was paid to evaluate the nutritional plus keeping qualities and the potential effect of the most acceptable formulae from each food stuffs group on the blood glucose level in lean and obese diabetes mellitus patients. It was technologically possible to prepare acceptable, high nutritional diabetic and low energy apricot, guava and strawberry jams and jellies by combinations of sweeteners using xylitol (i.e. xylitol-sorbitol-aspartame and xylitol-fructose). The attainment of a suitable texture may be more difficult in xylitol and sorbitol jams, therefore 0.2 g CaCl2. 2H2O was added. Storage of these jams at 4 degrees C improved their keeping quality significantly (p aspartame in combination with fructose, sorbitol and xylitol. Consumption of such low energic and diabetic food items reduces significantly (p glucose level in lean and obese diabetics. Addition of wheat bran in bakery products not only reduced both energy value of these foods and blood glucose, but it also improved peripheral insulin activity by its system modification. PMID:9232852

  13. Usefulness of ANN-based model for copper removal from aqueous solutions using agro industrial waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption properties of locally available lignocelluloses biomaterials as biosorbents for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. Materials are generated from juice production (apricot stones and from the corn milling process (corn cob. Such solid wastes have little or no economic value and very often present a disposal problem. Using batch adsorption techniques the effects of initial Cu(II ions concentration (Ci, amount of biomass (m and volume of metal solution (V, on biosorption efficiency and capacity were studied for both materials, without any pre-treatments. The optimal parameters for both biosorbents were selected depending on a highest sorption capability of biosorbent, in removal of Cu(II. Experimental data were compared with second order polynomial regression models (SOPs and artificial neural networks (ANNs. SOPs showed acceptable coefficients of determination (0.842 - 0.997, while ANNs performed high prediction accuracy (0.980-0.986 in comparison to experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003, TR 31055

  14. 含低聚半乳糖的生物活性果粒发酵乳及其保藏性研究%Preparation of GOS-contained bioactive fermented yogurt and investigation of its qualities during preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德龙; 米晓冲; 钱利芳; 安胜明; 张波; 吴金鸿; 高艳玲

    2013-01-01

    Lactase was analyzed among several fruit including peach,plum,black plum,apple and apricot by Ultraviolet spectrophotometry.Optimal sterilizing method for fruit particles (1 cm3) was investigated.Results showed that black plum and apricot had higher lactase at the concentration of 0.034 U/mL and 0.018 U/mL,respectively.The GOS-contained bioactive fruit yogurt was prepared under the following conditions:fruit was cut into 1 cm3 of particles and sterilized at 65 ℃ for 30 min using water bath.The fruit was mixed with 12% (w/v) sterilized reconstituted skim milk solution at the amount of 8% (w/w).Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus LB340 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB03 at the ratio of 1∶1 (w:w) were incubated into the mixture at the amount of 3% and fermented at 42 ℃ for 10 h.Finally,1.10~1.40% GOS was produced in the yogurt.During two weeks' storage at 4 ℃,viscosity of yogurt was maintained at (0.74±0.25)Pa·s,while acidity and pH was at (181.7±12.1)°T and 4.15±0.06,respectively.Viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus LB340 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB03 was at the range of 1.50×1011 to 2.00×1015 mL-1.Physics and chemistry parameters of the GOS-rich yogurt in two weeks' storage at 4 ℃ were in accordance with China rational standards of Yogurt.%通过紫外分光光度法对5种水果包括桃、青李子、黑布林、苹果和杏进行乳糖酶的检测筛选和果粒巴氏消毒条件研究.结果表明:黑布林和杏富含乳糖酶,含量分别是0.034 U/mL和0.018 U/mL.确定了富含GOS的果粒发酵乳的最佳制备条件为:将黑布林和杏切成1 cm3大小的果粒,65℃水浴30 min巴氏消毒,按质量分数为8%添加到灭菌的复原脱脂乳中,Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus LB340和Bifidobacterium bifidum BB03质量比为1∶1,总接种量3‰(质量分数),在42℃,常规发酵10 h,产物中GOS质量分数达1.10%~1.40%.该酸乳在4℃保藏14d,产品黏度为(0.74±0.25)Pa

  15. 伊犁河谷新垦区土壤有机质、全氮、全磷特征%On Features of SOM、Total - N、 Total - P in New Reclamation Area of Yili River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏; 李志忠

    2012-01-01

    对伊犁河谷新垦区不同土地利用方式下土壤剖面有机质、全氮、全磷含量进行分析,结果表明:不同土地利用方式,土壤有机质、全氮含量明显不同,都是未开垦荒地最大,杨树林地、树上干杏林地次之,油葵地(耕地)最小,撂荒地因弃耕比油葵地稍大;土壤全磷则是树上干杏林地最大,油葵地最小。新垦区土壤有机质、全氮、全磷含量随着深度变大含量都有所减小,表现出的表聚的特征,并且有机质与全氮含量随深度增加差异也逐渐减小。研究区土壤有机质含量与全氮、全磷含量相关性较好,尤其是有机质与全氮具有更高的相关度。为了防止土地肥力逐渐退化,研究区应提倡以林草为主的土地利用方式,并且在耕作中适量增施有机肥。%This paper analyzes the contents of soil organic matter(SOM) 、total - N,total - P of different types of land use in new reclamation area of Yili River valley. Studies show that the soil property has significant influence over different types of land use. According to the contents of SOM, total - N, the wasteland is maximum, while the poplar forest and the apricot land follow, and the cultivated land with sunflower oil is minimum, and the abandoned land is higher than the cultivated one. According to the contents of total - P, the maximum is the apricot land, the minimum is also the cultivated land. All of the contents of soil organic matter(SOM) ,total -N,total -P in new reclamation area reduce with the depth increasing, show the character of surface gathering, the content diversity in different types of land use of SOM and total - N also decrease with the depth increasing. The content of SOM has relevance with total -N and total -P, especially more obvious to the total -N. The experimental area should advocate the types of land use of woods and grass, and add organic fertilizers in cultivated land, in order to prevent the

  16. Effects of different host plants on the development and reproduction of the peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae)%不同寄主植物对桃小食心虫生长发育和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定旭; 雷喜红; 李政; 高灵旺; 沈佐锐

    2012-01-01

    为探索寄主植物对桃小食心虫Carposina sasakii生长发育和繁殖的影响,在室内温度23±1℃,相对湿度80%±7%,光周期15L∶9D条件下,测定了桃小食心虫在杏Armeniaca vulgaris、李Prunus salicina、桃Amygdalus persica、枣Ziziphus jujuba、苹果Malus pumila和梨Pyrus sorotina上各发育阶段的历期、存活率和/或产卵量,并组建了桃小食心虫在各寄主植物上的生命表.结果表明:桃小食心虫的生长发育和繁殖在不同寄主植物间存在显著差异.幼虫的发育历期以李为最短(12.48 d),梨为最长(19.15 d);整个幼虫期的存活率以李为最高(50.54%),梨为最低(17.91%);单雌平均产卵量以枣(214.50粒/雌)和桃(197.94粒/雌)最高.生命表分析结果表明,净生殖率R0以枣(117.49)为最大,平均世代周期T则以梨(41.31 d)和苹果(41.51 d)最长,内禀增长率Tm以李(0.1294)为最高,其次为枣(0.1201)和杏(0.1128).这些结果有助于深入了解该虫在不同寄主植物上的种群动态.%The peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii, is an important pest of deciduous fruit trees in northern China. In order to explore the influence of host plants such as apricot (Armeruaca vidgaris) , plum (Prunus salicina) , peach (Amygdalus persica) , jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba) , apple (Malus pumila) , and pear (Pyrus sorotina) on the development and reproduction of this pest, experiments designed to examine the developmental duration and reproduction of the pest feeding on various host plants were carried out under laboratory conditions of 23 ±1℃, RH 80%±7% and a photoperiod of 15L:9D. The results showed that the peach fruit borer exhibited significant differences in the developmental duration and reproduction among various host plants. Larval duration was the longest on pear (19. 15 d) and the shortest on plum ( 12. 48 d) , while the preimaginal survival rate was the lowest on pear ( 17. 91% ) and the highest on plum (50. 54%). Adult females derived from

  17. Effects of Land Use Patterns on Soil Moisture in Semiarid Loess Region%土地利用格局对半干旱黄土区土壤水分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费喜亮; 张新民; 邢贵; 景凌云

    2013-01-01

    半干旱黄土区不同土地利用的土壤水分效应是农业生产、植被恢复和土地合理利用的重要依据.通过对孙家岔流域不同土地利用格局实测土壤水分资料分析,结果表明,梯田区阴坡的土壤含水率高于阳坡;梁峁顶区封闭荒地不同累积深度的土壤含水率均高于农地;缓坡区(<15°)农地土壤平均含水率高于荒地;灌木林地表层(0-80 cm)土壤含水率高于荒地,而较深层(80-180 cm)低于荒坡;松树林地平均土壤含水率高于杏树林地.说明在半干旱黄土区,梯田的保水效益最好;杏树林相对于松树林耗水量更大,不适宜在无灌溉条件的半干旱黄土区大面积种植;柠条灌木林改善地表土壤水分状况的效应明显,并且能充分利用较深层的土壤水分;缓坡区种植农作物比荒地更有助于土壤水分的改善.%In the semiarid loess hilly region,the condition of soil moisture under different land use patterns is of importance to agricultural production,vegetation restoration and rational land use.Results from the analysis of soil moisture data under different land use patterns in Sunjiacha watershed show that soil water content on the north-facing slope was higher than the south-facing slope.Soil moisture contents at different depths in the enclosed land of the hill top zone were higher than farmland.The average moisture content in farmland of the gentle slope zone(<15°) was higher than the abandoned field.Soil moisture content of surface layer(0-80 cm) in shrub land was higher than the abandoned field,but of the deeper layer(80-180cm),was lower than barren slope.The average soil water content in pine woodland was higher than apricot forest.These indicated that in the semiarid loess hilly region,terrace's water conservation benefit is the best; apricot forest has higher water consumption than pine woodland and thus,is not suitable for the large scale planting without irrigation conditions

  18. Rancimat法测定3种坚果油脂氧化稳定性的条件研究%Influence of the parameters of the rancimat test on the determination of the oxidative stability of three kinds of nut oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振宝; 刘梦颖; 易建华

    2014-01-01

    研究了温度、气流速度以及样品质量等参数对Rancimat法测定坚果油脂氧化稳定指数(OSI)的影响,以核桃、杏仁、扁桃油脂为试材,通过Rancimat油脂氧化仪测定3种坚果油脂的诱导时间,在单因素实验的基础上,通过Box-Behnken响应面实验,建立回归方程,进行方差分析,得到了优化测定条件.结果表明:温度对3种油的氧化稳定指数测定结果均有极显著影响(p<0.01),气流速度及样品质量对其影响均不显著(p>0.05),温度、气流速度及样品质量等因素间交互作用不显著(p>0.05);由回归方程得到Rancimat法测定核桃油OSI的最佳条件为:温度120℃、气流速度18.14 L/h、样品质量3.00 g ;测定扁桃油的最佳条件为:温度120℃、气流速度13.48 L/h、样品质量3.93 g ;而杏仁油测定的最佳条件为:温度120℃;气流速度12.18L/h ;样品质量4.20g.通过优化温度、气流速度和样品质量等条件,可以保证结果稳定、可信的前提下,缩短分析测定时间.%The operational parameters such as temperature ,airflow and sample weight of the Rancimat method were conducted to determine their effects on the oxidative stability index (OSI) of three kinds of nut oils (walnut oil ,almond oils and sweet apricot kernel oil) .To this end ,single factor experiment and Box-Behnken experiment were investigated .The exper-imental data were fitted to a complete quadratic model and an ANOVA analysis was per-formed ,which concluded that only temperature was significant (p<0 .01) .By means of the quadratic model and using response surface methodology in order to minimize the OSI ,the optimal conditions for the three parameters of the Rancimat method were as following :first-ly ,for the walnut oil ,temperature 120 ℃ ,airflow 18 .14 L/h ,sample weight 3 .00 g ;second-ly ,for the almond oil ,temperature 120 ℃ ,airflow 13 .48 L/h ,sample

  19. Cross-compatibility of Lilium concolor var.pulchellum and Asiatic hybrids%有斑百合和亚洲百合杂交亲和性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婕; 高亦珂; 张启翔

    2013-01-01

    In order to breed new cultivars by using wild lily,interspecific crosses were made between Lilium concolor var. pulchellum and Asiatic lily,and the cross compatibilities were evaluated. L. concolor var. pulchellum and Asiatic lily were served as the experimental materials. The used three different pollination methods were conventional stigma pollination,cut-style method and KCI treatment . The main results were obtained as following. 1) Cutting-style method effectively overcame fertilization barrier when L. concolor var. pulchellum was used as the male parent. The highest rate of swelling capsules was 100%in the combinations of 'Navona' × L. concolor var. pulchellum, 'Lollypop' × L. concolor var. pulchellum, 'Apricot pixels' × L. concolor var. pulchellum and 'Pollyanna' × L. concolor var. pulchellum.The embryo rate were improved by 5.9% and 14.8% .respectively,in the combinations 'Loroto' × L. concolor var. pulchellum and 'Prato' x L. concolor var. pulchellum .2) KCI treatment had not positive effect on the fertilization barrier between Lilium concolor var. buschianim and Asiatic lily. 3) There existed unilateral incongruity between L. concolor var. pulchellum and Asiatic lily. L. concolor var. pulchellum was suitable for male parent. When the male parent's stigma length was shorter than the female parent's,crossing barrier could overcome by using cutting-style method. The rate of swelling capsules could be thus dramatically improved.%为使我国野生百合资源用于新品种培育中,将有斑百合与亚洲百合进行杂交,评价其杂交亲和性.以有斑百合和8个亚洲百合品种为试验试材,采用常规柱头授粉,切割花柱授粉和柱头KCl处理3种不同授粉方法进行杂交.1)切割花柱的授粉方法能有效克服有斑百合为父本的组合的杂交障碍,其中‘Navona’×有斑百合、‘Lollypop’×有斑百合、‘Apricot pixels’×有斑百合和‘Pollyanna’×有斑百合的坐果率高达100

  20. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines. PMID:19754174

  1. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  2. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs.

  3. Effect of calcination on Co-impregnated active carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekyarova, E.; Mehandjiev, D. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of General and Inorganic Chemistry)

    1993-11-01

    Active carbon (AC) from apricot shells with known characteristics has been impregnated with a 9.88% Co(NO[sub 3])[sub 2] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O solution. The samples are destroyed in air at 200, 300, 400, and 550 C. The processes accompanying the thermal treatment are studied by DTA. Two processes are established during calcination of Co-impregnated active carbon: (i) destruction of the support as a result of oxidation catalyzed by the impregnated cobalt and (ii) interaction of the active phase (Co[sub 3]O[sub 4]) with the support (AC), during which Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] is reduced to CoO and Co. The presence of Co[sub 3]O[sub 4], and CoO phases is proved by X-ray measurements, while that of metal Co is established by magnetic measurements. The porous structure changes are investigated by adsorption studies. The characterization of the samples is performed by physical adsorption of N[sub 2] (77.4 K) and CO[sub 2] (273 K). The poresize distribution curves are plotted over the range 0.4--10 nm by the methods of Pierce (for the mesopores) and Medek (for the micropores). The micropore volume is determined by two independent methods: t/F method and D-R plot. The results from adsorption studies indicate a decrease of S[sub BET], V[sub mi], and, especially, the supermicropores of the samples.

  4. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs. PMID:27018186

  5. Biological reclamation of power station spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, V.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses results of experimental reclamation of spoil banks of two power stations combusting brown coal: Hodonin and Opatovice. Ashes and slag dumped in the spoil banks have an alkaline character (pH ranges from 7.68 to 7.50), and are rich in calcium oxide, poor in nitrogen and relatively poor in potassium and phosphorus oxides. The ash is characterized by the following grain size distribution: grains over 0.08 m form 30.91% of spoil bank, grains ranging from 0.08 to 0.16 mm form 25.38%, grains smaller than 0.05 mm form 13.03% and the finest fraction measured in micrson form 7.05%. The average mass of ash is 2.31 g x cm at-at3. Land reclamation experiments are evaluated. During the first phase grass and bushes are planted on the ash treated with fertilizers (54 kg sodium, 60 kg phosphorus pentoxide, and 120 kg potassium oxide, all doses per 1 ha). In the second year top ash layer is treated with calcium nitrate (150 kg/ha). Fertilizer doses in 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th year of land reclamation are also described. Yield of green mass of grass or bushes in various years is also given. At a later stage reclamed ashes are covered with a 30 to 50 cm thick layer of soil and fruit trees are planted (6 types: apple tree, pear tree, cherry, sweet cherry, peach tree, and apricot). Growth of trees was observed over 9 years. Height, diameter, and weight of fruits were measured. The results of observations are given in 6 tables. (8 refs.) (In Czech)

  6. Nutraceuticals: (Prevention is better than Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Khokhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human inquisitiveness and search for specific constituents of plants animal’s minerals and microbial origin which are beneficial to our overall health have cost coining of terminologies such as functional food or nutraceuticals1. Nutraceuticals have evolved from the recognition of the link between food and health. Thus nutraceuticals can be defined as the part of food that helps in prevention from various disease. In this context we have reached to that point which describes the utilization of nutraceuticals its source its benefits to the human body as well as to the animals. There are certain fruits and vegetables which provide a great role in healthcare like apples, oranges, cabbages, apricots, banana etc. They all are fibrous materials from which DHA, RDA (from carrots we can easily get. There are certain Phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, herbs which are used in the treatment of many dangerous diseases like cancer. Various nutraceuticals are now available in market as along with their brand names. The nutraceuticals market comprises two principal segments: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements. Functional foods are similar in appearance to a conventional food or beverage, are consumed as part of a normal diet, and have been demonstrated to have physiological benefits or to reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Functional foods can also promote growth and development and enhance performance, and can take many forms. Some may be conventional foods with bioactive components that can now be identified and linked to positive health outcomes (e.g., soy protein, oat fiber, cranberries, tomatoes and carrot juice.

  7. Adsorption Studies of Phenol Using Thermally and Chemically Modified Rice Husk as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. M. Yousaf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Phenols are hazardous substances and some are supposed to have carcinogenic activity. Thus it is necessary to remove Phenolics and other aromatics from the aqueous ecosystem. Traditional processes for the removal of Phenolics compounds are extraction, adsorption on granulated activated carbon, steam distillation, chemical and bacterial techniques. Literature survey show a number of methods like oxidation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical oxidation and adsorption. Phenol removal by process like, adsorption is the best method of choice as it can remove most of phenols in simple and easy way. In recent past; agricultural by-products such as, maize cob, date stone, apricot Stones, rice bran, and bagass pith have been extensively studied and used as adsorbents for the adsorption of hazardous substances from wastewater. In the present study we tried modified rice husks as potential adsorbents for the removal of Phenol from aqueous system. Batch mode studies were carried out. Isotherm data was generated and fitted in Freundlich and Langmuir equation to explain the phenomenon of adsorption. The adsorption capacities based on Langmuir model (Qm of the 3 adsorbents were found to be 0.81 for raw husk (RH, 0.395 for the Grafted (G and 2.306 mg/g for the Charred (C. The R2 values were 0.92 for raw husk, 0.97 for grafted and 0.91 for charred husk. Based on Freundlich model the adsorption capacities (K were 2.94, 2.29 and 1.25mg/g for Raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk. The R2 values were found to be 0.72, 0.95 and 0.83 for the raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk respectively. Our result showed that modified rice husks could be used as potential adsorbents for Phenol removal from aqueous system.

  8. Gamma-radiation treatment for disinfestation of the medfly in thirty-five varieties of California-grown fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimum absorbed dosages of gamma-radiation required to prevent egg hatch and eclosion of adults when fruits infested with mature larvae are treated with gamma-radiation were determined. Studies were conducted with 35 varieties of California-grown fruits including 10 varieties of nectarines; 5 of plums; 4 of apples; 2 of pears; 4 of grapes, and 1 each of cherries, apricots, oranges, lemons, tomatoes, persimmons, and kiwifruits. Egg hatchability studies indicated that fruit condition, i.e., ripeness, water content, etc. at the time of treatment can effect the amount of radiation reaching the target organism. Thus, there may be considerable differences in the dose levels required to prevent hatch of medfly eggs in the different varieties of fruits. Nevertheless, despite the need for higher dosages in certain fruits, in all cases, none of the larvae that did hatch survived to develop beyond the first or second larval instar. Similar results were obtained in the larval survival studies. That is, mature larvae infesting different varieties of fruits required different dosages of radiation to prevent pupation and/or emergence as adults. Again, at the 0.5-0.6 kGy dosages, varying rates of pupation occurred depending on the variety of fruit. However, in all cases, none of the individuals survived to emerge as adults. The studies indicate that postharvest treatment with gamma-radiation is certainly a potential alternative to treatment with chemical fumigants such as EDB. More research should be conducted in this area with special emphasis on the condition of the fruit with respect to dosage/mortality determinations. Also, the studies on the Navel oranges indicate that combination treatments, in conjunction with gamma radiation can have a synergistic effect, and this aspect should certainly be investigated for all varieties of fruits

  9. The Study of Adaptation of the New Peach Cultivars in the Agricultural Region of Vlora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARDHOSH FERRAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drupaceous fruits are placed in the first place in the species structure of Albania’s farms. To anticipate problems in the development of arboriculture and market production, scientific institutions have started a research to find possible solutions for the development of this sector. This is the reason why through collaboration between, CTT Vlore & IAM Bari was made possible to bring from Italy during the years 2000-2001, 96 cultivars of peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, nectarines, almonds. These cultivars dominate the production markets of the Mediterranean countries. In this project were included 21 peach cultivars 10 years old, rootstocks, planting material of basic category, clear of viruses and other pathogens. As the main rootstocks were selected GF 677 and MRS 2/5. To study the behavior, adaptability and productivity of the peach cultivars, in the warm coastal areas, specialists from the Agriculture University of Tirana and Center for Technology Transfer in Vlora carried out a number of tests and evaluations during a three year period. At the end of the study it resulted that the cultivars with a very early maturation better adapted in the coastal areas were: ‘Cardinal’, ‘May Crest’, and ‘Spring Crest’. The cultivars with early maturation and consolidated productivity were: “Red Haven”, “Bolero”, “Dixired”, “Early Crest”, “Iris Rosso”. Cultivars with an average maturation period were: “Red Haven Bianca”, “Red Top”, “Regina Bianca”, “Sun Crest”. The most suitable cultivars with a delayed maturation period are considered: “Big Moon”, “Domiziana”, “Haile”, “Laure”, “Maria Delizia”, “Rome Star”, “Pontina” and “Red Cal”. The only cultivar with a very delayed maturation is “Padana”.

  10. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujie Fan

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae, is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1. The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA, NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA and ethylene (ET. The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection.

  11. Study Summaries on Quality Formation of White Tea%白茶品质形成研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华春

    2012-01-01

    The processing of white tea includes withering and drying, and the former is the key process for its quality formation. During withering for long time, the inclusions of tea leaves such as tea polyphenols, amino acid, soluble saceharide complicatedly changed, oxidative dimerizations of tea polyphenols help to form apricot-yellow tea liquor color and mellow sweet taste of White tea, amino acid transformed volatile aldehydes or other products during processing help to form fragrance of White tea, and colored complex formed by the combination of O-quinone from catechin with amino acid had a good effect on soup color of white tea, soluble saccharide was the important ingredients which constituted soup taste and viscosity of white tea.%白茶加工工序包括萎凋和干燥,其中萎凋是形成白茶品质的关键工序。鲜叶经过较长时间的萎凋,内含物发生了复杂的变化,包括多酚类、氨基酸、糖类等,多酚类氧化缩合产物形成了白茶特有的杏黄汤色和醇爽清甜的滋味。氨基酸在茶叶加工中转化成挥发性的醛或其他产物形成茶叶香气。萎凋中氨基酸与儿茶素的邻醌结合而成的有色化合物,对白茶汤色有着良好的影响。可溶性的糖是构成白茶荼汤滋味和粘稠度的重要物质。

  12. 辽西坡地林农复合经营模式优化研究%Optimization of Agroforestry Model on Slope of Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金刚; 赵冰; 刘畅; 刘阳; 刘红民; 高英旭

    2012-01-01

    On slope of western Liaoning province,through test screening,production value analysis on jujube + millet + soybean,pear + millet + soybean,peach + millet + soybean,apricot + millet + soybean other models,result shows that:jujube + millet + soybean is suitable for this area;through compared experiments of dried fruit trees of hazelnuts or walnut + crop and jujube + millet + soybean,result shows that jujube + millet + soybean is the preferred model for western Liaoning;Lingdang jujube + millet,which is optimal component for jujube + millet + soybean,is high-efficient agroforestry in the same land-unit on slope of western Liaoning.%在辽西坡地上,通过枣农、梨农、桃农、杏农等林农复合经营模式试验筛选及产量、产值分析,结果表明,该区适宜的林农复合优化模式为枣农复合模式;通过榛子、核桃干果树种+作物复合经营与枣农复合对比试验,结果表明枣农复合经营为辽西坡地林农复合首选模式;继续试验研究了枣农复合优秀组分为铃铛枣与谷子,是辽西坡地同一土地单元内高效的林农复合模式。

  13. Effect of several different pollens on the bio-ecological parameters of the predatory mite Typhlodromus athenas Swirski and Ragusa (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokytha, P D; Fantinou, A A; Papadoulis, G Th

    2011-06-01

    The development, survivorship, and reproduction of the predacious mite Typhlodromus athenas Swirski and Ragusa were studied in the laboratory by rearing the predator on nine different plant pollens [almond(Prunus amygdalis Batsch), apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), cherry (Prunus avium L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.), walnut (Juglans regia L.), olive (Olea europaea L.), Typha sp.], and pollen collected from bee hives. All experiments were conducted in environmental chambers at 20 ± 1°C, 65% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Survival during immature development ranged from 81.1 to 96.0%. The shortest mean developmental time from egg to adult with respect to the range of pollen species was recorded for females and males fed on almond pollen (10.76 ± 0.18 and 10.45 ± 0.21 d, respectively), while the longest was on beehive pollen (26.97 ± 0.23 and 24.00 ± 0.25 d for females and males, respectively). Female longevity varied from 51.63 ± 5.52 d (olive pollen) to 102.81 ± 6.60 d (pear pollen), while fecundity ranged from 5.33 ± 2.35 eggs per female (beehive pollen) to 26.43 ± 1.73 eggs per female (almond pollen). The diet consisting of almond pollen resulted in the highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) (1.00 d(-1)) and pollen collected from bee hives resulted in the lowest (0.013 d(-1)). These results showed that various pollen could favor the development of T. athenas, and also support the view that alternative food resources may play an important role in the field for sustaining and increasing the predator's population.

  14. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Nicola D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, Katerina [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-03-15

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  15. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  16. Xingsu San Adjustment Treatment of Pediatric Acute Bronchitis 60 cases of Clinical Observation%杏苏散加减治疗小儿急性支气管炎60例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔松涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨杏苏散加减治疗小儿急性支气管炎的效果。方法:把我院收治的小儿支气管炎患儿60例平均分成两组,治疗组用杏苏散加减,对照组应用头孢曲松、地塞米松、病毒性静脉滴注,比较疗效。结果:治疗组痊愈率为95%,对照组为60%,差异明显。结论:杏苏散加减治疗小儿急性支气管炎,疗效满意,且无不良反应,较之西药治疗可以有效缩短治疗时间,避免患儿病情加重,减轻患儿痛苦,值得临床工作者推广使用。%Objective:To investigate the Xingsu San Decoction for the treatment of children with Acute Bronchitis effect. Methods: Our Hospital pediatric bronchiolitis were 60 patients divided into two groups, treatment group with apricot Su powder the addition and subtraction, control group used cephalosporin ceftriaxone, dexamethasone,virus of intravenous injection,the curative effect was compared. Results:The cure rate of treatment group was 95%,60% in the control group, the difference is obvious.Conclusion:Xingsu San Decoction for the treatment of acute bronchitis in children, the curative effect is satisfied, and no adverse reactions,compared to western medicine treatment can effectively shorten the treatment time, avoid exacerbations in children, reduce the pain of patients, it is worth to promote the use of clinical workers.

  17. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somia El-Maghraby; Galal A Nawwar; Reda FA Bakr; Nadia Helmy; Omnia MHM Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods: The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results:White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24%in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions:Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

  18. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae

  19. [The role of food in cholera transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosch, D; Gomez Zavaglia, A; Kuljich, A

    1995-01-01

    The spreading of cholera, from Peru to other Latinoamerican countries in 1991, raised questions regarding food safety, food transportation and handling. Control, prevention and risks implied in food import-export were also matters of concern. We deemed it interesting to determine the viability of Vibrio cholerae in wide consumption food locally. Selected food had different intrinsic characteristics such as: acidity (pH), water activity (aw), chemical composition, indigenous flora and other biologic and physic parameters. Twenty food products were contaminated with V. cholerae O1, Ogawa, toxigenic and not toxigenic strains: yoghurt, cream cheese, apricot marmelade, hip rose marmelade, mayonnaise, italian pasta for "empanadas", "dulce de leche", meat sausage, meat and spinach ravioli, margarine, milk dessert (made with cocoa, milk confiture, starch and additives), lettuce, tuna fish, ricotta and sterilized milk. Table I shows the viability of V. cholerae in tested foods, its pH and the reasons why the experiments were ended: 75% of the products studied could tolerate the development of the microorganism for a period ranging from one day (pasta for "empanadas") to ninety days (sterilized milk). Foods with acredity higher than pH 5.5 did not favor the growth of Vibrio. When pH was neutral or slightly acid, viability persisted independently from aw, microbial antagonisms and other physic, chemical or biologic parameters. Nevertheless, other factors such as: surface adherence, amino acids, magnesium and environmental influences not yet well determined, could eventually modify the persistence of V. cholerae in food. According to this study, most food products could tolerate growth and persistence of the infectant agent, up for three months in some cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7565031

  20. Rapid and specific spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits juices and in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is one of the most important water soluble vitamin in the human diet, present naturally in a wide range of foods, especially fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) from a variety of sources like fresh fruits or from human plasma using spectrophotometric technique or by RP-HPLC. Initially, estimation of vitamin C was carried out spectrophotometrically as UV spectroscopy is a trusted technique to monitor small quantities of drugs and vitamins. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 mi cro g/mL/sup -I/. In the second procedure, we attempted to separate and quantitate ascorbic acid from fruit juices as well as from human plasma by RP-HPLC with UV detection. This has been possible because of the diversity of columns and conditions of analysis available. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on a pre-packed Kromasil 100, C/sub 18/ (5 macro m 25 x 0.46) column using acetonitrile water (60:40; v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/sup -min/ and effluent monitored at 265 nm. The assay was also linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 micro g/mL/sub -1/, with recovery ranging from 99.0-100.0 % and intra and inter day CV <3 % when applied to the analysis of ascorbic acid from fruit juice available in Pakistan at the time of study Grape fruit, malta, mosami, sweetlemon, fruiter, lemon, lime, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya juice were found to be very rich in as ascorbic acid, while chikoo, pear, apricot, peach, carrot and some other fruits were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. (author)