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Sample records for approximation code ddscat

  1. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.0

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2008-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.0 is an open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", allowing calculation of absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures (and near-field calculations) in Draine & Flatau (2009). DDSCAT 7.0 includes support for MPI, OpenMP, and the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL). DDSCAT supports calculations for a variety of target geometries. Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to "import" arbitrary target geometries into the code. DDSCAT automatically calculates total cross ...

  2. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.1

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2010-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.1 is an open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", allowing calculation of absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures (and near-field calculations) in Draine & Flatau (2008). DDSCAT 7.1 includes support for MPI, OpenMP, and the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL). DDSCAT supports calculations for a variety of target geometries. Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to "import" arbitrary target geometries into the code. DDSCAT automatically calculates total cross ...

  3. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.3

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2013-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.3 is an open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", allowing calculation of absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures in Draine & Flatau (2008), and efficient near-field calculations in Flatau & Draine (2012). DDSCAT 7.3 includes support for MPI, OpenMP, and the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL). DDSCAT supports calculations for a variety of target geometries. Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to "import" arbitrary target geometries into the code. DDSCA...

  4. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.2

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, Bruce T

    2012-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.2 is a freely available open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", which can be used to study absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The DDA approximates the target by an array of polarizable points. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures in Draine & Flatau (2008). Efficient near-field calculations are enabled following Flatau & Draine (2012). DDSCAT 7.2 allows accurate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from targets with size parameters 2*pi*aeff/lambda < 25 provided the refractive index m is not large compared to unity (|m-1| ...

  5. DDscat.C++ User and programmer guide

    CERN Document Server

    Choliy, Vasyl

    2014-01-01

    DDscat.C++ 7.3.0 is a freely available open-source C++ software package applying the "discrete dipole approximation" (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and a complex refractive index. DDscat.C++ is a clone of well known DDscat Fortran-90 software. We refer to DDscat as to the parent code in this document. Versions 7.3.0 of both codes have the identical functionality but the quite different implementation. Started as a teaching project, the DDscat.C++ code differs from the parent code DDscat in programming techniques and features, essential for C++ but quite seldom in Fortran. As DDscat.C++ in its current version is just a clone, usage of DDscat.C++ for electromagnetic calculations is the same as of DDscat. Please, refer to "User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.3" to start using the code(s). This document consists of two parts. In the first part we present Quick start guide for users who want to begin to use the c...

  6. Efficient Derivation and Approximations of Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    A new formulation is presented for the calculation of cepstral coefficients directly from measured sine wave amplitudes and frequencies of speech waveforms. Approximations to these cepstral coefficients are shown to be suitable for operation in a real-time speech coding environment. These results were encoded in the C programming language and then evaluated through experiments that were conducted on the McAulay-Quatieri Sinusoidal Transform Coder (STC).... Speech coding, Cepstral processing.

  7. Approximate Decoding Approaches for Network Coded Correlated Data

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Hyunggon; Frossard, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a framework where data from correlated sources are transmitted with help of network coding in ad-hoc network topologies. The correlated data are encoded independently at sensors and network coding is employed in the intermediate nodes in order to improve the data delivery performance. In such settings, we focus on the problem of reconstructing the sources at decoder when perfect decoding is not possible due to losses or bandwidth bottlenecks. We first show that the source data similarity can be used at decoder to permit decoding based on a novel and simple approximate decoding scheme. We analyze the influence of the network coding parameters and in particular the size of finite coding fields on the decoding performance. We further determine the optimal field size that maximizes the expected decoding performance as a trade-off between information loss incurred by limiting the resolution of the source data and the error probability in the reconstructed data. Moreover, we show that the perfo...

  8. Huffman Coding with Letter Costs: A Linear-Time Approximation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Golin, Mordecai; Mathieu, Claire; Young, Neal E.

    2002-01-01

    We give a polynomial-time approximation scheme for the generalization of Huffman Coding in which codeword letters have non-uniform costs (as in Morse code, where the dash is twice as long as the dot). The algorithm computes a (1+epsilon)-approximate solution in time O(n + f(epsilon) log^3 n), where n is the input size.

  9. Beam-splitting code for light scattering by ice crystal particles within geometric-optics approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Borovoi, Anatoli G.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source beam-splitting code is described which implements the geometric-optics approximation to light scattering by convex faceted particles. This code is written in C++ as a library which can be easy applied to a particular light scattering problem. The code uses only standard components, that makes it to be a cross-platform solution and provides its compatibility to popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE's). The included example of solving the light scattering by a randomly oriented ice crystal is written using Qt 5.1, consequently it is a cross-platform solution, too. Both physical and computational aspects of the beam-splitting algorithm are discussed. Computational speed of the beam-splitting code is obviously higher compared to the conventional ray-tracing codes. A comparison of the phase matrix as computed by our code with the ray-tracing code by A. Macke shows excellent agreement.

  10. DESIGN OF LDPC-CODED BICM USING A SEMI-GAUSSIAN APPROXIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jie; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinkang

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates analysis and design of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) coded BitInterleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. It focuses on Gray-labeled 8-ary Phase-Shift-Keying (8PSK) modulation and employs a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) symbol-to-bit metric calculator at the receiver. An equivalent model of a BICM communication channel with ideal interleaving is presented. The probability distribution function of log-likelihood ratio messages from the MAP receiver can be approximated by a mixture of symmetric Gaussian densities. As a result semi-Gaussian approximation can be used to analyze the decoder.Extrinsic information transfer charts are employed to describe the convergence behavior of LDPC decoder. The design of irregular LDPC codes reduces to a linear programming problem on two-dimensional variable edge-degree distribution. This method allows irregular code design in a wider range of rates without any limit on the maximum node degree and can be used to design irregular codes having rates varying from 0.5275 to 0.9099. The designed convergence thresholds are only a few tenths,even a few hundredths of a decibel from the capacity limits. It is shown by Monte Carlo simulations that,when the block length is 30,000, these codes operate about 0.62-0.75 dB from the capacity limit at a bit error rate of 10-8.

  11. A New Parallel Version of the DDSCAT Code for Electromagnetic Scattering from Big Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, Vol. 112, 2234–2247, 2011. 10. Yurkin, M. A., V. P. Maltsev , and A. G. Hoekstra... Maltsev , and A. G. Hoekstra, “Convergence of the discrete dipole ap- proximation. II. An extrapolation technique to increase the accuracy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 23, No. 10, 2592–2601, 2006.

  12. Belief-Propagation-Approximated Decoding of Low-Density Parity-Check Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hui-shi; ZHANG Ping

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new reduced-complexity decoding algorithm of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes, called Belief-Propagation-Approximated (BPA) algorithm, which utilizes the idea of normalization and translates approximately the intricate nonlinear operation in the check nodes of the original BP algorithm to only one operation of looking up the table. The normalization factors can be obtained by simulation, or theoretically. Simulation results demonstrate that BPA algorithm exhibits fairly satisfactory bit error performance on the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel.

  13. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  14. Discrete dipole approximation models of chrystalline forsterite: Applications to cometary crystalline silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sean Stephen

    The shape, size, and composition of crystalline silicates observed in comet comae and external proto-planetary disks are indicative of the formation and evolution of the dust grains during the processes of planetary formation. In this dissertation, I present the 3 -- 40 mum absorption efficiencies( Qabs) of irregularly shaped forsterite crystals computed with the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT developed by Draine and Flatau and run on the NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility Pleiades. An investigation of grain shapes ranging from spheroidal to irregular indicate that the strong spectral features from forsterite are sensitive to grain shape and are potentially degenerate with the effects of crystal solid state composition (Mg-content). The 10, 11, 18, 23, and 33.5 mum features are found to be the most crystal shape sensitive and should be avoided in determining Mg-content. The distinct spectral features for the three shape classes are connected with crystal formation environment using a condensation experiment by (Kobatake et al., 2008). The condensation experiment demonstrates that condensed forsterite crystal shapes are dependent on the condensation environmental temperature. I generate DDSCAT target analog shapes to the condensed crystal shapes. These analog shapes are represented by the three shape classes: 1) equant, 2) a, c-columns, and 3) b-shortened platelets. Each of these shape classes exhibit distinct spectral features that can be used to interpret grain shape characteristics from 8 --- 40 mum spectroscopy of astronomical objects containing crystalline silicates. Synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the coma of Hale-Bopp at rh = 2.8 AU are generated by thermally modeling the flux contributions of 5 mineral species present in comets. The synthetic SEDs are constrained using a chi2- minimization technique. The mineral species are amorphous carbon, amorphous pyroxene, amorphous olivine, crystalline enstatite, and crystalline

  15. Fast approximations to structured sparse coding and applications to object classification

    CERN Document Server

    Szlam, Arthur; LeCun, Yann

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for fast approximation of sparse coding. The input space is subdivided by a binary decision tree, and we simultaneously learn a dictionary and assignment of allowed dictionary elements for each leaf of the tree. We store a lookup table with the assignments and the pseudoinverses for each node, allowing for very fast inference. We give an algorithm for learning the tree, the dictionary and the dictionary element assignment, and In the process of describing this algorithm, we discuss the more general problem of learning the groups in group structured sparse modelling. We show that our method creates good sparse representations by using it in the object recognition framework of \\cite{lazebnik06,yang-cvpr-09}. Implementing our own fast version of the SIFT descriptor the whole system runs at 20 frames per second on $321 \\times 481$ sized images on a laptop with a quad-core cpu, while sacrificing very little accuracy on the Caltech 101 and 15 scenes benchmarks.

  16. Anisotropic Total Variation Regularized L^1-Approximation and Denoising/Deblurring of 2D Bar Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Choksi, Rustum; Oberman, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We consider variations of the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi functional which are particularly well-suited to denoising and deblurring of 2D bar codes. These functionals consist of an anisotropic total variation favoring rectangles and a fidelity term which measure the L^1 distance to the signal, both with and without the presence of a deconvolution operator. Based upon the existence of a certain associated vector field, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for a function to be a minimizer. We apply these results to 2D bar codes to find explicit regimes ---in terms of the fidelity parameter and smallest length scale of the bar codes--- for which a perfect bar code is recoverable via minimization of the functionals. Via a discretization reformulated as a linear program, we perform numerical experiments for all functionals demonstrating their denoising and deblurring capabilities.

  17. A computer code for beam optics calculation--third order approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jianqin; LI Jinhai

    2006-01-01

    To calculate the beam transport in the ion optical systems accurately, a beam dynamics computer program of third order approximation is developed. Many conventional optical elements are incorporated in the program. Particle distributions of uniform type or Gaussian type in the ( x, y, z ) 3D ellipses can be selected by the users. The optimization procedures are provided to make the calculations reasonable and fast. The calculated results can be graphically displayed on the computer monitor.

  18. Hardware Efficient Approximative Matrix Inversion for Linear Pre-Coding in Massive MIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Hemanth; Edfors, Ove; Rodrigues, Joachim; Liu, Liang; Rusek, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a hardware efficient linear pre-coder for Massive MIMO Base Stations (BSs) comprising a very large number of antennas, say, in the order of 100s, serving multiple users simultaneously. To avoid hardware demanding direct matrix inversions required for the Zero-Forcing (ZF) pre-coder, we use low complexity Neumann series based approximations. Furthermore, we propose a method to speed-up the convergence of the Neumann series by using tri-diagonal pre-condition matrices, whic...

  19. Simulation of angular and energy distributions for heavy evaporation residues using statistical model approximations and TRIM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaidak, R.N., E-mail: sagaidak@nrmail.jinr.ru [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Utyonkov, V.K., E-mail: utyonkov@sungns.jinr.ru [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Scarlassara, F., E-mail: scarlassara@pd.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Padova and Universitá di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    A Monte Carlo approach has been developed for simulations of the angular and energy distributions for heavy evaporation residues (ER) produced in heavy ion fusion-evaporation reactions. The approach uses statistical model approximations of the HIVAP code for the calculations of initial angular and energy distributions inside a target, which are determined by neutron evaporation from an excited compound nucleus. Further step in the simulation of transmission of ER heavy atoms through a target layer is performed with the TRIM code that gives final angle and energy distributions at the exit from the target. Both the simulations (neutron evaporation and transmission through solid media) have been separately considered and good agreement has been obtained between the results of simulations and available experimental data. Some applications of the approach have been also considered.

  20. The 'Brick Wall' radio loss approximation and the performance of strong channel codes for deep space applications at high data rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambayati, Shervin

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate performance of strong channel codes in presence of imperfect carrier phase tracking for residual carrier BPSK modulation in this paper an approximate 'brick wall' model is developed which is independent of the channel code type for high data rates. It is shown that this approximation is reasonably accurate (less than 0.7dB for low FERs for (1784,1/6) code and less than 0.35dB for low FERs for (5920,1/6) code). Based on the approximation's accuracy, it is concluded that the effects of imperfect carrier tracking are more or less independent of the channel code type for strong channel codes. Therefore, the advantage that one strong channel code has over another with perfect carrier tracking translates to nearly the same advantage under imperfect carrier tracking conditions. This will allow the link designers to incorporate projected channel code performance of strong channel codes into their design tables without worrying about their behavior in the face of imperfect carrier phase tracking.

  1. Light scattering calculations of multi-sphere polycrystalline graphite clusters - A comparison with the 2200 AA peak and between a rigorous solution and discrete-dipole approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, A C; Pustovit, V N; Niklasson, G A

    2001-01-01

    Certain dust particles in space are expected to appear as clusters of individual grains. The morphology of these clusters could be fractal or compact. In this paper we study the light scattering by compact and fractal polycrystalline graphite clusters consisting of touching identical spheres. We compare three general methods for computing the extinction of the clusters in the wavelength range 0.1 - 100 micron, namely, a rigorous solution (Gerardy & Ausloos 1982) and two different discrete-dipole approximation methods -- MarCODES (Markel 1998) and DDSCAT (Draine & Flatau 1994). We consider clusters of N = 4, 7, 8, 27,32, 49, 108 and 343 particles of radii either 10 nm or 50 nm, arranged in three different geometries: open fractal (dimension D = 1.77), simple cubic and face-centred cubic. The rigorous solution shows that the extinction of the fractal clusters, with N 5 micron, the rigorous solution indicates that the extinction from fractal and compact clusters are of the same order of magnitude. It wa...

  2. Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scarnato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, internal mixing of black carbon (BC with other aerosol materials in the atmosphere alters its aggregate shape, absorption of solar radiation, and radiative forcing. These mixing state effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterize the morphology and mixing state of bare BC and BC internally mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl using electron microscopy and examine the sensitivity of optical properties to BC mixing state and aggregate morphology using a discrete dipole approximation model (DDSCAT. DDSCAT predicts a higher mass absorption coefficient, lower single scattering albedo (SSA, and higher absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE for bare BC aggregates that are lacy rather than compact. Predicted values of SSA at 550 nm range between 0.18 and 0.27 for lacy and compact aggregates, respectively, in agreement with reported experimental values of 0.25 ± 0.05. The variation in absorption with wavelength does not adhere precisely to a power law relationship over the 200 to 1000 nm range. Consequently, AAE values depend on the wavelength region over which they are computed. In the 300 to 550 nm range, AAE values ranged in this study from 0.70 for compact to 0.95 for lacy aggregates. The SSA of BC internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius is higher than for bare BC and increases with the embedding in the NaCl. Internally mixed BC SSA values decrease in the 200–400 nm wavelength range, a feature also common to the optical properties of dust and organics. Linear polarization features are also predicted in DDSCAT and are dependent on particle morphology. The bare BC (with a radius of 80 nm presents in the linear polarization a bell shape feature, which is a characteristic of the Rayleigh regime (for particles smaller than the wavelength of incident radiation. When BC is internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius, strong depolarization features for near-VIS incident radiation are evident

  3. The Vertical Current Approximation Nonlinear Force-Free Field Code - Description, Performance Tests, and Measurements of Magnetic Energies Dissipated in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we provide an updated description of the Vertical Current Approximation Nonlinear Force-Free Field (VCA-NLFFF) code, which is designed to measure the evolution of the potential, nonpotential, free energies, and the dissipated magnetic energies during solar flares. This code provides a complementary and alternative method to existing traditional NLFFF codes. The chief advantages of the VCA-NLFFF code over traditional NLFFF codes are the circumvention of the unrealistic assumption of a force-free photosphere in the magnetic field extrapolation method, the capability to minimize the misalignment angles between observed coronal loops (or chromospheric fibril structures) and theoretical model field lines, as well as computational speed. In performance tests of the VCA-NLFFF code, by comparing with the NLFFF code of Wiegelmann (2004), we find agreement in the potential, nonpotential, and free energy within a factor of about 1.3, but the Wiegelmann code yields in the average a factor of 2 lower flare en...

  4. ABSORPTION EFFICIENCIES OF FORSTERITE. I. DISCRETE DIPOLE APPROXIMATION EXPLORATIONS IN GRAIN SHAPE AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Sean S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1421 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-2366 (United States); Wooden, Diane H. [Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Harker, David E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Woodward, Charles E. [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, 116 Church Street S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Murphy, Jim R., E-mail: slindsay@utk.edu, E-mail: diane.h.wooden@nasa.gov, E-mail: dharker@uscd.edu, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chelsea@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: murphy@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We compute the absorption efficiency (Q{sub abs}) of forsterite using the discrete dipole approximation in order to identify and describe what characteristics of crystal grain shape and size are important to the shape, peak location, and relative strength of spectral features in the 8-40 {mu}m wavelength range. Using the DDSCAT code, we compute Q{sub abs} for non-spherical polyhedral grain shapes with a{sub eff} = 0.1 {mu}m. The shape characteristics identified are (1) elongation/reduction along one of three crystallographic axes; (2) asymmetry, such that all three crystallographic axes are of different lengths; and (3) the presence of crystalline faces that are not parallel to a specific crystallographic axis, e.g., non-rectangular prisms and (di)pyramids. Elongation/reduction dominates the locations and shapes of spectral features near 10, 11, 16, 23.5, 27, and 33.5 {mu}m, while asymmetry and tips are secondary shape effects. Increasing grain sizes (0.1-1.0 {mu}m) shifts the 10 and 11 {mu}m features systematically toward longer wavelengths and relative to the 11 {mu}m feature increases the strengths and slightly broadens the longer wavelength features. Seven spectral shape classes are established for crystallographic a-, b-, and c-axes and include columnar and platelet shapes plus non-elongated or equant grain shapes. The spectral shape classes and the effects of grain size have practical application in identifying or excluding columnar, platelet, or equant forsterite grain shapes in astrophysical environs. Identification of the shape characteristics of forsterite from 8 to 40 {mu}m spectra provides a potential means to probe the temperatures at which forsterite formed.

  5. Automatic choroid cells segmentation and counting based on approximate convexity and concavity of chain code in fluorescence microscopic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihua; Chen, Xinjian; Zhu, Weifang; Yang, Lei; Cao, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method based on the Freeman chain code to segment and count rhesus choroid-retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF/6A) automatically for fluorescence microscopy images. The proposed method consists of four main steps. First, a threshold filter and morphological transform were applied to reduce the noise. Second, the boundary information was used to generate the Freeman chain codes. Third, the concave points were found based on the relationship between the difference of the chain code and the curvature. Finally, cells segmentation and counting were completed based on the characteristics of the number of the concave points, the area and shape of the cells. The proposed method was tested on 100 fluorescence microscopic cell images, and the average true positive rate (TPR) is 98.13% and the average false positive rate (FPR) is 4.47%, respectively. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. A fast, exact code for scattered thermal radiation compared with a two-stream approximation. [radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogley, A. C.; Pandey, D. K.; Bergstrom, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A two-stream accuracy study for internally (thermal) driven problems is presented by comparison with a recently developed 'exact' adding/doubling method. The resulting errors in external (or boundary) radiative intensity and flux are usually larger than those for the externally driven problems and vary substantially with the radiative parameters. Error predictions for a specific problem are difficult. An unexpected result is that the exact method is computationally as fast as the two-stream approximation for nonisothermal media.

  7. Optimal design of FIR high pass filter based on L1 error approximation using real coded genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Aggarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital finite impulse response (FIR highpass (HP filter using the L1-norm based real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is investigated. A novel fitness function based on L1 norm is adopted to enhance the design accuracy. Optimized filter coefficients are obtained by defining the filter objective function in L1 sense using RCGA. Simulation analysis unveils that the performance of the RCGA adopting this fitness function is better in terms of signal attenuation ability of the filter, flatter passband and the convergence rate. Observations are made on the percentage improvement of this algorithm over the gradient-based L1 optimization approach on various factors by a large amount. It is concluded that RCGA leads to the best solution under specified parameters for the FIR filter design on account of slight unnoticeable higher transition width.

  8. A fast parallel code for calculating energies and oscillator strengths of many-electron atoms at neutron star magnetic field strengths in adiabatic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, D.; Klews, M.; Wunner, G.

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a new method for the fast computation of wavelengths and oscillator strengths for medium-Z atoms and ions, up to iron, at neutron star magnetic field strengths. The method is a parallelized Hartree-Fock approach in adiabatic approximation based on finite-element and B-spline techniques. It turns out that typically 15-20 finite elements are sufficient to calculate energies to within a relative accuracy of 10-5 in 4 or 5 iteration steps using B-splines of 6th order, with parallelization speed-ups of 20 on a 26-processor machine. Results have been obtained for the energies of the ground states and excited levels and for the transition strengths of astrophysically relevant atoms and ions in the range Z=2…26 in different ionization stages. Catalogue identifier: AECC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3845 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 989 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MPI/Fortran 95 and Python Computer: Cluster of 1-26 HP Compaq dc5750 Operating system: Fedora 7 Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 1 GByte Classification: 2.1 External routines: MPI/GFortran, LAPACK, PyLab/Matplotlib Nature of problem: Calculations of synthetic spectra [1] of strongly magnetized neutron stars are bedevilled by the lack of data for atoms in intense magnetic fields. While the behaviour of hydrogen and helium has been investigated in detail (see, e.g., [2]), complete and reliable data for heavier elements, in particular iron, are still missing. Since neutron stars are formed by the collapse of the iron cores of massive stars, it may be assumed that their atmospheres contain an iron plasma. Our objective is to fill the gap

  9. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  10. Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher

    2010-01-01

    Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities in terms of the ratio d / d_min where d_min is the dimension of the smallest nontrivial representation of G. As an application, we bound the extent to which a function f : G -> H can be an approximate homomorphism where H is another finite group. We show that if H's representations are significantly smaller than G's, no such f can be much more homomorphic than a random function. We interpret these results as showing that if G is quasirandom, that is, if d_min is large, then G cannot be embedded in a small number of dimensi...

  11. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  12. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  13. Approximate common divisors via lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the multivariate generalization of Howgrave-Graham's algorithm for the approximate common divisor problem. In the m-variable case with modulus N and approximate common divisor of size N^beta, this improves the size of the error tolerated from N^(beta^2) to N^(beta^((m+1)/m)), under a commonly used heuristic assumption. This gives a more detailed analysis of the hardness assumption underlying the recent fully homomorphic cryptosystem of van Dijk, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikuntanathan. While these results do not challenge the suggested parameters, a 2^sqrt(n) approximation algorithm for lattice basis reduction in n dimensions could be used to break these parameters. We have implemented our algorithm, and it performs better in practice than the theoretical analysis suggests. Our results fit into a broader context of analogies between cryptanalysis and coding theory. The multivariate approximate common divisor problem is the number-theoretic analogue of noisy multivariate polynomial interpolation, and we ...

  14. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    . The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... Applications of our general framework include those from number theory (classical, complex, p-adic and formal power series) and dynamical systems (iterated function schemes, rational maps and Kleinian groups)....

  15. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  16. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  17. On Element SDD Approximability

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan

    2009-01-01

    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  18. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis

    2014-01-01

    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  19. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  1. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  2. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  3. Theory of approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Achieser, N I

    2004-01-01

    A pioneer of many modern developments in approximation theory, N. I. Achieser designed this graduate-level text from the standpoint of functional analysis. The first two chapters address approximation problems in linear normalized spaces and the ideas of P. L. Tchebysheff. Chapter III examines the elements of harmonic analysis, and Chapter IV, integral transcendental functions of the exponential type. The final two chapters explore the best harmonic approximation of functions and Wiener's theorem on approximation. Professor Achieser concludes this exemplary text with an extensive section of pr

  4. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  5. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  6. Ordered cones and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  7. Quantum source-channel codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando; Wilming, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Approximate quantum error-correcting codes are codes with "soft recovery guarantees" wherein information can be approximately recovered. In this article, we propose a complementary "soft code-spaces" wherein a weighted prior distribution is assumed over the possible logical input states. The performance for protecting information from noise is then evaluated in terms of entanglement fidelity. We apply a recent construction for approximate recovery maps, which come with a guaranteed lower-bounds on the decoding performance. These lower bound are straightforwardly obtained by evaluating entropies on marginals of the mixed state which represents the "soft code-space". As an example, we consider thermal states of the transverse field Ising model at criticality and provide numerical evidence that the entanglement fidelity admits non-trivial recoverability from local errors. This provides the first concrete interpretation of a bonafide conformal field theory as a quantum error-correcting code. We further suggest, t...

  8. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  9. Symbolic coding for noninvertible systems: uniform approximation and numerical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyn, Wolf-Jürgen; Hüls, Thorsten; Schenke, Andre

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the homoclinic theorem, which conjugates a map near a transversal homoclinic orbit to a Bernoulli subshift, extends from invertible to specific noninvertible dynamical systems. In this paper, we provide a unifying approach that combines such a result with a fully discrete analog of the conjugacy for finite but sufficiently long orbit segments. The underlying idea is to solve appropriate discrete boundary value problems in both cases, and to use the theory of exponential dichotomies to control the errors. This leads to a numerical approach that allows us to compute the conjugacy to any prescribed accuracy. The method is demonstrated for several examples where invertibility of the map fails in different ways.

  10. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling

    2009-07-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  11. Approximating Stationary Statistical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming WANG

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that physical laws for large chaotic dynamical systems are revealed statistically. Many times these statistical properties of the system must be approximated numerically. The main contribution of this manuscript is to provide simple and natural criterions on numerical methods (temporal and spatial discretization) that are able to capture the stationary statistical properties of the underlying dissipative chaotic dynamical systems asymptotically. The result on temporal approximation is a recent finding of the author, and the result on spatial approximation is a new one. Applications to the infinite Prandtl number model for convection and the barotropic quasi-geostrophic model are also discussed.

  12. Approximation of irrationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The author uses a new modification of Jacobi-Perron Algorithm which holds for complex fields of any degree (abbr. ACF, and defines it as Generalized Euclidean Algorithm (abbr. GEA to approximate irrationals.

  13. Approximations in Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    Planning of inspections of civil engineering structures may be performed within the framework of Bayesian decision analysis. The effort involved in a full Bayesian decision analysis is relatively large. Therefore, the actual inspection planning is usually performed using a number of approximations....... One of the more important of these approximations is the assumption that all inspections will reveal no defects. Using this approximation the optimal inspection plan may be determined on the basis of conditional probabilities, i.e. the probability of failure given no defects have been found...... by the inspection. In this paper the quality of this approximation is investigated. The inspection planning is formulated both as a full Bayesian decision problem and on the basis of the assumption that the inspection will reveal no defects....

  14. The Karlqvist approximation revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2015-01-01

    The Karlqvist approximation signaling the historical beginning of magnetic recording head theory is reviewed and compared to various approaches progressing from Green, Fourier, Conformal mapping that obeys the Sommerfeld edge condition at angular points and leads to exact results.

  15. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M

    2011-01-01

    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  16. Approximation and supposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximation and supposition This article compares exponents of approximation (expressions like Russian около, примерно, приблизительно, более, свыше and the words expressing supposition (for example Russian скорее всего, наверное, возможно. These words are often confused in research, in particular researchers often mention exponents of supposition in case of exponents of approximation. Such approach arouses some objections. The author intends to demonstrate in this article a notional difference between approximation and supposition, therefore the difference between exponents of these two notions. This difference could be described by specifying different attitude of approximation and supposition to the notion of knowledge. Supposition implies speaker’s ignorance of the exact number, while approximation does not mean such ignorance. The article offers examples proving this point of view.

  17. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  18. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  19. Appendix to "Approximating perpetuities"

    CERN Document Server

    Knape, Margarete

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm for perfect simulation from the unique solution of the distributional fixed point equation $Y=_d UY + U(1-U)$ is constructed, where $Y$ and $U$ are independent and $U$ is uniformly distributed on $[0,1]$. This distribution comes up as a limit distribution in the probabilistic analysis of the Quickselect algorithm. Our simulation algorithm is based on coupling from the past with a multigamma coupler. It has four lines of code.

  20. Monotone Boolean approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.

  1. Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, R. A.

    2015-01-08

    Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, Fn( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e μ/θ ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for Aα (ζ ),Aβ (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e-μ/θ)F1/2(μ/θ), F1/2'/F1/2, Fcα, and Fcβ. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.

  2. On Convex Quadratic Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of

  3. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Local spline approximants

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Andrew H.

    1991-01-01

    Local spline approximants offer a means for constructing finite difference formulae for numerical solution of PDEs. These formulae seem particularly well suited to situations in which the use of conventional formulae leads to non-linear computational instability of the time integration. This is explained in terms of frequency responses of the FDF.

  5. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Topics in Metric Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  7. Approximating the Probability of Mortality Due to Protracted Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ODZ QR SHUVRQVKDOOEH VXEMHFWWRDQ\\SHQDOW\\IRUIDLOLQJWRFRPSO\\ZLWKDFROOHFWLRQRILQIRUPDWLRQLILWGRHVQRWGLVSOD\\DFXUUHQWO\\YDOLG20...Because the RIPD code is computationally intensive, it is useful to have an easier, approximate calculation for estimating probability of mortality

  8. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  9. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  10. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  11. Approximate Bayesian computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Sunnåker

    Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.

  12. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  13. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  14. S-Approximation: A New Approach to Algebraic Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hooshmandasl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We intend to study a new class of algebraic approximations, called S-approximations, and their properties. We have shown that S-approximations can be used for applied problems which cannot be modeled by inclusion based approximations. Also, in this work, we studied a subclass of S-approximations, called Sℳ-approximations, and showed that this subclass preserves most of the properties of inclusion based approximations but is not necessarily inclusionbased. The paper concludes by studying some basic operations on S-approximations and counting the number of S-min functions.

  15. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-05-01

    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  17. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  18. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  19. Operators of Approximations and Approximate Power Set Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen; SHU Lan

    2004-01-01

    Boundary inner and outer operators are introduced; and union, intersection, complement operators of approximations are redefined. The approximation operators have a good property of maintaining union, intersection, complement operators, so the rough set theory has been enriched from the operator-oriented and set-oriented views. Approximate power set spaces are defined, and it is proved that the approximation operators are epimorphisms from power set space to approximate power set spaces. Some basic properties of approximate power set space are got by epimorphisms in contrast to power set space.

  20. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  1. An Empirical Evaluation of Coding Methods for Multi-Symbol Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of different methods of data compression coding in several situations. Huffman's code, arithmetic coding, fixed codes, fast approximations to arithmetic coding, and splay coding are discussed in terms of their speed, memory requirements, and proximity to optimal performance. Recommendations for the best methods of…

  2. Nonlinear Approximation Using Gaussian Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Hangelbroek, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that non-linear approximation has an advantage over linear schemes in the sense that it provides comparable approximation rates to those of the linear schemes, but to a larger class of approximands. This was established for spline approximations and for wavelet approximations, and more recently for homogeneous radial basis function (surface spline) approximations. However, no such results are known for the Gaussian function. The crux of the difficulty lies in the necessity to vary the tension parameter in the Gaussian function spatially according to local information about the approximand: error analysis of Gaussian approximation schemes with varying tension are, by and large, an elusive target for approximators. We introduce and analyze in this paper a new algorithm for approximating functions using translates of Gaussian functions with varying tension parameters. Our scheme is sophisticated to a degree that it employs even locally Gaussians with varying tensions, and that it resolves local ...

  3. International Conference Approximation Theory XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2014-01-01

    This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV,  held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.

  4. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  5. Space Time Codes from Permutation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A new class of space time codes with high performance is presented. The code design utilizes tailor-made permutation codes, which are known to have large minimal distances as spherical codes. A geometric connection between spherical and space time codes has been used to translate them into the final space time codes. Simulations demonstrate that the performance increases with the block lengths, a result that has been conjectured already in previous work. Further, the connection to permutation codes allows for moderate complex en-/decoding algorithms.

  6. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  7. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  8. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuesheng; ZOU Qingsong

    2005-01-01

    We construct a tree wavelet approximation by using a constructive greedy scheme(CGS). We define a function class which contains the functions whose piecewise polynomial approximations generated by the CGS have a prescribed global convergence rate and establish embedding properties of this class. We provide sufficient conditions on a tree index set and on bi-orthogonal wavelet bases which ensure optimal order of convergence for the wavelet approximations encoded on the tree index set using the bi-orthogonal wavelet bases. We then show that if we use the tree index set associated with the partition generated by the CGS to encode a wavelet approximation, it gives optimal order of convergence.

  9. Joint source channel coding using arithmetic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the encoding process, arithmetic codes can be viewed as tree codes and current proposals for decoding arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols belong to sequential decoding algorithms and their variants. In this monograph, we propose a new way of looking at arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols. If a limit is imposed on the maximum value of a key parameter in the encoder, this modified arithmetic encoder can also be modeled as a finite state machine and the code generated can be treated as a variable-length trellis code. The number of states used can be reduced and techniques used fo

  10. Uniform approximation by (quantum) polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drucker, A.; de Wolf, R.

    2011-01-01

    We show that quantum algorithms can be used to re-prove a classical theorem in approximation theory, Jackson's Theorem, which gives a nearly-optimal quantitative version of Weierstrass's Theorem on uniform approximation of continuous functions by polynomials. We provide two proofs, based respectivel

  11. Diophantine approximation and automorphic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Anish; Nevo, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present paper establishes qunatitative estimates on the rate of diophantine approximation in homogeneous varieties of semisimple algebraic groups. The estimates established generalize and improve previous ones, and are sharp in a number of cases. We show that the rate of diophantine approximation is controlled by the spectrum of the automorphic representation, and is thus subject to the generalised Ramanujan conjectures.

  12. Beyond the random phase approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...

  13. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient-driven...

  14. Nonlinear approximation with redundant dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, M.; Gribonval, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear approximation and data representation with redundant function dictionaries. In particular, approximation with redundant wavelet bi-frame systems is studied in detail. Several results for orthonormal wavelets are generalized to the redundant case. In general...

  15. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  16. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  17. Global approximation of convex functions

    CERN Document Server

    Azagra, D

    2011-01-01

    We show that for every (not necessarily bounded) open convex subset $U$ of $\\R^n$, every (not necessarily Lipschitz or strongly) convex function $f:U\\to\\R$ can be approximated by real analytic convex functions, uniformly on all of $U$. In doing so we provide a technique which transfers results on uniform approximation on bounded sets to results on uniform approximation on unbounded sets, in such a way that not only convexity and $C^k$ smoothness, but also local Lipschitz constants, minimizers, order, and strict or strong convexity, are preserved. This transfer method is quite general and it can also be used to obtain new results on approximation of convex functions defined on Riemannian manifolds or Banach spaces. We also provide a characterization of the class of convex functions which can be uniformly approximated on $\\R^n$ by strongly convex functions.

  18. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors....

  19. Usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions from engineering codes in Monte-Carlo code calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of VVER's cores by Monte-Carlo code is complex process and requires large computational costs. This fact makes Monte-Carlo codes usage complicated for project and operating calculations. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to use for the Monte-Carlo code (MCU) calculations of different states of VVER's core with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are proposed to calculate by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by engineering codes (TVS-M, PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FA and VVER with infinite height are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The MCU calculation data were compared with the data which were obtained by engineering codes.

  20. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  1. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  2. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  3. Reliable Function Approximation and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0293 Reliable Function Approximation and Estimation Rachel Ward UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN 101 EAST 27TH STREET STE 4308...orthogonal polynomial bases from a minimal number of pointwise function evaluations. Based on a model of weighted sparsity which we in- troduced, we...Institution name University of Texas at Austin Grant/Contract Title The full title of the funded effort. (YIP): Reliable function approximation and estimation

  4. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  5. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  6. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  7. Uncertainty relations and approximate quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Joseph M.

    2016-09-01

    The uncertainty principle can be understood as constraining the probability of winning a game in which Alice measures one of two conjugate observables, such as position or momentum, on a system provided by Bob, and he is to guess the outcome. Two variants are possible: either Alice tells Bob which observable she measured, or he has to furnish guesses for both cases. Here I derive uncertainty relations for both, formulated directly in terms of Bob's guessing probabilities. For the former these relate to the entanglement that can be recovered by action on Bob's system alone. This gives an explicit quantum circuit for approximate quantum error correction using the guessing measurements for "amplitude" and "phase" information, implicitly used in the recent construction of efficient quantum polar codes. I also find a relation on the guessing probabilities for the latter game, which has application to wave-particle duality relations.

  8. Comparing numerical and analytic approximate gravitational waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Nousha; Lovelace, Geoffrey; SXS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    A direct observation of gravitational waves will test Einstein's theory of general relativity under the most extreme conditions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, began searching for gravitational waves in September 2015 with three times the sensitivity of initial LIGO. To help Advanced LIGO detect as many gravitational waves as possible, a major research effort is underway to accurately predict the expected waves. In this poster, I will explore how the gravitational waveform produced by a long binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown is affected by how fast the larger black hole spins. In particular, I will present results from simulations of merging black holes, completed using the Spectral Einstein Code (black-holes.org/SpEC.html), including some new, long simulations designed to mimic black hole-neutron star mergers. I will present comparisons of the numerical waveforms with analytic approximations.

  9. Twisted inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Harrap, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    For any real pair i, j geq 0 with i+j=1 let Bad(i, j) denote the set of (i, j)-badly approximable pairs. That is, Bad(i, j) consists of irrational vectors x:=(x_1, x_2) in R^2 for which there exists a positive constant c(x) such that max {||qx_1||^(-i), ||qx_2||^(-j)} > c(x)/q for all q in N. Building on a result of Kurzweil, a new characterization of the set Bad(i, j) in terms of `well-approximable' vectors in the area of `twisted' inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation is established. In addition, it is shown that Bad^x(i, j), the `twisted' inhomogeneous analogue of Bad(i, j), has full Hausdorff dimension 2 when x is chosen from the set Bad(i, j).

  10. Approximating Graphic TSP by Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Mömke, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for approximating the metric TSP based on a novel use of matchings. Traditionally, matchings have been used to add edges in order to make a given graph Eulerian, whereas our approach also allows for the removal of certain edges leading to a decreased cost. For the TSP on graphic metrics (graph-TSP), the approach yields a 1.461-approximation algorithm with respect to the Held-Karp lower bound. For graph-TSP restricted to a class of graphs that contains degree three bounded and claw-free graphs, we show that the integrality gap of the Held-Karp relaxation matches the conjectured ratio 4/3. The framework allows for generalizations in a natural way and also leads to a 1.586-approximation algorithm for the traveling salesman path problem on graphic metrics where the start and end vertices are prespecified.

  11. Approximation methods in probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Čekanavičius, Vydas

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.

  12. Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, Joel; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To develop our approximation, we introduce a Monte Carlo Tree Search algorithm along with an agent-specific extension of the Context Tree Weighting algorithm. Empirically, we present a set of encouraging results on a number of stochastic, unknown, and partially observable domains.

  13. Concept Approximation between Fuzzy Ontologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy ontologies are efficient tools to handle fuzzy and uncertain knowledge on the semantic web; but there are heterogeneity problems when gaining interoperability among different fuzzy ontologies. This paper uses concept approximation between fuzzy ontologies based on instances to solve the heterogeneity problems. It firstly proposes an instance selection technology based on instance clustering and weighting to unify the fuzzy interpretation of different ontologies and reduce the number of instances to increase the efficiency. Then the paper resolves the problem of computing the approximations of concepts into the problem of computing the least upper approximations of atom concepts. It optimizes the search strategies by extending atom concept sets and defining the least upper bounds of concepts to reduce the searching space of the problem. An efficient algorithm for searching the least upper bounds of concept is given.

  14. Approximate Sparse Regularized Hyperspectral Unmixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse regression based unmixing has been recently proposed to estimate the abundance of materials present in hyperspectral image pixel. In this paper, a novel sparse unmixing optimization model based on approximate sparsity, namely, approximate sparse unmixing (ASU, is firstly proposed to perform the unmixing task for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. And then, a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm is introduced to tackle the optimization problem. In ASU, approximate sparsity is used as a regularizer for sparse unmixing, which is sparser than l1 regularizer and much easier to be solved than l0 regularizer. Three simulated and one real hyperspectral images were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to l1 regularizer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more effective and accurate for hyperspectral unmixing than state-of-the-art l1 regularizer.

  15. Transfinite Approximation of Hindman's Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Beiglböck, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Hindman's Theorem states that in any finite coloring of the integers, there is an infinite set all of whose finite sums belong to the same color. This is much stronger than the corresponding finite form, stating that in any finite coloring of the integers there are arbitrarily long finite sets with the same property. We extend the finite form of Hindman's Theorem to a "transfinite" version for each countable ordinal, and show that Hindman's Theorem is equivalent to the appropriate transfinite approximation holding for every countable ordinal. We then give a proof of Hindman's Theorem by directly proving these transfinite approximations.

  16. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  17. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  18. Impact of inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis is investigated, and it is verified that the inflow transport approximation significantly improves the accuracy of the transport and transport/diffusion solutions. A methodology for an inflow transport approximation is implemented in order to generate an accurate transport cross section. The inflow transport approximation is compared to the conventional methods, which are the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations. The three transport approximations are implemented in the lattice physics code STREAM, and verification is performed for various verification problems in order to investigate their effects and accuracy. From the verification, it is noted that the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations cause significant error in calculating the eigenvalue and the power distribution. The inflow transport approximation shows very accurate and precise results for the verification problems. The inflow transport approximation shows significant improvements not only for the high leakage problem but also for practical large core problem analyses.

  19. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [1]Baraniuk, R. G., DeVore, R. A., Kyriazis, G., Yu, X. M., Near best tree approximation, Adv. Comput. Math.,2002, 16: 357-373.[2]Cohen, A., Dahmen, W., Daubechies, I., DeVore, R., Tree approximation and optimal encoding, Appl. Comput.Harmonic Anal., 2001, 11: 192-226.[3]Dahmen, W., Schneider, R., Xu, Y., Nonlinear functionals of wavelet expansions-adaptive reconstruction and fast evaluation, Numer. Math., 2000, 86: 49-101.[4]DeVore, R. A., Nonlinear approximation, Acta Numer., 1998, 7: 51-150.[5]Davis, G., Mallat, S., Avellaneda, M., Adaptive greedy approximations, Const. Approx., 1997, 13: 57-98.[6]DeVore, R. A., Temlyakov, V. N., Some remarks on greedy algorithms, Adv. Comput. Math., 1996, 5: 173-187.[7]Kashin, B. S., Temlyakov, V. N., Best m-term approximations and the entropy of sets in the space L1, Mat.Zametki (in Russian), 1994, 56: 57-86.[8]Temlyakov, V. N., The best m-term approximation and greedy algorithms, Adv. Comput. Math., 1998, 8:249-265.[9]Temlyakov, V. N., Greedy algorithm and m-term trigonometric approximation, Constr. Approx., 1998, 14:569-587.[10]Hutchinson, J. E., Fractals and self similarity, Indiana. Univ. Math. J., 1981, 30: 713-747.[11]Binev, P., Dahmen, W., DeVore, R. A., Petruchev, P., Approximation classes for adaptive methods, Serdica Math.J., 2002, 28: 1001-1026.[12]Gilbarg, D., Trudinger, N. S., Elliptic Partial Differential Equations of Second Order, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,1983.[13]Ciarlet, P. G., The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems, New York: North Holland, 1978.[14]Birman, M. S., Solomiak, M. Z., Piecewise polynomial approximation of functions of the class Wαp, Math. Sb.,1967, 73: 295-317.[15]DeVore, R. A., Lorentz, G. G., Constructive Approximation, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.[16]DeVore, R. A., Popov, V., Interpolation of Besov spaces, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1988, 305: 397-414.[17]Devore, R., Jawerth, B., Popov, V., Compression of wavelet decompositions, Amer. J. Math., 1992, 114: 737-785.[18]Storozhenko, E

  20. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  1. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  2. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  3. Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp ante

  4. Some results in Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the formal Laurent series over F3. The first paper is on intrinsic Diophantine approximation in the Cantor set in the formal Laurent series over F3. The summary contains a short motivation, the results of the paper and sketches of the proofs, mainly focusing on the ideas involved. The details of the proofs...

  5. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  6. Approximation on the complex sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaud, Huda; Kushpel, Alexander; Levesley, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We develop new elements of harmonic analysis on the complex sphere on the basis of which Bernstein's, Jackson's and Kolmogorov's inequalities are established. We apply these results to get order sharp estimates of $m$-term approximations. The results obtained is a synthesis of new results on classical orthogonal polynomials, harmonic analysis on manifolds and geometric properties of Euclidean spaces.

  7. WKB Approximation in Noncommutative Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Buric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the quasi-commutative approximation to a noncommutative geometry defined as a generalization of the moving frame formalism. The relation which exists between noncommutativity and geometry is used to study the properties of the high-frequency waves on the flat background.

  8. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  9. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  10. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  11. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...

  12. Users' guide to CACECO containment analysis code. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peak, R.D.

    1979-06-01

    The CACECO containment analysis code was developed to predict the thermodynamic responses of LMFBR containment facilities to a variety of accidents. The code is included in the National Energy Software Center Library at Argonne National Laboratory as Program No. 762. This users' guide describes the CACECO code and its data input requirements. The code description covers the many mathematical models used and the approximations used in their solution. The descriptions are detailed to the extent that the user can modify the code to suit his unique needs, and, indeed, the reader is urged to consider code modification acceptable.

  13. Some mathematical refinements concerning error minimization in the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; van der Gulik, Peter T S; Kelk, Steven M; Koolen, Wouter M; Stougie, Leen

    2011-01-01

    The genetic code is known to have a high level of error robustness and has been shown to be very error robust compared to randomly selected codes, but to be significantly less error robust than a certain code found by a heuristic algorithm. We formulate this optimization problem as a Quadratic Assignment Problem and use this to formally verify that the code found by the heuristic algorithm is the global optimum. We also argue that it is strongly misleading to compare the genetic code only with codes sampled from the fixed block model, because the real code space is orders of magnitude larger. We thus enlarge the space from which random codes can be sampled from approximately 2.433 × 10(18) codes to approximately 5.908 × 10(45) codes. We do this by leaving the fixed block model, and using the wobble rules to formulate the characteristics acceptable for a genetic code. By relaxing more constraints, three larger spaces are also constructed. Using a modified error function, the genetic code is found to be more error robust compared to a background of randomly generated codes with increasing space size. We point out that these results do not necessarily imply that the code was optimized during evolution for error minimization, but that other mechanisms could be the reason for this error robustness.

  14. Low Rank Approximation in $G_0W_0$ Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Meiyue; Yang, Chao; Liu, Fang; da Jornada, Felipe H; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    The single particle energies obtained in a Kohn--Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculation are generally known to be poor approximations to electron excitation energies that are measured in transport, tunneling and spectroscopic experiments such as photo-emission spectroscopy. The correction to these energies can be obtained from the poles of a single particle Green's function derived from a many-body perturbation theory. From a computational perspective, the accuracy and efficiency of such an approach depends on how a self energy term that properly accounts for dynamic screening of electrons is approximated. The $G_0W_0$ approximation is a widely used technique in which the self energy is expressed as the convolution of a non-interacting Green's function ($G_0$) and a screened Coulomb interaction ($W_0$) in the frequency domain. The computational cost associated with such a convolution is high due to the high complexity of evaluating $W_0$ at multiple frequencies. In this paper, we discuss how the cos...

  15. Robust hashing with local models for approximate similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingkuan; Yang, Yi; Li, Xuelong; Huang, Zi; Yang, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Similarity search plays an important role in many applications involving high-dimensional data. Due to the known dimensionality curse, the performance of most existing indexing structures degrades quickly as the feature dimensionality increases. Hashing methods, such as locality sensitive hashing (LSH) and its variants, have been widely used to achieve fast approximate similarity search by trading search quality for efficiency. However, most existing hashing methods make use of randomized algorithms to generate hash codes without considering the specific structural information in the data. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method, namely, robust hashing with local models (RHLM), which learns a set of robust hash functions to map the high-dimensional data points into binary hash codes by effectively utilizing local structural information. In RHLM, for each individual data point in the training dataset, a local hashing model is learned and used to predict the hash codes of its neighboring data points. The local models from all the data points are globally aligned so that an optimal hash code can be assigned to each data point. After obtaining the hash codes of all the training data points, we design a robust method by employing l2,1 -norm minimization on the loss function to learn effective hash functions, which are then used to map each database point into its hash code. Given a query data point, the search process first maps it into the query hash code by the hash functions and then explores the buckets, which have similar hash codes to the query hash code. Extensive experimental results conducted on real-life datasets show that the proposed RHLM outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of search quality and efficiency.

  16. Radiative transfer in disc galaxies $-$ V. The accuracy of the KB approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dukhang; Seon, Kwang-Il; Camps, Peter; Verstocken, Sam; Han, Wonyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of an approximate radiative transfer technique that was first proposed by Kylafis & Bahcall (hereafter the KB approximation) and has been popular in modelling dusty late-type galaxies. We compare realistic galaxy models calculated with the KB approximation with those of a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The SKIRT code fully takes into account of the contribution of multiple scattering whereas the KB approximation calculates only single scattered intensity and multiple scattering components are approximated. We find that the KB approximation gives fairly accurate results if optically thin, face-on galaxies are considered. However, for highly inclined ($i \\gtrsim 85^{\\circ}$) and/or optically thick (central face-on optical depth $\\gtrsim1$) galaxy models, the approximation can give rise to substantial errors, sometimes, up to $\\gtrsim 40\\%$. Moreover, it is also found that the KB approximation is not always physical, sometimes producing infinite inten...

  17. The code APOLLO. A general description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.

    1971-01-15

    The code APOLLO, written in Saclay at the Service de Physique Mathematique, makes it possible to calculate the space and energy dependent direct or adjoint flux for a one dimensional medium, by the solution of the integral form of the transport equation, in the multigroup approximation. In particular, the properties of a reactor cell and of a group of interacting cells can be obtained with APOLLO. The code can be used in plane, cylindrical or sperical geometries. The fluxes can be calculated with the following approximations: isotropic collision, transprot correction, and linearly anisotropic collision (B{sub 1} method).

  18. Approximate Inference for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten

    This thesis investigates signal processing techniques for wireless communication receivers. The aim is to improve the performance or reduce the computationally complexity of these, where the primary focus area is cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) (and extensions...... complexity can potentially lead to limited power consumption, which translates into longer battery life-time in the handsets. The scope of the thesis is more specifically to investigate approximate (nearoptimal) detection methods that can reduce the computationally complexity significantly compared...... to the optimal one, which usually requires an unacceptable high complexity. Some of the treated approximate methods are based on QL-factorization of the channel matrix. In the work presented in this thesis it is proven how the QL-factorization of frequency-selective channels asymptotically provides the minimum...

  19. Approximate Privacy: Foundations and Quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Schapira, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of computers and networks in business, government, recreation, and almost all aspects of daily life has led to a proliferation of online sensitive data about individuals and organizations. Consequently, concern about the privacy of these data has become a top priority, particularly those data that are created and used in electronic commerce. There have been many formulations of privacy and, unfortunately, many negative results about the feasibility of maintaining privacy of sensitive data in realistic networked environments. We formulate communication-complexity-based definitions, both worst-case and average-case, of a problem's privacy-approximation ratio. We use our definitions to investigate the extent to which approximate privacy is achievable in two standard problems: the second-price Vickrey auction and the millionaires problem of Yao. For both the second-price Vickrey auction and the millionaires problem, we show that not only is perfect privacy impossible or infeasibly costly to achieve...

  20. Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scivetti, I

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  1. Validity of the Eikonal Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kabat, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    We summarize results on the reliability of the eikonal approximation in obtaining the high energy behavior of a two particle forward scattering amplitude. Reliability depends on the spin of the exchanged field. For scalar fields the eikonal fails at eighth order in perturbation theory, when it misses the leading behavior of the exchange-type diagrams. In a vector theory the eikonal gets the exchange diagrams correctly, but fails by ignoring certain non-exchange graphs which dominate the asymp...

  2. Many Faces of Boussinesq Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    The \\emph{equations of Boussinesq approximation} (EBA) for an incompressible and inhomogeneous in density fluid are analyzed from a viewpoint of the asymptotic theory. A systematic scaling shows that there is an infinite number of related asymptotic models. We have divided them into three classes: `poor', `reasonable' and `good' Boussinesq approximations. Each model can be characterized by two parameters $q$ and $k$, where $q =1, 2, 3, \\dots$ and $k=0, \\pm 1, \\pm 2,\\dots$. Parameter $q$ is related to the `quality' of approximation, while $k$ gives us an infinite set of possible scales of velocity, time, viscosity, \\emph{etc.} Increasing $q$ improves the quality of a model, but narrows the limits of its applicability. Parameter $k$ allows us to vary the scales of time, velocity and viscosity and gives us the possibility to consider any initial and boundary conditions. In general, we discover and classify a rich variety of possibilities and restrictions, which are hidden behind the routine use of the Boussinesq...

  3. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  4. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Erdős

    Full Text Available In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007, for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011 and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013. Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes, and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS for counting of all realizations.

  5. Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code (EGCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolader, Glenn E.; Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Batteh, Jad H.; Scanlon, James J., III

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering code that simulates the performance of a railgun/power supply system. The code, named EGCAC (Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code), accounts for many performance degrading effects including viscous drag on the armature, viscous drag on the gas being pushed in front of the projectile, entrained gas that must be accelerated in front of the projectile, time-dependent rail resistance, armature resistance, system resistance, and ablation drag. EGCAC has been utilized to predict railgun performance up to a velocity of approximately 4 km/s for experiments at several laboratories. In this paper, the theory of EGCAC is described, and sample calculations are presented.

  6. A Fast Fractal Image Compression Coding Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fast algorithms for reducing encoding complexity of fractal image coding have recently been an important research topic. Search of the best matched domain block is the most computation intensive part of the fractal encoding process. In this paper, a fast fractal approximation coding scheme implemented on a personal computer based on matching in range block's neighbours is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is very simple in implementation, fast in encoding time and high in compression ratio while PSNR is almost the same as compared with Barnsley's fractal block coding .

  7. Rateless Coding for MIMO Block Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yijia; Erkip, Elza; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the performance limits and design principles of rateless codes over fading channels are studied. The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is used to analyze the system performance for all possible transmission rates. It is revealed from the analysis that the design of such rateless codes follows the design principle of approximately universal codes for parallel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, in which each sub-channel is a MIMO channel. More specifically, it is shown that for a single-input single-output (SISO) channel, the previously developed permutation codes of unit length for parallel channels having rate LR can be transformed directly into rateless codes of length L having multiple rate levels (R, 2R, . . ., LR), to achieve the DMT performance limit.

  8. Performance evaluation of MPEG internet video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiajia; Wang, Ronggang; Fan, Kui; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ge; Wang, Wenmin

    2016-09-01

    Internet Video Coding (IVC) has been developed in MPEG by combining well-known existing technology elements and new coding tools with royalty-free declarations. In June 2015, IVC project was approved as ISO/IEC 14496-33 (MPEG- 4 Internet Video Coding). It is believed that this standard can be highly beneficial for video services in the Internet domain. This paper evaluates the objective and subjective performances of IVC by comparing it against Web Video Coding (WVC), Video Coding for Browsers (VCB) and AVC High Profile. Experimental results show that IVC's compression performance is approximately equal to that of the AVC High Profile for typical operational settings, both for streaming and low-delay applications, and is better than WVC and VCB.

  9. Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao

    2012-01-01

    In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.

  10. Embedded wavelet video coding with error concealment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pao-Chi; Chen, Hsiao-Ching; Lu, Ta-Te

    2000-04-01

    We present an error-concealed embedded wavelet (ECEW) video coding system for transmission over Internet or wireless networks. This system consists of two types of frames: intra (I) frames and inter, or predicted (P), frames. Inter frames are constructed by the residual frames formed by variable block-size multiresolution motion estimation (MRME). Motion vectors are compressed by arithmetic coding. The image data of intra frames and residual frames are coded by error-resilient embedded zerotree wavelet (ER-EZW) coding. The ER-EZW coding partitions the wavelet coefficients into several groups and each group is coded independently. Therefore, the error propagation effect resulting from an error is only confined in a group. In EZW coding any single error may result in a totally undecodable bitstream. To further reduce the error damage, we use the error concealment at the decoding end. In intra frames, the erroneous wavelet coefficients are replaced by neighbors. In inter frames, erroneous blocks of wavelet coefficients are replaced by data from the previous frame. Simulations show that the performance of ECEW is superior to ECEW without error concealment by 7 to approximately 8 dB at the error-rate of 10-3 in intra frames. The improvement still has 2 to approximately 3 dB at a higher error-rate of 10-2 in inter frames.

  11. Network coding for computing: Linear codes

    CERN Document Server

    Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Karamchandani, Nikhil; Zeger, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In network coding it is known that linear codes are sufficient to achieve the coding capacity in multicast networks and that they are not sufficient in general to achieve the coding capacity in non-multicast networks. In network computing, Rai, Dey, and Shenvi have recently shown that linear codes are not sufficient in general for solvability of multi-receiver networks with scalar linear target functions. We study single receiver networks where the receiver node demands a target function of the source messages. We show that linear codes may provide a computing capacity advantage over routing only when the receiver demands a `linearly-reducible' target function. % Many known target functions including the arithmetic sum, minimum, and maximum are not linearly-reducible. Thus, the use of non-linear codes is essential in order to obtain a computing capacity advantage over routing if the receiver demands a target function that is not linearly-reducible. We also show that if a target function is linearly-reducible,...

  12. Practices in Code Discoverability

    CERN Document Server

    Teuben, Peter; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such ...

  13. Rollout Sampling Approximate Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakakis, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a supervised learning problem. This paper proposes variants of an improved policy iteration scheme which addresses the core sampling problem in evaluating a policy through simulation as a multi-armed bandit machine. The resulting algorithm offers comparable performance to the previous algorithm achieved, however, with significantly less computational effort. An order of magnitude improvement is demonstrated experimentally in two standard reinforcement learning domains: inverted pendulum and mountain-car.

  14. Approximate Deconvolution Reduced Order Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xuping; Wang, Zhu; Iliescu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a large eddy simulation reduced order model(LES-ROM) framework for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. In this LES-ROM framework, the proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) is used to define the ROM basis and a POD differential filter is used to define the large ROM structures. An approximate deconvolution(AD) approach is used to solve the ROM closure problem and develop a new AD-ROM. This AD-ROM is tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient(10^{-3})

  15. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  16. Analytical approximations to the spectra of quark-antiquark potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Lopez, Jorge [Physics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2006-07-15

    A method recently devised to obtain analytical approximations to certain classes of integrals is used in combination with the WKB expansion to derive accurate analytical expressions for the spectrum of quantum potentials. The accuracy of our results is verified by comparing them both with the literature on the subject and with the numerical results obtained with a Fortran code. As an application of the method that we propose, we consider meson spectroscopy with various phenomenological potentials.

  17. Analytical approximations to the spectra of quark antiquark potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; DePace, Arturo; Lopez, Jorge

    2006-07-01

    A method recently devised to obtain analytical approximations to certain classes of integrals is used in combination with the WKB expansion to derive accurate analytical expressions for the spectrum of quantum potentials. The accuracy of our results is verified by comparing them both with the literature on the subject and with the numerical results obtained with a Fortran code. As an application of the method that we propose, we consider meson spectroscopy with various phenomenological potentials.

  18. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  19. Informal Control code logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  20. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.; Bergh, A. van den; Kok, G.

    2001-01-01

    Two key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from refactoring product

  1. Fountain Codes: LT And Raptor Codes Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bazzi, Hiba Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital fountain codes are a new class of random error correcting codes designed for efficient and reliable data delivery over erasure channels such as internet. These codes were developed to provide robustness against erasures in a way that resembles a fountain of water. A digital fountain is rateless in a way that sender can send limitless number of encoded packets. The receiver doesn’t care which packets are received or lost as long as the receiver gets enough packets to recover original data. In this paper, the design of the fountain codes is explored with its implementation of the encoding and decoding algorithm so that the performance in terms of encoding/decoding symbols, reception overhead, data length, and failure probability is studied.

  2. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  3. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  4. The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS). Part II: Approximation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego; Lesgourgues, Julien [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: diego.blas@epfl.ch, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: tram@phys.au.dk [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Boltzmann codes are used extensively by several groups for constraining cosmological parameters with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure data. This activity is computationally expensive, since a typical project requires from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} Boltzmann code executions. The newly released code CLASS (Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System) incorporates improved approximation schemes leading to a simultaneous gain in speed and precision. We describe here the three approximations used by CLASS for basic ΛCDM models, namely: a baryon-photon tight-coupling approximation which can be set to first order, second order or to a compromise between the two; an ultra-relativistic fluid approximation which had not been implemented in public distributions before; and finally a radiation streaming approximation taking reionisation into account.

  5. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  6. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  7. Spike Code Flow in Cultured Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinichi; Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime; Kamimura, Takuya; Yagi, Yasushi; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We observed spike trains produced by one-shot electrical stimulation with 8 × 8 multielectrodes in cultured neuronal networks. Each electrode accepted spikes from several neurons. We extracted the short codes from spike trains and obtained a code spectrum with a nominal time accuracy of 1%. We then constructed code flow maps as movies of the electrode array to observe the code flow of "1101" and "1011," which are typical pseudorandom sequence such as that we often encountered in a literature and our experiments. They seemed to flow from one electrode to the neighboring one and maintained their shape to some extent. To quantify the flow, we calculated the "maximum cross-correlations" among neighboring electrodes, to find the direction of maximum flow of the codes with lengths less than 8. Normalized maximum cross-correlations were almost constant irrespective of code. Furthermore, if the spike trains were shuffled in interval orders or in electrodes, they became significantly small. Thus, the analysis suggested that local codes of approximately constant shape propagated and conveyed information across the network. Hence, the codes can serve as visible and trackable marks of propagating spike waves as well as evaluating information flow in the neuronal network.

  8. High performance word level sequential and parallel coding methods and architectures for bit plane coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG ChengYi; TIAN JinWen; LIU Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced a novel high performance algorithm and VLSI architectures for achieving bit plane coding (BPC) in word level sequential and parallel mode. The proposed BPC algorithm adopts the techniques of coding pass prediction and par-allel & pipeline to reduce the number of accessing memory and to increase the ability of concurrently processing of the system, where all the coefficient bits of a code block could be coded by only one scan. A new parallel bit plane architecture (PA) was proposed to achieve word-level sequential coding. Moreover, an efficient high-speed architecture (HA) was presented to achieve multi-word parallel coding. Compared to the state of the art, the proposed PA could reduce the hardware cost more efficiently, though the throughput retains one coefficient coded per clock. While the proposed HA could perform coding for 4 coefficients belonging to a stripe column at one intra-clock cycle, so that coding for an N×N code-block could be completed in approximate N2/4 intra-clock cycles. Theoretical analysis and ex-perimental results demonstrate that the proposed designs have high throughput rate with good performance in terms of speedup to cost, which can be good alter-natives for low power applications.

  9. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  10. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  11. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  12. Code of Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelstein, Jennifer; Clegg, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms...... for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation...... to understand how management frames expectations of compliance. Our contribution is to articulate the problems inherent in codes of ethics, and we make some recommendations to address these to benefit both an organization and its employees. In this way, we show how a code of ethics can provide a foundation...

  13. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  14. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  15. Serially Concatenated IRA Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Taikun; Belzer, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We address the error floor problem of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes on the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, by constructing a serially concatenated code consisting of two systematic irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) component codes connected by an interleaver. The interleaver is designed to prevent stopping-set error events in one of the IRA codes from propagating into stopping set events of the other code. Simulations with two 128-bit rate 0.707 IRA component codes show that the proposed architecture achieves a much lower error floor at higher SNRs, compared to a 16384-bit rate 1/2 IRA code, but incurs an SNR penalty of about 2 dB at low to medium SNRs. Experiments indicate that the SNR penalty can be reduced at larger blocklengths.

  16. Analytical approximations for spiral waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löber, Jakob, E-mail: jakob@physik.tu-berlin.de; Engel, Harald [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, EW 7-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R{sub 0}. For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R{sub +}) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R{sub +} with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.

  17. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C

    2010-01-01

    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  18. Approximate reduction of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tabuada, Paulo; Julius, Agung; Pappas, George J

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of dynamical systems has a rich history, with many important applications related to stability, control and verification. Reduction of nonlinear systems is typically performed in an exact manner - as is the case with mechanical systems with symmetry--which, unfortunately, limits the type of systems to which it can be applied. The goal of this paper is to consider a more general form of reduction, termed approximate reduction, in order to extend the class of systems that can be reduced. Using notions related to incremental stability, we give conditions on when a dynamical system can be projected to a lower dimensional space while providing hard bounds on the induced errors, i.e., when it is behaviorally similar to a dynamical system on a lower dimensional space. These concepts are illustrated on a series of examples.

  19. Approximation by double Walsh polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Móricz

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the rate of approximation by rectangular partial sums, Cesàro means, and de la Vallée Poussin means of double Walsh-Fourier series of a function in a homogeneous Banach space X. In particular, X may be Lp(I2, where 1≦p<∞ and I2=[0,1×[0,1, or CW(I2, the latter being the collection of uniformly W-continuous functions on I2. We extend the results by Watari, Fine, Yano, Jastrebova, Bljumin, Esfahanizadeh and Siddiqi from univariate to multivariate cases. As by-products, we deduce sufficient conditions for convergence in Lp(I2-norm and uniform convergence on I2 as well as characterizations of Lipschitz classes of functions. At the end, we raise three problems.

  20. Diophantine approximations and Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M

    1991-01-01

    "This book by a leading researcher and masterly expositor of the subject studies diophantine approximations to algebraic numbers and their applications to diophantine equations. The methods are classical, and the results stressed can be obtained without much background in algebraic geometry. In particular, Thue equations, norm form equations and S-unit equations, with emphasis on recent explicit bounds on the number of solutions, are included. The book will be useful for graduate students and researchers." (L'Enseignement Mathematique) "The rich Bibliography includes more than hundred references. The book is easy to read, it may be a useful piece of reading not only for experts but for students as well." Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum

  1. On quantum and approximate privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Klauck, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies privacy in communication complexity. The focus is on quantum versions of the model and on protocols with only approximate privacy against honest players. We show that the privacy loss (the minimum divulged information) in computing a function can be decreased exponentially by using quantum protocols, while the class of privately computable functions (i.e., those with privacy loss 0) is not increased by quantum protocols. Quantum communication combined with small information leakage on the other hand makes certain functions computable (almost) privately which are not computable using quantum communication without leakage or using classical communication with leakage. We also give an example of an exponential reduction of the communication complexity of a function by allowing a privacy loss of o(1) instead of privacy loss 0.

  2. Approximate analytic solutions to the NPDD: Short exposure approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Ciara E.; Sheridan, John T.

    2014-04-01

    There have been many attempts to accurately describe the photochemical processes that take places in photopolymer materials. As the models have become more accurate, solving them has become more numerically intensive and more 'opaque'. Recent models incorporate the major photochemical reactions taking place as well as the diffusion effects resulting from the photo-polymerisation process, and have accurately described these processes in a number of different materials. It is our aim to develop accessible mathematical expressions which provide physical insights and simple quantitative predictions of practical value to material designers and users. In this paper, starting with the Non-Local Photo-Polymerisation Driven Diffusion (NPDD) model coupled integro-differential equations, we first simplify these equations and validate the accuracy of the resulting approximate model. This new set of governing equations are then used to produce accurate analytic solutions (polynomials) describing the evolution of the monomer and polymer concentrations, and the grating refractive index modulation, in the case of short low intensity sinusoidal exposures. The physical significance of the results and their consequences for holographic data storage (HDS) are then discussed.

  3. Benchmark study between FIDAP and a cellular automata code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akau, R. L.; Stockman, H. W.

    A fluid flow benchmark exercise was conducted to compare results between a cellular automata code and FIDAP. Cellular automata codes are free from gridding constraints, and are generally used to model slow (Reynolds number approximately 1) flows around complex solid obstacles. However, the accuracy of cellular automata codes at higher Reynolds numbers, where inertial terms are significant, is not well-documented. In order to validate the cellular automata code, two fluids problems were investigated. For both problems, flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, isothermal, incompressible and periodic. Results showed that the cellular automata code simulated the overall behavior of the flow field.

  4. Randomized approximate nearest neighbors algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter Wilcox; Osipov, Andrei; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    2011-09-20

    We present a randomized algorithm for the approximate nearest neighbor problem in d-dimensional Euclidean space. Given N points {x(j)} in R(d), the algorithm attempts to find k nearest neighbors for each of x(j), where k is a user-specified integer parameter. The algorithm is iterative, and its running time requirements are proportional to T·N·(d·(log d) + k·(d + log k)·(log N)) + N·k(2)·(d + log k), with T the number of iterations performed. The memory requirements of the procedure are of the order N·(d + k). A by-product of the scheme is a data structure, permitting a rapid search for the k nearest neighbors among {x(j)} for an arbitrary point x ∈ R(d). The cost of each such query is proportional to T·(d·(log d) + log(N/k)·k·(d + log k)), and the memory requirements for the requisite data structure are of the order N·(d + k) + T·(d + N). The algorithm utilizes random rotations and a basic divide-and-conquer scheme, followed by a local graph search. We analyze the scheme's behavior for certain types of distributions of {x(j)} and illustrate its performance via several numerical examples.

  5. On Polynomial Remainder Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Polynomial remainder codes are a large class of codes derived from the Chinese remainder theorem that includes Reed-Solomon codes as a special case. In this paper, we revisit these codes and study them more carefully than in previous work. We explicitly allow the code symbols to be polynomials of different degrees, which leads to two different notions of weight and distance. Algebraic decoding is studied in detail. If the moduli are not irreducible, the notion of an error locator polynomial is replaced by an error factor polynomial. We then obtain a collection of gcd-based decoding algorithms, some of which are not quite standard even when specialized to Reed-Solomon codes.

  6. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  7. Approximation of DAC Codeword Distribution for Equiprobable Binary Sources along Proper Decoding Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Distributed Arithmetic Coding (DAC) is an effective implementation of Slepian-Wolf coding, especially for short data blocks. To research its properties, the concept of DAC codeword distribution along proper and wrong decoding paths has been introduced. For DAC codeword distribution of equiprobable binary sources along proper decoding paths, the problem was formatted as solving a system of functional equations. However, up to now, only one closed form was obtained at rate 0.5, while in general cases, to find the closed form of DAC codeword distribution still remains a very difficult task. This paper proposes three kinds of approximation methods for DAC codeword distribution of equiprobable binary sources along proper decoding paths: numeric approximation, polynomial approximation, and Gaussian approximation. Firstly, as a general approach, a numeric method is iterated to find the approximation to DAC codeword distribution. Secondly, at rates lower than 0.5, DAC codeword distribution can be well approximated by...

  8. Industrial Computer Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  9. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  10. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  11. Rapid Prototyping of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Discrete Cosine Transform Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Fox

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for the rapid design of field programmable gate array (FPGA-based discrete cosine transform (DCT approximations is presented that can be used to control the coding gain, mean square error (MSE, quantization noise, hardware cost, and power consumption by optimizing the coefficient values and datapath wordlengths. Previous DCT design methods can only control the quality of the DCT approximation and estimates of the hardware cost by optimizing the coefficient values. It is shown that it is possible to rapidly prototype FPGA-based DCT approximations with near optimal coding gains that satisfy the MSE, hardware cost, quantization noise, and power consumption specifications.

  12. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  13. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  14. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  15. A Modified Vertex—Based Shape Coding Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石旭利; 张兆扬

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a modified shape coding algorthm called modified vertex-based shape coding(MVBSC) to encode the boundary of a visual object compactly by using a modified polygonal approximation approach which uses modified curvature scale space (CSS) theory to extract feature0points.

  16. Probability Quantization for Multiplication-Free Binary Arithmetic Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. -M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to improve on Witten's binary arithmetic coding procedure of tracking a high value and a low value. The new method approximates the probability of the less probable symbol, which improves the worst-case coding efficiency.

  17. Obtaining exact value by approximate computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-zhong ZHANG; Yong FENG

    2007-01-01

    Numerical approximate computations can solve large and complex problems fast. They have the advantage of high efficiency. However they only give approximate results, whereas we need exact results in some fields. There is a gap between approximate computations and exact results.In this paper, we build a bridge by which exact results can be obtained by numerical approximate computations.

  18. Fuzzy Set Approximations in Fuzzy Formal Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingwen Shao; Shiqing Fan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of multi-level formal concept is introduced. Based on the proposed multi-level formal concept, we present a pair of rough fuzzy set approximations within fuzzy formal contexts. By the proposed rough fuzzy set approximations, we can approximate a fuzzy set according to different precision level. We discuss the properties of the proposed approximation operators in detail.

  19. Obtaining exact value by approximate computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Numerical approximate computations can solve large and complex problems fast.They have the advantage of high efficiency.However they only give approximate results,whereas we need exact results in some fields.There is a gap between approximate computations and exact results. In this paper,we build a bridge by which exact results can be obtained by numerical approximate computations.

  20. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  1. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  2. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  3. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  4. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...

  5. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alex

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  6. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  7. Image coding with geometric wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Dror; Averbuch, Amir; Dekel, Shai

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new and efficient method for low bit-rate image coding which is based on recent development in the theory of multivariate nonlinear piecewise polynomial approximation. It combines a binary space partition scheme with geometric wavelet (GW) tree approximation so as to efficiently capture curve singularities and provide a sparse representation of the image. The GW method successfully competes with state-of-the-art wavelet methods such as the EZW, SPIHT, and EBCOT algorithms. We report a gain of about 0.4 dB over the SPIHT and EBCOT algorithms at the bit-rate 0.0625 bits-per-pixels (bpp). It also outperforms other recent methods that are based on "sparse geometric representation." For example, we report a gain of 0.27 dB over the Bandelets algorithm at 0.1 bpp. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, its time complexity can be significantely reduced by collecting a "global" GW n-term approximation to the image from a collection of GW trees, each constructed separately over tiles of the image.

  8. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Berriman, Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J; Mink, Jessica; Teuben, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  9. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  10. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic......Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  11. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  12. Combustion chamber analysis code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-05-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  13. Sparsity in Linear Predictive Coding of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele

    of the effectiveness of their application in audio processing. The second part of the thesis deals with introducing sparsity directly in the linear prediction analysis-by-synthesis (LPAS) speech coding paradigm. We first propose a novel near-optimal method to look for a sparse approximate excitation using a compressed...... sensing formulation. Furthermore, we define a novel re-estimation procedure to adapt the predictor coefficients to the given sparse excitation, balancing the two representations in the context of speech coding. Finally, the advantages of the compact parametric representation of a segment of speech, given...

  14. Logical error rate in the Pauli twirling approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabarwa, Amara; Geller, Michael R

    2015-09-30

    The performance of error correction protocols are necessary for understanding the operation of potential quantum computers, but this requires physical error models that can be simulated efficiently with classical computers. The Gottesmann-Knill theorem guarantees a class of such error models. Of these, one of the simplest is the Pauli twirling approximation (PTA), which is obtained by twirling an arbitrary completely positive error channel over the Pauli basis, resulting in a Pauli channel. In this work, we test the PTA's accuracy at predicting the logical error rate by simulating the 5-qubit code using a 9-qubit circuit with realistic decoherence and unitary gate errors. We find evidence for good agreement with exact simulation, with the PTA overestimating the logical error rate by a factor of 2 to 3. Our results suggest that the PTA is a reliable predictor of the logical error rate, at least for low-distance codes.

  15. APPROXIMATE SAMPLING THEOREM FOR BIVARIATE CONTINUOUS FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守志; 程正兴; 唐远炎

    2003-01-01

    An approximate solution of the refinement equation was given by its mask, and the approximate sampling theorem for bivariate continuous function was proved by applying the approximate solution. The approximate sampling function defined uniquely by the mask of the refinement equation is the approximate solution of the equation, a piece-wise linear function, and posseses an explicit computation formula. Therefore the mask of the refinement equation is selected according to one' s requirement, so that one may controll the decay speed of the approximate sampling function.

  16. Bernstein-type approximations of smooth functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pallini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bernstein-type approximation for smooth functions is proposed and studied. We propose the Bernstein-type approximation with definitions that directly apply the binomial distribution and the multivariate binomial distribution. The Bernstein-type approximations generalize the corresponding Bernstein polynomials, by considering definitions that depend on a convenient approximation coefficient in linear kernels. In the Bernstein-type approximations, we study the uniform convergence and the degree of approximation. The Bernstein-type estimators of smooth functions of population means are also proposed and studied.

  17. Application of RS Codes in Decoding QR Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Suxia(朱素霞); Ji Zhenzhou; Cao Zhiyan

    2003-01-01

    The QR Code is a 2-dimensional matrix code with high error correction capability. It employs RS codes to generate error correction codewords in encoding and recover errors and damages in decoding. This paper presents several QR Code's virtues, analyzes RS decoding algorithm and gives a software flow chart of decoding the QR Code with RS decoding algorithm.

  18. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...

  19. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity in the net...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof.......Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...

  20. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  1. Embedded foveation image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  2. Dynamical Opacity-Sampling Models of Mira Variables. I: Modelling Description and Analysis of Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, M J; Wood, P R

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Cool Opacity-sampling Dynamic EXtended (CODEX) atmosphere models of Mira variable stars, and examine in detail the physical and numerical approximations that go in to the model creation. The CODEX atmospheric models are obtained by computing the temperature and the chemical and radiative states of the atmospheric layers, assuming gas pressure and velocity profiles from Mira pulsation models, which extend from near the H-burning shell to the outer layers of the atmosphere. Although the code uses the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and a grey approximation in the dynamical atmosphere code, many key observable quantities, such as infrared diameters and low-resolution spectra, are predicted robustly in spite of these approximations. We show that in visible light, radiation from Mira variables is dominated by fluorescence scattering processes, and that the LTE approximation likely under-predicts visible-band fluxes by a factor of two.

  3. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  4. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  5. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  6. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  7. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Arteaga, D.

    2007-06-25

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)

  8. Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morel, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.

  9. Modified approximate 8-point multiplier less DCT like transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Pande

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT is widely usedtransformation for compression in image and video standardslike H.264 or MPEGv4, JPEG etc. Currently the new standarddeveloped Codec is Highly Efficient Video Coding (HEVC orH.265. With the help of the transformation matrix the computational cost can be dynamically reduce. This paper proposesa novel approach of multiplier-less modified approximate DCT like transformalgorithm and also comparison with exact DCT algorithm and theapproximate DCT like transform. This proposed algorithm willhave lower computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposedalgorithm will be modular in approach, and suitable for pipelinedVLSI implementation.

  10. Some relations between entropy and approximation numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志明

    1999-01-01

    A general result is obtained which relates the entropy numbers of compact maps on Hilbert space to its approximation numbers. Compared with previous works in this area, it is particularly convenient for dealing with the cases where the approximation numbers decay rapidly. A nice estimation between entropy and approximation numbers for noncompact maps is given.

  11. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benyin Fu

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable discrete metric space. Moreover, we use the techniques of Ozawa’s to prove that a fine hyperbolic graph has the metric invariant translation approximation property.

  12. NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION WITH GENERAL WAVE PACKETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Borup; M. Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a complete characterization of the approximation spaces is derived.

  13. Applications of Discrepancy Theory in Multiobjective Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Glaßer, Christian; Witek, Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    We apply a multi-color extension of the Beck-Fiala theorem to show that the multiobjective maximum traveling salesman problem is randomized 1/2-approximable on directed graphs and randomized 2/3-approximable on undirected graphs. Using the same technique we show that the multiobjective maximum satisfiablilty problem is 1/2-approximable.

  14. Advanced Concepts and Methods of Approximate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka, editors, Approximate Reasoning and...190, 1981. [43] E. Trillas and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka

  15. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries, I: Direct estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    $-term approximation with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space...

  16. Nonlinear approximation with bi-framelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten; Gribonval, Rémi

    2005-01-01

    We study the approximation in Lebesgue spaces of wavelet bi-frame systems given by translations and dilations of a finite set of generators. A complete characterization of the approximation spaces associated with best m-term approximation of wavelet bi-framelet systems is given. The characterizat...

  17. Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.

  18. Fractal Trigonometric Polynomials for Restricted Range Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, A. K. B.; Navascués, M. A.; Viswanathan, P.; Katiyar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    One-sided approximation tackles the problem of approximation of a prescribed function by simple traditional functions such as polynomials or trigonometric functions that lie completely above or below it. In this paper, we use the concept of fractal interpolation function (FIF), precisely of fractal trigonometric polynomials, to construct one-sided uniform approximants for some classes of continuous functions.

  19. Approximate Nearest Neighbor Queries among Parallel Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Malamatos, Theocharis; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We develop a data structure for answering efficiently approximate nearest neighbor queries over a set of parallel segments in three dimensions. We connect this problem to approximate nearest neighbor searching under weight constraints and approximate nearest neighbor searching on historical data...

  20. Radiative transfer in disc galaxies - V. The accuracy of the KB approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dukhang; Baes, Maarten; Seon, Kwang-Il; Camps, Peter; Verstocken, Sam; Han, Wonyong

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the accuracy of an approximate radiative transfer technique that was first proposed by Kylafis & Bahcall (hereafter the KB approximation) and has been popular in modelling dusty late-type galaxies. We compare realistic galaxy models calculated with the KB approximation with those of a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The SKIRT code fully takes into account of the contribution of multiple scattering whereas the KB approximation calculates only single scattered intensity and multiple scattering components are approximated. We find that the KB approximation gives fairly accurate results if optically thin, face-on galaxies are considered. However, for highly inclined (i ≳ 85°) and/or optically thick (central face-on optical depth ≳1) galaxy models, the approximation can give rise to substantial errors, sometimes, up to ≳40 per cent. Moreover, it is also found that the KB approximation is not always physical, sometimes producing infinite intensities at lines of sight with high optical depth in edge-on galaxy models. There is no `simple recipe' to correct the errors of the KB approximation that is universally applicable to any galaxy models. Therefore, it is recommended that the full radiative transfer calculation be used, even though it is slower than the KB approximation.

  1. Convergence and Rate Analysis of Neural Networks for Sparse Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Balavoine, Aurèle; Rozell, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Locally Competitive Algorithm (LCA), a Hopfield-style neural network that solves sparse approximation problems (e.g., approximating a vector from a dictionary using just a few non-zero coefficients). This class of problems plays a significant role in both theories of neural coding and applications in signal processing, but traditional analysis approaches are difficult because the objective functions are non-smooth. Specifically, we characterize the convergence properties of this system by showing that the LCA is globally convergent to a fixed point corresponding to the exact solution of the objective function, and (under some mild conditions) this solution is reached in finite time. Furthermore, we characterize the convergence rate of the system by showing that the LCA converges exponentially fast with an analytically bounded convergence rate (that depends on the specifics of a given problem). We support our analysis with several illustrative simulations.

  2. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  3. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  4. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  5. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  6. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  7. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  8. Annotated Raptor Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mahdaviani, Kaveh; Tellambura, Chintha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extension of raptor codes is introduced which keeps all the desirable properties of raptor codes, including the linear complexity of encoding and decoding per information bit, unchanged. The new design, however, improves the performance in terms of the reception rate. Our simulations show a 10% reduction in the needed overhead at the benchmark block length of 64,520 bits and with the same complexity per information bit.

  9. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, L. J.; Ross, A.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, (d , N) or (N , d) , including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of A(d , N) B or B(N , d) A. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of Ed =10-70 MeV, and provides cross sections with 4% accuracy.

  10. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, L J; Nunes, F M

    2016-01-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, $(d,N)$ or $(N,d)$, including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of $A(d,N)B$ or $B(N,d)A$. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of $E_d=10-70$ MeV, and provides cross sections with $4\\%$ accuracy.

  11. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  12. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  13. Resonant-state expansion Born Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B

    2015-01-01

    The Born Approximation is a fundamental formula in Physics, it allows the calculation of weak scattering via the Fourier transform of the scattering potential. I extend the Born Approximation by including in the formula the Fourier transform of a truncated basis of the infinite number of appropriately normalised resonant states. This extension of the Born Approximation is named the Resonant-State Expansion Born Approximation or RSE Born Approximation. The resonant-states of the system can be calculated using the recently discovered RSE perturbation theory for electrodynamics and normalised correctly to appear in spectral Green's functions via the flux volume normalisation.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation Code CANS+: Assessments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Yosuke; Kudoh, Yuki; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Jin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R; Minoshima, Takashi; Zenitani, Seiji; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    We present a new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation code with the aim of providing accurate numerical solutions to astrophysical phenomena where discontinuities, shock waves, and turbulence are inherently important. The code implements the HLLD approximate Riemann solver, the fifth-order-monotonicity-preserving interpolation scheme, and the hyperbolic divergence cleaning method for a magnetic field. This choice of schemes significantly improved numerical accuracy and stability, and saved computational costs in multidimensional problems. Numerical tests of one- and two-dimensional problems showed the advantages of using the high-order scheme by comparing with results from a standard second-order TVD scheme. The present code enabled us to explore long-term evolution of a three-dimensional global accretion disk, in which compressible MHD turbulence saturated at much higher levels via the magneto-rotational instability than that given by the second-order scheme owing to the adoption of the high-resolution, nume...

  15. Axially symmetric pseudo-Newtonian hydrodynamics code

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jinho; Choptuik, Matthew William; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2012-01-01

    We develop a numerical hydrodynamics code using a pseudo-Newtonian formulation that uses the weak field approximation for the geometry, and a generalized source term for the Poisson equation that takes into account relativistic effects. The code was designed to treat moderately relativistic systems such as rapidly rotating neutron stars. The hydrodynamic equations are solved using a finite volume method with High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) techniques. We implement several different slope limiters for second order reconstruction schemes and also investigate higher order reconstructions. We use the method of lines (MoL) to convert the mixed spatial-time partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that depend only on time. These ODEs are solved using 2nd and 3rd order Runge-Kutta methods. The Poisson equation for the gravitational potential is solved with a multigrid method. In order to confirm the validity of our code, we carry out four different tests including one and two...

  16. GAPCON-THERMAL-3 code description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Mohr, C.L.; Panisko, F.E.; Stewart, K.B.

    1978-01-01

    GAPCON-3 is a computer program that predicts the thermal and mechanical behavior of an operating fuel rod during its normal lifetime. The code calculates temperatures, dimensions, stresses, and strains for the fuel and the cladding in both the radial and axial directions for each step of the user specified power history. The method of weighted residuals is for the steady state temperature calculation, and is combined with a finite difference approximation of the time derivative for transient conditions. The stress strain analysis employs an iterative axisymmetric finite element procedure that includes plasticity and creep for normal and pellet-clad mechanical interaction loads. GAPCON-3 can solve steady state and operational transient problems. Comparisons of GAPCON-3 predictions to both closed form analytical solutions and actual inpile instrumented fuel rod data have demonstrated the ability of the code to calculate fuel rod behavior. GAPCON-3 features a restart capability and an associated plot package unavailable in previous GAPCON series codes.

  17. Canonical Sets of Best L1-Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Dryanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mathematics, the term approximation usually means either interpolation on a point set or approximation with respect to a given distance. There is a concept, which joins the two approaches together, and this is the concept of characterization of the best approximants via interpolation. It turns out that for some large classes of functions the best approximants with respect to a certain distance can be constructed by interpolation on a point set that does not depend on the choice of the function to be approximated. Such point sets are called canonical sets of best approximation. The present paper summarizes results on canonical sets of best L1-approximation with emphasis on multivariate interpolation and best L1-approximation by blending functions. The best L1-approximants are characterized as transfinite interpolants on canonical sets. The notion of a Haar-Chebyshev system in the multivariate case is discussed also. In this context, it is shown that some multivariate interpolation spaces share properties of univariate Haar-Chebyshev systems. We study also the problem of best one-sided multivariate L1-approximation by sums of univariate functions. Explicit constructions of best one-sided L1-approximants give rise to well-known and new inequalities.

  18. An Approximate Approach to Automatic Kernel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lizhong; Liao, Shizhong

    2016-02-02

    Kernel selection is a fundamental problem of kernel-based learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose an approximate approach to automatic kernel selection for regression from the perspective of kernel matrix approximation. We first introduce multilevel circulant matrices into automatic kernel selection, and develop two approximate kernel selection algorithms by exploiting the computational virtues of multilevel circulant matrices. The complexity of the proposed algorithms is quasi-linear in the number of data points. Then, we prove an approximation error bound to measure the effect of the approximation in kernel matrices by multilevel circulant matrices on the hypothesis and further show that the approximate hypothesis produced with multilevel circulant matrices converges to the accurate hypothesis produced with kernel matrices. Experimental evaluations on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of approximate kernel selection.

  19. On Gakerkin approximations for the quasigeostrophic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Cesar B; Grooms, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We study the representation of approximate solutions of the three-dimensional quasigeostrophic (QG) equations using Galerkin series with standard vertical modes. In particular, we show that standard modes are compatible with nonzero buoyancy at the surfaces and can be used to solve the Eady problem. We extend two existing Galerkin approaches (A and B) and develop a new Galerkin approximation (C). Approximation A, due to Flierl (1978), represents the streamfunction as a truncated Galerkin series and defines the potential vorticity (PV) that satisfies the inversion problem exactly. Approximation B, due to Tulloch and Smith (2009b), represents the PV as a truncated Galerkin series and calculates the streamfunction that satisfies the inversion problem exactly. Approximation C, the true Galerkin approximation for the QG equations, represents both streamfunction and PV as truncated Galerkin series, but does not satisfy the inversion equation exactly. The three approximations are fundamentally different unless the b...

  20. Mapping moveout approximations in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey

    2013-11-21

    Moveout approximations play a very important role in seismic modeling, inversion, and scanning for parameters in complex media. We developed a scheme to map one-way moveout approximations for transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI), which is widely available, to the tilted case (TTI) by introducing the effective tilt angle. As a result, we obtained highly accurate TTI moveout equations analogous with their VTI counterparts. Our analysis showed that the most accurate approximation is obtained from the mapping of generalized approximation. The new moveout approximations allow for, as the examples demonstrate, accurate description of moveout in the TTI case even for vertical heterogeneity. The proposed moveout approximations can be easily used for inversion in a layered TTI medium because the parameters of these approximations explicitly depend on corresponding effective parameters in a layered VTI medium.

  1. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... that are subcodes of the binary Reed-Muller codes and can be very simply instrumented, 3) a new class of constacyclic codes that are subcodes of thep-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 4) two new classes of binary convolutional codes with large "free distance" derived from known binary cyclic codes, 5) two new classes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm....

  2. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...

  3. Analysis of the optimality of the standard genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Balaji; Saini, Supreet

    2016-07-19

    Many theories have been proposed attempting to explain the origin of the genetic code. While strong reasons remain to believe that the genetic code evolved as a frozen accident, at least for the first few amino acids, other theories remain viable. In this work, we test the optimality of the standard genetic code against approximately 17 million genetic codes, and locate 29 which outperform the standard genetic code at the following three criteria: (a) robustness to point mutation; (b) robustness to frameshift mutation; and (c) ability to encode additional information in the coding region. We use a genetic algorithm to generate and score codes from different parts of the associated landscape, which are, as a result, presumably more representative of the entire landscape. Our results show that while the genetic code is sub-optimal for robustness to frameshift mutation and the ability to encode additional information in the coding region, it is very strongly selected for robustness to point mutation. This coupled with the observation that the different performance indicator scores for a particular genetic code are negatively correlated makes the standard genetic code nearly optimal for the three criteria tested in this work.

  4. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  5. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  6. A construction of quantum turbo product codes based on CSS-type quantum convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hailin; Ni, Ju; Xie, Wu; Ouyang, Shan

    As in classical coding theory, turbo product codes (TPCs) through serially concatenated block codes can achieve approximatively Shannon capacity limit and have low decoding complexity. However, special requirements in the quantum setting severely limit the structures of turbo product codes (QTPCs). To design a good structure for QTPCs, we present a new construction of QTPCs with the interleaved serial concatenation of CSS(L1,L2)-type quantum convolutional codes (QCCs). First, CSS(L1,L2)-type QCCs are proposed by exploiting the theory of CSS-type quantum stabilizer codes and QCCs, and the description and the analysis of encoder circuit are greatly simplified in the form of Hadamard gates and C-NOT gates. Second, the interleaved coded matrix of QTPCs is derived by quantum permutation SWAP gate definition. Finally, we prove the corresponding relation on the minimum Hamming distance of QTPCs associated with classical TPCs, and describe the state diagram of encoder and decoder of QTPCs that have a highly regular structure and simple design idea.

  7. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  8. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  9. Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I shield, and the effects of the aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could

  10. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  11. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  12. Golden Coded Multiple Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    The Golden Code is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with two transmit and two receive antennas. Since four information symbols taken from an M-QAM constellation are selected to construct one Golden Code codeword, a maximum likelihood decoder using sphere decoding has the worst-case complexity of O(M^4), when the Channel State Information (CSI) is available at the receiver. Previously, this worst-case complexity was reduced to O(M^(2.5)) without performance degradation. When the CSI is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ singular value decomposition are commonly used in MIMO systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel. Whereas this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. However, uncoded multiple beamforming can achieve the full div...

  13. Coded source neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  14. Coded source neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  15. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  16. Frankenstein's Glue: Transition functions for approximate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, N

    2006-01-01

    Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and proof that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the...

  17. Improving biconnectivity approximation via local optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ka Wong Chong; Tak Wah Lam [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    The problem of finding the minimum biconnected spanning subgraph of an undirected graph is NP-hard. A lot of effort has been made to find biconnected spanning subgraphs that approximate to the minimum one as close as possible. Recently, new polynomial-time (sequential) approximation algorithms have been devised to improve the approximation factor from 2 to 5/3 , then 3/2, while NC algorithms have also been known to achieve 7/4 + {epsilon}. This paper presents a new technique which can be used to further improve parallel approximation factors to 5/3 + {epsilon}. In the sequential context, the technique reveals an algorithm with a factor of {alpha} + 1/5, where a is the approximation factor of any 2-edge connectivity approximation algorithm.

  18. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC, whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF. When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers – about seven milliseconds – whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  19. Recent improvements in efficiency, accuracy, and convergence for implicit approximate factorization algorithms. [computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, T. H.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978, general purpose centrally space differenced implicit finite difference codes in two and three dimensions have been introduced. These codes, now called ARC2D and ARC3D, can run either in inviscid or viscous mode for steady or unsteady flow. Since the introduction of the ARC2D and ARC3D codes, overall computational efficiency could be improved by making use of a number of algorithmic changes. These changes are related to the use of a spatially varying time step, the use of a sequence of mesh refinements to establish approximate solutions, implementation of various ways to reduce inversion work, improved numerical dissipation terms, and more implicit treatment of terms. The present investigation has the objective to describe the considered improvements and to quantify advantages and disadvantages. It is found that using established and simple procedures, a computer code can be maintained which is competitive with specialized codes.

  20. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  1. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  2. Approximately liner phase IIR digital filter banks

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Ćertić; M. D. Lutovac; L. D. Milić

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM) are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with li...

  3. Metric Diophantine approximation on homogeneous varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Anish; Nevo, Amos

    2012-01-01

    We develop the metric theory of Diophantine approximation on homogeneous varieties of semisimple algebraic groups and prove results analogous to the classical Khinchin and Jarnik theorems. In full generality our results establish simultaneous Diophantine approximation with respect to several completions, and Diophantine approximation over general number fields using S-algebraic integers. In several important examples, the metric results we obtain are optimal. The proof uses quantitative equidistribution properties of suitable averaging operators, which are derived from spectral bounds in automorphic representations.

  4. Floating-Point $L^2$-Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Brisebarre, Nicolas; Hanrot, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Computing good polynomial approximations to usual functions is an important topic for the computer evaluation of those functions. These approximations can be good under several criteria, the most desirable being probably that the relative error is as small as possible in the $L^{\\infty}$ sense, i.e. everywhere on the interval under study. In the present paper, we investigate a simpler criterion, the $L^2$ case. Though finding a best polynomial $L^2$-approximation with ...

  5. MHD Generation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  6. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  7. Adjoint code generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  8. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  9. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  10. Optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting with the help of QR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    A novel optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting is proposed with the help of quick response (QR) code. In the encryption process, the original image to be encoded is firstly transformed into the corresponding QR code, and then the corresponding QR code is encoded into two phase-only masks (POMs) by using basic vector operations. Finally, the absolute values of the real or imaginary parts of the two POMs are chosen as the ciphertexts. In decryption process, the QR code can be approximately restored by recording the intensity of the subtraction between the ciphertexts, and hence the original image can be retrieved without any quality loss by scanning the restored QR code with a smartphone. Simulation results and actual smartphone collected results show that the method is feasible and has strong tolerance to noise, phase difference and ratio between intensities of the two decryption light beams.

  11. A Note on Generalized Approximation Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Bhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a notion of generalized approximation property, which we refer to as --AP possessed by a Banach space , corresponding to an arbitrary Banach sequence space and a convex subset of , the class of bounded linear operators on . This property includes approximation property studied by Grothendieck, -approximation property considered by Sinha and Karn and Delgado et al., and also approximation property studied by Lissitsin et al. We characterize a Banach space having --AP with the help of -compact operators, -nuclear operators, and quasi--nuclear operators. A particular case for ( has also been characterized.

  12. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  13. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  14. A minimum-error, energy-constrained neural code is an instantaneous-rate code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik C; Jones, Douglas L; Ratnam, Rama

    2016-04-01

    Sensory neurons code information about stimuli in their sequence of action potentials (spikes). Intuitively, the spikes should represent stimuli with high fidelity. However, generating and propagating spikes is a metabolically expensive process. It is therefore likely that neural codes have been selected to balance energy expenditure against encoding error. Our recently proposed optimal, energy-constrained neural coder (Jones et al. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 9, 61 2015) postulates that neurons time spikes to minimize the trade-off between stimulus reconstruction error and expended energy by adjusting the spike threshold using a simple dynamic threshold. Here, we show that this proposed coding scheme is related to existing coding schemes, such as rate and temporal codes. We derive an instantaneous rate coder and show that the spike-rate depends on the signal and its derivative. In the limit of high spike rates the spike train maximizes fidelity given an energy constraint (average spike-rate), and the predicted interspike intervals are identical to those generated by our existing optimal coding neuron. The instantaneous rate coder is shown to closely match the spike-rates recorded from P-type primary afferents in weakly electric fish. In particular, the coder is a predictor of the peristimulus time histogram (PSTH). When tested against in vitro cortical pyramidal neuron recordings, the instantaneous spike-rate approximates DC step inputs, matching both the average spike-rate and the time-to-first-spike (a simple temporal code). Overall, the instantaneous rate coder relates optimal, energy-constrained encoding to the concepts of rate-coding and temporal-coding, suggesting a possible unifying principle of neural encoding of sensory signals.

  15. Edge-preserving Intra Depth Coding based on Context-coding and H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Depth map coding plays a crucial role in 3D Video communication systems based on the “Multi-view Video plus Depth” representation as view synthesis performance is strongly affected by the accuracy of depth information, especially at edges in the depth map image. In this paper an efficient algorithm...... each approximated by a flat surface. Edge information is encoded by means of contextcoding with an adaptive template. As a novel element, the proposed method allows exploiting the edge structure of previously encoded edge macroblocks during the context-coding step to further increase compression...

  16. New code match strategy for wideband code division multiple access code tree management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor channelization codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. A new code match scheme for WCDMA code tree management was proposed. The code match scheme is similar to the existing crowed-first scheme. When choosing a code for a user, the code match scheme only compares the one up layer of the allocated codes, unlike the crowed-first scheme which perhaps compares all up layers. So the operation of code match scheme is simple, and the average time delay is decreased by 5.1%. The simulation results also show that the code match strategy can decrease the average code blocking probability by 8.4%.

  17. Reed-Solomon convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will introduce a specific class of cyclic convolutional codes. The construction is based on Reed-Solomon block codes. The algebraic parameters as well as the distance of these codes are determined. This shows that some of these codes are optimal or near optimal.

  18. Function Approximation Using Probabilistic Fuzzy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van den Berg (Jan); U. Kaymak (Uzay); R.J. Almeida e Santos Nogueira (Rui Jorge)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe consider function approximation by fuzzy systems. Fuzzy systems are typically used for approximating deterministic functions, in which the stochastic uncertainty is ignored. We propose probabilistic fuzzy systems in which the probabilistic nature of uncertainty is taken into account.

  19. Approximation of the Inverse -Frame Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Abdollahpour; A Najati

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of (strong) projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we like using finite-dimensional linear algebra.

  20. INVARIANT RANDOM APPROXIMATION IN NONCONVEX DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shrivastava

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Random fixed point results in the setup of compact and weakly compact domain of Banach spaces which is not necessary starshaped have been obtained in the present work. Invariant random approximation results have also been determined asits application. In this way, random version of invariant approximation results due toMukherjee and Som [13] and Singh [17] have been given.

  1. Quirks of Stirling's Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Stirling's approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy…

  2. Random Attractors of Stochastic Modified Boussinesq Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春晓

    2011-01-01

    The Boussinesq approximation is a reasonable model to describe processes in body interior in planetary physics. We refer to [1] and [2] for a derivation of the Boussinesq approximation, and [3] for some related results of existence and uniqueness of solution.

  3. Approximating a harmonizable isotropic random field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall J. Swift

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of harmonizable fields is a natural extension of the class of stationary fields. This paper considers a stochastic series approximation of a harmonizable isotropic random field. This approximation is useful for numerical simulation of such a field.

  4. Lifetime of the Nonlinear Geometric Optics Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Knud Andreas

    The subject of the thesis is to study acertain approximation method for highly oscillatory solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations.......The subject of the thesis is to study acertain approximation method for highly oscillatory solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations....

  5. On approximating multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized app

  6. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries I. Direct estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied, respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space, and we prove...

  7. A case where BO Approximation breaks down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Bom-Oppenheimer (BO)Approximation is ubiquitous in molecular physics,quantum physics and quantum chemistry. However, CAS researchers recently observed a breakdown of the Approximation in the reaction of fluorine with deuterium atoms.The result has been published in the August 24 issue of Science.

  8. Regression with Sparse Approximations of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noorzad, Pardis; Sturm, Bob L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose sparse approximation weighted regression (SPARROW), a method for local estimation of the regression function that uses sparse approximation with a dictionary of measurements. SPARROW estimates the regression function at a point with a linear combination of a few regressands selected by...

  9. Two Point Pade Approximants and Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of two point Pade approximants to find expressions valid uniformly in coupling constant for theories with both weak and strong coupling expansions. In particular, one can use these approximants in models with a strong/weak duality, when the symmetries do not determine exact expressions for some quantity.

  10. Computing Functions by Approximating the Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-01-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…

  11. Inversion and approximation of Laplace transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of inverting Laplace transforms by using a set of orthonormal functions is reported. As a byproduct of the inversion, approximation of complicated Laplace transforms by a transform with a series of simple poles along the left half plane real axis is shown. The inversion and approximation process is simple enough to be put on a programmable hand calculator.

  12. Approximability and Parameterized Complexity of Minmax Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro;

    2008-01-01

    We consider approximating the minmax value of a multi player game in strategic form. Tightening recent bounds by Borgs et al., we observe that approximating the value with a precision of ε log n digits (for any constant ε > 0) is NP-hard, where n is the size of the game. On the other hand...

  13. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  14. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  15. Ptolemy Coding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Laboratory (NRL #N0013-12-1-015), and the following companies: Denso, National Instruments, and Toyota ). Ptolemy Coding Style ∗ Christopher Brooks1, Edward A...Instruments, and Toyota ). 1As reported on September 3, 2014 by https://www.openhub.net/p/12005/factoids 1 In addition, OpenHub.net indicates that the

  16. Polar Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3. POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL- ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...of this problem. 1.1. The Charge-2 Rocket The Charge-2 payload was launched on a Black Brant VB from White Sands Mis- sile Range in New Mexico in

  17. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  18. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  19. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  20. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and compositi

  1. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...

  2. Approximating maximum clique with a Hopfield network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, A

    1995-01-01

    In a graph, a clique is a set of vertices such that every pair is connected by an edge. MAX-CLIQUE is the optimization problem of finding the largest clique in a given graph and is NP-hard, even to approximate well. Several real-world and theory problems can be modeled as MAX-CLIQUE. In this paper, we efficiently approximate MAX-CLIQUE in a special case of the Hopfield network whose stable states are maximal cliques. We present several energy-descent optimizing dynamics; both discrete (deterministic and stochastic) and continuous. One of these emulates, as special cases, two well-known greedy algorithms for approximating MAX-CLIQUE. We report on detailed empirical comparisons on random graphs and on harder ones. Mean-field annealing, an efficient approximation to simulated annealing, and a stochastic dynamics are the narrow but clear winners. All dynamics approximate much better than one which emulates a "naive" greedy heuristic.

  3. Approximate Furthest Neighbor in High Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco; Sivertsen, Johan von Tangen;

    2015-01-01

    Much recent work has been devoted to approximate nearest neighbor queries. Motivated by applications in recommender systems, we consider approximate furthest neighbor (AFN) queries. We present a simple, fast, and highly practical data structure for answering AFN queries in high-dimensional Euclid......Much recent work has been devoted to approximate nearest neighbor queries. Motivated by applications in recommender systems, we consider approximate furthest neighbor (AFN) queries. We present a simple, fast, and highly practical data structure for answering AFN queries in high......-dimensional Euclidean space. We build on the technique of Indyk (SODA 2003), storing random projections to provide sublinear query time for AFN. However, we introduce a different query algorithm, improving on Indyk’s approximation factor and reducing the running time by a logarithmic factor. We also present a variation...

  4. A systematic sequence of relativistic approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Kenneth G

    2002-06-01

    An approach to the development of a systematic sequence of relativistic approximations is reviewed. The approach depends on the atomically localized nature of relativistic effects, and is based on the normalized elimination of the small component in the matrix modified Dirac equation. Errors in the approximations are assessed relative to four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations or other reference points. Projection onto the positive energy states of the isolated atoms provides an approximation in which the energy-dependent parts of the matrices can be evaluated in separate atomic calculations and implemented in terms of two sets of contraction coefficients. The errors in this approximation are extremely small, of the order of 0.001 pm in bond lengths and tens of microhartrees in absolute energies. From this approximation it is possible to partition the atoms into relativistic and nonrelativistic groups and to treat the latter with the standard operators of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. This partitioning is shared with the relativistic effective core potential approximation. For atoms in the second period, errors in the approximation are of the order of a few hundredths of a picometer in bond lengths and less than 1 kJ mol(-1) in dissociation energies; for atoms in the third period, errors are a few tenths of a picometer and a few kilojoule/mole, respectively. A third approximation for scalar relativistic effects replaces the relativistic two-electron integrals with the nonrelativistic integrals evaluated with the atomic Foldy-Wouthuysen coefficients as contraction coefficients. It is similar to the Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation, and is accurate to about 0.1 pm and a few tenths of a kilojoule/mole. The integrals in all the approximations are no more complicated than the integrals in the full relativistic methods, and their derivatives are correspondingly easy to formulate and evaluate.

  5. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  6. New generalizations of cosmography inspired by the Pade approximant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ya-Nan; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Wei, Hao [Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, De-Zi [Peking University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    The current accelerated expansion of the universe has been one of the most important fields in physics and astronomy since 1998. Many cosmological models have been proposed in the literature to explain this mysterious phenomenon. Since the nature and cause of the cosmic acceleration are still unknown, model-independent approaches to study the evolution of the universe are welcome. One of the powerful model-independent approaches is the so-called cosmography. It only relies on the cosmological principle, without postulating any underlying theoretical model. However, there are several shortcomings in the usual cosmography. For instance, it is plagued with the problem of divergence (or an unacceptably large error), and it fails to predict the future evolution of the universe. In the present work, we try to overcome or at least alleviate these problems, and we propose two new generalizations of cosmography inspired by the Pade approximant. One is to directly parameterize the luminosity distance based on the Pade approximant, while the other is to generalize cosmography with respect to a so-called y{sub β}-shift y{sub β} =z/(1 + βz), which is also inspired by the Pade approximant. Then we confront them with the observational data with the help of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) code emcee, and find that they work fairly well. (orig.)

  7. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...

  8. Source-channel optimized trellis codes for bitonal image transmission over AWGN channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J M; Phamdo, N

    1999-01-01

    We consider the design of trellis codes for transmission of binary images over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. We first model the image as a binary asymmetric Markov source (BAMS) and then design source-channel optimized (SCO) trellis codes for the BAMS and AWGN channel. The SCO codes are shown to be superior to Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 1.1 dB (64-state code, 10(-5) bit error probability), We also show that a simple "mapping conversion" method can be used to improve the performance of Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 0.4 dB (also 64-state code and 10 (-5) bit error probability). We compare the proposed SCO system with a traditional tandem system consisting of a Huffman code, a convolutional code, an interleaver, and an Ungerboeck trellis code. The SCO system significantly outperforms the tandem system. Finally, using a facsimile image, we compare the image quality of an SCO code, an Ungerboeck code, and the tandem code, The SCO code yields the best reconstructed image quality at 4-5 dB channel SNR.

  9. A new spherically symmetric general relativistic hydrodynamical code

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, J V; Martí, J M; Miralles, J A; Romero, Jose V; Ibanez, Jose M; Marti, Jose M; Miralles, Juan A

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a full general relativistic one-dimensional hydro-code which incorporates a modern high-resolution shock-capturing algorithm, with an approximate Riemann solver, for the correct modelling of formation and propagation of strong shocks. The efficiency of this code in treating strong shocks is demonstrated by some numerical experiments. The interest of this technique in several astrophysical scenarios is discussed.

  10. Frankenstein's glue: transition functions for approximate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás

    2007-09-01

    Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate analytic solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and prove that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations analytically to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the proposed conditions, then the joined solution does not contain any violations to the Einstein equations larger than those already inherent in the approximations. We further show that if these functions violate the proposed conditions, then the matter content of the spacetime is modified by the introduction of a matter shell, whose stress energy tensor depends on derivatives of these functions.

  11. Entanglement in the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Izmaylov, Artur F

    2016-01-01

    The role of electron-nuclear entanglement on the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is investigated. While nonadiabatic couplings generally lead to entanglement and to a failure of the BO approximation, surprisingly the degree of electron-nuclear entanglement is found to be uncorrelated with the degree of validity of the BO approximation. This is because while the degree of entanglement of BO states is determined by their deviation from the corresponding states in the crude BO approximation, the accuracy of the BO approximation is dictated, instead, by the deviation of the BO states from the exact electron-nuclear states. In fact, in the context of a minimal avoided crossing model, extreme cases are identified where an adequate BO state is seen to be maximally entangled, and where the BO approximation fails but the associated BO state remains approximately unentangled. Further, the BO states are found to not preserve the entanglement properties of the exact electron-nuclear eigenstates, and t...

  12. Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Huiru; Don; Hadwin

    2005-01-01

    One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).

  13. Orthorhombic rational approximants for decagonal quasicrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranganathan; Anandh Subramaniam

    2003-10-01

    An important exercise in the study of rational approximants is to derive their metric, especially in relation to the corresponding quasicrystal or the underlying clusters. Kuo’s model has been the widely accepted model to calculate the metric of the decagonal approximants. Using an alternate model, the metric of the approximants and other complex structures with the icosahedral cluster are explained elsewhere. In this work a comparison is made between the two models bringing out their equivalence. Further, using the concept of average lattices, a modified model is proposed.

  14. Approximation of free-discontinuity problems

    CERN Document Server

    Braides, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Functionals involving both volume and surface energies have a number of applications ranging from Computer Vision to Fracture Mechanics. In order to tackle numerical and dynamical problems linked to such functionals many approximations by functionals defined on smooth functions have been proposed (using high-order singular perturbations, finite-difference or non-local energies, etc.) The purpose of this book is to present a global approach to these approximations using the theory of gamma-convergence and of special functions of bounded variation. The book is directed to PhD students and researchers in calculus of variations, interested in approximation problems with possible applications.

  15. Mathematical analysis, approximation theory and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.

  16. DIFFERENCE SCHEMES BASING ON COEFFICIENT APPROXIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Zong-ze; LONG Yong-xing; QU Wen-xiao

    2005-01-01

    In respect of variable coefficient differential equations, the equations of coefficient function approximation were more accurate than the coefficient to be frozen as a constant in every discrete subinterval. Usually, the difference schemes constructed based on Taylor expansion approximation of the solution do not suit the solution with sharp function.Introducing into local bases to be combined with coefficient function approximation, the difference can well depict more complex physical phenomena, for example, boundary layer as well as high oscillatory, with sharp behavior. The numerical test shows the method is more effective than the traditional one.

  17. Approximation of the semi-infinite interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. McD. Mercer

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.

  18. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  19. Decoding Generalized Concatenated Codes Using Interleaved Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Senger, Christian; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Concatenated codes are a code construction consisting of a number of outer codes whose code symbols are protected by an inner code. As outer codes, we assume the most frequently used Reed-Solomon codes; as inner code, we assume some linear block code which can be decoded up to half its minimum distance. Decoding up to half the minimum distance of Generalized Concatenated codes is classically achieved by the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm, which iteratively decodes by first using the inner decoder to get an estimate of the outer code words and then using an outer error/erasure decoder with a varying number of erasures determined by a set of pre-calculated thresholds. In this paper, a modified version of the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm is proposed, which exploits the fact that a number of outer Reed-Solomon codes with average minimum distance d can be grouped into one single Interleaved Reed-Solomon code which can be decoded beyond d/2. This allows to skip a number of decoding iterations on the one...

  20. Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Brian S.

    2004-01-01

    We compare dilute-limit heats of segregation for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent LMTO-based parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation, while the ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of a segregation model driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.

  1. Decoding the productivity code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    .e., to be prepared to initiate improvement. The study shows how the effectiveness of the improvement system depends on the congruent fit between the five elements as well as the bridging coherence between the improvement system and the work system. The bridging coherence depends on how improvements are activated...... approach often ends up with demanding intense employee focus to sustain improvement and engagement. Likewise, a single-minded employee development approach often ends up demanding rationalization to achieve the desired financial results. These ineffective approaches make organizations react like pendulums...... that swing between rationalization and employee development. The productivity code is the lack of alternatives to this ineffective approach. This thesis decodes the productivity code based on the results from a 3-year action research study at a medium-sized manufacturing facility. During the project period...

  2. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  3. Epetra developers coding guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Sexton, Paul Michael

    2003-12-01

    Epetra is a package of classes for the construction and use of serial and distributed parallel linear algebra objects. It is one of the base packages in Trilinos. This document describes guidelines for Epetra coding style. The issues discussed here go beyond correct C++ syntax to address issues that make code more readable and self-consistent. The guidelines presented here are intended to aid current and future development of Epetra specifically. They reflect design decisions that were made in the early development stages of Epetra. Some of the guidelines are contrary to more commonly used conventions, but we choose to continue these practices for the purposes of self-consistency. These guidelines are intended to be complimentary to policies established in the Trilinos Developers Guide.

  4. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  5. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  6. The Hunstad Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, Anders; Capetillo, Christina

    2016-01-01

    With modern technology and levels of prosperity making many of us increasingly self-sufficient, architects Anders Abraham and Christina Capetillo argue that a rural ‘town’ is defined by the level of interactivity within it rather than merely by population figures. In collaboration with curators A...... Annesofie Becker and Martin Christiansen, they have developed the Hunstad Code to offer guidelines for the construction of environments that can encourage the development of relationships between residents even while remaining low-density....

  7. The Liege Oscillation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Scuflaire, R; Théado, S; Bourge, P -O; Miglio, A; Godart, M; Thoul, A; Noels, A

    2007-01-01

    The Liege Oscillation code can be used as a stand-alone program or as a library of subroutines that the user calls from a Fortran main program of his own to compute radial and non-radial adiabatic oscillations of stellar models. We describe the variables and the equations used by the program and the methods used to solve them. A brief account is given of the use and the output of the program.

  8. The Phantom SPH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  9. Approximations of solutions to retarded integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Bahuguna

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a retarded integrodifferential equation and prove existence, uniqueness and convergence of approximate solutions. We also give some examples to illustrate the applications of the abstract results.

  10. Methods of Fourier analysis and approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Different facets of interplay between harmonic analysis and approximation theory are covered in this volume. The topics included are Fourier analysis, function spaces, optimization theory, partial differential equations, and their links to modern developments in the approximation theory. The articles of this collection were originated from two events. The first event took place during the 9th ISAAC Congress in Krakow, Poland, 5th-9th August 2013, at the section “Approximation Theory and Fourier Analysis”. The second event was the conference on Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory in the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona, during 4th-8th November 2013, organized by the editors of this volume. All articles selected to be part of this collection were carefully reviewed.

  11. Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, C. M.

    1986-02-01

    The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. The author summarizes recent developments in two areas in which approximations are important: (1) the quadrupole approximation, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (2) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.

  12. APPROXIMATE DEVELOPMENTS FOR SURFACES OF REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Roxana Buneci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is provide a set of Maple procedures to construct approximate developments of a general surface of revolution generalizing the well-known gore method for sphere

  13. An approximate Expression for Viscosity of Nanosuspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Domostroeva, N G

    2009-01-01

    We consider liquid suspensions with dispersed nanoparticles. Using two-points Pade approximants and combining results of both hydrodynamic and molecular dynamics methods, we obtain the effective viscosity for any diameters of nanoparticles

  14. Asynchronous stochastic approximation with differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymptotic pseudo-trajectory approach to stochastic approximation of Benaïm, Hofbauer and Sorin is extended for asynchronous stochastic approximations with a set-valued mean field. The asynchronicity of the process is incorporated into the mean field to produce convergence results which remain similar to those of an equivalent synchronous process. In addition, this allows many of the restrictive assumptions previously associated with asynchronous stochastic approximation to be removed. The framework is extended for a coupled asynchronous stochastic approximation process with set-valued mean fields. Two-timescales arguments are used here in a similar manner to the original work in this area by Borkar. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated through learning in a Markov decision process.

  15. Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markovsky, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...

  16. On Approximating Four Covering and Packing Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Mary; Berman, Piotr; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Kao, Ming-Yang; 10.1016/j.jcss.2009.01.002

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider approximability issues of the following four problems: triangle packing, full sibling reconstruction, maximum profit coverage and 2-coverage. All of them are generalized or specialized versions of set-cover and have applications in biology ranging from full-sibling reconstructions in wild populations to biomolecular clusterings; however, as this paper shows, their approximability properties differ considerably. Our inapproximability constant for the triangle packing problem improves upon the previous results; this is done by directly transforming the inapproximability gap of Haastad for the problem of maximizing the number of satisfied equations for a set of equations over GF(2) and is interesting in its own right. Our approximability results on the full siblings reconstruction problems answers questions originally posed by Berger-Wolf et al. and our results on the maximum profit coverage problem provides almost matching upper and lower bounds on the approximation ratio, answering a...

  17. Trigonometric Approximations for Some Bessel Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1999-01-01

    Formulas are obtained for approximating the tabulated Bessel functions Jn(x), n = 0–9 in terms of trigonometric functions. These formulas can be easily integrated and differentiated and are convenient for personal computers and pocket calculators.

  18. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Fomel, Sergey

    2012-04-30

    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  19. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  20. Approximations for the Erlang Loss Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif

    1998-01-01

    Theoretically, at least three formulae are needed for arbitrarily good approximates of the Erlang Loss Function. In the paper, for convenience five formulae are presented guaranteeing a relative error <1E-2, and methods are indicated for improving this bound.......Theoretically, at least three formulae are needed for arbitrarily good approximates of the Erlang Loss Function. In the paper, for convenience five formulae are presented guaranteeing a relative error

  1. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-15

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  2. Parallel local approximation MCMC for expensive models

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Patrick; Davis, Andrew; Marzouk, Youssef; Pillai, Natesh; Smith, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Performing Bayesian inference via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) can be exceedingly expensive when posterior evaluations invoke the evaluation of a computationally expensive model, such as a system of partial differential equations. In recent work [Conrad et al. JASA 2015, arXiv:1402.1694] we described a framework for constructing and refining local approximations of such models during an MCMC simulation. These posterior--adapted approximations harness regularity of the model to reduce the c...

  3. Pointwise approximation by elementary complete contractions

    CERN Document Server

    Magajna, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A complete contraction on a C*-algebra A, which preserves all closed two sided ideals J, can be approximated pointwise by elementary complete contractions if and only if the induced map on the tensor product of B with A/J is contractive for every C*-algebra B, ideal J in A and C*-tensor norm on the tensor product. A lifting obstruction for such an approximation is also obtained.

  4. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Automaton for Approximate String Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an intuitionistic fuzzy automaton model for computing the similarity between pairs of strings. The model details the possible edit operations needed to transform any input (observed string into a target (pattern string by providing a membership and non-membership value between them. In the end, an algorithm is given for approximate string matching and the proposed model computes the similarity and dissimilarity between the pair of strings leading to better approximation.

  5. The Actinide Transition Revisited by Gutzwiller Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhu; Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yongxin; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    We revisit the problem of the actinide transition using the Gutzwiller approximation (GA) in combination with the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, we compute the equilibrium volumes of the actinide series and reproduce the abrupt change of density found experimentally near plutonium as a function of the atomic number. We discuss how this behavior relates with the electron correlations in the 5 f states, the lattice structure, and the spin-orbit interaction. Our results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  6. Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, T.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomial plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.

  7. Staying Thermal with Hartree Ensemble Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Salle, M; Vink, Jeroen C

    2000-01-01

    Using Hartree ensemble approximations to compute the real time dynamics of scalar fields in 1+1 dimension, we find that with suitable initial conditions, approximate thermalization is achieved much faster than found in our previous work. At large times, depending on the interaction strength and temperature, the particle distribution slowly changes: the Bose-Einstein distribution of the particle densities develops classical features. We also discuss variations of our method which are numerically more efficient.

  8. Encoding of multi-alphabet sources by binary arithmetic coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Muling; Oka, Takahumi; Kato, Shigeo; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Naoto

    1998-12-01

    In case of encoding a multi-alphabet source, the multi- alphabet symbol sequence can be encoded directly by a multi- alphabet arithmetic encoder, or the sequence can be first converted into several binary sequences and then each binary sequence is encoded by binary arithmetic encoder, such as the L-R arithmetic coder. Arithmetic coding, however, requires arithmetic operations for each symbol and is computationally heavy. In this paper, a binary representation method using Huffman tree is introduced to reduce the number of arithmetic operations, and a new probability approximation for L-R arithmetic coding is further proposed to improve the coding efficiency when the probability of LPS (Least Probable Symbol) is near 0.5. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme has high coding efficacy and can reduce the number of coding symbols.

  9. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  10. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  11. Differential geometry of proteins. Helical approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, A H; Somorjai, R L

    1983-07-25

    We regard a protein molecule as a geometric object, and in a first approximation represent it as a regular parametrized space curve passing through its alpha-carbon atoms (the backbone). In an earlier paper we argued that the regular patterns of secondary structures of proteins (morphons) correspond to geodesics on minimal surfaces. In this paper we discuss methods of recognizing these morphons on space curves that represent the protein backbone conformation. The mathematical tool we employ is the differential geometry of curves and surfaces. We introduce a natural approximation of backbone space curves in terms of helical approximating elements and present a computer algorithm to implement the approximation. Simple recognition criteria are given for the various morphons of proteins. These are incorporated into our helical approximation algorithm, together with more non-local criteria for the recognition of beta-sheet topologies. The method and the algorithm are illustrated with several examples of representative proteins. Generalizations of the helical approximation method are considered and their possible implications for protein energetics are sketched.

  12. Approximate design calculation methods for radiation streaming in shield irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Toshimasa; Hirao, Yoshihiro [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoritsune, Tsutomu

    1997-10-01

    Investigation and assessment are made for approximate design calculation methods of radiation streaming in shield irregularities. Investigation is made for (1) source, (2) definition of streaming radiation components, (3) calculation methods of streaming radiation, (4) streaming formulas for each irregularity, (5) difficulties in application of streaming formulas, etc. Furthermore, investigation is made for simple calculation codes and albedo data. As a result, it is clarified that streaming calculation formulas are not enough to cover various irregularities and their accuracy or application limit is not sufficiently clear. Accurate treatment is not made in the formulas with respect to the radiation behavior for slant incidence, bend part, offset etc., that results in too much safety factors in the design calculation and distrust of the streaming calculation. To overcome the state and improve the accuracy of the design calculation for shield irregularities, it is emphasized to assess existing formulas and develop better formulas based on systematic experimental studies. (author)

  13. Extension of Cherenkov Light LDF Approximation for Yakutsk EAS Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al-Rubaiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of the Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF in extensive air showers (EAS was performed using CORSIKA code for configuration of Yakutsk EAS array at high energy range for different primary particles (p, Fe, and O2 and different zenith angles. Depending on Breit-Wigner function a parameterization of Cherenkov light LDF was reconstructed on the basis of this simulation as a function of primary energy. A comparison of the calculated Cherenkov light LDF with that measured on the Yakutsk EAS array gives the possibility of identification of the particle initiating the shower and determination of its energy in the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum. The extrapolation of approximated Cherenkov light LDF for high energies was obtained for primary proton and iron nuclei.

  14. Neural network design for J function approximation in dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, X

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows that a new type of artificial neural network (ANN) -- the Simultaneous Recurrent Network (SRN) -- can, if properly trained, solve a difficult function approximation problem which conventional ANNs -- either feedforward or Hebbian -- cannot. This problem, the problem of generalized maze navigation, is typical of problems which arise in building true intelligent control systems using neural networks. (Such systems are discussed in the chapter by Werbos in K.Pribram, Brain and Values, Erlbaum 1998.) The paper provides a general review of other types of recurrent networks and alternative training techniques, including a flowchart of the Error Critic training design, arguable the only plausible approach to explain how the brain adapts time-lagged recurrent systems in real-time. The C code of the test is appended. As in the first tests of backprop, the training here was slow, but there are ways to do better after more experience using this type of network.

  15. On the New Generalizations of Cosmography Inspired by Pade Approximant

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ya-Nan; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The current accelerated expansion of the universe has been one of the most important fields in physics and astronomy since 1998. Many cosmological models have been proposed in the literature to explain this mysterious phenomenon. Since the nature and cause of the cosmic acceleration are still unknown, using model-independent approaches to study the evolution of the universe are welcome. One of the powerful model-independent approaches is the so-called cosmography. It only relies on the cosmological principle, without postulating any underlying theoretical model. However, there are several shortcomings in the usual cosmography. In the present work, we try to overcome these problems, and propose two new generalizations of cosmography inspired by Pad\\'e approximant. We also confront them with the latest observational data by the help of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) code emcee, and find that they work fairly well.

  16. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  17. Legendre-Tau approximation for functional differential equations. Part 3: Eigenvalue approximations and uniform stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.

    1984-01-01

    The stability and convergence properties of the Legendre-tau approximation for hereditary differential systems are analyzed. A charactristic equation is derived for the eigenvalues of the resulting approximate system. As a result of this derivation the uniform exponential stability of the solution semigroup is preserved under approximation. It is the key to obtaining the convergence of approximate solutions of the algebraic Riccati equation in trace norm.

  18. Legendre-tau approximation for functional differential equations. III - Eigenvalue approximations and uniform stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.

    1985-01-01

    The stability and convergence properties of the Legendre-tau approximation for hereditary differential systems are analyzed. A characteristic equation is derived for the eigenvalues of the resulting approximate system. As a result of this derivation the uniform exponential stability of the solution semigroup is preserved under approximation. It is the key to obtaining the convergence of approximate solutions of the algebraic Riccati equation in trace norm.

  19. Code flows : Visualizing structural evolution of source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  20. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  1. Gradient-based Kriging approximate model and its application research to optimization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN Ying; XIANG JunHua; ZHANG WeiHua; ZHANG YuLin

    2009-01-01

    In the process of multidisciplinary design optimization, there exits the calculation complexity problem due to frequently calling high fidelity system analysis models. The high fidelity system analysis models can be surrogated by approximate models. The sensitivity analysis and numerical noise filtering can be done easily by coupling approximate models to optimization. Approximate models can reduce the number of executions of the problem's simulation code during optimization, so the solution efficiency of the multidisciplinary design optimization problem can be improved. Most optimization methods are based on gradient. The gradients of the objective and constrain functions are gained easily. The gradient-based Kriging (GBK) approximate model can be constructed by using system response value and its gradients. The gradients can greatly improve prediction precision of system response. The hybrid optimization method is constructed by coupling GBK approximate models to gradient-based optimization methods. An aircraft aerodynamics shape optimization design example indicates that the methods of this paper can achieve good feasibility and validity.

  2. The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli; Delamere, Jennifer; Shippert, Timothy; Cole, Jason; Iacono, Michael; Jin, Zhonghai; Li, Jiangnan; Manners, James; Raisanen, Petri; Rose, Fred; Zhang, Yuanchong; Wilson Michael J.; Rossow, William

    2011-01-01

    The computer codes that calculate the energy budget of solar and thermal radiation in Global Climate Models (GCMs), our most advanced tools for predicting climate change, have to be computationally efficient in order to not impose undue computational burden to climate simulations. By using approximations to gain execution speed, these codes sacrifice accuracy compared to more accurate, but also much slower, alternatives. International efforts to evaluate the approximate schemes have taken place in the past, but they have suffered from the drawback that the accurate standards were not validated themselves for performance. The manuscript summarizes the main results of the first phase of an effort called "Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes" (CIRC) where the cases chosen to evaluate the approximate models are based on observations and where we have ensured that the accurate models perform well when compared to solar and thermal radiation measurements. The effort is endorsed by international organizations such as the GEWEX Radiation Panel and the International Radiation Commission and has a dedicated website (i.e., http://circ.gsfc.nasa.gov) where interested scientists can freely download data and obtain more information about the effort's modus operandi and objectives. In a paper published in the March 2010 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society only a brief overview of CIRC was provided with some sample results. In this paper the analysis of submissions of 11 solar and 13 thermal infrared codes relative to accurate reference calculations obtained by so-called "line-by-line" radiation codes is much more detailed. We demonstrate that, while performance of the approximate codes continues to improve, significant issues still remain to be addressed for satisfactory performance within GCMs. We hope that by identifying and quantifying shortcomings, the paper will help establish performance standards to objectively assess radiation code quality

  3. The path of code linting

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  4. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Standard This standard consists of a family of rate-scaled serial time codes with formats containing up to four coded expressions or words. All time...time code formats is designated A, B, D, E, G, and H. Various combinations of subwords and signal forms make up a time code word. To differentiate...ARE leap years. Additional information can be found at the following USNO web sites. • http://timeanddate.com/ date /leapyear.html • http

  5. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  6. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  7. Tree-fold loop approximation of AMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-05-01

    AMD (antisymmetrized molecular dynamics) is a frame work for describing a wave function of nucleon multi-body system by Slater determinant of Gaussian wave flux, and a theory for integrally describing a wide range of nuclear reactions such as intermittent energy heavy ion reaction, nucleon incident reaction and so forth. The aim of this study is induction on approximation equation of expected value, {nu}, in correlation capable of calculation with time proportional A (exp 3) (or lower), and to make AMD applicable to the heavier system such as Au+Au. As it must be avoided to break characteristics of AMD, it needs not to be anxious only by approximating the {nu}-value. However, in order to give this approximation any meaning, error of this approximation will have to be sufficiently small in comparison with bond energy of atomic nucleus and smaller than 1 MeV/nucleon. As the absolute expected value in correlation may be larger than 50 MeV/nucleon, the approximation is required to have a high accuracy within 2 percent. (G.K.)

  8. Improved code-tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  9. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  10. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  11. On Maximum Lee Distance Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, Tim L.; Svenja Huntemann

    2013-01-01

    Singleton-type upper bounds on the minimum Lee distance of general (not necessarily linear) Lee codes over ℤq are discussed. Two bounds known for linear codes are shown to also hold in the general case, and several new bounds are established. Codes meeting these bounds are investigated and in some cases characterised.

  12. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    2006-01-01

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the earlies

  13. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  14. Memory Code©

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Londoño, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto Memory Code© pertenece al ámbito de las cosmopolíticas del arte contemporáneo porque se ocupa de una relación singular de lo humano (mujer) con lo no-humano (caballo y técnicas)5. Específicamente enmarca el estudio del Binomio Ecuestre: caballo-jinete en el marco de una relación afectiva y de adiestramiento (doma clásica). Dicha relación estuvo compuesta por los siguientes operadores : a) Elementos de con-tacto entre jinete-caballo: espuelas, estribus, fustas b) Sistemas rítmicos ...

  15. MHD Generation Code

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Carboni-Mendez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a c...

  16. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  17. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  18. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  19. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  20. Implementing peridynamics within a molecular dynamics code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew; Plimpton, Steven James; Parks, Michael L.

    2007-12-01

    Peridynamics (PD) is a continuum theory that employs a nonlocal model to describe material properties. In this context, nonlocal means that continuum points separated by a finite distance may exert force upon each other. A meshless method results when PD is discretized with material behavior approximated as a collection of interacting particles. This paper describes how PD can be implemented within a molecular dynamics (MD) framework, and provides details of an efficient implementation. This adds a computational mechanics capability to an MD code, enabling simulations at mesoscopic or even macroscopic length and time scales.

  1. ON CLASSICAL BCH CODES AND QUANTUM BCH CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yajie; Ma Zhi; Zhang Chunyuan

    2009-01-01

    It is a regular way of constructing quantum error-correcting codes via codes with self-orthogonal property, and whether a classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is self-orthogonal can be determined by its designed distance. In this paper, we give the sufficient and necessary condition for arbitrary classical BCH codes with self-orthogonal property through algorithms. We also give a better upper bound of the designed distance of a classical narrow-sense BCH code which contains its Euclidean dual. Besides these, we also give one algorithm to compute the dimension of these codes. The complexity of all algorithms is analyzed. Then the results can be applied to construct a series of quantum BCH codes via the famous CSS constructions.

  2. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  3. On (Partial) Unit Memory Codes Based on Gabidulin Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Antonia; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2011-01-01

    (Partial) Unit Memory ((P)UM) codes provide a powerful possibility to construct convolutional codes based on block codes in order to achieve a high decoding performance. In this contribution, a construction based on Gabidulin codes is considered. This construction requires a modified rank metric, the so-called sum rank metric. For the sum rank metric, the free rank distance, the extended row rank distance and its slope are defined analogous to the extended row distance in Hamming metric. Upper bounds for the free rank distance and the slope of (P)UM codes in the sum rank metric are derived and an explicit construction of (P)UM codes based on Gabidulin codes is given, achieving the upper bound for the free rank distance.

  4. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  5. On the approximate zero of Newton method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正达

    2003-01-01

    A judgment criterion to guarantee a point to be a Chen' s approximate zero of Newton method for solving nonlinear equation is sought by dominating sequence techniques. The criterion is based on the fact that the dominating function may have only one simple positive zero, assuming that the operator is weak Lipschitz continuous, which is much more relaxed and can be checked much more easily than Lipschitz continuous in practice. It is demonstrated that a Chen' s approximate zero may not be a Smale' s approximate zero. The error estimate obtained indicated the convergent order when we use |f(x) | < ε to stop computation in software.The result can also be applied for solving partial derivative and integration equations.

  6. On the approximate zero of Newton method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正达

    2003-01-01

    A judgment criterion to guarantee a point to be a Chen's approximate zero of Newton method for solving nonlinear equation is sought by dominating sequence techniques. The criterion is based on the fact that the dominating function may have only one simple positive zero, assuming that the operator is weak Lipschitz continuous, which is much more relaxed and can be checked much more easily than Lipschitz continuous in practice. It is demonstrated that a Chen's approximate zero may not be a Smale's approximate zero. The error estimate obtained indicated the convergent order when we use |f(x)|<ε to stop computation in software. The result can also be applied for solving partial derivative and integration equations.

  7. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  8. Approximating light rays in the Schwarzschild field

    CERN Document Server

    Semerak, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    A short formula is suggested which approximates photon trajectories in the Schwarzschild field better than other simple prescriptions from the literature. We compare it with various "low-order competitors", namely with those following from exact formulas for small $M$, with one of the results based on pseudo-Newtonian potentials, with a suitably adjusted hyperbola, and with the effective and often employed approximation by Beloborodov. Our main concern is the shape of the photon trajectories at finite radii, yet asymptotic behaviour is also discussed, important for lensing. An example is attached indicating that the newly suggested approximation is usable--and very accurate--for practical solving of the ray-deflection exercise.

  9. Approximation Limits of Linear Programs (Beyond Hierarchies)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Steurer, David

    2012-01-01

    We develop a framework for approximation limits of polynomial-size linear programs from lower bounds on the nonnegative ranks of suitably defined matrices. This framework yields unconditional impossibility results that are applicable to any linear program as opposed to only programs generated by hierarchies. Using our framework, we prove that O(n^{1/2-eps})-approximations for CLIQUE require linear programs of size 2^{n^\\Omega(eps)}. (This lower bound applies to linear programs using a certain encoding of CLIQUE as a linear optimization problem.) Moreover, we establish a similar result for approximations of semidefinite programs by linear programs. Our main ingredient is a quantitative improvement of Razborov's rectangle corruption lemma for the high error regime, which gives strong lower bounds on the nonnegative rank of certain perturbations of the unique disjointness matrix.

  10. On Born approximation in black hole scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batic, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston (Jamaica); Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-12-15

    A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem and Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes. (orig.)

  11. Numerical approximation of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Finite element methods for approximating partial differential equations have reached a high degree of maturity, and are an indispensible tool in science and technology. This textbook aims at providing a thorough introduction to the construction, analysis, and implementation of finite element methods for model problems arising in continuum mechanics. The first part of the book discusses elementary properties of linear partial differential equations along with their basic numerical approximation, the functional-analytical framework for rigorously establishing existence of solutions, and the construction and analysis of basic finite element methods. The second part is devoted to the optimal adaptive approximation of singularities and the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations arising from finite element discretizations. In the third part, the mathematical framework for analyzing and discretizing saddle-point problems is formulated, corresponding finte element methods are analyzed, and particular ...

  12. Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.

  13. An Approximate Bayesian Fundamental Frequency Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2012-01-01

    Joint fundamental frequency and model order estimation is an important problem in several applications such as speech and music processing. In this paper, we develop an approximate estimation algorithm of these quantities using Bayesian inference. The inference about the fundamental frequency...... and the model order is based on a probability model which corresponds to a minimum of prior information. From this probability model, we give the exact posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order, and we also present analytical approximations of these distributions which lower...

  14. Approximate formulas for moderately small eikonal amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisselev, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the eikonal approximation for moderately small scattering amplitudes. To find numerical estimates of these approximations, we derive formulas that contain no Bessel functions and consequently no rapidly oscillating integrands. To obtain these formulas, we study improper integrals of the first kind containing products of the Bessel functions J0(z). We generalize the expression with four functions J0(z) and also find expressions for the integrals with the product of five and six Bessel functions. We generalize a known formula for the improper integral with two functions Jυ (az) to the case with noninteger υ and complex a.

  15. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...

  16. Extending the Eikonal Approximation to Low Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Pierre; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    E-CDCC and DEA, two eikonal-based reaction models are compared to CDCC at low energy (e.g. 20AMeV) to study their behaviour in the regime at which the eikonal approximation is supposed to fail. We confirm that these models lack the Coulomb deflection of the projectile by the target. We show that a hybrid model, built on the CDCC framework at low angular momenta and the eikonal approximation at larger angular momenta gives a perfect agreement with CDCC. An empirical shift in impact parameter can also be used reliably to simulate this missing Coulomb deflection.

  17. Local density approximations from finite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Entwistle, Mike; Wetherell, Jack; Longstaff, Bradley; Ramsden, James; Godby, Rex

    2016-01-01

    The local density approximation (LDA) constructed through quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) is the most common approximation to the exchange-correlation functional in density functional theory. We introduce an alternative set of LDAs constructed from slab-like systems of one, two and three electrons that resemble the HEG within a finite region, and illustrate the concept in one dimension. Comparing with the exact densities and Kohn-Sham potentials for various test systems, we find that the LDAs give a good account of the self-interaction correction, but are less reliable when correlation is stronger or currents flow.

  18. Approximately-Balanced Drilling in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Bairu; Zheng Xiuhua; Li Guoqing; Tian Tuo

    2004-01-01

    The Daqing oilfield is a multilayered heterogeneous oil field where the pressure are different in the same vertical profile causing many troubles to the adjustment well drillings. The approximately-balanced drilling technique has been developed and proved to be efficient and successful in Daqing oilfield. This paper discusses the application of approximately-balanced drilling technique under the condition of multilayered pressure in Daqing oilfield, including the prediction of formation pressure, the pressure discharge technique for the drilling well and the control of the density of drilling fluid.

  19. Generalized companion matrix for approximate GCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We study a variant of the univariate approximate GCD problem, where the coe?- cients of one polynomial f(x)are known exactly, whereas the coe?cients of the second polynomial g(x)may be perturbed. Our approach relies on the properties of the matrix which describes the operator of multiplication by gin the quotient ring C[x]=(f). In particular, the structure of the null space of the multiplication matrix contains all the essential information about GCD(f; g). Moreover, the multiplication matrix exhibits a displacement structure that allows us to design a fast algorithm for approximate GCD computation with quadratic complexity w.r.t. polynomial degrees.

  20. Excluded-Volume Approximation for Supernova Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yudin, A V

    2014-01-01

    A general scheme of the excluded-volume approximation as applied to multicomponent systems with an arbitrary degree of degeneracy has been developed. This scheme also admits an allowance for additional interactions between the components of a system. A specific form of the excluded-volume approximation for investigating supernova matter at subnuclear densities has been found from comparison with the hard-sphere model. The possibility of describing the phase transition to uniform nuclear matter in terms of the formalism under consideration is discussed.

  1. Approximate Controllability of Fractional Integrodifferential Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of approximate controllability for a class of control system which is represented by nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions. By using semigroup theory, p-mean continuity and fractional calculations, a set of sufficient conditions, are formulated and proved for the nonlinear fractional control systems. More precisely, the results are established under the assumption that the corresponding linear system is approximately controllable and functions satisfy non-Lipschitz conditions. The results generalize and improve some known results.

  2. BEST APPROXIMATION BY DOWNWARD SETS WITH APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Mohebi; A. M. Rubinov

    2006-01-01

    We develop a theory of downward sets for a class of normed ordered spaces. We study best approximation in a normed ordered space X by elements of downward sets, and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any element of best approximation by a closed downward subset of X. We also characterize strictly downward subsets of X, and prove that a downward subset of X is strictly downward if and only if each its boundary point is Chebyshev. The results obtained are used for examination of some Chebyshev pairs (W,x), where x ∈ X and W is a closed downward subset of X.

  3. The exact renormalization group and approximation solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, T R

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the structure of Polchinski's formulation of the flow equations for the continuum Wilson effective action. Reinterpretations in terms of I.R. cutoff greens functions are given. A promising non-perturbative approximation scheme is derived by carefully taking the sharp cutoff limit and expanding in `irrelevancy' of operators. We illustrate with two simple models of four dimensional $\\lambda \\varphi^4$ theory: the cactus approximation, and a model incorporating the first irrelevant correction to the renormalized coupling. The qualitative and quantitative behaviour give confidence in a fuller use of this method for obtaining accurate results.

  4. ASPHERICAL SURFACES APPROXIMATION IN AUTOMATED DESIGN OF OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Ivanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problems of higher order aspherical surfaces approximation using different equation types. The objects of research are two types of equations for higher order aspherical surfaces description used in different software for optical systems design (SАRО, OPAL, ZEMAX, CODE-V, etc. and dependent on z-coordinate or on a radial coordinate on the surface. Conversion from one type of equations to another is considered in view of application in different software for optical systems design. Methods. The subject matter of the method lies in usage of mean square method approximation for recalculation of high-order aspherical surface. Iterative algorithm for recalculation is presented giving the possibility to recalculate coefficients for different types of equations with required accuracy. Recommendations are given for choosing recalculation parameters such as the number of result equation coefficients, the number of points for recalculation and point allocation on a surface. Main Results. Example of recalculation for aspherical surface and accuracy estimation, including result aberration comparison between initial surface and recalculated surface are presented. The example has shown that required accuracy of surface representation was obtained. Practical Relevance. This technique is usable for recalculation of higher order aspherical surfaces in various types of software for optical systems design and also for research of optimal higher order aspherical surfaces description.

  5. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  6. Security Embedding Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...

  7. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  8. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  9. Three Paradigms for Mixing Coding and Games: Coding in a Game, Coding as a Game, and Coding for a Game

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Games for teaching coding have been an educational holy grail since at least the early 1980s. Yet for decades, with games more popular than ever and with the need to teach kids coding having been well-recognized, no blockbuster coding games have arisen (see Chapter 2). Over the years, the research community has made various games for teaching computer science: a survey made by shows that most do not teach coding, and of the ones that do teach coding, most are research prototypes (not produc...

  10. Rotated and Scaled Alamouti Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, Frans M J

    2008-01-01

    Repetition-based retransmission is used in Alamouti-modulation [1998] for $2\\times 2$ MIMO systems. We propose to use instead of ordinary repetition so-called "scaled repetition" together with rotation. It is shown that the rotated and scaled Alamouti code has a hard-decision performance which is only slightly worse than that of the Golden code [2005], the best known $2\\times 2$ space-time code. Decoding the Golden code requires an exhaustive search over all codewords, while our rotated and scaled Alamouti code can be decoded with an acceptable complexity however.

  11. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  12. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  13. On constructing disjoint linear codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiguo; CAI Mian; XIAO Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    To produce a highly nonlinear resilient function,the disjoint linear codes were originally proposed by Johansson and Pasalic in IEEE Trans.Inform.Theory,2003,49(2):494-501.In this paper,an effective method for finding a set of such disjoint linear codes is presented.When n≥2k,we can find a set of[n,k] disjoint linear codes with joint linear codes exists with cardinality at least 2.We also describe a result on constructing a set of [n,k] disjoint linear codes with minimum distance at least some fixed positive integer.

  14. Remarks on generalized toric codes

    CERN Document Server

    Little, John B

    2011-01-01

    This note presents some new information on how the minimum distance of the generalized toric code corresponding to a fixed set of integer lattice points S in R^2 varies with the base field. The main results show that in some cases, over sufficiently large fields, the minimum distance of the code corresponding to a set S will be the same as that of the code corresponding to the convex hull of S. In an example, we will also discuss a [49,12,28] generalized toric code over GF(8), better than any previously known code according to M. Grassl's online tables, as of July 2011.

  15. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  16. New Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yousif Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure with zero in-phase cross correlation for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA system is proposed, and called zero vectors combinatorial (ZVC. This code is constructed in a simple algebraic way using Euclidean vectors and combinatorial theories based on the relationship between the number of users N and the weight W. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross correlation (CC is always zero, which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise (PIIN are reduced. Bit error rate (BER performance is compared with previous reported codes. Therefore, theoretically, we demonstrate the performance of ZVC code with the related equations. In addition, the structure of the encoder/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs and the proposed system have been analyzed theoretically by taking into consideration the effects of some noises. The results characterizing BER with respect to the total number of active users show that ZVC code offers a significantly improved performance over previous reported codes by supporting large numbers of users at BER≥ 10-9. A comprehensive simulation study has been carried out using a commercial optical system simulator “VPI™”. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed code managed to reduce the hardware complexity and eventually the cost.

  17. On surface approximation using developable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, s.;

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G(1) surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G(r) NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produce...

  18. On surface approximation using developable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, S.;

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G_1 surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G_r NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produce...

  19. Markov operators, positive semigroups and approximation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Altomare, Francesco; Leonessa, Vita; Rasa, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several investigations have been devoted to the study of large classes of (mainly degenerate) initial-boundary value evolution problems in connection with the possibility to obtain a constructive approximation of the associated positive C_0-semigroups. In this research monograph we present the main lines of a theory which finds its root in the above-mentioned research field.

  20. Approximating the DGP of China's Quarterly GDP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H. Mees (Heleen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe demonstrate that the data generating process (DGP) of China’s cumulated quarterly Gross Domestic Product (GDP, current prices), as it is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, can be (very closely) approximated by a simple rule. This rule is that annual growth in any

  1. Approximate Furthest Neighbor in High Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco; Sivertsen, Johan von Tangen;

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional Euclidean space. We build on the technique of Indyk (SODA 2003), storing random projections to provide sublinear query time for AFN. However, we introduce a different query algorithm, improving on Indyk’s approximation factor and reducing the running time by a logarithmic factor. We also present a variation...

  2. Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We gi

  3. Auction analysis by normal form game approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaisers, Michael; Tuyls, Karl; Thuijsman, Frank; Parsons, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Auctions are pervasive in todaypsilas society and provide a variety of real markets. This article facilitates a strategic choice between a set of available trading strategies by introducing a methodology to approximate heuristic payoff tables by normal form games. An example from the auction domain

  4. Approximation Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Model-based diagnosis is an area of abductive inference that uses a system model, together with observations about system behavior, to isolate sets of faulty components (diagnoses) that explain the observed behavior, according to some minimality criterion. This thesis presents greedy approximation a

  5. An Approximation of Ultra-Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of the initial boundary value problem for ultra-parabolic equations are presented. Stability of these difference schemes is established. Theoretical results are supported by the result of numerical examples.

  6. Approximate Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mazaheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a common element of the set of fixed points of a map and the set of solutions of an approximate equilibrium problem in a Hilbert space. Then, we show that one of the sequences weakly converges. Also we obtain some theorems about equilibrium problems and fixed points.

  7. Approximations in diagnosis: motivations and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Teije, A. ten

    1995-01-01

    We argue that diagnosis should not be seen as solving a problem with a unique definition, but rather that there exists a whole space of reasonable notions of diagnosis. These notions can be seen as mutual approximations. We present a number of reasons for choosing among different notions of diagnos

  8. Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...

  9. Lower Bound Approximation for Elastic Buckling Loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.; Witteveen, J.

    1975-01-01

    An approximate method for the elastic buckling analysis of two-dimensional frames is introduced. The method can conveniently be explained with reference to a physical interpretation: In the frame every member is replaced by two new members: - a flexural member without extensional rigidity to transmi

  10. Eignets for function approximation on manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mhaskar, H N

    2009-01-01

    Let $\\XX$ be a compact, smooth, connected, Riemannian manifold without boundary, $G:\\XX\\times\\XX\\to \\RR$ be a kernel. Analogous to a radial basis function network, an eignet is an expression of the form $\\sum_{j=1}^M a_jG(\\circ,y_j)$, where $a_j\\in\\RR$, $y_j\\in\\XX$, $1\\le j\\le M$. We describe a deterministic, universal algorithm for constructing an eignet for approximating functions in $L^p(\\mu;\\XX)$ for a general class of measures $\\mu$ and kernels $G$. Our algorithm yields linear operators. Using the minimal separation amongst the centers $y_j$ as the cost of approximation, we give modulus of smoothness estimates for the degree of approximation by our eignets, and show by means of a converse theorem that these are the best possible for every \\emph{individual function}. We also give estimates on the coefficients $a_j$ in terms of the norm of the eignet. Finally, we demonstrate that if any sequence of eignets satisfies the optimal estimates for the degree of approximation of a smooth function, measured in ter...

  11. Approximation of Aggregate Losses Using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The modeling of aggregate losses is one of the main objectives in actuarial theory and practice, especially in the process of making important business decisions regarding various aspects of insurance contracts. The aggregate losses over a fixed time period is often modeled by mixing the distributions of loss frequency and severity, whereby the distribution resulted from this approach is called a compound distribution. However, in many cases, realistic probability distributions for loss frequency and severity cannot be combined mathematically to derive the compound distribution of aggregate losses. Approach: This study aimed to approximate the aggregate loss distribution using simulation approach. In particular, the approximation of aggregate losses was based on a compound Poisson-Pareto distribution. The effects of deductible and policy limit on the individual loss as well as the aggregate losses were also investigated. Results: Based on the results, the approximation of compound Poisson-Pareto distribution via simulation approach agreed with the theoretical mean and variance of each of the loss frequency, loss severity and aggregate losses. Conclusion: This study approximated the compound distribution of aggregate losses using simulation approach. The investigation on retained losses and insurance claims allowed an insured or a company to select an insurance contract that fulfills its requirement. In particular, if a company wants to have an additional risk reduction, it can compare alternative policies by considering the worthiness of the additional expected total cost which can be estimated via simulation approach.

  12. Approximations in the PE-method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    1996-01-01

    Two differenct sources of errors may occur in the implementation of the PE methods; a phase error introduced in the approximation of a pseudo-differential operator and an amplitude error generated from the starting field. First, the inherent phase errors introduced in the solution are analyzed...

  13. Nonlinear approximation in alpha-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The α-modulation spaces are a family of spaces that contain the Besov and modulation spaces as special cases. In this paper we prove that brushlet bases can be constructed to form unconditional and even greedy bases for the α-modulation spaces. We study m -term nonlinear approximation with brushlet...

  14. Approximate fixed point of Reich operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we study the existence of approximate fixed pointfor Reich operator together with the property that the ε-fixed points are concentrated in a set with the diameter tends to zero if ε $to$ > 0.

  15. Optical bistability without the rotating wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaby, Yasser A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Joshi, Amitabh, E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.ed [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Hassan, Shoukry S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.co [Mathematics Department, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2010-04-26

    Optical bistability for two-level atomic system in a ring cavity is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA) using non-autonomous Maxwell-Bloch equations with Fourier decomposition up to first harmonic. The first harmonic output field component exhibits reversed or closed loop bistability simultaneously with the usual (anti-clockwise) bistability in the fundamental field component.

  16. Kravchuk functions for the finite oscillator approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1995-01-01

    Kravchuk orthogonal functions - Kravchuk polynomials multiplied by the square root of the weight function - simplify the inversion algorithm for the analysis of discrete, finite signals in harmonic oscillator components. They can be regarded as the best approximation set. As the number of sampling points increases, the Kravchuk expansion becomes the standard oscillator expansion.

  17. Image Compression Via a Fast DCT Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, F. M.; Cintra, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Discrete transforms play an important role in digital signal processing. In particular, due to its transform domain energy compaction properties, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is pivotal in many image processing problems. This paper introduces a numerical approximation method for the DCT based

  18. Improved Approximations for Multiprocessor Scheduling Under Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Crutchfield, Christopher; Fineman, Jeremy T; Karger, David R; Scott, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents improved approximation algorithms for the problem of multiprocessor scheduling under uncertainty, or SUU, in which the execution of each job may fail probabilistically. This problem is motivated by the increasing use of distributed computing to handle large, computationally intensive tasks. In the SUU problem we are given n unit-length jobs and m machines, a directed acyclic graph G of precedence constraints among jobs, and unrelated failure probabilities q_{ij} for each job j when executed on machine i for a single timestep. Our goal is to find a schedule that minimizes the expected makespan, which is the expected time at which all jobs complete. Lin and Rajaraman gave the first approximations for this NP-hard problem for the special cases of independent jobs, precedence constraints forming disjoint chains, and precedence constraints forming trees. In this paper, we present asymptotically better approximation algorithms. In particular, we give an O(loglog min(m,n))-approximation for indep...

  19. Approximation algorithms for planning and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Mark; Dean, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A control system operating in a complex environment will encounter a variety of different situations, with varying amounts of time available to respond to critical events. Ideally, such a control system will do the best possible with the time available. In other words, its responses should approximate those that would result from having unlimited time for computation, where the degree of the approximation depends on the amount of time it actually has. There exist approximation algorithms for a wide variety of problems. Unfortunately, the solution to any reasonably complex control problem will require solving several computationally intensive problems. Algorithms for successive approximation are a subclass of the class of anytime algorithms, algorithms that return answers for any amount of computation time, where the answers improve as more time is allotted. An architecture is described for allocating computation time to a set of anytime algorithms, based on expectations regarding the value of the answers they return. The architecture described is quite general, producing optimal schedules for a set of algorithms under widely varying conditions.

  20. Approximations of Two-Attribute Utility Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    Introduction to Approximation Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966. Faber, G., Uber die interpolatorische Darstellung stetiger Funktionen, Deutsche...Management Review 14 (1972b) 37-50. Keeney, R. L., A decision analysis with multiple objectives: the Mexico City airport, Bell Journal of Economics

  1. Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj [Physik Department T70, James-Franck-Strasse, Techniche Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We study resonant Leptogenesis with two sterile neutrinos with masses M{sub 1} and M{sub 2}, Yukawa couplings Y{sub 1} and Y{sub 2}, and a single active flavor. Specifically, we focus on the strong washout regime, where the decay width dominates the mass splitting of the two sterile neutrinos. We show that one can approximate the effective decay asymmetry by it's late time limit ε = X sin(2 φ)/(X{sup 2}+sin{sup 2}φ), where X=8 π Δ/(vertical stroke Y{sub 1} vertical stroke {sup 2}+ vertical stroke Y{sub 2} vertical stroke {sup 2}), Δ=4(M{sub 1}-M{sub 2})/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}), and φ=arg(Y{sub 2}/Y{sub 1}), and establish criteria for the validity of this approximation. We compare the approximate results with numerical ones, obtained by solving the mixing and oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. We generalize the formula to the case of several active flavors, and demonstrate how it can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry in phenomenological scenarios which are in agreement with the neutrino oscillation data. We find that that using the late time limit is an applicable approximation throughout the phenomenologically viable parameter space.

  2. $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizabalaga, A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the method of $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories. There, two complications arise, namely the violation of Bose symmetry in correlation functions and the gauge dependence. For the latter we argue that the error introduced by the gauge dependent terms is controlled, therefore not invalidating the method.

  3. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal...

  4. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  5. Hybrid diffusion approximation in highly absorbing media and its effects of source approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Tian; Ying Liu; Lijun Wang; Yuhui Zhang; Lifeng Xiao

    2009-01-01

    A modified diffusion approximation model called the hybrid diffusion approximation that can be used for highly absorbing media is investigated.The analytic solution of the hybrid diffusion approximation for reflectance in two-source approximation and steady-state case with extrapolated boundary is obtained.The effects of source approximation on the analytic solution are investigated,and it is validated that two-source approximation in highly absorbing media to describe the optical properties of biological tissue is necessary.Monte Carlo simulation of recovering optical parameters from reflectant data is done with the use of this model.The errors of recovering μa and μ's are smaller than 15% for the reduced albedo between 0.77 and 0.5 with the source-detector separation of 0.4-3 ram.

  6. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  7. PROSA-1: a probabilistic response-surface analysis code. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J. K.; Mueller, C.

    1978-06-01

    Techniques for probabilistic response-surface analysis have been developed to obtain the probability distributions of the consequences of postulated nuclear-reactor accidents. The uncertainties of the consequences are caused by the variability of the system and model input parameters used in the accident analysis. Probability distributions are assigned to the input parameters, and parameter values are systematically chosen from these distributions. These input parameters are then used in deterministic consequence analyses performed by mechanistic accident-analysis codes. The results of these deterministic consequence analyses are used to generate the coefficients for analytical functions that approximate the consequences in terms of the selected input parameters. These approximating functions are used to generate the probability distributions of the consequences with random sampling being used to obtain values for the accident parameters from their distributions. A computer code PROSA has been developed for implementing the probabilistic response-surface technique. Special features of the code generate or treat sensitivities, statistical moments of the input and output variables, regionwise response surfaces, correlated input parameters, and conditional distributions. The code can also be used for calculating important distributions of the input parameters. The use of the code is illustrated in conjunction with the fast-running accident-analysis code SACO to provide probability studies of LMFBR hypothetical core-disruptive accidents. However, the methods and the programming are general and not limited to such applications.

  8. Polynomial approximation and cubature at approximate Fekete and Leja points of the cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with polynomial interpolation, least-square approximation and cubature of functions defined on the rectangular cylinder, $K=D\\times [-1,1]$, with $D$ the unit disk. The nodes used for these processes are the {\\it Approximate Fekete Points} (AFP) and the {\\it Discrete Leja Points} (DLP) extracted from suitable {\\it Weakly Admissible Meshes} (WAMs) of the cylinder. From the analysis of the growth of the Lebesgue constants, approximation and cubature errors, we show that the AFP and the DLP extracted from WAM are good points for polynomial approximation and numerical integration of functions defined on the cylinder.

  9. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  10. Calculation of photon attenuation coefficients of elements and compounds from approximate semi-analytical formulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roteta, M.; Baro, J.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.; Salvat, F.

    1994-07-01

    The FORTRAN 77 code PHOTAC to compute photon attenuation coefficients of elements and compounds is described. The code is based on the semi analytical approximate atomic cross sections proposed by Baro et al. (1994). Photoelectric cross sections for coherent and incoherent scattering and for pair production are obtained as integrals of the corresponding differential cross sections. These integrals are evaluated, to a pre-selected accuracy, by using a 20-point Gauss adaptive integration algorithm. Calculated attenuation coefficients agree with recently compiled databases to within - 1%, in the energy range from 1 keV to 1 GeV. The complete source listing of the program PHOTAC is included. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  12. Approximate input physics for stellar modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pols, O R; Eggleton, P P; Han, Z; Pols, O R; Tout, C A; Eggleton, P P; Han, Z

    1995-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient, yet reasonably accurate, equation of state, which at the moderately low temperatures and high densities found in the interiors of stars less massive than the Sun is substantially more accurate than its predecessor by Eggleton, Faulkner & Flannery. Along with the most recently available values in tabular form of opacities, neutrino loss rates, and nuclear reaction rates for a selection of the most important reactions, this provides a convenient package of input physics for stellar modelling. We briefly discuss a few results obtained with the updated stellar evolution code.

  13. Selection of Code and Interleaver for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The selection of component codes for turbo coding has often been based on the performance at high SNR's. However, we will argue that the selection mainly should be based on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties. Further, we will present a way to construct interleavers...... that significantly improve the performance of the turbo coding scheme at high SNR's, i.e. lowers the error floor...

  14. Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2292...5, June 2008, pp. 525-34. 32 28. A. Macula, et al., “Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008...combinatorial method of bio-memory design and detection that encodes item or process information as numerical sequences represented in DNA. ComDMem is a

  15. Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    When the channel state information is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are commonly used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. Without channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order. Whereas, this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. Full diversity can be restored when channel coding is added, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS =< 1. Moreover, by adding a proper constellation precoder, full diversity can be achieved for both uncoded and coded SVD systems, e.g., Fully Precoded Multiple Beamforming (FPMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Full Precoding (BICMB-FP). Perfect Space-Time Block Code (PSTBC) is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for MIMO systems. Previously, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (P...

  16. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://ascl.net) has on average added 19 new codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available ei...

  17. Coded Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2016-12-01

    Wavefront sensing is an old yet fundamental problem in adaptive optics. Traditional wavefront sensors are limited to time-consuming measurements, complicated and expensive setup, or low theoretically achievable resolution. In this thesis, we introduce an optically encoded and computationally decodable novel approach to the wavefront sensing problem: the Coded Shack-Hartmann. Our proposed Coded Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is inexpensive, easy to fabricate and calibrate, highly sensitive, accurate, and with high resolution. Most importantly, using simple optical flow tracking combined with phase smoothness prior, with the help of modern optimization technique, the computational part is split, efficient, and parallelized, hence real time performance has been achieved on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with high accuracy as well. This is validated by experimental results. We also show how optical flow intensity consistency term can be derived, using rigor scalar diffraction theory with proper approximation. This is the true physical law behind our model. Based on this insight, Coded Shack-Hartmann can be interpreted as an illumination post-modulated wavefront sensor. This offers a new theoretical approach for wavefront sensor design.

  18. Pade approximants of random Stieltjes series

    CERN Document Server

    Marklof, Jens; Wolowski, Lech

    2007-01-01

    We consider the random continued fraction S(t) := 1/(s_1 + t/(s_2 + t/(s_3 + >...))) where the s_n are independent random variables with the same gamma distribution. For every realisation of the sequence, S(t) defines a Stieltjes function. We study the convergence of the finite truncations of the continued fraction or, equivalently, of the diagonal Pade approximants of the function S(t). By using the Dyson--Schmidt method for an equivalent one-dimensional disordered system, and the results of Marklof et al. (2005), we obtain explicit formulae (in terms of modified Bessel functions) for the almost-sure rate of convergence of these approximants, and for the almost-sure distribution of their poles.

  19. Quasi-chemical approximation for polyatomic mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Dávila, M V; Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Ramirez-Pastor, A J

    2016-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures of polyatomic species was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The new theoretical framework is obtained by combining: (i) the exact analytical expression for the partition function of non-interacting mixtures of linear $k$-mers and $l$-mers (species occupying $k$ sites and $l$ sites, respectively) adsorbed in one dimension, and its extension to higher dimensions; and (ii) a generalization of the classical QCA for multicomponent adsorbates and multisite-occupancy adsorption. The process is analyzed through the partial adsorption isotherms corresponding to both species of the mixture. Comparisons with analytical data from Bragg-Williams approximation (BWA) and Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model. Even though a good fitting is obtained from BWA, it is found that QCA provides a more accurate description of the phenomenon of adsorpti...

  20. SOME CONVERSE RESULTS ON ONESIDED APPROXIMATION: JUSTIFICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianli; Zhou Songping

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with best onesided approximation rate in Lp spaces ~En (f)Lp of f ∈ C2π. Although it is clear that the estimate ~En(f)Lp≤C ‖f‖ Lp cannot be correct for all f ∈ Lp2π in case p<∞, the question whether ~En (f)Lp ≤Cω (f, n-1 )Lp or ~En(f)Lp ≤CEn(f)Lp holds for f ∈ C2π remains totally untouched.Therefore it forms a basic problem to justify onesided approximation. The present paper will provide an answer to settle down the basis.

  1. Approximate Lesion Localization in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00357.x

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, automated analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. Border detection is often the first step in this analysis. Methods: In this article, we present an approximate lesion localization method that serves as a preprocessing step for detecting borders in dermoscopy images. In this method, first the black frame around the image is removed using an iterative algorithm. The approximate location of the lesion is then determined using an ensemble of thresholding algorithms. Results: The method is tested on a set of 428 dermoscopy images. The localization error is quantified by a metric that uses dermatologist determined borders as the ground truth. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the method presented here achieves both fast and accurate localization of lesions in dermoscopy images.

  2. An Origami Approximation to the Cosmic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The powerful Lagrangian view of structure formation was essentially introduced to cosmology by Zel'dovich. In the current cosmological paradigm, a dark-matter-sheet 3D manifold, inhabiting 6D position-velocity phase space, was flat (with vanishing velocity) at the big bang. Afterward, gravity stretched and bunched the sheet together in different places, forming a cosmic web when projected to the position coordinates. Here, I explain some properties of an origami approximation, in which the sheet does not stretch or contract (an assumption that is false in general), but is allowed to fold. Even without stretching, the sheet can form an idealized cosmic web, with convex polyhedral voids separated by straight walls and filaments, joined by convex polyhedral nodes. The nodes form in 'polygonal' or 'polyhedral' collapse, somewhat like spherical/ellipsoidal collapse, except incorporating simultaneous filament and wall formation. The origami approximation allows phase-space geometries of nodes, filaments, and walls ...

  3. Improved Approximations for Some Polymer Extension Models

    CERN Document Server

    Petrosyan, Rafayel

    2016-01-01

    We propose approximations for force-extension dependencies for the freely jointed chain (FJC) and worm-like chain (WLC) models as well as for extension-force dependence for the WLC model. Proposed expressions show less than 1% relative error in the useful range of the corresponding variables. These results can be applied for fitting force-extension curves obtained in molecular force spectroscopy experiments. Particularly they can be useful for cases where one has geometries of springs in series and/or in parallel where particular combination of expressions should be used for fitting the data. All approximations have been obtained following the same procedure of determining the asymptotes and then reducing the relative error of that expression by adding an appropriate term obtained from fitting its absolute error.

  4. Approximate gauge symemtry of composite vector bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Mahiko

    2010-06-01

    It can be shown in a solvable field theory model that the couplings of the composite vector mesons made of a fermion pair approach the gauge couplings in the limit of strong binding. Although this phenomenon may appear accidental and special to the vector bosons made of a fermion pair, we extend it to the case of bosons being constituents and find that the same phenomenon occurs in more an intriguing way. The functional formalism not only facilitates computation but also provides us with a better insight into the generating mechanism of approximate gauge symmetry, in particular, how the strong binding and global current conservation conspire to generate such an approximate symmetry. Remarks are made on its possible relevance or irrelevance to electroweak and higher symmetries.

  5. On approximative solutions of multistopping problems

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Andreas; 10.1214/10-AAP747

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider multistopping problems for finite discrete time sequences $X_1,...,X_n$. $m$-stops are allowed and the aim is to maximize the expected value of the best of these $m$ stops. The random variables are neither assumed to be independent not to be identically distributed. The basic assumption is convergence of a related imbedded point process to a continuous time Poisson process in the plane, which serves as a limiting model for the stopping problem. The optimal $m$-stopping curves for this limiting model are determined by differential equations of first order. A general approximation result is established which ensures convergence of the finite discrete time $m$-stopping problem to that in the limit model. This allows the construction of approximative solutions of the discrete time $m$-stopping problem. In detail, the case of i.i.d. sequences with discount and observation costs is discussed and explicit results are obtained.

  6. Regularized Laplacian Estimation and Fast Eigenvector Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Patrick O

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mahoney and Orecchia demonstrated that popular diffusion-based procedures to compute a quick \\emph{approximation} to the first nontrivial eigenvector of a data graph Laplacian \\emph{exactly} solve certain regularized Semi-Definite Programs (SDPs). In this paper, we extend that result by providing a statistical interpretation of their approximation procedure. Our interpretation will be analogous to the manner in which $\\ell_2$-regularized or $\\ell_1$-regularized $\\ell_2$-regression (often called Ridge regression and Lasso regression, respectively) can be interpreted in terms of a Gaussian prior or a Laplace prior, respectively, on the coefficient vector of the regression problem. Our framework will imply that the solutions to the Mahoney-Orecchia regularized SDP can be interpreted as regularized estimates of the pseudoinverse of the graph Laplacian. Conversely, it will imply that the solution to this regularized estimation problem can be computed very quickly by running, e.g., the fast diffusion-base...

  7. Flow past a porous approximate spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasacharya, D.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the creeping flow of an incompressible viscous liquid past a porous approximate spherical shell is considered. The flow in the free fluid region outside the shell and in the cavity region of the shell is governed by the Navier Stokes equation. The flow within the porous annulus region of the shell is governed by Darcy’s Law. The boundary conditions used at the interface are continuity of the normal velocity, continuity of the pressure and Beavers and Joseph slip condition. An exact solution for the problem is obtained. An expression for the drag on the porous approximate spherical shell is obtained. The drag experienced by the shell is evaluated numerically for several values of the parameters governing the flow.

  8. Improved Approximation for Orienting Mixed Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Gamzu, Iftah

    2012-01-01

    An instance of the maximum mixed graph orientation problem consists of a mixed graph and a collection of source-target vertex pairs. The objective is to orient the undirected edges of the graph so as to maximize the number of pairs that admit a directed source-target path. This problem has recently arisen in the study of biological networks, and it also has applications in communication networks. In this paper, we identify an interesting local-to-global orientation property. This property enables us to modify the best known algorithms for maximum mixed graph orientation and some of its special structured instances, due to Elberfeld et al. (CPM '11), and obtain improved approximation ratios. We further proceed by developing an algorithm that achieves an even better approximation guarantee for the general setting of the problem. Finally, we study several well-motivated variants of this orientation problem.

  9. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  10. Numerical and approximate solutions for plume rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Gordon Hall, J.

    Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are compared for turbulent plume rise in a crosswind. The numerical solutions were calculated using the plume rise model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass.19, 585-590), over a wide range of pertinent parameters. Some wind shear and elevated inversion effects are included. The numerical solutions are seen to agree with the approximate solutions over a fairly wide range of the parameters. For the conditions considered in the study, wind shear effects are seen to be quite small. A limited study was made of the penetration of elevated inversions by plumes. The results indicate the adequacy of a simple criterion proposed by Briggs (1969, AEC Critical Review Series, USAEC Division of Technical Information extension, Oak Ridge, Tennesse).

  11. Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliam J. P. de Carpentier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories. Although the trajectories are only approximate, they still capture many of the characteristics of a real projectile in free fall under the influence of an invariant wind, gravitational pull, and terminal velocity, while the required math for these trajectories and planners is still simple enough to efficiently run on almost all modern hardware devices. Together, these properties make the proposed approach particularly useful for real-time applications where accuracy and performance need to be carefully balanced, such as in computer games.

  12. Approximate inverse preconditioners for general sparse matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, E.; Saad, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Preconditioned Krylov subspace methods are often very efficient in solving sparse linear matrices that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. However, for general sparse indifinite matrices, the usual ILU preconditioners fail, often because of the fact that the resulting factors L and U give rise to unstable forward and backward sweeps. In such cases, alternative preconditioners based on approximate inverses may be attractive. We are currently developing a number of such preconditioners based on iterating on each column to get the approximate inverse. For this approach to be efficient, the iteration must be done in sparse mode, i.e., we must use sparse-matrix by sparse-vector type operatoins. We will discuss a few options and compare their performance on standard problems from the Harwell-Boeing collection.

  13. Rough Sets in Approximate Solution Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Sun; Wei Tian; Qing Liu

    2006-01-01

    As a new mathematical theory, Rough sets have been applied to processing imprecise, uncertain and in complete data. It has been fruitful in finite and non-empty set. Rough sets, however, are only served as the theoretic tool to discretize the real function. As far as the real function research is concerned, the research to define rough sets in the real function is infrequent. In this paper, we exploit a new method to extend the rough set in normed linear space, in which we establish a rough set,put forward an upper and lower approximation definition, and make a preliminary research on the property of the rough set. A new tool is provided to study the approximation solutions of differential equation and functional variation in normed linear space. This research is significant in that it extends the application of rough sets to a new field.

  14. Nonlinear analysis approximation theory, optimization and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Many of our daily-life problems can be written in the form of an optimization problem. Therefore, solution methods are needed to solve such problems. Due to the complexity of the problems, it is not always easy to find the exact solution. However, approximate solutions can be found. The theory of the best approximation is applicable in a variety of problems arising in nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. This book highlights interesting aspects of nonlinear analysis and optimization together with many applications in the areas of physical and social sciences including engineering. It is immensely helpful for young graduates and researchers who are pursuing research in this field, as it provides abundant research resources for researchers and post-doctoral fellows. This will be a valuable addition to the library of anyone who works in the field of applied mathematics, economics and engineering.

  15. Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee M; Hratchian, Hrant P

    2015-02-07

    The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.

  16. Subset Selection by Local Convex Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman; Madsen, Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    least squares criterion. We propose an optimization technique for the posed probelm based on a modified version of the Newton-Raphson iterations, combined with a backward elimination type algorithm. THe Newton-Raphson modification concerns iterative approximations to the non-convex cost function....... The efficiency of the method is illustrated by a numerical example with highly correlated explanatory variables for which the commonly used techiques such as forward selection/backward elimination perform poorly....

  17. Local characterisation of approximately finite operator algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the family of nest algebras with $r$ non-zero nest projections is stable, in the sense that an approximate containment of one such algebra within another is close to an exact containment. We use this result to give a local characterisation of limits formed from this family. We then consider quite general regular limit algebras and characterise these algebras using a local condition which reflects the assumed regularity of the system.

  18. Space-Time Approximation with Sparse Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, M; Oeltz, D; Vassilevski, P S

    2005-04-14

    In this article we introduce approximation spaces for parabolic problems which are based on the tensor product construction of a multiscale basis in space and a multiscale basis in time. Proper truncation then leads to so-called space-time sparse grid spaces. For a uniform discretization of the spatial space of dimension d with O(N{sup d}) degrees of freedom, these spaces involve for d > 1 also only O(N{sup d}) degrees of freedom for the discretization of the whole space-time problem. But they provide the same approximation rate as classical space-time Finite Element spaces which need O(N{sup d+1}) degrees of freedoms. This makes these approximation spaces well suited for conventional parabolic and for time-dependent optimization problems. We analyze the approximation properties and the dimension of these sparse grid space-time spaces for general stable multiscale bases. We then restrict ourselves to an interpolatory multiscale basis, i.e. a hierarchical basis. Here, to be able to handle also complicated spatial domains {Omega}, we construct the hierarchical basis from a given spatial Finite Element basis as follows: First we determine coarse grid points recursively over the levels by the coarsening step of the algebraic multigrid method. Then, we derive interpolatory prolongation operators between the respective coarse and fine grid points by a least squares approach. This way we obtain an algebraic hierarchical basis for the spatial domain which we then use in our space-time sparse grid approach. We give numerical results on the convergence rate of the interpolation error of these spaces for various space-time problems with two spatial dimensions. Also implementational issues, data structures and questions of adaptivity are addressed to some extent.

  19. APPROXIMATE OUTPUT REGULATION FOR AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yali DONG; Daizhan CHENG; Huashu QIN

    2003-01-01

    Output regulation for affine nonlinear systems driven by an exogenous signal is investigated in this paper. In the absence of the standard exosystem hypothesis, we assume availability of the instantaneous values of the exogenous signal and its first time-derivative for use in the control law.For affine nonlinear systems, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the solvability of approximate output regulation problem are obtained. The precise form of the control law is presented under some suitable assumptions.

  20. Onsager principle as a tool for approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Doi

    2015-01-01

    Onsager principle is the variational principle proposed by Onsager in his celebrated paper on the reciprocal relation. The principle has been shown to be useful in deriving many evolution equations in soft matter physics. Here the principle is shown to be useful in solving such equations approximately. Two examples are discussed: the diffusion dynamics and gel dynamics. Both examples show that the present method is novel and gives new results which capture the essential dynamics in the system.