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Sample records for approximate analytical solutions

  1. Approximate analytic solutions for singular non-linear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bota, K. B.; Mickens, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Mickens (1981, 1984) has considered analytic techniques for obtaining approximate solutions to one-dimensional nonlinear oscillatory systems x(double-dot) + x = lambda f(x, x/dot/, lambda) where lambda is a small positive parameter and f is a nonlinear polynomial function of its arguments. However, in certain cases there is interest in the analysis of physical systems for which the nonlinear function f(x, x/dot/, lambda) is singular for finite values of x or x(dot). The present investigation is concerned with the use of existing approximate analytic schemes to obtain solutions to singular nonlinear oscillatory differential equations.

  2. Approximate analytical solutions of the baby Skyrme model

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, T. A.; Kopeliovich, V. B.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    In present paper we show that many properties of the baby skyrmions, which have been determined numerically, can be understood in terms of an analytic approximation. In particular, we show that this approximation captures properties of the multiskyrmion solutions (derived numerically) such as their stability towards decay into various channels, and that it is more accurate for the "new baby Skyrme model" which describes anisotropic physical systems in terms of multiskyrmion fields with axial ...

  3. Approximate analytical solutions of the baby Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannidou, T A; Zakrzewski, W J

    2002-01-01

    In present paper we show that many properties of the baby skyrmions, which have been determined numerically, can be understood in terms of an analytic approximation. In particular, we show that this approximation captures properties of the multiskyrmion solutions (derived numerically) such as their stability towards decay into various channels, and that it is more accurate for the "new baby Skyrme model" which describes anisotropic physical systems in terms of multiskyrmion fields with axial symmetry. Some universal characteristics of configurations of this kind are demonstrated, which do not depend on their topological number.

  4. Approximate Analytic Solutions of Transient Nonlinear Heat Conduction with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for generating approximate analytic solutions of transient nonlinear heat conduction problems is presented. It is based on an effective combination of Lie symmetry method, homotopy perturbation method, finite element method, and simulation based error reduction techniques. Implementation of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to determine approximate analytic solutions of real life problems consisting of transient nonlinear heat conduction in semi-infinite bars made of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel. The results from the approximate analytical solutions and the numerical solution are compared indicating good agreement.

  5. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  6. Finding Approximate Analytic Solutions to Differential Equations by Seed Selection Genetic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯进军

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Seed Selection Genetic Programming In Genetic Programming, each tree in population shows an algebraic or surmounting expression, and each algebraic or surmounting expression shows an approximate analytic solution to differential equations.

  7. Approximation analytical solutions for a unified plasma sheath model by double decomposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangJin-Qing

    1998-01-01

    A unified plasma sheath model and its potential equation are proposed.Any higher-order approximation analytical solutions for the unified plasma sheath potential equation are derived by double decomposition method.

  8. An Approximate Analytical Solution of Sloshing Frequencies for a Liquid in Various Shape Aqueducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate analytical solution of sloshing frequencies for a liquid in the various shape aqueducts is formulated by using the Ritz method. The present approximate method is, respectively, applied to find the sloshing frequencies of the liquid in rectangular, trapezoid, oval, circular, U-shaped tanks (aqueducts, and various shape tuned liquid dampers (TLD. The first three antisymmetric and symmetric frequencies by the present approach are within 5% accuracy compared to the other analytical, numerical, and experimental values. The approximate solutions of this paper for the various shape aqueducts are acceptable to the engineering applications.

  9. An Approximate Analytical Solution of Sloshing Frequencies for a Liquid in Various Shape Aqueducts

    OpenAIRE

    Yuchun Li; Zhuang Wang

    2014-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution of sloshing frequencies for a liquid in the various shape aqueducts is formulated by using the Ritz method. The present approximate method is, respectively, applied to find the sloshing frequencies of the liquid in rectangular, trapezoid, oval, circular, U-shaped tanks (aqueducts), and various shape tuned liquid dampers (TLD). The first three antisymmetric and symmetric frequencies by the present approach are within 5% accuracy compared to the other analytic...

  10. Approximate Analytical Solutions for a Class of Laminar Boundary-Layer Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seripah Awang Kechil; Ishak Hashim; Sim Siaw Jiet

    2007-01-01

    A simple and efficient approximate analytical technique is presented to obtain solutions to a class of two-point boundary value similarity problems in fluid mechanics. This technique is based on the decomposition method which yields a general analytic solution in the form of a convergent infinite series with easily computable terms. Comparative study is carried out to show the accuracy and effectiveness of the technique.

  11. Editorial: Special Issue on Analytical and Approximate Solutions for Numerical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailak Journal of Science and Technology

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though methods and algorithms in numerical analysis are not new, they have become increasingly popular with the development of high speed computing capabilities. Indeed, the ready availability of high speed modern digital computers and easy-to-employ powerful software packages has had a major impact on science, engineering education and practice in the recent past. Researchers in the past had to depend on analytical skills to solve significant engineering problems but, nowadays, researchers have access to tremendous amount of computation power under their fingertips, and they mostly require understanding the physical nature of the problem and interpreting the results. For some problems, several approximate analytical solutions already exist for simple cases but finding new solution to complex problems by designing and developing novel techniques and algorithms are indeed a great challenging task to give approximate solutions and sufficient accuracy especially for engineering purposes. In particular, it is frequently assumed that deriving an analytical solution for any problem is simpler than obtaining a numerical solution for the same problem. But in most of the cases relationships between numerical and analytical solutions complexities are exactly opposite to each other. In addition, analytical solutions are limited to relatively simple problems while numerical ones can be obtained for complex realistic situations. Indeed, analytical solutions are very useful for testing (benchmarking numerical codes and for understanding principal physical controls of complex processes that are modeled numerically. During the recent past, in order to overcome some numerical difficulties a variety of numerical approaches were introduced, such as the finite difference methods (FDM, the finite element methods (FEM, and other alternative methods. Numerical methods typically include material on such topics as computer precision, root finding techniques, solving

  12. Analytical approximate solution of the cooling problem by Adomian decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Sedighi, Kurosh; Farhadi, Mousa; Ebrahimi-Kebria, H. R.

    2009-02-01

    The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) can provide analytical approximation or approximated solution to a rather wide class of nonlinear (and stochastic) equations without linearization, perturbation, closure approximation, or discretization methods. In the present work, ADM is employed to solve the momentum and energy equations for laminar boundary layer flow over flat plate at zero incidences with neglecting the frictional heating. A trial and error strategy has been used to obtain the constant coefficient in the approximated solution. ADM provides an analytical solution in the form of an infinite power series. The effect of Adomian polynomial terms is considered and shows that the accuracy of results is increased with the increasing of Adomian polynomial terms. The velocity and thermal profiles on the boundary layer are calculated. Also the effect of the Prandtl number on the thermal boundary layer is obtained. Results show ADM can solve the nonlinear differential equations with negligible error compared to the exact solution.

  13. Approximate analytical solution of MHD flow of an Oldroyd 8-constant fluid in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Salah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The steady flow in an incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD Oldroyd 8-constant fluid in a porous medium with the motion of an infinite plate is investigated. Using modified Darcy’s law of an Oldroyd 8-constant fluid, the equations governing the flow are modelled. The resulting nonlinear boundary value problem is solved using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The obtained approximate analytical solutions clearly satisfy the governing nonlinear equations and all the imposed initial and boundary conditions. The convergence of the HAM solutions for different orders of approximation is demonstrated. For the Newtonian case, the approximate analytical solution via HAM is shown to be in close agreement with the exact solution. Finally, the variations of velocity field with respect to the magnetic field, porosity and non-Newtonian fluid parameters are graphically shown and discussed.

  14. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  15. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  16. Approximate Analytical Solutions for Primary Chatter in the Non-Linear Metal Cutting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmiński, J.; Litak, G.; Cartmell, M. P.; Khanin, R.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers an accepted model of the metal cutting process dynamics in the context of an approximate analysis of the resulting non-linear differential equations of motion. The process model is based upon the established mechanics of orthogonal cutting and results in a pair of non-linear ordinary differential equations which are then restated in a form suitable for approximate analytical solution. The chosen solution technique is the perturbation method of multiple time scales and approximate closed-form solutions are generated for the most important non-resonant case. Numerical data are then substituted into the analytical solutions and key results are obtained and presented. Some comparisons between the exact numerical calculations for the forces involved and their reduced and simplified analytical counterparts are given. It is shown that there is almost no discernible difference between the two thus confirming the validity of the excitation functions adopted in the analysis for the data sets used, these being chosen to represent a real orthogonal cutting process. In an attempt to provide guidance for the selection of technological parameters for the avoidance of primary chatter, this paper determines for the first time the stability regions in terms of the depth of cut and the cutting speed co-ordinates.

  17. Approximate analytical solution to the Boussinesq equation with a sloping water-land boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuehao; Jiang, Qinghui; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-04-01

    An approximate solution is presented to the 1-D Boussinesq equation (BEQ) characterizing transient groundwater flow in an unconfined aquifer subject to a constant water variation at the sloping water-land boundary. The flow equation is decomposed to a linearized BEQ and a head correction equation. The linearized BEQ is solved using a Laplace transform. By means of the frozen-coefficient technique and Gauss function method, the approximate solution for the head correction equation can be obtained, which is further simplified to a closed-form expression under the condition of local energy equilibrium. The solutions of the linearized and head correction equations are discussed from physical concepts. Especially for the head correction equation, the well posedness of the approximate solution obtained by the frozen-coefficient method is verified to demonstrate its boundedness, which can be further embodied as the upper and lower error bounds to the exact solution of the head correction by statistical analysis. The advantage of this approximate solution is in its simplicity while preserving the inherent nonlinearity of the physical phenomenon. Comparisons between the analytical and numerical solutions of the BEQ validate that the approximation method can achieve desirable precisions, even in the cases with strong nonlinearity. The proposed approximate solution is applied to various hydrological problems, in which the algebraic expressions that quantify the water flow processes are derived from its basic solutions. The results are useful for the quantification of stream-aquifer exchange flow rates, aquifer response due to the sudden reservoir release, bank storage and depletion, and front position and propagation speed.

  18. RESEARCH OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SHEAR FRACTURES ON THE BASIS OF APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL ELASTIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Lermontova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method yielding approximate analytical solutions under the theory of elasticity for a set of interacting arbitrarily spaced shear fractures. Accurate analytical solutions of this problem are now available only for the simplest individual cases, such as a single fracture or two collinear fractures. A large amount of computation is required to yield a numerical solution for a case considering arbitrary numbers and locations of fractures, while this problem has important practical applications, such as assessment of the state of stress in seismically active regions, forecasts of secondary destruction impacts near systems of large faults, studies of reservoir properties of the territories comprising oil and gas provinces.In this study, an approximate estimation is obtained with the following simplification assumptions: (1 functions showing shear of fractures’ borders are determined similar to the shear function for a single fracture, and (2 boundary conditions for the fractures are specified in the integrated form as mean values along each fracture. Upon simplification, the solution is obtained through the system of linear algebraic equations for unknown values of tangential stress drop. With this approach, the accuracy of approximate solutions is consistent with the accuracy of the available data on real fractures.The reviewed examples of estimations show that the resultant stress field is dependent on the number, size and location of fractures and the sequence of displacements of the fractures’ borders.

  19. Beyond fast rate approximations: General analytic solutions to coupled transport equations during cosmic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    White, G A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a general method to analytically solve transport equations during a cosmic phase transition without making approximations based on the assumption that any transport coefficient is large. Using the MSSM as an example we derive the solutions to a set of $3$ transport equations derived under the assumption of supergauge equilibrium and the diffusion approximation. The result is then rederived efficiently using a technique we present involving a parametrized ansatz which turns the process of deriving a solution into an almost elementary problem. We then show how both the derivation and the parametrized ansatz technique can be generalized to solve an arbitrary number of transport equations. Finally we derive a perturbative series that relaxes the usual approximation that inactivates VEV dependent relaxation and CP violating source terms at the bubble wall and through the symmetric phase.

  20. Approximate semi-analytical solutions for the steady-state expansion of a contactor plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Camporeale, E; MacDonald, E A

    2015-01-01

    We study the steady-state expansion of a collisionless, electrostatic, quasi-neutral plasma plume into vacuum, with a fluid model. We analyze approximate semi-analytical solutions, that can be used in lieu of much more expensive numerical solutions. In particular, we focus on the earlier studies presented in Parks and Katz (1979), Korsun and Tverdokhlebova (1997), and Ashkenazy and Fruchtman (2001). By calculating the error with respect to the numerical solution, we can judge the range of validity for each solution. Moreover, we introduce a generalization of earlier models that has a wider range of applicability, in terms of plasma injection profiles. We conclude by showing a straightforward way to extend the discussed solutions to the case of a plasma plume injected with non-null azimuthal velocity.

  1. Approximate analytical solutions to the condensation-coagulation equation of aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Shaviv, Nir J.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical solutions to the steady state nucleation-condensation-coagulation equation of aerosols in the atmosphere. These solutions are appropriate under different limits but more general than previously derived analytical solutions. For example, we provide an analytic solution to the...... of sulfuric acid....

  2. Higher order analytical approximate solutions to the nonlinear pendulum by He's homotopy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Alvarez, M L; Mendez, D I; Yebra, M S; Hernandez, A [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-01-15

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate the periodic solutions of a nonlinear pendulum. The method has been modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution and substituting a finite number of terms in the second-order linear differential equation. As can be seen, the modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for high values of the initial amplitude. Excellent agreement of the analytical approximate period with the exact period has been demonstrated not only for small but also for large amplitudes A (the relative error is less than 1% for A < 152 deg.). Comparison of the result obtained using this method with the exact ones reveals that this modified method is very effective and convenient.

  3. Approximate analytic transport problem solution of particle reflection from solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of thesis deals with the analytic investigation of the energy and time independent particle transport in plane geometry described by a common anisotropic scattering function. Regarding particles with specific diffusion histories in infinite or semi-infinite medium, new particular solutions of the corresponding transport equations are exactly derived by means of the Fourier inversion technique. Aiming at preserving the analytic outcome, the two groups of particles scattered after each successive collision into directions μ0, were considered. Its Fourier transformed transport equations have solutions without logarithmic singular points, in the upper part or the down part of the complex k-plane. Consequently, the Fourier inversion of solutions are carried out analytically and the closing expressions in real space are acquired as a compound of the elementary exponential functions over space coordinate x. Opposite to the exact solution for the whole angular flux density - being a key result of the rigorous transport theory, these particular solutions do not comprise elements with the exponential singular integrals and could be easily applied in subsequent calculations. It has been shown that these formulae represent a valid generalization of the expressions for the flux of once scattered particles. Moreover, they incorporate a great fraction of all particles and, at least in the case of a small multiplication constant c, they closely approach the entire angular flux density. Using the particular solutions previously derived, an approximate analytic method for solving the energy and time independent transport equation in plane geometry is developed. The procedure is based on the particle flux decomposition in two components. The first component is exactly obtained and the second one is determined approximately by the ordinary DPN method of low order. The infinite medium Green's function and the half-space reflection coefficient were calculated. A careful

  4. A nonlinear model arising in the buckling analysis and its new analytic approximate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Yasir [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, ZJ (China). Dept. of Mathematics; Al-Hayani, Waleed [Univ. Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes (Spain). Dept. de Matematicas; Mosul Univ. (Iraq). Dept. of Mathematics

    2013-05-15

    An analytical nonlinear buckling model where the rod is assumed to be an inextensible column and prismatic is studied. The dimensionless parameters reduce the constitutive equation to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation which is solved using the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) through Green's function technique. The nonlinear terms can be easily handled by the use of Adomian polynomials. The ADM technique allows us to obtain an approximate solution in a series form. Results are presented graphically to study the efficiency and accuracy of the method. To the author's knowledge, the current paper represents a new approach to the solution of the buckling of the rod problem. The fact that ADM solves nonlinear problems without using perturbations and small parameters can be judged as a lucid benefit of this technique over the other methods. (orig.)

  5. Approximate analytical solutions to the condensation-coagulation equation of aerosols

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Naftali; Svensmark, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We present analytical solutions to the steady state injection-condensation-coagulation equation of aerosols in the atmosphere. These solutions are appropriate under different limits but more general than previously derived analytical solutions. For example, we provide an analytic solution to the coagulation limit plus a condensation correction. Our solutions are then compared with numerical results. We show that the solutions can be used to estimate the sensitivity of the cloud condensation nuclei number density to the nucleation rate of small condensation nuclei and to changes in the formation rate of sulfuric acid.

  6. Approximate, analytic solutions of the Bethe equation for charged particle range

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Damian C.; McNaney, James M.

    2009-01-01

    By either performing a Taylor expansion or making a polynomial approximation, the Bethe equation for charged particle stopping power in matter can be integrated analytically to obtain the range of charged particles in the continuous deceleration approximation. Ranges match reference data to the expected accuracy of the Bethe model. In the non-relativistic limit, the energy deposition rate was also found analytically. The analytic relations can be used to complement and validate numerical solu...

  7. Algorithms and analytical solutions for rapidly approximating long-term dispersion from line and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.

    Predicting long-term mean pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of airports, roads and other industrial sources are frequently of concern in regulatory and public health contexts. Many emissions are represented geometrically as ground-level line or area sources. Well developed modelling tools such as AERMOD and ADMS are able to model dispersion from finite (i.e. non-point) sources with considerable accuracy, drawing upon an up-to-date understanding of boundary layer behaviour. Due to mathematical difficulties associated with line and area sources, computationally expensive numerical integration schemes have been developed. For example, some models decompose area sources into a large number of line sources orthogonal to the mean wind direction, for which an analytical (Gaussian) solution exists. Models also employ a time-series approach, which involves computing mean pollutant concentrations for every hour over one or more years of meteorological data. This can give rise to computer runtimes of several days for assessment of a site. While this may be acceptable for assessment of a single industrial complex, airport, etc., this level of computational cost precludes national or international policy assessments at the level of detail available with dispersion modelling. In this paper, we extend previous work [S.R.H. Barrett, R.E. Britter, 2008. Development of algorithms and approximations for rapid operational air quality modelling. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 8105-8111] to line and area sources. We introduce approximations which allow for the development of new analytical solutions for long-term mean dispersion from line and area sources, based on hypergeometric functions. We describe how these solutions can be parameterized from a single point source run from an existing advanced dispersion model, thereby accounting for all processes modelled in the more costly algorithms. The parameterization method combined with the analytical solutions for long-term mean

  8. An analytical approximation method for the stabilizing solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation based on stable manifold theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, Noboru; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical approximation approach for the stabilizing solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation using stable manifold theory is proposed. The proposed method gives approximated flows on the stable manifold of the associated Hamiltonian system and provides approximations of the stabl

  9. Super stellar clusters with a bimodal hydrodynamic solution: an Approximate Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, R; Palous, J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2007-01-01

    We look for a simple analytic model to distinguish between stellar clusters undergoing a bimodal hydrodynamic solution from those able to drive only a stationary wind. Clusters in the bimodal regime undergo strong radiative cooling within their densest inner regions, which results in the accumulation of the matter injected by supernovae and stellar winds and eventually in the formation of further stellar generations, while their outer regions sustain a stationary wind. The analytic formulae are derived from the basic hydrodynamic equations. Our main assumption, that the density at the star cluster surface scales almost linearly with that at the stagnation radius, is based on results from semi-analytic and full numerical calculations. The analytic formulation allows for the determination of the threshold mechanical luminosity that separates clusters evolving in either of the two solutions. It is possible to fix the stagnation radius by simple analytic expressions and thus to determine the fractions of the depo...

  10. Approximate analytical solutions of the generalized Woods-Saxon potentials including the spin-orbit coupling term and spin symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer M. Ikhdair; Sever, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    We study the approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation for the generalized Woods-Saxon potential with the pseudo-centrifugal term. In the framework of the spin and pseudospin symmetry concept, the approximately analytical bound state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding upper- and lower-spinor components of the two Dirac particles are obtained, in closed form, by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov method which is based on solving the second-order linear differential equation by re...

  11. An approximate and an analytical solution to the carousel-pendulum problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vial, Alexandre [Pole Physique, Mecanique, Materiaux et Nanotechnologies, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie BP-2060, F-10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: alexandre.vial@utt.fr

    2009-09-15

    We show that an improved solution to the carousel-pendulum problem can be easily obtained through a first-order Taylor expansion, and its accuracy is determined after the obtention of an unusable analytical exact solution, advantageously replaced by a numerical one. It is shown that the accuracy is unexpectedly high, even when the ratio length of the pendulum to carousel radius approaches unity. (letters and comments)

  12. On Approximate Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Vibrations of Inextensible Beams using Parameter-Expansion Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Lund, Erik; Thomsen, Ole Thybo;

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an analytical method, which is referred to as Parameter-expansion Method is used to obtain the exact solution for the problem of nonlinear vibrations of an inextensible beam. It is shown that one term in the series expansion is sufficient to obtain a highly accurate solution, which...... is valid for the whole domain of the problem. A comparison of the obtained the numerical solution demonstrates that PEM is effective and convenient for solving such problems. After validation of the obtained results, the system response and stability are also discussed....

  13. Analytic Approximate Solutions for Unsteady Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Squeezing Flows between Parallel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

  14. Analytical Approximation Methods for the Stabilizing Solution of the Hamilton–Jacobi Equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, Noboru; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two methods for approximating the stabilizing solution of the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are proposed using symplectic geometry and a Hamiltonian perturbation technique as well as stable manifold theory. The first method uses the fact that the Hamiltonian lifted system of an integrable

  15. Analytical Approximation Methods for the Stabilizing Solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, Noboru; van der Schaft, Arjan J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two methods for approximating the stabilizing solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are proposed using symplectic geometry and a Hamiltonian perturbation technique as well as stable manifold theory. The first method uses the fact that the Hamiltonian lifted system of an integrable

  16. Approximate solutions for the skyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Ponciano, J A; Fanchiotti, H; Canal-Garcia, C A

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Skyrme model in the hedgehog ansatz and study the analytical properties of the solitonic solution. In view of the lack of a closed form solution to the problem, we work on approximate analytical solutions. We show that Pade approximants are well suited to continue analytically the asymptotic representation obtained in terms of a power series expansion near the origin, obtaining explicit approximate solutions for the Skyrme equations. We improve the approximations by applying the 2-point Pade approximant procedure whereby the exact behaviour at spatial infinity is incorporated. An even better convergence to the exact solution is obtained by introducing a modified form for the approximants. The new representations share the same analytical properties with the exact solution at both small and large values of the radial variable r.

  17. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  18. An Approximate Analytical Solution for Grout Transport Modeling:A Case Study in Luling Mining, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jia-zhong; GE Xiao-guang; ZHOU Nian-qing

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes the effects of a grouting process developed to decrease groundwater flow exiting from a ruptured mine ventilation shaft lining in Luling coal mine at Huaibei, China. The primary purpose of grouting at this site is to prevent groundwater flow into the mine from adjacent aquifers. The study supports a transport perspective to describe the miscible grout movement, and provides an approximate analytical method to determine grout concentration based on Wilson and Miller's (1978) model. This study shows hat the breakthrough curves (BTCs) established from the Wilson and Miller's model match the experimental BTCs obtained from test grouting performed at the site, and Rd a retardation factor of 1.1 is determined. The retardation factor and the BTC are subsequently used to guide the actual production grouting. The monitored result shows that the groundwater inflow at the disrupted ventilation well has been reduced by 47% after drilling and grouting just one borehole. The discharge rate was measured at no more than 4 m3/h after completion of four injection boreholes, which is about 13% of the 30 m3/h before grouting.

  19. An approximate analytical solution of free convection problem for vertical isothermal plate via transverse coordinate Taylor expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Leble, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The model under consideration is based on approximate analytical solution of two dimensional stationary Navier-Stokes and Fourier-Kirchhoff equations. Approximations are based on the typical for natural convection assumptions: the fluid noncompressibility and Bousinesq approximation. We also assume that ortogonal to the plate component (x) of velocity is neglectible small. The solution of the boundary problem is represented as a Taylor Series in $x$ coordinate for velocity and temperature which introduces functions of vertical coordinate (y), as coefficients of the expansion. The correspondent boundary problem formulation depends on parameters specific for the problem: Grashoff number, the plate height (L) and gravity constant. The main result of the paper is the set of equations for the coefficient functions for example choice of expansion terms number. The nonzero velocity at the starting point of a flow appears in such approach as a development of convecntional boundary layer theory formulation.

  20. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type system: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Dodin, Amro; Brumer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter $\\zeta=\\frac{1}{2}(\\gamma_1+\\gamma_2)/\\Delta_p$, where $\\gamma_i$ are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels $i=1,2$, and $\\Delta_p=\\sqrt{\\Delta^2 + (1-p^2)\\gamma_1\\gamma_2}$ depends on the excited-state level splitting $\\Delta>0$ and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit ($\\zeta\\gg1$), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit ($\\zeta\\ll 1$), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping ($\\zeta= 1$). The sudden incoherent turn-on generat...

  1. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type systems: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodin, Amro; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath, relevant to light harvesting processes, are obtained and discussed. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter ζ = /1 2 ( γ 1 + γ 2) / Δ p , where γi are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels i = 1, 2, and Δ p = √{ Δ 2 + ( 1 - p 2) γ 1 γ 2 } depends on the excited-state level splitting Δ > 0 and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit (ζ ≫ 1), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit (ζ ≪ 1), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping (ζ = 1). The sudden incoherent turn-on is shown to generate a mixture of excited eigenstates |e1> and |e2> and their in-phase coherent superposition | ϕ + > = /1 √{ r 1 + r 2 } ( √{ r 1 } | e 1 > + √{ r 2 } | e 2 >) , which is remarkably long-lived in the overdamped limit (where r1 and r2 are the incoherent pumping rates). Formation of this coherent superposition enhances the decay rate from the excited states to the ground state. In the strongly asymmetric V-system where the coupling strengths between the ground state and the excited states differ significantly, additional asymptotic quasistationary coherences are identified, which arise due to slow equilibration of one of the excited states. Finally, we demonstrate that noise-induced Fano coherences are maximized with respect to populations when r1 = r2 and the transition dipole moments are fully aligned.

  2. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type systems: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodin, Amro; Tscherbul, Timur V; Brumer, Paul

    2016-06-28

    Closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath, relevant to light harvesting processes, are obtained and discussed. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter ζ=12(γ1+γ2)/Δp, where γi are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels i = 1, 2, and Δp=Δ(2)+(1-p(2))γ1γ2 depends on the excited-state level splitting Δ > 0 and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit (ζ ≫ 1), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit (ζ ≪ 1), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping (ζ = 1). The sudden incoherent turn-on is shown to generate a mixture of excited eigenstates |e1〉 and |e2〉 and their in-phase coherent superposition |ϕ+〉=1r1+r2(r1|e1〉+r2|e2〉), which is remarkably long-lived in the overdamped limit (where r1 and r2 are the incoherent pumping rates). Formation of this coherent superposition enhances the decay rate from the excited states to the ground state. In the strongly asymmetric V-system where the coupling strengths between the ground state and the excited states differ significantly, additional asymptotic quasistationary coherences are identified, which arise due to slow equilibration of one of the excited states. Finally, we demonstrate that noise-induced Fano coherences are maximized with respect to populations when r1 = r2 and the transition dipole moments are fully aligned. PMID:27369498

  3. Approximate Analytical Solutions to the Generalized P(o)schl-Teller Potential in D Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassanabadi Hassan; Yazarloo Bentol Hoda; LU Liang-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The Schr(o)dinger equation for the generalized P(o)schl-Teller potential with the centrifugal term is investigated approximately.The Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used in the calculations and the eigenfunctions as well as the energy eigenvalues obtained after a proper Pekeris-type approximation.Some useful expectation values and the oscillator strength are reported.%The Schrodinger equation for the generalized Poschl-Teller potential with the centrifugal term is investigated approximately. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used in the calculations and the eigenfunctions as well as the energy eigenvalues obtained after a proper Pekeris-type approximation. Some useful expectation values and the oscillator strength are reported.

  4. Linear analytical solution to the phase diversity problem for extended objects based on the Born approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrei, R.M.; Smith, C.S.; Fraanje, P.R.; Verhaegen, M.; Korkiakoski, V.A.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a new wavefront estimation technique that overcomes the main disadvantages of the phase diversity (PD) algorithms, namely the large computational complexity and the fact that the solutions can get stuck in a local minima. Our approach gives a good starting point for an iterativ

  5. Deriving analytic solutions for compact binary inspirals without recourse to adiabatic approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Galley, Chad R

    2016-01-01

    We utilize the dynamical renormalization group formalism to calculate the real space trajectory of a compact binary inspiral for long times via a systematic resummation of secularly growing terms. This method generates closed form solutions without orbit averaging, and the accuracy can be systematically improved. The expansion parameter is $v^5 \

  6. Analytical Approximations to Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some recent progress in constructing analytic approximations to the galaxy clustering. We show that successful models can be constructed for the clustering of both dark matter and dark matter haloes. Our understanding of galaxy clustering and galaxy biasing can be greatly enhanced by these models.

  7. Existence and Analytic Approximation of Solutions of Duffing Type Nonlinear Integro-Differential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaedi Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized quasilinearization technique is developed to obtain a sequence of approximate solutions converging monotonically and quadratically to a unique solution of a boundary value problem involving Duffing type nonlinear integro-differential equation with integral boundary conditions. The convergence of order for the sequence of iterates is also established. It is found that the work presented in this paper not only produces new results but also yields several old results in certain limits.

  8. An approximate analytical solution to the ultra-filtration profile in a hemodialysis process between parallel porous plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JunFeng; LU WenQiang

    2008-01-01

    In a hemodialysis process, the blood that runs through straight channels exchanges substances with the dialysate through a semi-permeable membrane. The waste products, such as urea and creatinine, are therefore removed from the plasma by the membrane. In the analysis of this process, determination of the ultra-filtration profile along the porous membrane surface remains a difficult problem. In this work, an analytical solution to the derivation of such a profile was detailed, and the feasibility of this solution was discussed. The ultra-filtration profile was found to be in a cosine shape.

  9. An analytic solution for the magnetization of two-dimensional ferrofluids based on the mean spherical approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, T; Boda, D; Szalai, I

    2012-08-22

    An analytic formula is derived for the magnetization of a two-dimensional dipolar hard disk fluid using a variational functional series expansion of the free energy as a function of the orientational distribution function. The excess term expressing the effect of the intermolecular forces is calculated on the basis of the mean spherical approximation. Comparison with our own Monte Carlo simulation data shows excellent agreement for large external fields and for the zero-field susceptibility. At intermediate field strengths, the agreement is satisfactory for moderate dipole moments and densities. PMID:22810162

  10. Rigorous analytical approximation of tritronquée solution to Painlevé-I and the first singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adali, A.; Tanveer, S.

    2016-10-01

    We use a recently developed method [1,2] to determine approximate expression for tritronquée solution for P-1: y″ + 6y2 - x = 0 in a domain D with rigorous bounds. In particular we rigorously confirm the location of the closest singularity from the origin to be at x = -770766/323285 = - 2.3841687675 ⋯ to within 5 ×10-6 accuracy, in agreement with previous numerical calculations [6].

  11. Finite volume approximation of the three-dimensional flow equation in axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous media based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-09-01

    In this work the problem of flow in three-dimensional, axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous medium domain is investigated numerically. For this system, it is natural to use cylindrical coordinate system, which is useful in describing phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. This can happen in porous media, for example, in the vicinity of production/injection wells. The basic feature of this system is the fact that the flux component (volume flow rate per unit area) in the radial direction is changing because of the continuous change of the area. In this case, variables change rapidly closer to the axis of symmetry and this requires the mesh to be denser. In this work, we generalize a methodology that allows coarser mesh to be used and yet yields accurate results. This method is based on constructing local analytical solution in each cell in the radial direction and moves the derivatives in the other directions to the source term. A new expression for the harmonic mean of the hydraulic conductivity in the radial direction is developed. Apparently, this approach conforms to the analytical solution for uni-directional flows in radial direction in homogeneous porous media. For the case when the porous medium is heterogeneous or the boundary conditions is more complex, comparing with the mesh-independent solution, this approach requires only coarser mesh to arrive at this solution while the traditional methods require more denser mesh. Comparisons for different hydraulic conductivity scenarios and boundary conditions have also been introduced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Analytical Approximation to the (e)-Wave Solutions of the Hulthén Potential in Tridiagonal Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min-Cang; HUANG-FU Guo-Qing

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Schr(o)dinger equation with the Hulthén potential is studied by working in a complete square integrable basis that carries a tridiagonal matrix representation of the wave operator.The arbitrary e-wave solutions are obtained by using an approximation of the centrifugal term.The resulting three-term recursion relation for the expansion coefficients of the wavefunction is presented and the wavefunctions are expressed in terms of the Jocobi polynomial.The discrete spectrum of the bound states is obtained by the diagonalization of the recursion relation.%The Schr(o)dinger equation with the Hulthén potential is studied by working in a complete square integrable basis that carries a tridiagonal matrix representation of the wave operator. The arbitrary e-wave solutions are obtained by using an approximation of the centrifugal term. The resulting three-term recursion relation for the expansion coefficients of the wavefunction is presented and the wavefunctions are expressed in terms of the Jocobi polynomial. The discrete spectrum of the bound states is obtained by the diagonalization of the recursion relation.

  13. Frankenstein's glue: transition functions for approximate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás

    2007-09-01

    Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate analytic solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and prove that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations analytically to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the proposed conditions, then the joined solution does not contain any violations to the Einstein equations larger than those already inherent in the approximations. We further show that if these functions violate the proposed conditions, then the matter content of the spacetime is modified by the introduction of a matter shell, whose stress energy tensor depends on derivatives of these functions.

  14. A discrete analogue for black hole evaporation using approximate analytical solutions of a one-shot decoupling trilinear Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical formulation of the recent one-shot decoupling model of Bràdler and Adami (2015 arXiv:1505.0284) and compute the resulting 'Page information' curves, for the reduced density matrices for the evaporating black hole (BH) internal degrees of freedom, and emitted Hawking radiation pairs entangled across the horizon. We argue that BH evaporation/particle production has a very close analogy to the laboratory process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, when the pump is allowed to deplete.

  15. Solution of the level of approximation analytic formula of hydrogen-like atom for the Debye shielding potential by means of the power series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The first-order revision and the approximation analytical formula of the energy levels for hydrogen-like atoms in condition of the Debye shielding potential are achieved by means of the Rayleigh―Schrdinger perturbation theory and the power series;meanwhile,the corresponding recurrence relations are got with the use of the solution of power series. Basic on mentioned above and with the use of energy consistent method, the equivalent value of second-order revision in condition of the Debye shielding potential as well be got and the result is compared with the data obtained by the numerical method. Beside, the critical bond-state and corresponding cut off of conditions are discussed.

  16. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  17. Approximate Solutions in Planted 3-SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Benjamin; Laumann, Christopher; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji

    2013-03-01

    In many computational settings, there exists many instances where finding a solution requires a computing time that grows exponentially in the number of variables. Concrete examples occur in combinatorial optimization problems and cryptography in computer science or glassy systems in physics. However, while exact solutions are often known to require exponential time, a related and important question is the running time required to find approximate solutions. Treating this problem as a problem in statistical physics at finite temperature, we examine the computational running time in finding approximate solutions in 3-satisfiability for randomly generated 3-SAT instances which are guaranteed to have a solution. Analytic predictions are corroborated by numerical evidence using stochastic local search algorithms. A first order transition is found in the running time of these algorithms.

  18. Parallel computations and complex analytic approximations: From diophantine approximations to quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    High precision solution of extremal and (complex analytic) approximations problems that can be represented in terms of multiple integrals or integral equations involving hypergeornetric functions are examined. Fast algorithms of computations of (approximate) solutions are presented that are well suited for parallelization. Among problems considered are: WKB and adelic asymptotics of multidimensional hypergeometric Pade approximations to classical functions, and high accuracy computations of high order eigenvalues and eigenstates for 2D and 3D domains of complex geometry.

  19. Numerical and approximate solutions for plume rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Gordon Hall, J.

    Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are compared for turbulent plume rise in a crosswind. The numerical solutions were calculated using the plume rise model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass.19, 585-590), over a wide range of pertinent parameters. Some wind shear and elevated inversion effects are included. The numerical solutions are seen to agree with the approximate solutions over a fairly wide range of the parameters. For the conditions considered in the study, wind shear effects are seen to be quite small. A limited study was made of the penetration of elevated inversions by plumes. The results indicate the adequacy of a simple criterion proposed by Briggs (1969, AEC Critical Review Series, USAEC Division of Technical Information extension, Oak Ridge, Tennesse).

  20. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...

  1. Strong shock implosion, approximate solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E. A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1983-01-01

    The self-similar, center-bound motion of a strong spherical, or cylindrical, shock wave moving through an ideal gas with a constant, γ= cp/ cv, is considered and a linearized, approximate solution is derived. An X, Y phase plane of the self-similar solution is defined and the representative curved of the system behind the shock front is replaced by a straight line connecting the mappings of the shock front with that of its tail. The reduced pressure P(ξ), density R(ξ) and velocity U1(ξ) are found in closed, quite accurate, form. Comparison with numerically obtained results, for γ= {5}/{3} and γ= {7}/{5}, is shown.

  2. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  3. Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliam J. P. de Carpentier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories. Although the trajectories are only approximate, they still capture many of the characteristics of a real projectile in free fall under the influence of an invariant wind, gravitational pull, and terminal velocity, while the required math for these trajectories and planners is still simple enough to efficiently run on almost all modern hardware devices. Together, these properties make the proposed approach particularly useful for real-time applications where accuracy and performance need to be carefully balanced, such as in computer games.

  4. Analytical Special Solutions of the Bohr Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, D; Petrellis, D; Terziev, P A; Yigitoglu, I

    2005-01-01

    The following special solutions of the Bohr Hamiltonian are briefly described: 1) Z(5) (approximately separable solution in five dimensions with gamma close to 30 degrees), 2) Z(4) (exactly separable gamma-rigid solution in four dimensions with gamma = 30 degrees), 3) X(3) (exactly separable gamma-rigid solution in three dimensions with gamma =0). The analytical solutions obtained using Davidson potentials in the E(5), X(5), Z(5), and Z(4) frameworks are also mentioned.

  5. Wave system and its approximate similarity solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ping; Fu Pei-Kai

    2011-01-01

    Recently,a new (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave system,the (2+1)-dimensional displacement shallow water wave system (2DDSWWS),was constructed by applying the variational principle of the analytic mechanics in the Lagrange coordinates. The disadvantage is that fluid viscidity is not considered in the 2DDSWWS,which is the same as the famous Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and Korteweg-de Vries equation. Applying dimensional analysis,we modify the 2DDSWWS and add the term related to the fluid viscidity to the 2DDSWWS. The approximate similarity solutions of the modified 2DDSWWS (M2DDSWWS) is studied and four similarity solutions are obtained. For the perfect fluids,the coefficient of kinematic viscosity is zero,then the M2DDSWWS will degenerate to the 2DDSWWS.

  6. Comparing numerical and analytic approximate gravitational waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Nousha; Lovelace, Geoffrey; SXS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    A direct observation of gravitational waves will test Einstein's theory of general relativity under the most extreme conditions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, began searching for gravitational waves in September 2015 with three times the sensitivity of initial LIGO. To help Advanced LIGO detect as many gravitational waves as possible, a major research effort is underway to accurately predict the expected waves. In this poster, I will explore how the gravitational waveform produced by a long binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown is affected by how fast the larger black hole spins. In particular, I will present results from simulations of merging black holes, completed using the Spectral Einstein Code (black-holes.org/SpEC.html), including some new, long simulations designed to mimic black hole-neutron star mergers. I will present comparisons of the numerical waveforms with analytic approximations.

  7. Analytic Approximate Solutions for MHD Boundary-Layer Viscoelastic Fluid Flow over Continuously Moving Stretching Surface by Homotopy Analysis Method with Two Auxiliary Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a steady, incompressible, and laminar-free convective flow of a two-dimensional electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a moving stretching surface through a porous medium is considered. The boundary-layer equations are derived by considering Boussinesq and boundary-layer approximations. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the momentum and energy equations are obtained and solved analytically by using homotopy analysis method (HAM with two auxiliary parameters for two classes of visco-elastic fluid (Walters’ liquid B and second-grade fluid. It is clear that by the use of second auxiliary parameter, the straight line region in ℏ-curve increases and the convergence accelerates. This research is performed by considering two different boundary conditions: (a prescribed surface temperature (PST and (b prescribed heat flux (PHF. The effect of involved parameters on velocity and temperature is investigated.

  8. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.

  9. Frankenstein's Glue: Transition functions for approximate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, N

    2006-01-01

    Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and proof that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the...

  10. 微重力下圆管毛细流动解析近似解研究%The analytical approximate solutions of capillary flow in circular tubes under microgravity∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 张晨辉; 刘玲; 段俐; 康琦

    2013-01-01

      应用同伦分析法研究微重力环境下圆管毛细流动解析近似解问题,给出了级数解的表达公式。不同于其他解析近似方法,该方法从根本上克服了摄动理论对小参数的过分依赖,其有效性与所研究的非线性问题是否含有小参数无关,适用范围广。同伦分析法提供了选取基函数的自由,可以选取较好的基函数,更有效地逼近问题的解,通过引入辅助参数和辅助函数来调节和控制级数解的收敛区域和收敛速度,同伦分析法为圆管毛细流动问题的解析近似求解开辟了一个全新的途径。通过具体算例,将同伦分析法与四阶龙格库塔方法数值解做了比较,结果表明,该方法具有很高的计算精度。%The capillary flow in a circular tube under microgravity environment is investigated by the homotopy analysis method (HAM), and the approximate analytical solution in the form of series solution is obtained. Different from other analytical approximate methods, the HAM is totally independent of small physical parameters, and thus it is suitable for most nonlinear problems. The HAM provides us a great freedom to choose basis functions of solution series, so that a nonlinear problem can be approximated more effectively, and it adjusts and controls the convergence region and the convergence rate of the series solution through introducing auxiliary parameter and the auxiliary function. The HAM hews out a new approach to the analytical approximate solutions of capillary flow in a circular tube. Through the specific example and comparing homotopy approximate analytical solution with the numerical solution which is obtained by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, the computed result indicate that this method has the good computational accuracy.

  11. Radiative Transfer in spheres I. Analytical Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Aboughantous, C

    2001-01-01

    A nonsingular analytical solution for the transfer equation in a pure absorber is obtained in central symmetry and in a monochromatic radiation field. The native regular singularity of the equation is removed by applying a linear transformation to the frame of reference. Two different ap-proaches are used to carry out the solution. In the first approach the angular derivative is interpreted in an original way that made it possible to discard this derivative from the equation for all black body media without upsetting the conservation of energy. In this approach the analytic solution is expressible in terms of exponential integrals without approximations but for practical considerations the solution is presented in the form of Gauss-Legendre quadrature for quantitative evaluation of the solutions. In the second approach the angular derivative is approximated by a new set of discrete ordinates that guarantees the closer of the set of equations and the conservation of energy. The solutions from the two approache...

  12. Exact analytical solutions for ADAFs

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Asiyeh; Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    We obtain two-dimensional exact analytic solutions for the structure of the hot accretion flows without wind. We assume that the only non-zero component of the stress tensor is $T_{r\\varphi}$. Furthermore we assume that the value of viscosity coefficient $\\alpha$ varies with $\\theta$. We find radially self-similar solutions and compare them with the numerical and the analytical solutions already studied in the literature. The no-wind solution obtained in this paper may be applied to the nuclei of some cool-core clusters.

  13. Frankenstein's glue: transition functions for approximate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunes, Nicolas [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6300 (United States)

    2007-09-07

    Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate analytic solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and prove that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations analytically to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the proposed conditions, then the joined solution does not contain any violations to the Einstein equations larger than those already inherent in the approximations. We further show that if these functions violate the proposed conditions, then the matter content of the spacetime is modified by the introduction of a matter shell, whose stress-energy tensor depends on derivatives of these functions.

  14. Analytic solutions of a class of nonlinearly dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M-C [System Engineering Institute of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhao, X-S; Liu, X [Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China)], E-mail: mchwang123@163.com.cn, E-mail: xszhao@mail.nwpu.edu.cn, E-mail: liuxinhubei@163.com.cn

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied to solve a coupled system of two nonlinear differential with first-order similar model of Lotka-Volterra and a Bratus equation with a source term. The analytic approximate solutions are derived. Furthermore, the analytic approximate solutions obtained by the HPM with the exact solutions reveals that the present method works efficiently.

  15. Fast, Approximate Solutions for 1D Multicomponent Gas Injection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Wang, Yun; Ermakov, Pavel;

    2001-01-01

    geometry of key tie lines. It has previously been proven that for systems with an arbitrary number of components, the key tie lines can be approximated quite accurately by a sequence of intersecting tie lines. As a result, analytical solutions can be constructed efficiently for problems with constant...... initial and injection compositions (Riemann problems). For fully self-sharpening systems, in which all key tie lines are connected by shocks, the analytical solutions obtained are rigorously accurate, while for systems in which some key tie lines are connected by spreading waves, the analytical solutions...

  16. Analytical solution for the Feynman ratchet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesz, Karol; Gabryś, Barbara J; Bartkiewicz, Stanisław J

    2002-12-01

    A search for an analytical, closed form solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with periodic, asymmetric potentials (ratchets) is presented. It is found that logarithmic-type potential functions (related to "entropic" ratchets) allow for an approximate solution within a certain range of parameters. An expression for the net current is calculated and it is shown that the efficiency of the rocked entropic ratchet is always low.

  17. Analytical Approximate Solution of Schrödinger Equation in D Dimensions with Quadratic Exponential-Type Potential for Arbitrary l-State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the bound state solution of Schrödinger equation in D dimensions for quadratic exponential-type potential for arbitrary l-state. We use generalized parametric Nikiforov–Uvarov method to obtain the energy levels and the corresponding eigenfunction in closed form. We also compute the energy eigenvalues numerically

  18. Approximate Solutions of Perturbed Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By applying Lou's direct perturbation method to perturbed nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation and the critical nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with a small dispersion, their approximate analytical solutions including the zero-order and the first-order solutions are obtained. Based on these approximate solutions, the analytical forms of parameters of solitons are expressed and the effects of perturbations on solitons are briefly analyzed at the same time. In addition, the perturbed nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations is directly simulated by split-step Fourier method to check the validity of the direct perturbation method. It turns out that the analytical results given by the direct perturbation method are well supported by numerical calculations.

  19. Numerical Approximation of Asymptotically Disappearing Solutions of Maxwell's Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, J H; Zikatanov, L T

    2012-01-01

    This work is on the numerical approximation of incoming solutions to Maxwell's equations with dissipative boundary conditions whose energy decays exponentially with time. Such solutions are called asymptotically disappearing (ADS) and they play an importarnt role in inverse back-scatering problems. The existence of ADS is a difficult mathematical problem. For the exterior of a sphere, such solutions have been constructed analytically by Colombini, Petkov and Rauch [7] by specifying appropriate initial conditions. However, for general domains of practical interest (such as Lipschitz polyhedra), the existence of such solutions is not evident. This paper considers a finite-element approximation of Maxwell's equations in the exterior of a polyhedron, whose boundary approximates the sphere. Standard Nedelec-Raviart-Thomas elements are used with a Crank-Nicholson scheme to approximate the electric and magnetic fields. Discrete initial conditions interpolating the ones chosen in [7] are modified so that they are (we...

  20. Approximate analytical calculations of photon geodesics in the Schwarzschild metric

    CERN Document Server

    De Falco, Vittorio; Stella, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We develop a method for deriving approximate analytical formulae to integrate photon geodesics in a Schwarzschild spacetime. Based on this, we derive the approximate equations for light bending and propagation delay that have been introduced empirically. We then derive for the first time an approximate analytical equation for the solid angle. We discuss the accuracy and range of applicability of the new equations and present a few simple applications of them to known astrophysical problems.

  1. Approximate solutions for fractured wells producing layered reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Camacho-V., R; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1985-10-01

    New analytical solutions for the response at a well intercepting a layered reservoir are derived. The well is assumed to produce at a constant rate or a constant pressure. We examine reservoir systems without interlayer communication and document the usefulness of these solutions, which enable us to obtain increased physical understanding of the performance of fractured wells in layered reservoirs. The influence of vertical variations in fracture conductivity is also considered. Example applications of the approximations derived here are also presented.

  2. An Approximate Analytical Method of the Nonlinear Vibroacoustic Coupling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate analytical method of the nonlinear vibroacoustic coupling system is proposed for the first time. Taking the Duffing oscillator-plate-medium system as an example, the nonlinear vibroacoustic coupling equations are developed using variational principle. The two major difficulties which lie in solving the coupling equations are the uncertain motion of the oscillator and the surface acoustic pressure on the plate, a system for which the fluid-structure coupling cannot be neglected. Based on the incremental harmonic balance (IHB method, the motion of the oscillator is expressed in the form of the Fourier series, and then the modal expression method and the incoherent assumption are employed to discretize the displacement and the surface pressure of the plate. Then the approximate analytical solution is given by the IHB method. The characteristics of acoustic radiation and surface quadratic velocity of the plate, the nonlinear characteristics of oscillator, and the influence of the excitation frequency and the nonlinear stiffness on the results are investigated by the numerical simulation. The results show that the excitation at the frequency close to the natural frequency of the oscillator can produce a significant response of the third-harmonic generation which determines the vibroacoustic characteristics of the plate.

  3. Analytic solution for a quartic electron mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straton, Jack C., E-mail: straton@pdx.edu

    2015-01-15

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate for spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a diode (two-electrode) electrostatic mirror including the next term beyond the known hyperbolic shape. The latter is a solution of the Laplace equation to second order in the variables perpendicular to and along the mirror's radius (z{sup 2}−r{sup 2}/2) to which we add a quartic term (kλz{sup 4}). The analytical solution is found in terms of Jacobi cosine-amplitude functions. We find that a mirror less concave than the hyperbolic profile is more sensitive to changes in mirror voltages and the contrary holds for the mirror more concave than the hyperbolic profile. - Highlights: • We find the analytical solution for electron mirrors whose curvature has z4 dependence added to the usual z{sup 2} – r{sup 2}/2 terms. • The resulting Jacobi cosine-amplitude function reduces to the well-known cosh solution in the limit where the new term is 0. • This quartic term gives a mirror designer additional flexibility for eliminating spherical and chromatic aberrations. • The possibility of using these analytical results to approximately model spherical tetrode mirrors close to axis is noted.

  4. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  5. Analytical solutions of moisture flow equations and their numerical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, A.G.

    1981-04-01

    The role of analytical solutions of idealized moisture flow problems is discussed. Some different formulations of the moisture flow problem are reviewed. A number of different analytical solutions are summarized, including the case of idealized coupled moisture and heat flow. The evaluation of special functions which commonly arise in analytical solutions is discussed, including some pitfalls in the evaluation of expressions involving combinations of special functions. Finally, perturbation theory methods are summarized which can be used to obtain good approximate analytical solutions to problems which are too complicated to solve exactly, but which are close to an analytically solvable problem.

  6. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  7. Approximate solutions of theWei Hua oscillator using the Pekeris approximation and Nikiforov–Uvarov method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Bera

    2012-01-01

    The approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the Wei Hua oscillator are carried out in N-dimensional space by taking Pekeris approximation scheme to the orbital centrifugal term. Solutions of the corresponding hyper-radial equation are obtained using the conventional Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method.

  8. A new analytical approximation to the Duffing-harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesanghary, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Pirbodaghi, T. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., 11365-9567 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asghari, M. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., 11365-9567 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: asghari@sharif.edu; Sojoudi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, a novel analytical approximation to the nonlinear Duffing-harmonic oscillator is presented. The variational iteration method (VIM) is used to obtain some accurate analytical results for frequency. The accuracy of the results is excellent in the whole range of oscillation amplitude variations.

  9. Approximate solutions and scaling transformations for quadratic solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    1999-01-01

    We study quadratic solitons supported by two- and three-wave parametric interactions in chi-2 nonlinear media. Both planar and two-dimensional cases are considered. We obtain very accurate, 'almost exact', explicit analytical solutions, matching the actual bright soliton profiles, with the help of a specially-developed approach, based on analysis of the scaling properties. Additionally, we use these approximations to describe the linear tails of solitary waves which are related to the propert...

  10. Rough Sets in Approximate Solution Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Sun; Wei Tian; Qing Liu

    2006-01-01

    As a new mathematical theory, Rough sets have been applied to processing imprecise, uncertain and in complete data. It has been fruitful in finite and non-empty set. Rough sets, however, are only served as the theoretic tool to discretize the real function. As far as the real function research is concerned, the research to define rough sets in the real function is infrequent. In this paper, we exploit a new method to extend the rough set in normed linear space, in which we establish a rough set,put forward an upper and lower approximation definition, and make a preliminary research on the property of the rough set. A new tool is provided to study the approximation solutions of differential equation and functional variation in normed linear space. This research is significant in that it extends the application of rough sets to a new field.

  11. Analytical approximations to the spectra of quark-antiquark potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Lopez, Jorge [Physics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2006-07-15

    A method recently devised to obtain analytical approximations to certain classes of integrals is used in combination with the WKB expansion to derive accurate analytical expressions for the spectrum of quantum potentials. The accuracy of our results is verified by comparing them both with the literature on the subject and with the numerical results obtained with a Fortran code. As an application of the method that we propose, we consider meson spectroscopy with various phenomenological potentials.

  12. ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS OF MATRIX RICCATI EQUATIONS WITH ANALYTIC COEFFICIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, Ruth; Rodman, Leiba

    2010-01-01

    For matrix Riccati equations of platoon-type systems and of systems arising from PDEs, assuming the coefficients are analytic or rational functions in a suitable domain, analyticity of the stabilizing solution is proved under various hypotheses. General results on analytic behavior of stabilizing so

  13. Analytic bounds and approximations for annuities and Asian options

    OpenAIRE

    Vanduffel, S.; Shang, Z.; Henrard, L; Dhaene, J.; Valdez, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Even in case of the Brownian motion as most natural rate of return model it appears too difficult to obtain analytic expressions for most risk measures of constant continuous annuities. In literature the so-called comonotonic approximations have been proposed but these still require the evaluation of integrals. In this paper we show that these integrals can sometimes be computed, and we obtain explicit approximations for some popular risk measures for annuities. Next, we show how these result...

  14. Analytic bounds and approximations for annuities and Asian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Vanduffel; Z. Shang; L. Henrard; J. Dhaene; E.A. Valdez

    2008-01-01

    Even in case of the Brownian motion as most natural rate of return model it appears too difficult to obtain analytic expressions for most risk measures of constant continuous annuities. In literature the so-called comonotonic approximations have been proposed but these still require the evaluation o

  15. Approximation of Analytic Functions by Bessel's Functions of Fractional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Mo Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We will solve the inhomogeneous Bessel's differential equation x2y″(x+xy′(x+(x2-ν2y(x=∑m=0∞amxm, where ν is a positive nonintegral number and apply this result for approximating analytic functions of a special type by the Bessel functions of fractional order.

  16. Approximation of Analytic Functions by Bessel's Functions of Fractional Order

    OpenAIRE

    Soon-Mo Jung

    2011-01-01

    We will solve the inhomogeneous Bessel's differential equation x2y″(x)+xy′(x)+(x2-ν2)y(x)=∑m=0∞amxm, where ν is a positive nonintegral number and apply this result for approximating analytic functions of a special type by the Bessel functions of fractional order.

  17. A Statistical Mechanics Approach to Approximate Analytical Bootstrap Averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    We apply the replica method of Statistical Physics combined with a variational method to the approximate analytical computation of bootstrap averages for estimating the generalization error. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes and compare our results with averages ob...

  18. Analytical approximations for stick-slip vibration amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Fidlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    The classical "mass-on-moving-belt" model for describing friction-induced vibrations is considered, with a friction law describing friction forces that first decreases and then increases smoothly with relative interface speed. Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the conditions...

  19. Resonance in a driven two-level system: Analytical results without the rotating wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the problem of two-level system dynamics induced by the time-dependent field B={a(t)cosωt,a(t)sinωt,ω0}, with a(t)∝cn(νt,k). The problem is exactly analytically solvable and we propose the scheme for constructing the solutions. For all field configurations the resonance conditions are discussed. The explicit solutions for N=1,2 we obtained coincide at ω=0 in the proper parameter domain with predictions of the rotating wave approximation and agree nicely with numerical calculations beyond it. -- Highlights: → We consider a two-level system driven by the cnoidal time-dependent field. → Scheme for constructing the exact analytic solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. → Effective analytic approximation of the problem with linearly polarized harmonic wave. → Resonance conditions in the analytic form, including the Bloch-Siegert shift.

  20. Resonance in a driven two-level system: Analytical results without the rotating wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezvershenko, Yulia V., E-mail: yulia.bezvershenko@gmail.com [National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, 2 Skovorody str., Kyiv 04070 (Ukraine); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14-b Metrolohichna str., Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Holod, Petro I., E-mail: holod@ukma.kiev.ua [National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, 2 Skovorody str., Kyiv 04070 (Ukraine); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14-b Metrolohichna str., Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine)

    2011-10-31

    We consider the problem of two-level system dynamics induced by the time-dependent field B={a(t)cosωt,a(t)sinωt,ω_0}, with a(t)∝cn(νt,k). The problem is exactly analytically solvable and we propose the scheme for constructing the solutions. For all field configurations the resonance conditions are discussed. The explicit solutions for N=1,2 we obtained coincide at ω=0 in the proper parameter domain with predictions of the rotating wave approximation and agree nicely with numerical calculations beyond it. -- Highlights: → We consider a two-level system driven by the cnoidal time-dependent field. → Scheme for constructing the exact analytic solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. → Effective analytic approximation of the problem with linearly polarized harmonic wave. → Resonance conditions in the analytic form, including the Bloch-Siegert shift.

  1. Comprehensive Analytical Solution for Linkages Approximating A 3-Order Osculating Straight Line%实现三阶密切直线导路机构解析全解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱卫香

    2013-01-01

    For given frame and one of its points on the prescribed straight line and its orientation, the angle of one side link is selected as design parameter for solving the difficult optimal search problem. Based on Euler-Savary equation and curvature-stagnation point equation, all of straight line guidance mechanisms with Ball point on the coupler curve are obtained by the analytical method. The visualization of related properties of comprehensive solutions are realized to guide designers to search optimization easilly. After imposing kinematic constraints, the feasible mechanism regions can be computed. The method proposed in this paper is applied to choose the optimal design scheme for linkages approximating a 3-order osculating straight line. The results of synthesis examples verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed formulas and method.%对于给定机架和欲逼近直线上的点及方向角,为解决寻优难问题,选取一个连架杆方位角为设计参数,基于Euler-Savary方程和曲率-驻点曲线方程,采用解析法求解含鲍尔点直线机构全解,并实现全部机构尺寸和直线性能的图形可视化.施加运动学约束,计算可行解区间,为具有三阶密切直线导路机构的最优运动设计提供一种先进有效的设计方法,最后通过设计示例验证公式与分析方法的正确性和可行性.

  2. Approximate Relativistic Solutions for One-Dimensional Cylindrical Coaxial Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾正中; 刘国治; 邵浩

    2002-01-01

    Two approximate analytical relativistic solutions for one-dimensional, space-chargelimited cylindrical coaxial diode are derived and utilized to compose best-fitting approximate solutions. Comparison of the best-fitting solutions with the numerical one demonstrates an error of about 11% for cathode-inside arrangement and 12% in the cathode-outside case for ratios of larger to smaller electrode radius from 1.2 to 10 and a voltage above 0.5 MV up to 5 MV. With these solutions the diode lengths for critical self-magnetic bending and for the condition under which the parapotential model validates are calculated to be longer than 1 cm up to more than 100 cm depending on voltage, radial dimensions and electrode arrangement. The influence of ion flow from the anode on the relativistic electron-only solution is numerically computed, indicating an enhancement factor of total diode current of 1.85 to 4.19 related to voltage, radial dimension and electrode arrangement.

  3. Analytical Solution of the Time Fractional Fokker-Planck Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutradhar T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A nonperturbative approximate analytic solution is derived for the time fractional Fokker-Planck (F-P equation by using Adomian’s Decomposition Method (ADM. The solution is expressed in terms of Mittag- Leffler function. The present method performs extremely well in terms of accuracy, efficiency and simplicity.

  4. Analytical solution and semi-analytical solution for anisotropic functionally graded beam subject to arbitrary loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Analytical and semi-analytical solutions are presented for anisotropic functionally graded beams subject to an arbitrary load,which can be expanded in terms of sinusoidal series.For plane stress problems,the stress function is assumed to consist of two parts,one being a product of a trigonometric function of the longitudinal coordinate(x) and an undetermined function of the thickness coordinate(y),and the other a linear polynomial of x with unknown coefficients depending on y.The governing equations satisfied by these y-dependent functions are derived.The expressions for stresses,resultant forces and displacements are then deduced,with integral constants determinable from the boundary conditions.While the analytical solution is derived for the beam with material coefficients varying exponentially or in a power law along the thickness,the semi-analytical solution is sought by making use of the sub-layer approximation for the beam with an arbitrary variation of material parameters along the thickness.The present analysis is applicable to beams with various boundary conditions at the two ends.Three numerical examples are presented for validation of the theory and illustration of the effects of certain parameters.

  5. Analytical solution and semi-analytical solution for anisotropic functionally graded beam subject to arbitrary loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG DeJin; DING Haodiang; CHEN WeiQiu

    2009-01-01

    Analytical and semi-analytical solutions are presented for anisotropic functionally graded beams sub-ject to an arbitrary load, which can be expanded in terms of sinusoidal series. For plane stress prob-lems, the stress function is assumed to consist of two parts, one being a product of a trigonometric function of the longitudinal coordinate (x) and an undetermined function of the thickness coordinate (y), and the other a linear polynomial of x with unknown coefficients depending on y. The governing equa-tions satisfied by these y-dependent functions are derived. The expressions for stresses, resultant forces and displacements are then deduced, with integral constants determinable from the boundary conditions. While the analytical solution is derived for the beam with material coefficients varying exponentially or in a power law along the thickness, the semi-analytical solution is sought by making use of the sub-layer approximation for the beam with an arbitrary variation of material parameters along the thickness. The present analysis is applicable to beams with various boundary conditions at the two ends. Three numerical examples are presented for validation of the theory and illustration of the effects of certain parameters.

  6. Haze of surface random systems: An approximate analytic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Ingve; Andreassen, Erik; Ommundsen, Espen; Nord-Varhaug, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Approximate analytic expressions for haze (and gloss) of Gaussian randomly rough surfaces for various types of correlation functions are derived within phase-perturbation theory. The approximations depend on the angle of incidence, polarization of the incident light, the surface roughness, $\\sigma$, and the average of the power spectrum taken over a small angular interval about the specular direction. In particular it is demonstrated that haze(gloss) increase(decrease) with $\\sigma/\\lambda$ as $\\exp(-A(\\sigma/\\lambda)^2)$ and decreases(increase) with $a/\\lambda$, where $a$ is the correlation length of the surface roughness, in a way that depends on the specific form of the correlation function being considered. These approximations are compared to what can be obtained from a rigorous Monte Carlo simulation approach, and good agreement is found over large regions of parameter space. Some experimental results for the angular distribution of the transmitted light through polymer films, and their haze, are presen...

  7. Analytical approximations for x-ray cross sections III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, F; Lighthill, R

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energiesgreater than or equal to10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically. 100 graphs, 1 tab.

  8. A new approximate analytical approach for dispersion relation of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. W.; Wu, B. S.; He, L. H.

    2001-12-01

    A novel approach is presented for obtaining approximate analytical expressions for the dispersion relation of periodic wavetrains in the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with even potential function. By coupling linearization of the governing equation with the method of harmonic balance, we establish two general analytical approximate formulas for the dispersion relation, which depends on the amplitude of the periodic wavetrain. These formulas are valid for small as well as large amplitude of the wavetrain. They are also applicable to the large amplitude regime, which the conventional perturbation method fails to provide any solution, of the nonlinear system under study. Three examples are demonstrated to illustrate the excellent approximate solutions of the proposed formulas with respect to the exact solutions of the dispersion relation. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Analytical approximations for the orientation distribution of small dipolar particles in steady shear flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bees, Martin Alan; Hill, N.A.; Pedley, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical approximations are obtained to solutions of the steady Fokker-Planck equation describing the probability density function for the orientation of dipolar particles in a steady, low-Reynolds-number shear flow and a uniform external field. Exact computer algebra is used to solve...

  10. Analytic anisotropic solution for holography

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An exact solution to Einstein's equations for holographic models is presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined in detail. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimension reduction.

  11. Analytical solutions for problems of bubble dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an asymptotic solution of the Rayleigh equation for an empty bubble in $N$ dimensions has been obtained. Here we give the closed--from general analytical solution of this equation. We also find the general solution of the Rayleigh equation in $N$ dimensions for the case of a gas--filled hyperspherical bubble. In addition, we include a surface tension into consideration.

  12. Analytical Solutions for Beams Passing Apertures with Sharp Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Luz, Eitam; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    An approximation is elaborated for the paraxial propagation of diffracted beams, with both one- and two-dimensional cross sections, which are released from apertures with sharp boundaries. The approximation applies to any beam under the condition that the thickness of its edges is much smaller than any other length scale in the beam's initial profile. The approximation can be easily generalized for any beam whose initial profile has several sharp features. Therefore, this method can be used as a tool to investigate the diffraction of beams on complex obstacles. The analytical results are compared to numerical solutions and experimental findings, which demonstrates high accuracy of the approximation. For an initially uniform field confined by sharp boundaries, this solution becomes exact for any propagation distance and any sharpness of the edges. Thus, it can be used as an efficient tool to represent the beams, produced by series of slits with a complex structure, by a simple but exact analytical solution.

  13. Applying generalized Pad\\'e approximants in analytic QCD models

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetič, Gorazd

    2011-01-01

    A method of resummation of truncated perturbation series, related to diagonal Pad\\'e approximants but giving results exactly independent of the renormalization scale, was developed more than ten years ago by us with a view of applying it in perturbative QCD. We now apply this method in analytic QCD models, i.e., models where the running coupling has no unphysical singularities, and we show that the method has attractive features such as a rapid convergence. The method can be regarded as a generalization of the scale-setting methods of Stevenson, Grunberg, and Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie. The method involves the fixing of various scales and weight coefficients via an auxiliary construction of diagonal Pad\\'e approximant. In low-energy QCD observables, some of these scales become sometimes low at high order, which prevents the method from being effective in perturbative QCD where the coupling has unphysical singularities at low spacelike momenta. There are no such problems in analytic QCD.

  14. Analytic solutions of nonlinear Cournot duopoly game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Matsumoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a Cournot duopoly model with production externality in which reaction functions are unimodal. We consider the case of a Cournot model which has a stable equilibrium point. Then we show the existence of analytic solutions of the model. Moreover, we seek general solutions of the model in the form of nonlinear second-order difference equation.

  15. Analytic continuation by averaging Padé approximants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schött, Johan; Locht, Inka L. M.; Lundin, Elin; Grânäs, Oscar; Eriksson, Olle; Di Marco, Igor

    2016-02-01

    The ill-posed analytic continuation problem for Green's functions and self-energies is investigated by revisiting the Padé approximants technique. We propose to remedy the well-known problems of the Padé approximants by performing an average of several continuations, obtained by varying the number of fitted input points and Padé coefficients independently. The suggested approach is then applied to several test cases, including Sm and Pr atomic self-energies, the Green's functions of the Hubbard model for a Bethe lattice and of the Haldane model for a nanoribbon, as well as two special test functions. The sensitivity to numerical noise and the dependence on the precision of the numerical libraries are analyzed in detail. The present approach is compared to a number of other techniques, i.e., the nonnegative least-squares method, the nonnegative Tikhonov method, and the maximum entropy method, and is shown to perform well for the chosen test cases. This conclusion holds even when the noise on the input data is increased to reach values typical for quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The ability of the algorithm to resolve fine structures is finally illustrated for two relevant test functions.

  16. Approximate analytical solution of the Dirac equation for pseudospin symmetry with modified Po schl-Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential using asymptotic iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, B. N.; Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Husein, A. S.; Yunianto, M.

    2016-08-01

    We apllied asymptotic iteration method (AIM) to obtain the analytical solution of the Dirac equation in case exact pseudospin symmetry in the presence of modified Pcischl- Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential. The Dirac equation was solved by variables separation into one dimensional Dirac equation, the radial part and angular part equation. The radial and angular part equation can be reduced into hypergeometric type equation by variable substitution and wavefunction substitution and then transform it into AIM type equation to obtain relativistic energy eigenvalue and wavefunctions. Relativistic energy was calculated numerically by Matlab software. And then relativistic energy spectrum and wavefunctions were visualized by Matlab software. The results show that the increase in the radial quantum number nr causes decrease in the relativistic energy spectrum. The negative value of energy is taken due to the pseudospin symmetry limit. Several quantum wavefunctions were presented in terms of the hypergeometric functions.

  17. Analytical solution methods for geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hackmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The observation of the motion of particles and light near a gravitating object is until now the only way to explore and to measure the gravitational field. In the case of exact black hole solutions of the Einstein equations the gravitational field is characterized by a small number of parameters which can be read off from the observables related to the orbits of test particles and light rays. Here we review the state of the art of analytical solutions of geodesic equations in various space--times. In particular we consider the four dimensional black hole space--times of Pleba\\'nski--Demia\\'nski type as far as the geodesic equation separates, as well as solutions in higher dimensions, and also solutions with cosmic strings. The mathematical tools used are elliptic and hyperelliptic functions. We present a list of analytic solutions which can be found in the literature.

  18. Analytical solution for a coaxial plasma gun: Weak coupling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical solution of the system of coupled ODE's which describes the time evolution of an ideal (i.e., zero resistance) coaxial plasma gun operating in the snowplow mode is obtained in the weak coupling limit, i.e, when the gun is fully influenced by the driving (RLC) circuit in which it resides but the circuit is negligibly influenced by the gun. Criteria for the validity of this limit are derived and numerical examples are presented. Although others have obtained approximate, asymptotic and numerical solutions of the equations, the present analytical results seem not to have appeared previously in the literature

  19. Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi

    2006-04-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).

  20. Analytic Solutions of Elastic Tunneling Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strack, O.E.

    2002-01-01

    The complex variable method for solving two dimensional linearly elastic problems is used to obtain several fundamental analytical solutions of tunneling problems. The method is used to derive the general mathematical representation of problems involving resultant forces on holes in a half-plane

  1. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, R

    2015-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, Abelian-Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations.

  2. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S.

    2015-06-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations.

  3. Analytic solutions of an unclassified artifact /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Bruce C.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides the technical detail for analytic solutions for the inner and outer profiles of the unclassified CMM Test Artifact (LANL Part Number 157Y-700373, 5/03/2001) in terms of radius and polar angle. Furthermore, analytic solutions are derived for the legacy Sheffield measurement hardware, also in terms of radius and polar angle, using part coordinates, i.e., relative to the analytic profile solutions obtained. The purpose of this work is to determine the exact solution for the “cosine correction” term inherent to measurement with the Sheffield hardware. The cosine correction is required in order to interpret the actual measurements taken by the hardware in terms of an actual part definition, or “knot-point spline definition,” that typically accompanies a component drawing. Specifically, there are two portions of the problem: first an analytic solution must be obtained for any point on the part, e.g., given the radii and the straight lines that define the part, it is required to find an exact solution for the inner and outer profile for any arbitrary polar angle. Next, the problem of the inspection of this part must be solved, i.e., given an arbitrary sphere (representing the inspection hardware) that comes in contact with the part (inner and outer profiles) at any arbitrary polar angle, it is required to determine the exact location of that intersection. This is trivial for the case of concentric circles. In the present case, however, the spherical portion of the profiles is offset from the defined center of the part, making the analysis nontrivial. Here, a simultaneous solution of the part profiles and the sphere was obtained.

  4. Approximate Solution of Time-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation via Fractional Variational Iteration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol İbiş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to obtain the approximate solution of time-fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE involving Jumarie’s modification of Riemann-Liouville derivative by the fractional variational iteration method (FVIM. FVIM provides an analytical approximate solution in the form of a convergent series. Some examples are given and the results indicate that the FVIM is of high accuracy, more efficient, and more convenient for solving time FADEs.

  5. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  6. Approximate solutions for fractured wells producing layered reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1983-01-01

    New analytical solutions for the response at a well intercepting a layered reservoir are derived. The well is assumed to produce at a constant rate or at a constant pressure. Reservoir systems with and without interlayer communication were examined. The utility of these solutions is documented. An increased physical understanding of fractured wells in layered reservoirs was obtained from these solutions. The influence of vertical variations in fracture conductivity is considered also. 15 references.

  7. Phononic heat transport in the transient regime: An analytic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Riku; Säkkinen, Niko; Karlsson, Daniel; Stefanucci, Gianluca; van Leeuwen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the time-resolved quantum transport properties of phonons in arbitrary harmonic systems connected to phonon baths at different temperatures. We obtain a closed analytic expression of the time-dependent one-particle reduced density matrix by explicitly solving the equations of motion for the nonequilibrium Green's function. This is achieved through a well-controlled approximation of the frequency-dependent bath self-energy. Our result allows for exploring transient oscillations and relaxation times of local heat currents, and correctly reduces to an earlier known result in the steady-state limit. We apply the formalism to atomic chains, and benchmark the validity of the approximation against full numerical solutions of the bosonic Kadanoff-Baym equations for the Green's function. We find good agreement between the analytic and numerical solutions for weak contacts and baths with a wide energy dispersion. We further analyze relaxation times from low to high temperature gradients.

  8. Hamilton's Principle and Approximate Solutions to Problems in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitt, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shows how to use the Ritz method for obtaining approximate solutions to problems expressed in variational form directly from the variational equation. Application of this method to classical mechanics is given. (MLH)

  9. Approximate Solutions of Klein-Gordon Equation with Kratzer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hassanabadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate solutions of the D-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation are obtained for the scalar and vector general Kratzer potential for any l by using the ansatz method. The energy behavior is numerically discussed.

  10. Techniques for correcting approximate finite difference solutions. [considering transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of correcting finite-difference solutions for the effect of truncation error or the use of an approximate basic equation is presented. Applications to transonic flow problems are described and examples are given.

  11. Analytic Solutions of Elastic Tunneling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Strack, O.E.

    2002-01-01

    The complex variable method for solving two dimensional linearly elastic problems is used to obtain several fundamental analytical solutions of tunneling problems. The method is used to derive the general mathematical representation of problems involving resultant forces on holes in a half-plane. Such problems are encountered in geomechanics during the excavation of tunnels. When tunnels are excavated the removal of the weighted material inside the tunnel causes the ground under the tunnel to...

  12. A MARKOVIAN APPROXIMATED SOLUTION TO A PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, Jacek B.

    2000-01-01

    A portfolio management problem is approximated through a Markov decision chain. The weak Euler scheme is applied to discretise the time evolution of a portfolio and an inverse distance method is used to describe the transition probabilities. The approximating Markov decision problem is solved by value iteration. Numerical solutions of varying degrees of accuracy to a few specific portfolio problems are obtained.

  13. Approximating solutions of neutral stochastic evolution equations with jumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we establish existence and uniqueness of the mild solutions to a class of neutral stochastic evolution equations driven by Poisson random measures in some Hilbert space. Moreover, we adopt the Faedo-Galerkin scheme to approximate the solutions.

  14. Approximate solutions to neutral type finite difference equations

    OpenAIRE

    Pachpatte, Deepak B.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study the approximate solutions and the dependency of solutions on parameters to a neutral type finite difference equation, under a given initial condition. A fundamental finite difference inequality, with explicit estimate, is used to establish the results.

  15. Approximate solution of the pairing Hamiltonian in the Berggren basis

    CERN Document Server

    Mercenne, A; Ploszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We derive the approximate solution for the pairing Hamiltonian in the Berggren ensemble of single particle states including bound, resonance and non-resonant scattering states. We show that this solution is reliable in the limit of a weak pairing interaction.

  16. Approximating positive solutions of quadratic functional integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar V. Mule

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence as well as approximations of the positive solutions for a nonlinear quadratic functional integral equation. An algorithm for the solutions is developed and it is shown that the sequence of successive approximations converges monotonically to the positive solution of related quadratic functional integral equation under some suitable mixed hybrid conditions. We rely our results on Dhage iteration method embodied in a recent hybrid fixed point theorem of Dhage (2014 in partially ordered normed linear spaces. An example is also provided to illustrate the abstract theory developed in the paper.

  17. Approximate polynomial solutions for Riccati differential equations using the squared remains minimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bota, C.; Cǎruntu, B.; Bundǎu, O.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we applied the Squared Remainder Minimization Method (SRMM) to find analytic approximate polynomial solutions for Riccati differential equations. Two examples are included to demonstrated the validity and applicability of the method. The results are compared to those obtained by other methods.

  18. Analytic interatomic forces in the random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, Benjamin; Kresse, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We discuss that in the random phase approximation (RPA) the first derivative of the energy with respect to the Green's function is the self-energy in the GW approximation. This relationship allows to derive compact equations for the RPA interatomic forces. We also show that position dependent overlap operators are elegantly incorporated in the present framework. The RPA force equations have been implemented in the projector augmented wave formalism, and we present illustrative applications, including ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the calculation of phonon dispersion relations for diamond and graphite, as well as structural relaxations for water on boron nitride. The present derivation establishes a concise framework for forces within perturbative approaches and is also applicable to more involved approximations for the correlation energy.

  19. Analytic number theory, approximation theory, and special functions in honor of Hari M. Srivastava

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book, in honor of Hari M. Srivastava, discusses essential developments in mathematical research in a variety of problems. It contains thirty-five articles, written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community, including both research and survey works. Subjects covered include analytic number theory, combinatorics, special sequences of numbers and polynomials, analytic inequalities and applications, approximation of functions and quadratures, orthogonality, and special and complex functions. The mathematical results and open problems discussed in this book are presented in a simple and self-contained manner. The book contains an overview of old and new results, methods, and theories toward the solution of longstanding problems in a wide scientific field, as well as new results in rapidly progressing areas of research. The book will be useful for researchers and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, physics, and other computational and applied sciences.

  20. Phase change material solidification in a finned cylindrical shell thermal energy storage: An approximate analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosaffa Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported of an investigation of the solidification of a phase change material (PCM in a cylindrical shell thermal energy storage with radial internal fins. An approximate analytical solution is presented for two cases. In case 1, the inner wall is kept at a constant temperature and, in case 2, a constant heat flux is imposed on the inner wall. In both cases, the outer wall is insulated. The results are compared to those for a numerical approach based on an enthalpy method. The results show that the analytical model satisfactory estimates the solid-liquid interface. In addition, a comparative study is reported of the solidified fraction of encapsulated PCM for different geometric configurations of finned storage having the same volume and surface area of heat transfer.

  1. Generating exact solutions to Einstein's equation using linearized approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, Abraham I

    2016-01-01

    We show that certain solutions to the linearized Einstein equation can---by the application of a particular type of linearized gauge transformation---be straightforwardly transformed into solutions of the exact Einstein equation. In cases with nontrivial matter content, the exact stress-energy tensor of the transformed metric has the same eigenvalues and eigenvectors as the linearized stress-energy tensor of the initial approximation. When our gauge exists, the tensorial structure of transformed metric perturbations identically eliminates all nonlinearities in Einstein's equation. As examples, we derive the exact Kerr and gravitational plane wave metrics from standard harmonic-gauge approximations.

  2. Approximate Solution of nth-Order Fuzzy Linear Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate solution of nth-order fuzzy linear differential equations in which coefficient functions maintain the sign is investigated by the undetermined fuzzy coefficients method. The differential equations is converted to a crisp function system of linear equations according to the operations of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy approximate solution of the fuzzy linear differential equation is obtained by solving the crisp linear equations. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed method. It is an extension of Allahviranloo's results.

  3. Analytical approximations for the amplitude and period of a relaxation oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golkhou Vahid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis and design of complex systems benefit from mathematically tractable models, which are often derived by approximating a nonlinear system with an effective equivalent linear system. Biological oscillators with coupled positive and negative feedback loops, termed hysteresis or relaxation oscillators, are an important class of nonlinear systems and have been the subject of comprehensive computational studies. Analytical approximations have identified criteria for sustained oscillations, but have not linked the observed period and phase to compact formulas involving underlying molecular parameters. Results We present, to our knowledge, the first analytical expressions for the period and amplitude of a classic model for the animal circadian clock oscillator. These compact expressions are in good agreement with numerical solutions of corresponding continuous ODEs and for stochastic simulations executed at literature parameter values. The formulas are shown to be useful by permitting quick comparisons relative to a negative-feedback represillator oscillator for noise (10× less sensitive to protein decay rates, efficiency (2× more efficient, and dynamic range (30 to 60 decibel increase. The dynamic range is enhanced at its lower end by a new concentration scale defined by the crossing point of the activator and repressor, rather than from a steady-state expression level. Conclusion Analytical expressions for oscillator dynamics provide a physical understanding for the observations from numerical simulations and suggest additional properties not readily apparent or as yet unexplored. The methods described here may be applied to other nonlinear oscillator designs and biological circuits.

  4. Complex method for approximated solutions to Born-Infeld equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We display the method to solve the Born-Infeld equation in the complex plane. As the exact solution is obtained in an implicit form, we turn it into an explicit form by means of a perturbative procedure which takes care of secular behaviors common to this kind of approximations. We apply the method to build solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. In particular, we study BI electromagnetic waves at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible of experimental detection.

  5. A Modified Random Phase Approximation of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ermoshkin, A. V.; de la Cruz, M. Olvera

    2002-01-01

    We compute the phase diagram of salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions using a modified Debye-Huckel Approach. We introduce the chain connectivity via the Random Phase Approximation with two important modifications. We modify the electrostatic potential at short distances to include a bound on the electrostatic attractions at the distance of closest approach between charges. This modification is shown to act as a hard core in the phase diagram of electrolyte solutions. We also introduce a cut-of...

  6. Analytical Evaluation of Beam Deformation Problem Using Approximate Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, A.; Domairry, G.

    2010-01-01

    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified, ...... Iteration Method (VIM). The comparisons of the results reveal that these methods are very effective, convenient and quite accurate for systems of non-linear differential equation....

  7. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. II. Radiative Transfer via the Two-Stream Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin; Lee, Jaemin

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior) and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically under-determined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We further demonstrate that traditional non-isothermal treatments of each atmospheric layer lead to unphysical contributions to the ...

  8. Approximate Solutions of Delay Parabolic Equations with the Dirichlet Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Agirseven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite difference and homotopy analysis methods are used for the approximate solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the delay parabolic partial differential equation with the Dirichlet condition. The convergence estimates for the solution of first and second orders of difference schemes in Hölder norms are obtained. A procedure of modified Gauss elimination method is used for the solution of these difference schemes. Homotopy analysis method is applied. Comparison of finite difference and homotopy analysis methods is given on the problem.

  9. Analytical solutions for ozone generation by point to plane corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent mathematical model developed for ozone production is tackled analytically by asymptotic approximation. The results obtained are compared with existing numerical solutions. The comparison shows good agreement. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig

  10. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  11. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2016-07-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  12. Analytical Solution of Multicompartment Solute Kinetics for Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Korohoda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide an exact solution for variable-volume multicompartment kinetic models with linear volume change, and to apply this solution to a 4-compartment diffusion-adjusted regional blood flow model for both urea and creatinine kinetics in hemodialysis. Methods. A matrix-based approach applicable to linear models encompassing any number of compartments is presented. The procedure requires the inversion of a square matrix and the computation of its eigenvalues λ, assuming they are all distinct. This novel approach bypasses the evaluation of the definite integral to solve the inhomogeneous ordinary differential equation. Results. For urea two out of four eigenvalues describing the changes of concentrations in time are about 105 times larger than the other eigenvalues indicating that the 4-compartment model essentially reduces to the 2-compartment regional blood flow model. In case of creatinine, however, the distribution of eigenvalues is more balanced (a factor of 102 between the largest and the smallest eigenvalue indicating that all four compartments contribute to creatinine kinetics in hemodialysis. Interpretation. Apart from providing an exact analytic solution for practical applications such as the identification of relevant model and treatment parameters, the matrix-based approach reveals characteristic details on model symmetry and complexity for different solutes.

  13. ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS OF SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXinhe

    2003-01-01

    Let r be a given positive number.Denote by D=D the closed disc in the complex plane C whose center is the origin and radius is r.For any subset K of C and any integer m ≥1,write A(Dm,K)={f|f:Dm→Kis a continuous map,and f|(Dm)*is analytic).For H∈A(Dm,C)(m≥2),f∈A(D,D)and z∈D,write ψH(f)(z)=H(z,f(z)……fm=1(x)).Suppose F,G∈A(D2n+1,C),and Hk,Kk∈A(Dk,C),k=2,……,n.In this paper,the system of functional equations {F(z,f(z),f2(ψHz(f)(z))…,fn(ψk2(g)(x))… gn(ψKn(g)(z)))=0 G(z,f(z),f2(ψH2(f)(z))…fn(ψHn(f)(z)),g(z),g2(ψk2(g)(x))…,gn(ψkn(g)(z)))=0(z∈D)is studied and some conditions for the system of equations to have a solution or a unique solution in A(D,D)×A(D,D)are given.

  14. Derivation of Varying Specific Heat Gasdynamic Functions,Normal Shock Analytical Solution and its Improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TsuiChih-Ya

    1992-01-01

    A set of new gasdynamic functions with varying specific heat are deriveo for the first time.An original analytical solution of normal shock waves is owrked out therewith.This solution is thereafter further improved by not involving total temperature,Illustrative examples of comparison are given,including also some approximate solutions to show the orders of their errors.

  15. Optimum Approximate Solution of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gui-yun; LIN Xue-dong; ZHANG Yong-zhong

    2004-01-01

    During calculating the fluid resistence with Herschel-Bulkley formula, the deviation is very large in some regions. In order to decrease the deviation, the optimized parameters of approximate solution are obtained through mathematic analysis and 3-D optimization calculation. In the close region of relative radius of the core flow, the continuity of deviation is determined with the limit methods. By analysis, the results indicate that the deviation in the area around the discontinuous nodes is very large; the deviation is the function of fluid parameters, approximate solution parameters and the relative radius of the core flow. While the fluid parameters keep certain, the 3-D figures of the deviation are drawn. The slice plane is used to seek the extremums of multi-peaks surface; The optimized parameters of approximate formula make the approximate formula in the regions of the certain deviation. The available area of relative radius of the core flow increases by 43.2%. It is more valuable for the calculation of flow resistance in pipe transportation.

  16. Approximate solutions of common fixed-point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    This book presents results on the convergence behavior of algorithms which are known as vital tools for solving convex feasibility problems and common fixed point problems. The main goal for us in dealing with a known computational error is to find what approximate solution can be obtained and how many iterates one needs to find it. According to know results, these algorithms should converge to a solution. In this exposition, these algorithms are studied, taking into account computational errors which remain consistent in practice. In this case the convergence to a solution does not take place. We show that our algorithms generate a good approximate solution if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Beginning with an introduction, this monograph moves on to study: · dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in a Hilbert space · dynamic string methods for common fixed point problems in a metric space · dynamic string-averaging version of the proximal...

  17. Analytic gas orbits in an arbitrary rotating galactic potential using the linear epicyclic approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Piñol-Ferrer, N; Fathi, K

    2011-01-01

    A code, Epic5, has been developed which computes, in the two-dimensional case, the initially circular orbits of guiding centra in an arbitrary axisymmetric potential with an arbitrary, weak perturbing potential in solid body rotation. This perturbing potential is given by its Fourier expansion. The analytic solution solves the linear epicyclic approximation of the equations of motion. To simulate the motion of interstellar matter and to damp the Lindblad resonances, we have in these equations introduced a friction which is proportional to the deviation from circular velocity. The corotation resonance is also damped by a special parameter. The program produces, in just a few seconds, orbital and density maps, as well as line of sight velocity maps for a chosen orientation of the galaxy. We test Epic5 by comparing its results with previous simulations and observations from the literature, which gives satisfactory agreement. The aim is that this program should be a useful complement to elaborate numerical simula...

  18. Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: Level of accuracy and analytic expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolias, P. [Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, Naples 80126 (Italy); Ratynskaia, S. [Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden); Angelis, U. de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, Naples 80126 (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the study of the thermodynamics of dusty plasma liquids, the latter treated as Yukawa one-component plasmas. Within this integral theory method, the only input necessary for the calculation of the reduced excess energy stems from the solution of a single non-linear algebraic equation. Consequently, thermodynamic quantities can be routinely computed without the need to determine the pair correlation function or the structure factor. The level of accuracy of the approach is quantified after an extensive comparison with numerical simulation results. The approach is solved over a million times with input spanning the whole parameter space and reliable analytic expressions are obtained for the basic thermodynamic quantities.

  19. Analytic solution of Hubbell's model of local community dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    McKane, A; Sole, R; Kane, Alan Mc; Alonso, David; Sole, Ricard

    2003-01-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to community structure and dynamics reveal that many large-scale features of community structure (such as species-rank distributions and species-area relations) can be explained by a so-called neutral model. Using this approach, species are taken to be equivalent and trophic relations are not taken into account explicitly. Here we provide a general analytic solution to the local community model of Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity by recasting it as an urn model i.e.a Markovian description of states and their transitions. Both stationary and time-dependent distributions are analysed. The stationary distribution -- also called the zero-sum multinomial -- is given in closed form. An approximate form for the time-dependence is obtained by using an expansion of the master equation. The temporal evolution of the approximate distribution is shown to be a good representation for the true temporal evolution for a large range of parameter values.

  20. A solution of LIDAR problem in double scattering approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leble, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    A problem of monoenergetic particles pulse reflection from half-infinite stratified medium is considered in conditions of elastic scattering with absorbtion account. The theory is based on multiple scattering series solution of Kolmogorov equation for one-particle distribution function. The analytical representation for first two terms are given in compact form for a point impulse source and cylindric symmetrical detector. Reading recent articles on the LIDAR sounding of environment (e.g. Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (2010) 23: 389-395, Kaul, B. V.; Samokhvalov, I. V. http://www.springerlink.com/content/k3p2p3582674xt21/) one recovers standing interest to the related direct and inverse problems. A development of the result fo the case of n-fold scattering and polarization account as well as correspondent convergence series problem solution of the Kolmogorov equation will be published in nearest future.

  1. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xi; Shia Runlie; Yung, Yuk L., E-mail: xiz@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  2. The approximate solutions of Fredholm integral equations on Cantor sets within local fractional operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kamil Jassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the local fractional Adomian decomposition and variational iteration methods to obtain the analytic approximate solutions of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind within local fractional derivative operators. The iteration procedure is based on local fractional derivative. The obtained results reveal that the proposed methods are very efficient and simple tools for solving local fractional integral equations.

  3. Abrupt PN junctions: Analytical solutions under equilibrium and non-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Sina

    2016-08-01

    We present an explicit solution of carrier and field distributions in abrupt PN junctions under equilibrium. An accurate logarithmic numerical method is implemented and results are compared to the analytical solutions. Analysis of results shows reasonable agreement with numerical solution as well as the depletion layer approximation. We discuss extensions to the asymmetric junctions. Approximate relations for differential capacitance C-V and current-voltage I-V characteristics are also found under non-zero external bias.

  4. Migration of radionuclides through sorbing media analytical solutions--II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Albert, M.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents analytical solutions, and the results of such solutions, for the migration of radionuclides in geologic media. Volume 1 contains analytical solutions for one-dimensional equilibrium transport in infinite media and multilayered media. One-dimensional non-equilibrium transport solutions are also included. Volume 2 contains analytical solutions for transport in a one-dimensional field flow with transverse dispersion as well as transport in multi-dimensional flow. A finite element solution of the transport of radionuclides through porous media is discussed. (DMC)

  5. Analytic calculation of hadron spectrum by random walk approximation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors explain the detail of how to calculate the meson and baryon spectrum by random walk approximation analytically. The results are compared with experimental values and Monte-Carlo results. (Auth.)

  6. On Approximate Solutions of Functional Equations in Vector Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Batko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a method of approximation of approximate solutions of functional equations in the class of functions acting into a Riesz space (algebra. The main aim of the paper is to provide a general theorem that can act as a tool applicable to a possibly wide class of functional equations. The idea is based on the use of the Spectral Representation Theory for Riesz spaces. The main result will be applied to prove the stability of an alternative Cauchy functional equation F(x+y+F(x+F(y≠0⇒F(x+y=F(x+F(y in Riesz spaces, the Cauchy equation with squares F(x+y2=(F(x+F(y2 in f-algebras, and the quadratic functional equation F(x+y+F(x-y=2F(x+2F(y in Riesz spaces.

  7. Note on the Calculation of Analytical Hessians in the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA)

    OpenAIRE

    van Lenthe, J.H.; van Lingen, J.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The previously proposed atomic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) approch, which was shown to eliminate the gauge dependent effect on gradients and to be remarkably accurate for geometry optimization, is tested for the calculation of analytical second derivatives. It is shown that the resulting analytic second derivatives are indeed exact within this approximation. The method proves to yield frequencies that are remarkably close to the experimental frequency for uranium hexafluoride bu...

  8. Approximate Solution of the Point Reactor Kinetic Equations of Average One-Group of Delayed Neutrons for Step Reactivity Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yamoah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the time-dependent behaviour of the neutron population in a nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions is of great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study two analytical methods have been presented to solve the point kinetic equations of average one-group of delayed neutrons. These methods which are both approximate solution of the point reactor kinetic equations are compared with a numerical solution using the Euler’s first order method. To obtain accurate solution for the Euler method, a relatively small time step was chosen for the numerical solution. These methods are applied to different types of reactivity to check the validity of the analytical method by comparing the analytical results with the numerical results. From the results, it is observed that the analytical solution agrees well with the numerical solution.

  9. Analytical descriptions of cross-polarisation dynamics: relaxing the secular approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschinger, J.; Raya, J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, analytical expressions of the cross-polarisation (CP) dynamics under both static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions are obtained by solving the generalised Liouville-von Neumann quantum mechanical equation beyond the standard approximations, i.e., reintroducing neglected non-secular terms in the system superoperator. Although the simple model of a two-spin system interacting with a spin bath gives a rather crude description of CP dynamics, it accounts well for the orientation dependence of CP in a static sample of ferrocene powder and permits to detect slight departures from the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition. This approach also has the advantage of yielding manageable analytical expressions that can be used even by less inclined or experienced workers to obtain results that are good enough in an operational sense. Moreover, the resulting spin diffusion rate constants containing different sources of anisotropy of the system-environment interaction as well as their dependence on the MAS frequency are related semi-quantitatively to the local network of dipolar interactions. Finally, it is shown that non-secular solutions improve significantly the analysis of CPMAS-based separated-local-field spectroscopy experimental data in the absence of homonuclear decoupling.

  10. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. A. Sharaf; A. M. Sendi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, four parameters analytical solution will be established for the stellar density function in globular clusters. The solution could be used for any arbitrary order of outward decrease of the cluster’s density.

  11. Comparison of the analytical approximation formula and Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear Black-Scholes parabolic equations

    OpenAIRE

    Duris, Karol; Tan, Shih-Hau; Lai, Choi-Hong; Sevcovic, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Market illiquidity, feedback effects, presence of transaction costs, risk from unprotected portfolio and other nonlinear effects in PDE based option pricing models can be described by solutions to the generalized Black-Scholes parabolic equation with a diffusion term nonlinearly depending on the option price itself. Different linearization techniques such as Newton's method and analytic asymptotic approximation formula are adopted and compared for a wide class of nonlinear Black-Scholes equat...

  12. Fine discretization of pair interactions and an approximate analytical strategy for predicting equilibrium behavior of complex fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingshead, Kyle B.; Jain, Avni; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    We study whether fine discretization (i.e., terracing) of continuous pair interactions, when used in combination with first-order mean-spherical approximation theory, can lead to a simple and general analytical strategy for predicting the equilibrium structure and thermodynamics of complex fluids. Specifically, we implement a version of this approach to predict how screened electrostatic repulsions, solute-mediated depletion attractions, or ramp-shaped repulsions modify the radial distributio...

  13. Fast and Analytical EAP Approximation from a 4th-Order Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurobrata Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI was developed to model complex apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC using higher-order tensors (HOTs and to overcome the inherent single-peak shortcoming of DTI. However, the geometry of a complex ADC profile does not correspond to the underlying structure of fibers. This tissue geometry can be inferred from the shape of the ensemble average propagator (EAP. Though interesting methods for estimating a positive ADC using 4th-order diffusion tensors were developed, GDTI in general was overtaken by other approaches, for example, the orientation distribution function (ODF, since it is considerably difficult to recuperate the EAP from a HOT model of the ADC in GDTI. In this paper, we present a novel closed-form approximation of the EAP using Hermite polynomials from a modified HOT model of the original GDTI-ADC. Since the solution is analytical, it is fast, differentiable, and the approximation converges well to the true EAP. This method also makes the effort of computing a positive ADC worthwhile, since now both the ADC and the EAP can be used and have closed forms. We demonstrate our approach with 4th-order tensors on synthetic data and in vivo human data.

  14. An analytical approach to fast neutron spectra by the modified Wigner approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For these several years there has been considerable interest in the application of continuous slowing down (CSD) theory to problems in Fast Reactor Analysis. In such applications it is very important how to redefine the moderating parameters and how to treat inelastic scatterings in a resolved region and in an unresolved region. Treating inelastic and elastic scattering separately Stacey expanded the total collision density in a two-term Taylor series and gave an accurate neutron spectrum for a representative fast reactor composition, while Dunn and Becker incorporated inelastic scatterings into their moderating parameters by using the multigroup inelastic scattering matrix. In this paper we extend the CSD theory to the space-dependent problem by assuming the factorized neutron flux so as to derive the modified diffusion equation. In order to treat analytically the neutron flux in a finite bulk medium it is desired that the overall moderating process is described by as few moderating parameters as possible which can be defined for any energy region and any composition of materials by the unified formalism. To satisfy this requirement we propose the modified Wigner approximation (MWA) which is the CSD theory of the Wigner-type and its moderating parameter xi(u)-circumflex is given iteratively by the simple definition. For rapid computations of our parameter xi(u) we use the separate-type synthetic kernels for elastic scattering and inelastic scatterings. For the space-dependent problem in a finite bulk medium an simple analytical formula is derived by solving the modified diffusion equation and is used to study the space-dependence of fast neutron fluxes and the leakage effects on fast neutron fluxes at various points. This analytical solution brings out the fine structure of the fast neutron spectrum in greater detail than comparable multigroup treatments and allows simple analyses of fast neutron time-of-flight spectra

  15. An analytical solution in the complex plane for the luminosity distance in flat cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zaninetti, L

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical solution for the luminosity distance in spatially flat cosmology with pressureless matter and the cosmological constant. The complex analytical solution is made of a real part and a negligible imaginary part. The real part of the luminosity distance allows finding the two parameters $H_0$ and $\\om$. A simple expression for the distance modulus for SNs of type Ia is reported in the framework of the minimax approximation.

  16. Mathematical analysis of recent analytical approximations to the collapse of an empty spherical bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M

    2013-02-28

    We analyze the Rayleigh equation for the collapse of an empty bubble and provide an explanation for some recent analytical approximations to the model. We derive the form of the singularity at the second boundary point and discuss the convergence of the approximants. We also give a rigorous proof of the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of the power series that are the basis for the approximate expressions.

  17. Analytical chemistry: Sweet solution to sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Samuel K.; Chin, Curtis D.

    2011-09-01

    Glucose meters allow rapid and quantitative measurement of blood sugar levels for diabetes sufferers worldwide. Now a new method allows this proven technology to be used to quantify a much wider range of analytes.

  18. Analytical Solution of Projectile Motion with Quadratic Resistance and Generalisations

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Shouryya

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the motion of a body under the influence of gravity and drag of the surrounding fluid. Depending on the fluid mechanical regime, the drag force can exhibit a linear, quadratic or even more general dependence on the velocity of the body relative to the fluid. The case of quadratic drag is substantially more complex than the linear case, as it nonlinearly couples both components of the momentum equation, and no explicit analytic solution is known for a general trajectory. After a detailed account of the literature, the paper provides such a solution in form of a series expansion. This result is discussed in detail and related to other approaches previously proposed. In particular, it is shown to yield certain approximate solutions proposed in the literature as limiting cases. The solution technique employs a strategy to reduce systems of ordinary differential equations with a triangular dependence of the right-hand side on the vector of unknowns to a single equation in an auxiliary variable....

  19. A compact analytic solution describing optoacoustic phenomenon in absorbing fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Cundin, Luisiana; Barsalou, Norman; Voss, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of an analytic, closed-form solution for Q-switched laser induced optoacoustic phenomenon in absorbing fluid media is presented. The solution assumes spherical symmetry as well for the forcing function, which represents heat deposition from Q-switched lasers. The Greens solution provided is a suitable kernel to generate more complex solutions arising in optoacoustics, optoacoustic spectroscopy, photoacoustic and photothermal problems.

  20. AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR AN EXPONENTIAL TYPE DISPERSION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子亭

    2001-01-01

    The dispersion process in heterogeneous porous media is distance-dependent,which results from multi-scaling property of heterogeneous structure. An analytical model describing the dispersion with an exponential dispersion function is built, which is transformed into ODE problem with variable coefficients, and obtained analytical solution for two type boundary conditions using hypergeometric function and inversion technique.According to the analytical solution and computing results the difference between the exponential dispersion and constant dispersion process is analyzed.

  1. The quasi-diffusive approximation in transport theory: Local solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one velocity, plane geometry integral neutron transport equation is transformed into a system of two equations, one of them being the equation of continuity and the other a generalized Fick's law, in which the usual diffusion coefficient is replaced by a self-adjoint integral operator. As the kernel of this operator is very close to the Green function of a diffusion equation, an approximate inversion by means of a second order differential operator allows to transform these equations into a purely differential system which is shown to be equivalent, in the simplest case, to a diffusion-like equation. The method, the principles of which have been exposed in a previous paper, is here extended and applied to a variety of problems. If the inversion is properly performed, the quasi-diffusive solutions turn out to be quite accurate, even in the vicinity of the interface between different material regions, where elementary diffusion theory usually fails. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Semi-analytic solution to planar Helmholtz equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukač M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic solution of interior domains is of great interest. Solving acoustic pressure fields faster with lower computational requirements is demanded. A novel solution technique based on the analytic solution to the Helmholtz equation in rectangular domain is presented. This semi-analytic solution is compared with the finite element method, which is taken as the reference. Results show that presented method is as precise as the finite element method. As the semi-analytic method doesn’t require spatial discretization, it can be used for small and very large acoustic problems with the same computational costs.

  3. A non-grey analytical model for irradiated atmospheres. II: Analytical vs. numerical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, Vivien; Fortney, Jonathan J; Marley, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery and characterization of the diversity of the atmospheres of exoplanets and brown dwarfs calls for the development of fast and accurate analytical models. In this paper we first quantify the accuracy of the analytical solution derived in paper I for an irradiated, non-grey atmosphere by comparing it to a state-of-the-art radiative transfer model. Then, using a grid of numerical models, we calibrate the different coefficients of our analytical model for irradiated solar-composition atmospheres of giant exoplanets and brown dwarfs. We show that the so-called Eddington approximation used to solve the angular dependency of the radiation field leads to relative errors of up to 5% on the temperature profile. For grey or semi-grey atmospheres we show that the presence of a convective zone has a limited effect on the radiative atmosphere above it and leads to modifications of the radiative temperature profile of order 2%. However, for realistic non-grey planetary atmospheres, the presence of a con...

  4. Surface conductivity in electrokinetic systems with porous and charged interfaces: Analytical approximations and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Kirby, Brian J

    2016-07-01

    We derive an approximate analytical representation of the conductivity for a 1D system with porous and charged layers grafted onto parallel plates. Our theory improves on prior work by developing approximate analytical expressions applicable over an arbitrary range of potentials, both large and small as compared to the thermal voltage (RTF). Further, we describe these results in a framework of simplifying nondimensional parameters, indicating the relative dominance of various physicochemical processes. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approximate expression with comparisons to numerical representations of the exact analytical conductivity. Finally, we utilize this conductivity expression, in concert with other components of the electrokinetic coupling matrix, to describe the streaming potential and electroviscous effect in systems with porous and charged layers.

  5. THE HYDRODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF IMPULSIVELY HEATED CORONAL LOOPS: EXPLICIT ANALYTICAL APPROXIMATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive simple analytical approximations (in explicit form) for the hydrodynamic evolution of the electron temperature T(s, t) and electron density n(s, t), for one-dimensional coronal loops that are subject to impulsive heating with subsequent cooling. Our analytical approximations are derived from first principles, using (1) the hydrodynamic energy balance equation, (2) the loop scaling laws of Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana and Serio, (3) the Neupert effect, and (4) the Jakimiec relationship. We compare our analytical approximations with 56 numerical cases of time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations from a parametric study of Tsiklauri et al., covering a large parameter space of heating rates, heating timescales, heating scale heights, loop lengths, for both footpoint and apex heating, mostly applicable to flare conditions. The average deviations from the average temperature and density values are typically ∼20% for our analytical expressions. The analytical approximations in explicit form provide an efficient tool to mimic time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations, to model observed soft X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet light curves of heated and cooling loops in the solar corona and in flares by forward fitting, to model microflares, to infer the coronal heating function from light curves of multi-wavelength observations, and to provide physical models of differential emission measure distributions for solar and stellar flares, coronae, and irradiance.

  6. Analytical solution for soil water redistribution during evaporation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jidong; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Shiyu

    2013-01-01

    Simulating the dynamics of soil water content and modeling soil water evaporation are critical for many environmental and agricultural strategies. The present study aims to develop an analytical solution to simulate soil water redistribution during the evaporation process. This analytical solution was derived utilizing an exponential function to describe the relation of hydraulic conductivity and water content on pressure head. The solution was obtained based on the initial condition of saturation and an exponential function to model the change of surface water content. Also, the evaporation experiments were conducted under a climate control apparatus to validate the theoretical development. Comparisons between the proposed analytical solution and experimental result are presented from the aspects of soil water redistribution, evaporative rate and cumulative evaporation. Their good agreement indicates that this analytical solution provides a reliable way to investigate the interaction of evaporation and soil water profile. PMID:24355839

  7. Analytical solution for the diffusion of a capacitor discharge generated magnetic field pulse in a conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants, Ilmārs; Bojarevičs, Andris; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-06-01

    Powerful forces arise when a pulse of a magnetic field in the order of a few tesla diffuses into a conductor. Such pulses are used in electromagnetic forming, impact welding of dissimilar materials and grain refinement of solidifying alloys. Strong magnetic field pulses are generated by the discharge current of a capacitor bank. We consider analytically the penetration of such pulse into a conducting half-space. Besides the exact solution we obtain two simple self-similar approximate solutions for two sequential stages of the initial transient. Furthermore, a general solution is provided for the external field given as a power series of time. Each term of this solution represents a self-similar function for which we obtain an explicit expression. The validity range of various approximate analytical solutions is evaluated by comparison to the exact solution.

  8. Analytic solutions of nonlinear neutral and advanced differential equatios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Wiener

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of local existence and uniqueness theorems for analytic solutions of nonlinear differential equations of neutral and advanced types. These results are of special interest for advanced eauations whose solutions, in general, lose their margin of smoothness. Furthermore, existence of entire solutions is established for linear advanced differential systems with polynomial coefficients.

  9. Analytical solutions of coupled-mode equations for microring resonators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHAO C Y

    2016-06-01

    We present a study on analytical solutions of coupled-mode equations for microring resonators with an emphasis on occurrence of all-optical EIT phenomenon, obtained by using a cofactor. As concrete examples, analytical solutions for a $3 \\times 3$ linearly distributed coupler and a circularly distributed coupler are obtained. The former corresponds to a non-degenerate eigenvalue problem and the latter corresponds to a degenerate eigenvalue problem. For comparison and without loss of generality, analytical solution for a $4 \\times 4$ linearly distributed coupler is also obtained. This paper may be of interest to optical physics and integrated photonics communities.

  10. Delay in a tandem queueing model with mobile queues : an analytical approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hanbali, A Ahmad; Haan; Boucherie, RJ Richard; Ommeren, van, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the end-to-end delay performance of a tandem queueing system with mobile queues. Due to state-space explosion there is no hope for a numerical exact analysis for the joint-queue length distribution. For this reason, we present an analytical approximation that is based on queue length analysis. Through extensive numerical validation, we nd that the queue length approximation exhibits excellent performance for light tra c load.

  11. Analytical solutions to nonlinear conservative oscillator with fifth-order nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. G. Sfahani; S.S. Ganji; A. Barari; H. Mirgolbabaei; G. Domairry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes analytical and numerical methods to analyze the steady state periodic response of an oscillator with symmetric elastic and inertia nonlinearity. A new implementation of the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and an ancient Chinese method called the max-min approach are presented to obtain an approximate solution. The major concern is to assess the accuracy of these approximate methods in predicting the system response within a certain range of system parameters by examining their ability to establish an actual (numerical) solution. Therefore, the analytical results are compared with the numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the proposed methods.

  12. A general solution and approximation for the diffusion of gas in a spherical coal sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yucang; Xue Sheng; Xie Jun

    2014-01-01

    The square root relationship of gas release in the early stage of desorption is widely used to provide a simple and fast estimation of the lost gas in coal mines. However, questions arise as to how the relation-ship was theoretically derived, what are the assumptions and applicable conditions and how large the error will be. In this paper, the analytical solutions of gas concentration and fractional gas loss for the dif-fusion of gas in a spherical coal sample were given with detailed mathematical derivations based on the diffusion equation. The analytical solutions were approximated in case of small values of time and the error analyses associated with the approximation were also undertaken. The results indicate that the square root relationship of gas release is the first term of the approximation, and care must be taken in using the square root relationship as a significant error might be introduced with increase in the lost time and decrease in effective diameter of a spherical coal sample.

  13. Analytic solutions of topologically disjoint systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, J. R.; Volosniev, A. G.; Fedorov, D. V.;

    2015-01-01

    We describe a procedure to solve an up to $2N$ problem where the particles are separated topologically in $N$ groups with at most two particles in each. Arbitrary interactions are allowed between the (two) particles within one group. All other interactions are approximated by harmonic oscillator ...

  14. The comparative study on analytical solutions and numerical solutions of displacement in transversely isotropic rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizeng; Zhao, Zhao; Li, Yongtao

    2016-06-01

    This paper attempts to verify the correctness of the analytical displacement solution in transversely isotropic rock mass, and to determine the scope of its application. The analytical displacement solution of a circular tunnel in transversely isotropic rock mass was derived firstly. The analytical solution was compared with the numerical solution, which was carried out by FLAC3D software. The results show that the expression of the analytical displacement solution is correct, and the allowable engineering range is that the dip angle is less than 15 degrees.

  15. Analytical solutions of the extended Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended Boussinesq equation for the description of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem has been studied and analyzed with the Painleve test. It has been shown that the equation does not pass the Painleve test, but the necessary condition for the existence of meromorphic solutions is satisfied

  16. Simple analytical expression for work function in the 'nearest neighbour' approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, J. [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, 1-2 Waly Chrobrego, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland); Kravtsov, Yu.A., E-mail: y.kravtsov@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, 1-2 Waly Chrobrego, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland); Space Research Institute, Profsoyuznaya St. 82/34, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-17

    Nonlocal operator of potential is suggested, based on the 'nearest neighbour' approximation (NNA) for single electron wave function in metals. It is shown that Schroedinger equation with nonlocal potential leads to quite simple analytical expression for work function, which surprisingly well fits to experimental data.

  17. Simple analytical expression for work function in the “nearest neighbour” approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlocal operator of potential is suggested, based on the “nearest neighbour” approximation (NNA) for single electron wave function in metals. It is shown that Schrödinger equation with nonlocal potential leads to quite simple analytical expression for work function, which surprisingly well fits to experimental data.

  18. Note on the Calculation of Analytical Hessians in the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lenthe, J.H.; van Lingen, J.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The previously proposed atomic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) approch, which was shown to eliminate the gauge dependent effect on gradients and to be remarkably accurate for geometry optimization, is tested for the calculation of analytical second derivatives. It is shown that the resulti

  19. Analytical r-mode solution with gravitational radiation reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, O J C; S\\'a, Paulo M.

    2005-01-01

    We present and discuss the analytical r-mode solution to the linearized hydrodynamic equations of a slowly rotating, Newtonian, barotropic, non-magnetized, perfect-fluid star in which the gravitational radiation reaction force is present.

  20. False Vacuum Transitions - Analytical Solutions and Decay Rate Values

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, R A C; da Rocha, Roldao

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show a class of oscillating configurations for the evolution of the domain walls in Euclidean space. The solutions are obtained analytically. We also find the decay rate of the false vacuum.

  1. Analytical solutions for the Rabi model

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Lixian; Liang, Qifeng; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang

    2012-01-01

    The Rabi model that describes the fundamental interaction between a two-level system with a quantized harmonic oscillator is one of the simplest and most ubiquitous models in modern physics. However, this model has not been solved exactly because it is hard to find a second conserved quantity besides the energy. Here we present a unitary transformation to map this unsolvable Rabi model into a solvable Jaynes-Cummings-like model by choosing a proper variation parameter. As a result, the analytical energy spectrums and wavefunctions including both the ground and the excited states can be obtained easily. Moreover, these explicit results agree well with the direct numerical simulations in a wide range of the experimental parameters. In addition, based on our obtained energy spectrums, the recent experimental observation of Bloch-Siegert in the circuit quantum electrodynamics with the ultrastrong coupling can be explained perfectly. Our results have the potential application in the solid-state quantum information...

  2. Zero Viscosity Limit for Analytic Solutions of the Primitive Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavica, Igor; Lombardo, Maria Carmela; Sammartino, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove that the solutions of the primitive equations converge, in the zero viscosity limit, to the solutions of the hydrostatic Euler equations. We construct the solution of the primitive equations through a matched asymptotic expansion involving the solution of the hydrostatic Euler equation and boundary layer correctors as the first order term, and an error that we show to be {O(√{ν})}. The main assumption is spatial analyticity of the initial datum.

  3. Approximate Solution of D-Dimensional Klein-Gordon Equation with Hulthen-Type Potential via SUSYQM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Hassanabadi; S. Zarrinkamar; H. Rahimov

    2011-01-01

    Approximate analytical solutions of the D-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation are obtained for the scalar and vector general Hulthen-type potential and position-dependent mass with any l by using the concept of supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM). The problem is numerically discussed for some cases of parameters.

  4. Analytical Solution for the Current Distribution in Multistrand Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Fabbri, M G

    2002-01-01

    Current distribution in multistrand superconducting cables can be a major concern for stability in superconducting magnets and for field quality in particle accelerator magnets. In this paper we describe multistrand superconducting cables by means of a distributed parameters circuit model. We derive a system of partial differential equations governing current distribution in the cable and we give the analytical solution of the general system. We then specialize the general solution to the particular case of uniform cable properties. In the particular case of a two-strand cable, we show that the analytical solution presented here is identical to the one already available in the literature. For a cable made of N equal strands we give a closed form solution that to our knowledge was never presented before. We finally validate the analytical solution by comparison to numerical results in the case of a step-like spatial distribution of the magnetic field over a short Rutherford cable, both in transient and steady ...

  5. Properties of the exact analytic solution of the growth factor and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been the approximate analytic solution [V. Silveira and I. Waga, Phys. Rev. D 50, 4890 (1994).] and several approximate analytic forms [W. J. Percival, Astron. Astrophys. 443, 819 (2005).][S. M. Carroll, W. H. Press, and E. L. Turner, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30, 499 (1992).][S. Basilakos, Astrophys. J. 590, 636 (2003).] of the growth factor Dg for the general dark energy models with the constant values of its equation of state ωde after Heath found the exact integral form of the solution of Dg for the Universe including the cosmological constant or the curvature term. Recently, we obtained the exact analytic solutions of the growth factor for both ωde=-1 or -(1/3)[S. Lee and K.-W. Ng, arXiv:0905.1522.] and the general dark energy models with the constant equation of state ωde[S. Lee and K.-W. Ng, Phys. Lett. B 688, 1 (2010).] independently. We compare the exact analytic solution of Dg with the other well known approximate solutions. We also prove that the analytic solutions for ωde=-1 or -(1/3) in [S. Lee and K.-W. Ng, arXiv:0905.1522.] are the specific solutions of the exact solutions of the growth factor for general ωde models in [S. Lee and K.-W. Ng, Phys. Lett. B 688, 1 (2010).] even though they look quite different. Comparison with the numerical solution obtained from the public code is done. We also investigate the possible extensions of the exact solution of Dg to the time-varying ωde for the comparison with observations.

  6. An Analytical Solution for Transient Thermal Response of an Insulated Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical solution was derived for the transient response of an insulated aerospace vehicle structure subjected to a simplified heat pulse. This simplified problem approximates the thermal response of a thermal protection system of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The exact analytical solution is solely a function of two non-dimensional parameters. A simpler function of these two parameters was developed to approximate the maximum structural temperature over a wide range of parameter values. Techniques were developed to choose constant, effective properties to represent the relevant temperature and pressure-dependent properties for the insulator and structure. A technique was also developed to map a time-varying surface temperature history to an equivalent square heat pulse. Using these techniques, the maximum structural temperature rise was calculated using the analytical solutions and shown to typically agree with finite element simulations within 10 to 20 percent over the relevant range of parameters studied.

  7. Speciation—targets, analytical solutions and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łobiński, Ryszard

    1998-02-01

    An analysis of speciation-relevant issues leads to the conclusion that, despite the rapidly increasing number of reports, the field has reached a level of virtual stagnation in terms of research originality and market perspectives. A breakthrough is in sight but requires an advanced interdisciplinary collaboration of chemists-analysts with clinicians, ecotoxicologists and nutricionists aimed at the definition of metal (metalloid)-dependent problems relevant to human health. The feedback from analytical chemists will be stimulated by a wider availability of efficient HPLC (CZE)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) interfaces, chromatographic software for ICP AES and MS and sensitive on-line methods for compound identification (electrospray MS/MS). The maturity of purge and trap thermal desorption techniques and capillary GC chromatography is likely to be reflected by an increasing number of commercial dedicated systems for small molecules containing Hg, Pb, Sn and metalloids. The pre-requisite of success for such systems is the integration of a sample preparation step (based on focused low-power microwave technology) into the marketed set-up.

  8. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...... data processing, and using the machine learning toolkit, MADlib, for doing in-database data analytics in PostgreSQL database. This paper evaluates the key technologies of the proposed ICT-solution, and the results show the effectiveness and efficiency of using the system for both batch and online...

  9. Big Data Security Analytic Solution using Splunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Charishma,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, usage of online applications is experiencing remarkable growth. One of the main reasons for the success of web application is its “Ease of Access” and availability on internet. The simplicity of the HTTP protocol makes it easy to steal and spoof identity. The business liability associated with protecting online information has increased significantly and this is an issue that must be addressed. According to SANSTop20, 2013 list the number one targeted server side vulnerability are Web Applications. So, this has made detecting and preventing attacks on web applications a top priority for IT companies. In this paper, a rational solution is brought to detect events on web application and provides Security intelligence, log management and extensible reporting by analyzing web server logs.

  10. Analytic solution of simplified Cardan's shaft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajíček M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsional oscillations and stability assessment of the homokinetic Cardan shaft with a small misalignment angle is described in this paper. The simplified mathematical model of this system leads to the linearized equation of the Mathieu's type. This equation with and without a stationary damping parameter is considered. The solution of the original differential equation is identical with those one of the Fredholm’s integral equation with degenerated kernel assembled by means of a periodic Green's function. The conditions of solvability of such problem enable the identification of the borders between stability and instability regions. These results are presented in the form of stability charts and they are verified using the Floquet theory. The correctness of oscillation results for the system with periodic stiffness is then validated by means of the Runge-Kutta integration method.

  11. Analytical solution to one-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ai-fang; CHEN Guang-jing; TAN Yong-wei; SUN Dean

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution of the one-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soil with a finite thickness under vertical loading and confinements in the lateral directions. The boundary contains the top surface permeable to water and air and the bottom impermeable to water and air. The analytical solution is for Fredlund's one-dimensionai consolidation equation in unsaturated soils. The transfer relationship between the state vectors at top surface and any depth is obtained by using the Laplace transform and Cayley-Hamilton mathematical methods to the governing equations of water and air, Darcy's law and Fick's law. Excess pore-air pressure, excess pore-water pressure and settlement in the Laplace-transformed domain are obtained by using the Laplace transform with the initial conditions and boundary conditions. By performing inverse Laplace transforms, the analytical solutions are obtained in the time domain. A typical example illustrates the consolidation characteristics of unsaturated soft from analytical results. Finally, comparisons between the analytical solutions and results of the finite difference method indicate that the analytical solution is correct.

  12. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part I: symmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.

  13. AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR CALCULATING THE INITIATION OF SEDIMENT MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas LUCKNER; Ulrich ZANKE

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for calculating the initiation of sediment motion and the risk of river bed movement. It thus deals with a fundamental problem in sediment transport, for which no complete analytical solution has yet been found. The analytical solution presented here is based on forces acting on a single grain in state of initiation of sediment motion. The previous procedures for calculating the initiation of sediment motion are complemented by an innovative combination of optical surface measurement technology for determining geometrical parameters and their statistical derivation as well as a novel approach for determining the turbulence effects of velocity fluctuations. This two aspects and the comparison of the solution functions presented here with the well known data and functions of different authors mainly differ the presented solution model for calculating the initiation of sediment motion from previous approaches. The defined values of required geometrical parameters are based on hydraulically laboratory tests with spheres. With this limitations the derivated solution functions permit the calculation of the effective critical transport parameters of a single grain, the calculation of averaged critical parameters for describing the state of initiation of sediment motion on the river bed, the calculation of the probability density of the effective critical velocity as well as the calculation of the risk of river bed movement. The main advantage of the presented model is the closed analytical solution from the equilibrium of forces on a single grain to the solution functions describing the initiation of sediment motion.

  14. Communication: Fine discretization of pair interactions and an approximate analytical strategy for predicting equilibrium behavior of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshead, Kyle B; Jain, Avni; Truskett, Thomas M

    2013-10-28

    We study whether fine discretization (i.e., terracing) of continuous pair interactions, when used in combination with first-order mean-spherical approximation theory, can lead to a simple and general analytical strategy for predicting the equilibrium structure and thermodynamics of complex fluids. Specifically, we implement a version of this approach to predict how screened electrostatic repulsions, solute-mediated depletion attractions, or ramp-shaped repulsions modify the radial distribution function and the potential energy of reference hard-sphere fluids, and we compare the predictions to exact results from molecular simulations. PMID:24181996

  15. Homotopic Approximate Solutions for the Perturbed CKdV Equation with Variable Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianchen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns how to find the double periodic form of approximate solutions of the perturbed combined KdV (CKdV equation with variable coefficients by using the homotopic mapping method. The obtained solutions may degenerate into the approximate solutions of hyperbolic function form and the approximate solutions of trigonometric function form in the limit cases. Moreover, the first order approximate solutions and the second order approximate solutions of the variable coefficients CKdV equation in perturbation εun are also induced.

  16. Stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calini, Annalisa; Ivey, Thomas, E-mail: calinia@cofc.edu [Department of Mathematics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States)

    2011-08-19

    We study the linear stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation equation for the motion of a thin vortex filament in an ideal fluid. Such solutions can be constructed analytically through the connection with the focusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation using the method of isoperiodic deformations. We show that these (p, q) torus knots are generically linearly unstable for p < q, while we provide examples of neutrally stable (p, q) torus knots with p > q, in contrast with an earlier linear stability study by Ricca (1993 Chaos 3 83-95; 1995 Chaos 5 346; 1995 Small-scale Structures in Three-dimensional Hydro and Magneto-dynamics Turbulence (Lecture Notes in Physics vol 462) (Berlin: Springer)). We also provide an interpretation of the original perturbative calculation in Ricca (1995), and an explanation of the numerical experiments performed by Ricca et al (1999 J. Fluid Mech. 391 29-44), in light of our results.

  17. Stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calini, Annalisa; Ivey, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We study the linear stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation equation for the motion of a thin vortex filament in an ideal fluid. Such solutions can be constructed analytically through the connection with the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation using the method of isoperiodic deformations. We show that these (p, q) torus knots are generically linearly unstable for p q, in contrast with an earlier linear stability study by Ricca (1993 Chaos 3 83-95 1995 Chaos 5 346; 1995 Small-scale Structures in Three-dimensional Hydro and Magneto-dynamics Turbulence (Lecture Notes in Physics vol 462) (Berlin: Springer)). We also provide an interpretation of the original perturbative calculation in Ricca (1995), and an explanation of the numerical experiments performed by Ricca et al (1999 J. Fluid Mech. 391 29-44), in light of our results.

  18. RESTRICTED NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION AND SINGULAR SOLUTIONS OF BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reinhard Hochmuth

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies several problems, which are potentially relevant for the construction of adaptive numerical schemes. First, biorthogonal spline wavelets on [0,1 ] are chosen as a starting point for characterizations of functions in Besov spaces B , (0,1) with 0<σ<∞ and (1+σ)-1<τ<∞. Such function spaces are known to be related to nonlinear approximation. Then so called restricted nonlinear approximation procedures with respect to Sobolev space norms are considered. Besides characterization results Jackson type estimates for various tree-type and tresholding algorithms are investigated. Finally known approximation results for geometry induced singularity functions of boundary integeral equations are combined with the characterization results for restricted nonlinear approximation to show Besov space regularity results.

  19. Approximate analytical expressions of apertured broadband beams in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shi-Zhuan; You Kai-Ming; Chen Lie-Zun; Wang You-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The approximate analytical expressions of the apertured broadband beams in the far field with Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian spatial modes are presented. For the radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beam, the result reveals that the electromagnetic field in the far field is transverse magnetic. The influences of bandwidth (Γ) and truncation parameter (C0) on the transverse intensity distribution of the Gaussian beam and on the energy flux distribution of radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beam are analysed.

  20. Analytical Approximations of Critical Clearing Time for Parametric Analysis of Power System Transient Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Lewis G W; Champneys, Alan R; di Bernardo, Mario; De'Bell, Keith

    2015-01-01

    An analytic approximation for the critical clearing time (CCT) metric is derived from direct methods for power system stability. The formula has been designed to incorporate as many features of transient stability analysis as possible such as different fault locations and different post-fault network states. The purpose of this metric is to analyze trends in stability (in terms of CCT) of power systems under the variation of a system parameter. The performance of this metric to measure stabil...

  1. Analytical solutions and genuine multipartite entanglement of the three-qubit Dicke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You; He, Shu; Chen, Qing-Hu

    2016-07-01

    We present analytical solutions to three qubits and a single-mode cavity coupling system beyond the rotating-wave approximation (RWA). The zeroth-order approximation, equivalent to the adiabatic approximation, works well for arbitrary coupling strength for small qubit frequency. The first-order approximation, called the generalized rotating-wave approximation (GRWA), produces an effective solvable Hamiltonian with the same form as the ordinary RWA one and exhibits substantial improvements of energy levels over the RWA even on resonance. Based on these analytical eigensolutions, we study both the bipartite entanglement and genuine multipartite entanglement (GME). The dynamics of these two kinds of entanglements using the GRWA are consistent with the numerical exact ones. Interestingly, the well-known sudden death of entanglement occurs in the bipartite entanglement dynamics but not in the GME dynamics.

  2. An analytical dynamo solution for large-scale magnetic fields of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chamandy, Luke

    2016-01-01

    We present an effectively global analytical asymptotic galactic dynamo solution for the regular magnetic field of an axisymmetric thin disc in the saturated state. This solution is constructed by combining two well-known types of local galactic dynamo solution, parameterized by the disc radius. Namely, the critical (zero growth) solution obtained by treating the dynamo equation as a perturbed diffusion equation is normalized using a non-linear solution that makes use of the `no-$z$' approximation and the dynamical $\\alpha$-quenching non-linearity. This overall solution is found to be reasonably accurate when compared with detailed numerical solutions. It is thus potentially useful as a tool for predicting observational signatures of magnetic fields of galaxies. In particular, such solutions could be painted onto galaxies in cosmological simulations to enable the construction of synthetic polarized synchrotron and Faraday rotation measure (RM) datasets. Further, we explore the properties of our numerical solut...

  3. Analytical Solution of Smoluchowski Equation in Harmonic Oscillator Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-Jun; LU Xiao-Xia; YAN Yu-Liang; DUAN Jun-Feng; ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2005-01-01

    Non-equilibrium fission has been described by diffusion model. In order to describe the diffusion process analytically, the analytical solution of Smoluchowski equation in harmonic oscillator potential is obtained. This analytical solution is able to describe the probability distribution and the diffusive current with the variable x and t. The results indicate that the probability distribution and the diffusive current are relevant to the initial distribution shape, initial position, and the nuclear temperature T; the time to reach the quasi-stationary state is proportional to friction coefficient β, but is independent of the initial distribution status and the nuclear temperature T. The prerequisites of negative diffusive current are justified. This method provides an approach to describe the diffusion process for fissile process in complicated potentials analytically.

  4. Corrected Analytical Solution of the Generalized Woods-Saxon Potential for Arbitrary $\\ell$ States

    CERN Document Server

    Bayrak, O

    2015-01-01

    The bound state solution of the radial Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with the generalized Woods-Saxon potential is carefully examined by using the Pekeris approximation for arbitrary $\\ell$ states. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions are analytically obtained for different $n$ and $\\ell$ quantum numbers. The obtained closed forms are applied to calculate the single particle energy levels of neutron orbiting around $^{56}$Fe nucleus in order to check consistency between the analytical and Gamow code results. The analytical results are in good agreement with the results obtained by Gamow code for $\\ell=0$.

  5. An analytical approximation of the growth function in Friedmann-Lema\\^itre universes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Masumi

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical approximation formula for the growth function in a spatially flat cosmology with dust and a cosmological constant. Our approximate formula is written simply in terms of a rational function. We also show the approximate formula in a dust cosmology without a cosmological constant, directly as a function of the scale factor in terms of a rational function. The single rational function applies for all, open, closed and flat universes. Our results involve no elliptic functions, and have very small relative error of less than 0.2 per cent over the range of the scale factor $1/1000 \\la a \\lid 1$ and the density parameter $0.2 \\la \\Omega_{\\rmn{m}} \\lid 1$ for a flat cosmology, and less than $0.4$ per cent over the range $0.2 \\la \\Omega_{\\rmn{m}} \\la 4$ for a cosmology without a cosmological constant.

  6. An analytical derivation of a popular approximation of the Voigt function for quantification of NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, S D; Higinbotham, J; Marshall, I; Beswick, P H

    2000-01-01

    The approximation of the Voigt line shape by the linear summation of Lorentzian and Gaussian line shapes of equal width is well documented and has proved to be a useful function for modeling in vivo (1)H NMR spectra. We show that the error in determining peak areas is less than 0.72% over a range of simulated Voigt line shapes. Previous work has concentrated on empirical analysis of the Voigt function, yielding accurate expressions for recovering the intrinsic Lorentzian component of simulated line shapes. In this work, an analytical approach to the approximation is presented which is valid for the range of Voigt line shapes in which either the Lorentzian or Gaussian component is dominant. With an empirical analysis of the approximation, the direct recovery of T(2) values from simulated line shapes is also discussed. PMID:10617435

  7. An analytical solution to the equation of motion for the damped nonlinear pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An analytical approximation of the solution to the differential equation describing the oscillations of the damped nonlinear pendulum at large angles is presented. The solution is expressed in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions by including a parameter-dependent elliptic modulus. The analytical...... of the damped nonlinear pendulum is presented, and it is shown that the period of oscillation is dependent on time. It is established that, in general, the period is longer than that of a linearized model, asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of a damped linear pendulum....

  8. Analytic solution and pulse area theorem for three-level atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; O'Brien, Chris; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Scully, Marlan O.

    2015-12-01

    We report an analytic solution for a three-level atom driven by arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic pulses. In particular, we consider far-detuned driving pulses and show an excellent match between our analytic result and the numerical simulations. We use our solution to derive a pulse area theorem for three-level V and Λ systems without making the rotating wave approximation. Formulated as an energy conservation law, this pulse area theorem can be used to understand pulse propagation through three-level media.

  9. Approximation solution of Schrodinger equation for Q-deformed Rosen-Morse using supersymmetry quantum mechanics (SUSY QM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approximate analytical solution of Schrodinger equation for Q-Deformed Rosen-Morse potential was investigated using Supersymmetry Quantum Mechanics (SUSY QM) method. The approximate bound state energy is given in the closed form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitrary l-state given for ground state wave function. The first excited state obtained using upper operator and ground state wave function. The special case is given for the ground state in various number of q. The existence of Rosen-Morse potential reduce energy spectra of system. The larger value of q, the smaller energy spectra of system

  10. Complexes of block copolymers in solution: tree approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Damme, van Ruud

    1989-01-01

    We determine the statistical properties of block copolymer complexes in solution. These complexes are assumed to have the topological structure of (i) a tree or of (ii) a line-dressed tree. In case the structure is that of a tree, the system is shown to undergo a gelation transition at sufficiently

  11. Approximate Solutions of Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Model Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Doshi, Prashant; Qiongyu, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) offer a transparent and semantically clear representation for the sequential decision-making problem over multiple time steps in the presence of other interacting agents. Solving I-DIDs exactly involves knowing the solutions of possible models of th...

  12. Comparison of Web Analytics : Hosted Solutions vs Server-side Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Mutai, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    The ratability of websites allows the aggregation of detailed data about the behavior and characteristics of website visitors. This thesis examines the value of different web metrics based on the analytics tools used and the behavior of website visitors. The objective is to test and identify key metrics and discuss how they compare between hosted solutions and server-side analytics. The value of the web metrics is evaluated by examining the relationships of the metrics to website conversions....

  13. Analytical approximation of the neutrino oscillation matter effects at large θ{sub 13}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Sainik School Post,Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Kao, Yee [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Western Carolina University,Cullowhee, NC 28723 (United States); Takeuchi, Tatsu [Center for Neutrino Physics, Physics Department, Virginia Tech,Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    We argue that the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter are best understood by allowing the mixing angles and mass-squared differences in the standard parametrization to ‘run’ with the matter effect parameter a=2√2G{sub F}N{sub e}E, where N{sub e} is the electron density in matter and E is the neutrino energy. We present simple analytical approximations to these ‘running’ parameters. We show that for the moderately large value of θ{sub 13}, as discovered by the reactor experiments, the running of the mixing angle θ{sub 23} and the CP violating phase δ can be neglected. It simplifies the analysis of the resulting expressions for the oscillation probabilities considerably. Approaches which attempt to directly provide approximate analytical expressions for the oscillation probabilities in matter suffer in accuracy due to their reliance on expansion in θ{sub 13}, or in simplicity when higher order terms in θ{sub 13} are included. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method by comparing it to the exact numerical result, as well as the direct approximations of Cervera et al., Akhmedov et al., Asano and Minakata, and Freund. We also discuss the utility of our approach in figuring out the required baseline lengths and neutrino energies for the oscillation probabilities to exhibit certain desirable features.

  14. Classification and Approximate Functional Separable Solutions to the Generalized Diffusion Equations with Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fei-Yu; Zhang, Shun-Li

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the generalized diffusion equation with perturbation ut = A(u;ux)uII+eB(u;ux) is studied in terms of the approximate functional variable separation approach. A complete classification of these perturbed equations which admit approximate functional separable solutions is presented. Some approximate solutions to the resulting perturbed equations are obtained by examples.

  15. An Approximate Solution for Spherical and Cylindrical Piston Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Singh; V P Singh

    2000-02-01

    A new theory of shock dynamics (NTSD) has been derived in the form of a finite number of compatibility conditions along shock rays. It has been used to study the growth and decay of shock strengths for spherical and cylindrical pistons starting from a non-zero velocity. Further a weak shock theory has been derived using a simple perturbation method which admits an exact solution and also agrees with the classical decay laws for weak spherical and cylindrical shocks.

  16. Analytical solutions for geodesics in black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hackmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    We review the analytical solution methods for the geodesic equations in Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT-de Sitter spacetimes and its subclasses in terms of elliptic and hyperelliptic functions. A short guide to corresponding literature for general timelike and lightlike motion is also presented.

  17. General analytical shakedown solution for structures with kinematic hardening materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baofeng; Zou, Zongyuan; Jin, Miao

    2016-04-01

    The effect of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behaviors of structure has been investigated by performing shakedown analysis for some specific problems. The results obtained only show that the shakedown limit loads of structures with kinematic hardening model are larger than or equal to those with perfectly plastic model of the same initial yield stress. To further investigate the rules governing the different shakedown behaviors of kinematic hardening structures, the extended shakedown theorem for limited kinematic hardening is applied, the shakedown condition is then proposed, and a general analytical solution for the structural shakedown limit load is thus derived. The analytical shakedown limit loads for fully reversed cyclic loading and non-fully reversed cyclic loading are then given based on the general solution. The resulting analytical solution is applied to some specific problems: a hollow specimen subjected to tension and torsion, a flanged pipe subjected to pressure and axial force and a square plate with small central hole subjected to biaxial tension. The results obtained are compared with those in literatures, they are consistent with each other. Based on the resulting general analytical solution, rules governing the general effects of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behavior of structure are clearly.

  18. Analytic solutions for tachyon condensation with general projectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Rastelli, L. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Zwiebach, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics

    2006-11-15

    The tachyon vacuum solution of Schnabl is based on the wedge states, which close under the star product and interpolate between the identity state and the sliver projector. We use reparameterizations to solve the long-standing problem of finding an analogous family of states for arbitrary projectors and to construct analytic solutions based on them. The solutions simplify for special projectors and allow explicit calculations in the level expansion. We test the solutions in detail for a one-parameter family of special projectors that includes the sliver and the butterfly. Reparameterizations further allow a one-parameter deformation of the solution for a given projector, and in a certain limit the solution takes the form of an operator insertion on the projector. We discuss implications of our work for vacuum string field theory. (orig.)

  19. Linear power spectra in cold+hot dark matter models analytical approximations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Chung Pei

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents simple analytic approximations to the linear power spectra, linear growth rates, and rms mass fluctuations for both components in a family of cold+hot dark matter (CDM+HDM) models that are of current cosmological interest. The formulas are valid for a wide range of wavenumber, neutrino fraction, redshift, and Hubble constant: k\\lo 10\\,h Mpc^{-1}, 0.05\\lo \\onu\\lo 0.3, 0\\le z\\lo 15, and 0.5\\lo h \\lo 0.8. A new, redshift-dependent shape parameter \\Gamma_\

  20. Some analytical approximations to radiative transfer theory and their application for the analysis of reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Hopkinson, Ian

    2008-03-01

    We derive an analytical approximation in the framework of the radiative transfer theory for use in the analysis of diffuse reflectance measurements. This model uses two parameters to describe a material, the transport free path length, l, and the similarity parameter, s. Using a simple algebraic expression, s and l can be applied for the determination of the absorption coefficient Kabs, which can be easily compared to absorption coefficients measured using transmission spectroscopy. l and Kabs can be seen as equivalent to the S and K parameters, respectively, in the Kubelka-Munk formulation. The advantage of our approximation is a clear basis in the complete radiative transfer theory. We demonstrate the application of our model to a range of different paper types and to fabrics treated with known levels of a dye.

  1. Analytical solutions for Tokamak equilibria with reversed toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Caroline G. L.; Roberto, M.; Braga, F. L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12228-900 (Brazil); Caldas, I. L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    In tokamaks, an advanced plasma confinement regime has been investigated with a central hollow electric current with negative density which gives rise to non-nested magnetic surfaces. We present analytical solutions for the magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of this regime in terms of non-orthogonal toroidal polar coordinates. These solutions are obtained for large aspect ratio tokamaks and they are valid for any kind of reversed hollow current density profiles. The zero order solution of the poloidal magnetic flux function describes nested toroidal magnetic surfaces with a magnetic axis displaced due to the toroidal geometry. The first order correction introduces a poloidal field asymmetry and, consequently, magnetic islands arise around the zero order surface with null poloidal magnetic flux gradient. An analytic expression for the magnetic island width is deduced in terms of the equilibrium parameters. We give examples of the equilibrium plasma profiles and islands obtained for a class of current density profile.

  2. THE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR SEDIMENT REACTION AND DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH GENERALIZED INITIAL-BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊岳山; 韦永康

    2001-01-01

    The sediment reaction and diffusion equation with generalized initial and boundary condition is studied. By using Laplace transform and Jordan lemma , an analytical solution is got, which is an extension of analytical solution provided by Cheng Kwokming James ( only diffusion was considered in analytical solution of Cheng ). Some problems arisen in the computation of analytical solution formula are also analysed.

  3. Nonlinear Whitham-Broer-Kaup Wave Equation in an Analytical Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zahedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a new approach for the analysis of a nonlinear Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation dealing with propagation of shallow water waves with different dispersion relations. The analysis was based on a kind of analytical method, called Variational Iteration Method (VIM. To illustrate the capability of the approach, some numerical examples were given and the propagation and the error of solutions were shown in comparison to those of exact solution. In clear conclusion, the approach was efficient and capable to obtain the analytical approximate solution of this set of wave equations while these solutions could straightforwardly show some facts of the described process deeply such as the propagation. This method can be easily extended to other nonlinear wave equations and so can be found widely applicable in this field of science.

  4. Approximate bound-state solutions of the dirac equation for the generalized Yukawa potential plus the generalized tensor interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we obtain the approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Dirac particle with the generalized Yukawa potential within the framework of spin and pseudospin symmetries for the arbitrary κ state with a generalized tensor interaction. The generalized parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions in closed form. We also report some numerical results and present figures to show the effect of the tensor interaction.

  5. Analytic Solution of Strongly Coupling Schr(o)dinger Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jin-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed expansion method for analytically solving the ground states of strongly coupling Schrodinger equations by Friedberg,Lee,and Zhao is extended to excited states and applied to power-law central forces for which scaling properties are proposed.As examples for application of the extended method,the Hydrogen atom problem is resolved and the low-lying states of Yukawa potential are approximately obtained.

  6. Error Estimates for Approximate Solutions of the Riccati Equation with Real or Complex Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for obtaining rigorous error estimates for approximate solutions of the Riccati equation, with real or complex potentials. Our main tool is to derive invariant region estimates for complex solutions of the Riccati equation. We explain the general strategy for applying these estimates and illustrate the method in typical examples, where the approximate solutions are obtained by glueing together WKB and Airy solutions of corresponding one-dimensional Schr"odinger equations.

  7. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-08-17

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  8. Dynamic characteristics of resonant gyroscopes study based on the Mathieu equation approximate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Shang-Chun; Li Yan; Guo Zhan-She; Li Jing; Zhuang Hai-Han

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of the resonant gyroscope are studied based on the Mathieu equation approximate solution in this paper.The Mathieu equation is used to analyze the parametric resonant characteristics and the approximate output of the resonant gyroscope.The method of small parameter perturbation is used to analyze the approximate solution of the Mathieu equation.The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulations show that the approximate solution of the Mathieu equation is close to the dynamic output characteristics of the resonant gyroscope.The experimental analysis shows that the theoretical curve and the experimental data processing results coincide perfectly,which means that the approximate solution of the Mathieu equation can present the dynamic output characteristic of the resonant gyroscope.The theoretical approach and the experimental results of the Mathieu equation approximate solution are obtained,which provides a reference for the robust design of the resonant gyroscope.

  9. Examination of exact and approximate solutions in massive Thirring model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we have presented the examination of the S-matrix in the massive Thirring model. Using the numerical solution of the Bethe Ansatz equations, it is shown that the factorization of the S-matrix for the particle hole scattering in the massive Thirring model does not hold exactly. The above statement is mainly due to the fact that the factorization of the S-matrix and the crossing symmetry do not commute with each other in the particle hole scattering. As we have seen, when we treat one particle-one hole and two particle-two hole states which are constructed by the Bethe Ansatz method, we should have to worry about the order of operations between the factorization of the S-matrix and the crossing symmetry. If we first take the large N and L limit, the difference δi (or εi) of the rapidities between the vacuum state and the one particle-one hole state ( or the two particle-two hole states) vanish. But we should take the large N and L limit in the quantum field theory. Indeed if we take the large N and L limit at the last step, then the quantity D of the eqs.D1p1h(n1)≡ D1p1h(β1,β1h) =δk (θ/θαk) φ(β1 + αk-iπ) etc. remain finite. The important point is that the quantities D and E contain all the information of the particle-one hole state or the two particle-two hole states. This cannot be seen by the perturbation theory. Finally, by taking the field theory limit (ρN/L→∞), we compare our results with the factorization ansatz. In the field theory limit, we find the breaking of the factorization of the S-matrix |D1p1h-D2p2h|. Therefore, the bound state spectrum predicted by the factorized S-matrix theory should be carefully treated since the soliton-antisoliton in the Sine-Gorden model quantized objects. In fact, if we identify the spectrum of the S-matrix factorization method as a semiclassical one, then it is consistent that this spectrum agrees with the semiclassical result by Dashen et al. The present study does not intend to check the

  10. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS TO STRESS CONCENTRATION PROBLEM IN PLATES CONTAINING RECTANGULAR HOLE UNDER BIAXIAL TENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Jike Liu; Chengwu Cai

    2008-01-01

    The stress concentration problem in structures with a circular or elliptic hole can be investigated by analytical methods.For the problem with a rectangular hole,only approximate results are derived.This paper deduces the analytical solutions to the stress concentration problem in plates with a rectangular hole under biaxial tensions.By using the U-transformation technique and the finite element method,the analytical displacement solutions of the finite element equations are derived in the series form.Therefore,the stress concentration can then be discussed easily and conveniently.For plate problem the bilinear rectangular element with four nodes is taken as an example to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.The stress concentration factors for various ratios of height to width of the hole are obtained.

  11. Contribution to analytical solution of neutron slowing down problem in homogeneous and heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to describe the new analytical solution of the neutron slowing down equation for infinite monoatomic media with arbitrary energy dependence of cross section. The solution is obtained by introducing Green slowing down functions instead of starting from slowing down equations directly. The previously used methods for calculation of fission neutron spectra in the reactor cell were numerical. The proposed analytical method was used for calculating the space-energy distribution of fast neutrons and number of neutron reactions in a thermal reactor cell. The role of analytical method in solving the neutron slowing down in reactor physics is to enable understating of the slowing down process and neutron transport. The obtained results could be used as standards for testing the accuracy od approximative and practical methods

  12. Approximate Relativistic Bound State Solutions of the Tietz-Hua Rotating Oscillator for Any κ-State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with Tietz-Hua (TH) potential are obtained for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number κ using the Pekeris approximation scheme to deal with the spin-orbit coupling terms κ(κ±1)r-2. In the presence of exact spin and pseudo-spin symmetric limitation, the bound state energy eigenvalues and associated two-component wave functions of the Dirac particle moving in the field of attractive and repulsive TH potential are obtained using the parametric generalization of the Nikiforov-Uvarov method. The cases of the Morse potential, the generalized Morse potential and non-relativistic limits are studied. (author)

  13. Analytical solution of the simplified spherical harmonics equations in spherical turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjlali, Ehsan; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves

    2016-10-01

    We present for the first time an analytical solution for the simplified spherical harmonics equations (so-called SPN equations) in the case of a steady-state isotropic point source inside a spherical homogeneous absorbing and scattering medium. The SPN equations provide a reliable approximation to the radiative transfer equation for describing light transport inside turbid media. The SPN equations consist of a set of coupled partial differential equations and the eigen method is used to obtain a set of decoupled equations, each resembling the heat equation in the Laplace domain. The equations are solved for the realistic partial reflection boundary conditions accounting for the difference in refractive indices between the turbid medium and its environment (air) as occurs in practical cases of interest in biomedical optics. Specifically, we provide the complete solution methodology for the SP3, which is readily applicable to higher orders as well, and also give results for the SP5. This computationally easy to obtain solution is investigated for different optical properties of the turbid medium. For validation, the solution is also compared to the analytical solution of the diffusion equation and to gold standard Monte Carlo simulation results. The SP3 and SP5 analytical solutions prove to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results. This work provides an additional tool for validating numerical solutions of the SPN equations for curved geometries.

  14. An analytic cosmology solution of Poincaré gauge gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Chee, Guoying

    2016-06-01

    A cosmology of Poincaré gauge theory is developed. An analytic solution is obtained. The calculation results agree with observation data and can be compared with the ΛCDM model. The cosmological constant puzzle is the coincidence and fine tuning problem are solved naturally at the same time. The cosmological constant turns out to be the intrinsic torsion and curvature of the vacuum universe, and is derived from the theory naturally rather than added artificially. The dark energy originates from geometry, includes the cosmological constant but differs from it. The analytic expression of the state equations of the dark energy and the density parameters of the matter and the geometric dark energy are derived. The full equations of linear cosmological perturbations and the solutions are obtained.

  15. Analytical representation of a black hole puncture solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'moving-puncture' technique has led to dramatic advancements in the numerical simulations of binary black holes. Hannam et al. have recently demonstrated that, for suitable gauge conditions commonly employed in moving-puncture simulations, the evolution of a single black hole leads to a well-known, time-independent, maximal slicing of Schwarzschild spacetime. They construct the corresponding solution in isotropic coordinates numerically and demonstrate its usefulness, for example, for testing and calibrating numerical codes that employ moving-puncture techniques. In this brief report we point out that this solution can also be constructed analytically, making it even more useful as a test case for numerical codes

  16. Analytical Analysis and Numerical Solution of Two Flavours Skyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, Miftachul; Hermawanto, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Two flavours Skyrmion will be analyzed analytically, in case of static and rotational Skyrme equations. Numerical solution of a nonlinear scalar field equation, i.e. the Skyrme equation, will be worked with finite difference method. This article is a more comprehensive version of \\textit{SU(2) Skyrme Model for Hadron} which have been published at Journal of Theoretical and Computational Studies, Volume \\textbf{3} (2004) 0407.

  17. Analytical Solution of Covariance Evolution for Regular LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Nozaki, Takayuki; Kasai, Kenta; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2009-01-01

    The covariance evolution is a system of differential equations with respect to the covariance of the number of edges connecting to the nodes of each residual degree. Solving the covariance evolution, we can derive distributions of the number of check nodes of residual degree 1, which helps us to estimate the block error probability for finite-length LDPC code. Amraoui et al.\\ resorted to numerical computations to solve the covariance evolution. In this paper, we give the analytical solution o...

  18. Molecular clock fork phylogenies: closed form analytic maximum likelihood solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Benny; Snir, Sagi

    2004-12-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM) are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model-three-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. Quoting Ziheng Yang, who initiated the analytic approach,"this seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogenetic estimation."In this work, we give general analytic solutions for a family of trees with four-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. The change from three to four taxa incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system, and requires novel techniques and approaches. We start by presenting the general maximum likelihood problem on phylogenetic trees as a constrained optimization problem, and the resulting system of polynomial equations. In full generality, it is infeasible to solve this system, therefore specialized tools for the molecular clock case are developed. Four-taxa rooted trees have two topologies-the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock fork trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations for the fork. We finally employ symbolic algebra software to obtain closed formanalytic solutions (expressed parametrically in the input data). In general, four-taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that each fork topology has a unique(local and global) ML point.

  19. An analytical dynamo solution for large-scale magnetic fields of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamandy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    We present an effectively global analytical asymptotic galactic dynamo solution for the regular magnetic field of an axisymmetric thin disc in the saturated state. This solution is constructed by combining two well-known types of local galactic dynamo solution, parametrized by the disc radius. Namely, the critical (zero growth) solution obtained by treating the dynamo equation as a perturbed diffusion equation is normalized using a non-linear solution that makes use of the `no-z' approximation and the dynamical α-quenching non-linearity. This overall solution is found to be reasonably accurate when compared with detailed numerical solutions. It is thus potentially useful as a tool for predicting observational signatures of magnetic fields of galaxies. In particular, such solutions could be painted on to galaxies in cosmological simulations to enable the construction of synthetic polarized synchrotron and Faraday rotation measure data sets. Further, we explore the properties of our numerical solutions, and their dependence on certain parameter values. We illustrate and assess the degree to which numerical solutions based on various levels of approximation, common in the dynamo literature, agree with one another.

  20. Biorthogonal Systems Approximating the Solution of the Nonlinear Volterra Integro-Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenguer MI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with obtaining a numerical method in order to approximate the solution of the nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equation. We define, following a fixed-point approach, a sequence of functions which approximate the solution of this type of equation, due to some properties of certain biorthogonal systems for the Banach spaces and .

  1. Analytical solutions of infiltration process under ponding irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Mou; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to simulate the progress of the soil water content distribution in the soil profile with a water table at the bottom of the soil profile during ponding irrigation. This simulation can be done by solving the two-dimensional Richards's equation for the assimilation of the advancing water jet, which uses the conditions of the two exponential functional forms k = ks e and = r + (s - r) e to represent the hydraulic conductivity and volumetric water content, with the pressure as the third variable. We assume that the ground surface becomes ponded and saturated as soon as the water flux passes the dry ground surface. By the technique of transformation, the analytical solution of these two-dimensional Richards' equations has enabled figures of volumetric water content distribution to be obtained in successive time periods after irrigation. For the example of loam soil, it can simulate the variation of volumetric water content during and after irrigation in the soil profile. The analytical solutions of this paper reflect the real situation simulated, and can be applied to verify those complicated solutions from other analytical models. Copyright

  2. Communication: An efficient analytic gradient theory for approximate spin projection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2013-03-01

    Spin polarized and broken symmetry density functional theory are popular approaches for treating the electronic structure of open shell systems. However, spin contamination can significantly affect the quality of predicted geometries and properties. One scheme for addressing this concern in studies involving broken-symmetry states is the approximate projection method developed by Yamaguchi and co-workers. Critical to the exploration of potential energy surfaces and the study of properties using this method will be an efficient analytic gradient theory. This communication introduces such a theory formulated, for the first time, within the framework of general post-self consistent field (SCF) derivative theory. Importantly, the approach taken here avoids the need to explicitly solve for molecular orbital derivatives of each nuclear displacement perturbation, as has been used in a recent implementation. Instead, the well-known z-vector scheme is employed and only one SCF response equation is required.

  3. Identification of standing fronts in steady state fluid flows: exact and approximate solutions for propagating MHD modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantellini, Filippo; Griton, Léa

    2016-10-01

    The spatial structure of a steady state plasma flow is shaped by the standing modes with local phase velocity exactly opposite to the flow velocity. The general procedure of finding the wave vectors of all possible standing MHD modes in any given point of a stationary flow requires numerically solving an algebraic equation. We present the graphical procedure (already mentioned by some authors in the 1960's) along with the exact solution for the Alfvén mode and approximate analytic solutions for both fast and slow modes. The technique can be used to identify MHD modes in space and laboratory plasmas as well as in numerical simulations.

  4. Analytic approximation to 5 dimensional Black Holes with one compact dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Karasik, D; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L C R

    2004-01-01

    We study black hole solutions in $R^4\\times S^1$ space, using an expansion to fourth order in the ratio of the radius of the horizon, $\\mu$, and the circumference of the compact dimension, $L$. A study of geometric and thermodynamic properties indicates that the black hole fills the space in the compact dimension and the tensions of the black hole and a nonuniform black string coincide at $\\epsilon=(\\mu/L)^2\\simeq0.1$. At the same value of $\\epsilon$ the entropies of the uniform black string and of the black hole are approximately equal.

  5. Analytic approximation to 5 dimensional black holes with one compact dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, D.; Sahabandu, C.; Suranyi, P.; Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    We study black hole solutions in R4×S1 space, using an expansion to second order in the square of the ratio of the radius of the horizon, μ, and the circumference of the compact dimension, L. A study of geometric and thermodynamic properties indicates that the black hole fills the space in the compact dimension at ɛ=(μ/L)2≃0.1. At the same value of ɛ the entropies of the uniform black string and of the black hole are approximately equal.

  6. Analytic approximation to 5 dimensional Black Holes with one compact dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Karasik, D.; Sahabandu, C.; Suranyi, P.; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2004-01-01

    We study black hole solutions in $R^4\\times S^1$ space, using an expansion to fourth order in the ratio of the radius of the horizon, $\\mu$, and the circumference of the compact dimension, $L$. A study of geometric and thermodynamic properties indicates that the black hole fills the space in the compact dimension at $\\epsilon(\\mu/L)^2\\simeq0.1$. At the same value of $\\epsilon$ the entropies of the uniform black string and of the black hole are approximately equal.

  7. Iterative Algorithm for Finding Approximate Solutions of a Class of Mixed Variational-like Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-chuan Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the iterative algorithm for finding approximate solutions of a class of mixed variational-like inequalities in a real Hilbert space,where the iterative algorithm is presented by virtue of the auxiliary principle technique.On one hand,the existence of approximate solutions of this class of mixed variational-like inequalities is proven.On the other hand,it is shown that the approximate solutions converge strongly to the exact solution of this class of mixed variational-like inequalities.

  8. Re-Scaling of Energy in the Stringy Charged Black Hole Solutions using Approximate Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, M.; Waheed, Saira

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study the energy problem in general relativity using approximate Lie symmetry methods for differential equations. We evaluate second-order approximate symmetries of the geodesic equations for the stringy charged black hole solutions. It is concluded that energy must be re-scaled by some factor in the second-order approximation.

  9. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-07-24

    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximation. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models are shown to yield accurate results. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Approximate analytic method for high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashkovyaka, M. A.; Zaslavskii, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach to the study of the evolution of high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites. We describe parameters of the motion model used for the artificial Earth's satellite such that the principal gravitational perturbations of the Moon and Sun, nonsphericity of the Earth, and perturbations from the light pressure force are approximately taken into account. To solve the system of averaged equations describing the evolution of the orbit parameters of an artificial satellite, we use both numeric and analytic methods. To select initial parameters of the twelve-hour orbit, we assume that the path of the satellite along the surface of the Earth is stable. Results obtained by the analytic method and by the numerical integration of the evolving system are compared. For intervals of several years, we obtain estimates of oscillation periods and amplitudes for orbital elements. To verify the results and estimate the precision of the method, we use the numerical integration of rigorous (not averaged) equations of motion of the artificial satellite: they take into account forces acting on the satellite substantially more completely and precisely. The described method can be applied not only to the investigation of orbit evolutions of artificial satellites of the Earth; it can be applied to the investigation of the orbit evolution for other planets of the Solar system provided that the corresponding research problem will arise in the future and the considered special class of resonance orbits of satellites will be used for that purpose.

  11. Analytical Solutions of a Fractional Diffusion-advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Effenberger, Frederic

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we analytically solve a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.

  12. Analytical solutions of a fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Yuri E

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we solve analytically a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.

  13. On the analytical solution of Fornberg–Whitham equation with the new fractional derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Olaniyi Samuel Iyiola; Gbenga Olayinka Ojo

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by the simplicity, natural and efficient nature of the new fractional derivative introduced by R Khalil et al in J. Comput. Appl. Math. 264, 65 (2014), analytical solution of space-time fractional Fornberg–Whitham equation is obtained in series form using the relatively new method called q-homotopy analysis method (q-HAM). The new fractional derivative makes it possible to introduce fractional order in space to the Fornberg–Whitham equation and be able to obtain its solution. This work displays the elegant nature of the application of q-HAM to solve strongly nonlinear fractional differential equations. The presence of the auxiliary parameter h helps in an effective way to obtain better approximation comparable to exact solutions. The fraction-factor in this method gives it an edge over other existing analytical methods for nonlinear differential equations. Comparisons are made on the existence of exact solutions to these models. The analysis shows that our analytical solutions converge very rapidly to the exact solutions.

  14. Seismic responses of a hemispherical alluvial valley to SV Waves: a three-dimensional analytical approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Zhao; Jun Dong; Fuping Gao; D.-S.Jeng

    2006-01-01

    An analytical solution to the three-dimensional scattering and diffraction of plane SV-waves by a saturated hemispherical alluvial valley in elastic halfspace is obtained by using Fourier-Bessel series expansion technique.The hemispherical alluvial valley with saturated soil deposits is simulated with Biot's dynamic theory for saturated porous media.The following conclusions based on numerical results can be drawn:(1) there are a significant differences in the seismic response simulation between the previous single-phase models and the present two-phase model;(2)the normalized displacements on the free surface of the alluvial valley depend mainly on the incident wave angles,the dimensionless frequency of the incident SV waves and the porosity of sediments;(3)with the increase of the incident angle,the displacement distributions become more complicated,and the displacements on the free surface of the alluvial valley increase as the porosity of sediments increases.

  15. Approximate pre-classical solutions to models of loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, Seth; Khanna, Gaurav [Physics Department, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts 02747 (United States)

    2006-05-07

    In this paper we introduce a numerical approximation technique to obtain pre-classical solutions to models of loop quantum gravity. In particular, we apply the technique to vacuum Bianchi I cosmological models and recover known solutions. We also present pre-classical solutions to the Schwarzschild interior geometry and the Bianchi I LRS model with cosmological constant, which have not appeared elsewhere.

  16. Functions of diffraction correction and analytical solutions in nonlinear acoustic measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Alliès, Laurent; Nadi, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical formulation for correcting the diffraction associated to the second harmonic of an acoustic wave, more compact than that usually used. This new formulation, resulting from an approximation of the correction applied to fundamental, makes it possible to obtain simple solutions for the second harmonic of the average acoustic pressure, but sufficiently precise for measuring the parameter of nonlinearity B/A in a finite amplitude method. Comparison with other expressions requiring numerical integration, show the solutions are precise in the nearfield.

  17. Mathematic Model and Analytic Solution for a Cylinder Subject to Exponential Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen; SHAN Rui

    2009-01-01

    Hollow cylinders are widely used in spacecraft, rockets, weapons, metallurgy, materials, and mechanical manufacturing industries, and so on, hydraulic bulging roll cylinder and hydraulic press work all belong to hollow cylinders. However, up till now, the solution of the cylinder subjected to the pressures in the three-dimensional space is still at the stage of the analytical solution to the normal pressure or the approximate solution to the variable pressure by numerical method. The analytical solution to the variable pressure of the cylinder has not yet made any breakthrough in theory and can not meet accurate theoretical analysis and calculation requirements of the cylindrical in Engineering. In view of their importance, the precision calculation and theoretical analysis are required to investigate on engineering. A stress function which meets both the biharmonic equations and boundary conditions is constructed in the three-dimensional space. Furthermore, the analytic solution of a hollow cylinder subjected to exponential function distributed variable pressure on its inner and outer surfaces is deduced. By controlling the pressure subject to exponential function distributed variable pressure in the hydraulic bulging roller without any rolling load, using a static tester to record the strain supported hydraulic bulging roll, and comparing with the theoretical calculation, the experimental test result has a higher degree of agreement with the theoretical calculation. Simultaneously, the famous Lamè solution can be deduced when given the unlimited length of cylinder along the axis. The analytic solution paves the way for the mathematic building and solution of hollow cylinder with randomly uneven pressure.

  18. On the evolution of the snow line in protoplanetary discs II: Analytic approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Rebecca G

    2013-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the snow line in a protoplanetary disc that contains a dead zone (a region of zero or low turbulence). The snow line is within a self-gravitating part of the dead zone, and we obtain a fully analytic solution for its radius. Our formula could prove useful for future observational attempts to characterise the demographics of planets outside the snow line. External sources such as comic rays or X-rays from the central star can ionise the disc surface layers and allow the magneto-rotational instability to drive turbulence there. We show that provided that the surface density in this layer is less than about 50 g/cm^2, the dead zone solution exists, after an initial outbursting phase, until the disc is dispersed by photoevaporation. We demonstrate that the snow line radius is significantly larger than that predicted by a fully turbulent disc model, and that in our own solar system it remains outside of the orbital radius of the Earth. Thus, the inclusion of a dead zone into a protoplan...

  19. An Approximate Solution for the Circumsolar Flow Field of a Sun Moving Through the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkiewicz, Romana E.; Scherer, Klaus; Fahr, Hans J.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The solar system is in relative motion with respect to the ambient interstellar medium. The supersonic solar wind is expected to pass through the termination shock, thus the solar wind plasma eventually has to enter into an asymptotic outflow geometry appropriately adopted to this counterflow situation. Many attempts have been done to simulate the interaction between the solar wind and the LISM numerically. In this paper we generalize a Parker type analytical solution of the counterflow. The idea is to introduce a special kind of compressibility of the solar wind flow. With the assumption that only a transversal component of the density gradient normal to the flow lines exists we are able to calculate a full set of hydrodynamical quantities describing the circumsolar flow field of a Sun moving through the LISM. The equations governing the velocity and density fields lead to analytical solutions which can be taken as good approximations to the more general case of compressible plasma flows.

  20. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF GROUNDWATER FLUCTUATIONS IN ESTUARINE AQUIFER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; ZHOU Zhi-fang; JIA Suo-bao

    2005-01-01

    As a basic factor in the environment of estuary, tidal effects in the coastal aquifer have recently attracted much attention because tidal dynamic also greatly influences the solute transport in the coastal aquifer. Previous studies on tidal dynamic of coastal aquifers have focused on the inland propagation of oceanic tides in the cross-shore direction, a configuration that is essentially one-dimensional. Two-dimensional analytical solutions for groundwater level fluctuation in recent papers are localized in presenting the effect of both oceanic tides and estuarine tides in quadrantal aquifer. A two-dimensional model of groundwater fluctuations in estuarine zone in proposed in this paper. Using complex transform, the two-dimensional flow equation subject to periodic boundary condition is changed into time-independent elliptic problem. Based on Green function method, an analytical solution for groundwater fluctuations in fan-shaped aquifer is derived. The response to of groundwater tidal loading in an estuary and ocean is discussed. The result show that its more extensive application than recent studies.

  1. Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.

    2016-02-01

    Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.

  2. Approximate solution for nonlinear model of the second and half order reactions in porous catalyst by decomposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The problem of the process of coupled diffusion and reaction in catalyst pellets is considered for the case of second and half order reactions. The Adomian decomposition method is used to solve the non-linear model. For the second, half and first order reactions, analytical approximate solutions are obtained. The variation of reactant concentration in the catalyst pellet and the effectiveness factors at φ<10 are determined and compared with those by the BAND's finite difference numerical method developed by Newman. At lower values of φ, the decomposition solution with 3 terms gives satisfactory agreement with the numerical solution; at higher values of φ, as the term number in the decomposition method is increased, an acceptable agreement between the two methods is achieved. In general, the solution with 6 terms gives a satisfactory agreement.

  3. Approximate Damped Oscillatory Solutions for Compound KdV-Burgers Equation and Their Error Estimates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-guo ZHANG; Yan ZHAO; Xiao-yan TENG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we focus on studying approximate solutions of damped oscillatory solutions of the compound KdV-Burgers equation and their error estimates.We employ the theory of planar dynamical systems to study traveling wave solutions of the compound KdV-Burgers equation.We obtain some global phase portraits under different parameter conditions as well as the existence of bounded traveling wave solutions.Furthermore,we investigate the relations between the behavior of bounded traveling wave solutions and the dissipation coefficient r of the equation.We obtain two critical values of r,and find that a bounded traveling wave appears as a kink profile solitary wave if |r| is greater than or equal to some critical value,while it appears as a damped oscillatory wave if |r| is less than some critical value.By means of analysis and the undetermined coefficients method,we find that the compound KdV-Burgers equation only has three kinds of bell profile solitary wave solutions without dissipation.Based on the above discussions and according to the evolution relations of orbits in the global phase portraits,we obtain all approximate damped oscillatory solutions by using the undetermined coefficients method.Finally,using the homogenization principle,we establish the integral equations reflecting the relations between exact solutions and approximate solutions of damped oscillatory solutions.Moreover,we also give the error estimates for these approximate solutions.

  4. C^1-approximate solutions of second-order singular ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Karakostas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new method is developed to obtain C^1-approximate solutions of initial and boundary-value problems generated from a one - parameter second order singular ordinary differential equation. Information about the order of approximation is also given by introducing the so called growth index of a function. Conditions are given for the existence of such approximations for initial and boundary-value problems of several kinds. Examples associated with the corresponding graphs of the approximate solutions, for some values of the parameter, are also given.

  5. Numerical and analytical solutions for problems relevant for quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum computers are one of the next technological steps in modern computer science. Some of the relevant questions that arise when it comes to the implementation of quantum operations (as building blocks in a quantum algorithm) or the simulation of quantum systems are studied. Numerical results are gathered for variety of systems, e.g. NMR systems, Josephson junctions and others. To study quantum operations (e.g. the quantum fourier transform, swap operations or multiply-controlled NOT operations) on systems containing many qubits, a parallel C++ code was developed and optimised. In addition to performing high quality operations, a closer look was given to the minimal times required to implement certain quantum operations. These times represent an interesting quantity for the experimenter as well as for the mathematician. The former tries to fight dissipative effects with fast implementations, while the latter draws conclusions in the form of analytical solutions. Dissipative effects can even be included in the optimisation. The resulting solutions are relaxation and time optimised. For systems containing 3 linearly coupled spin (1)/(2) qubits, analytical solutions are known for several problems, e.g. indirect Ising couplings and trilinear operations. A further study was made to investigate whether there exists a sufficient set of criteria to identify systems with dynamics which are invertible under local operations. Finally, a full quantum algorithm to distinguish between two knots was implemented on a spin(1)/(2) system. All operations for this experiment were calculated analytically. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical expectations. (orig.)

  6. The passage of an infinite swept airfoil through an oblique gust. [approximate solution for aerodynamic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    An approximate solution is reported for the unsteady aerodynamic response of an infinite swept wing encountering a vertical oblique gust in a compressible stream. The approximate expressions are of closed form and do not require excessive computer storage or computation time, and further, they are in good agreement with the results of exact theory. This analysis is used to predict the unsteady aerodynamic response of a helicopter rotor blade encountering the trailing vortex from a previous blade. Significant effects of three dimensionality and compressibility are evident in the results obtained. In addition, an approximate solution for the unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with the pitching or plunging motion of a two dimensional airfoil in a subsonic stream is presented. The mathematical form of this solution approaches the incompressible solution as the Mach number vanishes, the linear transonic solution as the Mach number approaches one, and the solution predicted by piston theory as the reduced frequency becomes large.

  7. Analytic solution to a class of integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Xie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the integro-differential equation $$ epsilon^2 y''(x+L(xmathcal{H}(y=N(epsilon,x,y,mathcal{H}(y, $$ where $mathcal{H}(y[x]=frac{1}{pi}(Pint_{-infty}^{infty} frac{y(t}{t-x}dt$ is the Hilbert transform. The existence and uniqueness of analytic solution in appropriately chosen space is proved. Our method consists of extending the equation to an appropriately chosen region in the complex plane, then use the Contraction Mapping Theorem.

  8. Analytical solutions for tsunami runup on a plane beach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ) of the wave, which is not realistic for geophysical tsunamis. To resolve this problem, we first derive analytical solutions to the nonlinear shallow-water (NSW) equations for the runup/rundown of single waves, where the duration and the wave height can be specified separately. The formulation is then extended...... to cover leading depression N-waves composed of a superposition of positive and negative single waves. As a result the temporal variations of the runup elevation, the associated velocity and breaking criteria are specified in terms of polylogarithmic functions. Finally, we consider incoming transient...

  9. Mathematical Model of Suspension Filtration and Its Analytical Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normahmad Ravshanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work develops advanced mathematical model and computing algorithm to analyze, predict and identify the basic parameters of filter units and their variation ranges. Numerical analytic solution of liquid ionized mixtures filtration was got on their basis. Computing experiments results are presented in graphics form. Calculation results analysis enables to determine the optimum performance of filter units, used for liquid ionized mixtures filtration, food preparation, drug production and water purification. Selection of the most suitable parameters contributes to the improvement of economic and technological efficiency of production and filter units working efficiency.

  10. Cubic autocatalysis in a reaction-diffusion annulus: semi-analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, M. R.; Marchant, T. R.; Nelson, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Semi-analytical solutions for cubic autocatalytic reactions are considered in a circularly symmetric reaction-diffusion annulus. The Galerkin method is used to approximate the spatial structure of the reactant and autocatalyst concentrations. Ordinary differential equations are then obtained as an approximation to the governing partial differential equations and analyzed to obtain semi-analytical results for this novel geometry. Singularity theory is used to determine the regions of parameter space in which the different types of steady-state diagram occur. The region of parameter space, in which Hopf bifurcations can occur, is found using a degenerate Hopf bifurcation analysis. A novel feature of this geometry is the effect, of varying the width of the annulus, on the static and dynamic multiplicity. The results show that for a thicker annulus, Hopf bifurcations and multiple steady-state solutions occur in a larger portion of parameter space. The usefulness and accuracy of the semi-analytical results are confirmed by comparison with numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equations.

  11. Approximate Damped Oscillatory Solutions for Generalized KdV-Burgers Equation and Their Error Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Weiguo Zhang; Xiang Li

    2011-01-01

    We focus on studying approximate solutions of damped oscillatory solutions of generalized KdV-Burgers equation and their error estimates. The theory of planar dynamical systems is employed to make qualitative analysis to the dynamical systems which traveling wave solutions of this equation correspond to. We investigate the relations between the behaviors of bounded traveling wave solutions and dissipation coefficient, and give two critical values λ1 and λ2 which can characte...

  12. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  13. Error Estimates for Approximate Solutions of the Riccati Equation with Real or Complex Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel

    2010-09-01

    A method is presented for obtaining rigorous error estimates for approximate solutions of the Riccati equation, with real or complex potentials. Our main tool is to derive invariant region estimates for complex solutions of the Riccati equation. We explain the general strategy for applying these estimates and illustrate the method in typical examples, where the approximate solutions are obtained by gluing together WKB and Airy solutions of corresponding one-dimensional Schrödinger equations. Our method is motivated by, and has applications to, the analysis of linear wave equations in the geometry of a rotating black hole.

  14. An analytical solution for stationary distribution of photon density in traveling-wave and reflective SOAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze two semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structures, traveling-wave and reflective, with the active region made of the bulk material. The model is based on the stationary traveling-wave equations for forward and backward propagating photon densities of the signal and the amplified spontaneous emission, along with the stationary carrier rate equation. We start by introducing linear approximation of the carrier density spatial distribution, which enables us to find solutions for the photon densities in a closed analytical form. An analytical approach ensures a low computational resource occupation and an easy analysis of the parameters influencing the SOA’s response. The comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows high agreement for a wide range of the input optical powers and bias currents. (paper)

  15. Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    Cable-suspended manipulators are used in large scale applications with, heavy in weight and long in span cables. It seems impractical to maintain cable assumptions of smaller robots for large scale manipulators. The interactions among the cables, platforms and actuators can fully evaluate the coupled dynamic analysis. The structural flexibility of the cables becomes more pronounced in large manipulators. In this paper, an analytic solution is provided to solve cable vibration. Also, a closed form solution can be adopted to improve the dynamic response to flexibility. The output is provided by the optimal torque generation subject to the actuator limitations in a mechatronic sense. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through simulations.

  16. Analytic solution of differential equation for gyroscope's motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurekhodjaev, Abibulla N.; Mamatova, Gulnar U.

    2016-08-01

    Problems of motion of a rigid body with a fixed point are one of the urgent problems in classical mechanics. A feature of this problem is that, despite the important results achieved by outstanding mathematicians in the last two centuries, there is still no complete solution. This paper obtains an analytical solution of the problem of motion of an axisymmetric rigid body with variable inertia moments in resistant environment described by the system of nonlinear differential equations of L. Euler, involving the partial discretization method for nonlinear differential equations, which was built by A. N. Tyurekhodjaev based on the theory of generalized functions. To such problems belong gyroscopic instruments, in particular, and especially gyroscopes.

  17. An Exact Analytical Solution to Exponentially Tapered Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that tapering the piezoelectric beam through its length optimizes the power extracted from vibration based energy harvesting. This phenomenon has been investigated by some researchers using semianalytical, finite element and experimental methods. In this paper, an exact analytical solution is presented to calculate the power generated from vibration of exponentially tapered unimorph and bimorph with series and parallel connections. The mass normalized mode shapes of the exponentially tapered piezoelectric beam with tip mass are implemented to transfer the proposed electromechanical coupled equations into modal coordinates. The steady states harmonic solution results are verified both numerically and experimentally. Results show that there exist values for tapering parameter and electric resistance in a way that the output power per mass of the energy harvester will be maximized. Moreover it is concluded that the electric resistance must be higher than a specified value for gaining more power by tapering the beam.

  18. Simple analytical approximations to the integrals of the Bessel functions Jν: application to the transmittance of a circular aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two accurate, yet simple, analytic approximations to the integral of the Bessel function J0 are presented. These first and second-order approximations are obtained by improving on the recently developed method known as two-point quasi-rational approximations. The accuracy of the first-order approximant is better than 0.05. The second-order approximant is practically indistinguishable from the true integral, even for very large values of the argument (overall accuracy is better than 0.002 05). Our approximants are, in addition, analytic and therefore replace with significant advantages both the well known power series and the asymptotic formulae of the integral. Approximants to the transmittance function of a plane wave through a circular aperture are derived, a problem which arises in diffraction theory and particle scattering. The second-order approximant to the transmittance is analytic too, and can be evaluated for small and large values of the argument, just with a hand-calculator. Its accuracy is better than 0.0011. As an extension, two first-order approximations to the integrals of the Bessel functions Jν, of fractional order ν, are derived. (author)

  19. A transformed analytical model for thermal noise of FinFET based on fringing field approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulika Sharma, Savitesh; Dasgupta, S.; Kartikeyant, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper delineates the effect of nonplanar structure of FinFETs on noise performance. We demonstrate the thermal noise analytical model that has been inferred by taking into account the presence of an additional inverted region in the extended (underlap) S/D region due to finite gate electrode thickness. Noise investigation includes the effects of source drain resistances which become significant as channel length becomes shorter. In this paper, we evaluate the additional noise caused by three dimensional (3-D) structure of the single fin device and then extended analysis of the multi-fin and multi-fingers structure. The addition of fringe field increases its minimum noise figure and noise resistance of approximately 1 dB and 100 Ω respectively and optimum admittance increases to 5.45 mƱ at 20 GHz for a device operating under saturation region. Hence, our transformed model plays a significant function in evaluation of accurate noise performance at circuit level. Project supported in part by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).

  20. Looking into Analytical Approximations for Three-flavor Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities in Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Jing-yu

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by tremendous progress in neutrino oscillation experiments, we derive a new set of simple and compact formulas for three-flavor neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter of a constant density. A useful definition of the $\\eta$-gauge neutrino mass-squared difference $\\Delta^{}_* \\equiv \\eta \\Delta^{}_{31} + (1-\\eta) \\Delta^{}_{32}$ is introduced, where $\\Delta^{}_{ji} \\equiv m^2_j - m^2_i$ for $ji = 21, 31, 32$ are the ordinary neutrino mass-squared differences and $0 \\leq \\eta \\leq 1$ is a real and positive parameter. Expanding neutrino oscillation probabilities in terms of $\\alpha \\equiv \\Delta^{}_{21}/\\Delta^{}_*$, we demonstrate that the analytical formulas can be remarkably simplified for $\\eta = \\cos^2 \\theta^{}_{12}$, with $\\theta_{12}^{}$ being the solar mixing angle. As a by-product, the mapping from neutrino oscillation parameters in vacuum to their counterparts in matter is obtained at the order of ${\\cal O}(\\alpha^2)$. Finally, we show that our approximate formulas are not only valid f...

  1. All-coupling polaron optical response: Analytic approaches beyond the adiabatic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimin, S. N.; Tempere, J.; Devreese, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the problem of an all-coupling analytic description for the optical conductivity of the Fröhlich polaron is treated, with the goal being to bridge the gap in the validity range that exists between two complementary methods: on the one hand, the memory-function formalism and, on the other hand, the strong-coupling expansion based on the Franck-Condon picture for the polaron response. At intermediate coupling, both methods were found to fail as they do not reproduce diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo results. To resolve this, we modify the memory-function formalism with respect to the Feynman-Hellwarth-Iddings-Platzman approach in order to take into account a nonquadratic interaction in a model system for the polaron. The strong-coupling expansion is extended beyond the adiabatic approximation by including in the treatment nonadiabatic transitions between excited polaron states. The polaron optical conductivity that we obtain at T =0 by combining the two extended methods agrees well, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo results in the whole available range of the electron-phonon coupling strength.

  2. EXISTENCE AND APPROXIMATION OF SOLUTIONS TO VARIATIONAL INCLUSIONS WITH ACCRETIVE MAPPINGS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石生

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the existence and approximation problem of solutions for a class of variational inclusions with accretive mappings in Banach spaces. The results extend and improve some recent results.

  3. Techniques for correcting approximate finite difference solutions. [applied to transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D.

    1979-01-01

    A method of correcting finite-difference solutions for the effect of truncation error or the use of an approximate basic equation is presented. Applications to transonic flow problems are described and examples given.

  4. Approximation of solutions to retarded differential equations with applications to population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bahuguna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a retarded differential equation with applications to population dynamics. We establish the convergence of a finite-dimensional approximations of a unique solution, the existence and uniqueness of which are also proved in the process.

  5. An Analytical Solution for Lateral Buckling Critical Load Calculation of Leaning-Type Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-rong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution for lateral buckling critical load of leaning-type arch bridge was presented in this paper. New tangential and radial buckling models of the transverse brace between the main and stable arch ribs are established. Based on the Ritz method, the analytical solution for lateral buckling critical load of the leaning-type arch bridge with different central angles of main arch ribs and leaning arch ribs under different boundary conditions is derived for the first time. Comparison between the analytical results and the FEM calculated results shows that the analytical solution presented in this paper is sufficiently accurate. The parametric analysis results show that the lateral buckling critical load of the arch bridge with fixed boundary conditions is about 1.14 to 1.16 times as large as that of the arch bridge with hinged boundary condition. The lateral buckling critical load increases by approximately 31.5% to 41.2% when stable arch ribs are added, and the critical load increases as the inclined angle of stable arch rib increases. The differences in the center angles of the main arch rib and the stable arch rib have little effect on the lateral buckling critical load.

  6. Analytical Solution for the Size of the Minimum Dominating Set in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nacher, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    Domination is the fastest-growing field within graph theory with a profound diversity and impact in real-world applications, such as the recent breakthrough approach that identifies optimized subsets of proteins enriched with cancer-related genes. Despite its conceptual simplicity, domination is a classical NP-complete decision problem which makes analytical solutions elusive and poses difficulties to design optimization algorithms for finding a dominating set of minimum cardinality in a large network. Here we derive for the first time an approximate analytical solution for the density of the minimum dominating set (MDS) by using a combination of cavity method and Ultra-Discretization (UD) procedure. The derived equation allows us to compute the size of MDS by only using as an input the information of the degree distribution of a given network.

  7. Logical gaps in the approximate solutions of the social learning game and an exact solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Xin; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    After the social learning models were proposed, finding solutions to the games becomes a well-defined mathematical question. However, almost all papers on the games and their applications are based on solutions built either upon an ad-hoc argument or a twisted Bayesian analysis of the games. Here, we present logical gaps in those solutions and offer an exact solution of our own. We also introduce a minor extension to the original game so that not only logical differences but also differences in action outcomes among those solutions become visible.

  8. Creation of the CMB blackbody spectrum: precise analytic solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Khatri, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    The blackbody spectrum of CMB was created behind the blackbody surface at redshifts $z\\gtrsim 2\\times 10^6$. At earlier times, the Universe was dense and hot enough that complete thermal equilibrium between baryonic matter (electrons and ions) and photons could be established. Any perturbation away from the blackbody spectrum was suppressed exponentially. New physics, for example annihilation and decay of dark matter, can add energy and photons to CMB at redshifts $z\\gtrsim 10^5$ and result in a non-zero chemical potential ($\\mu$) of CMB. Precise evolution of the CMB spectrum around the critical redshift of $z\\gtrsim 2\\times 10^6$ is required in order to calculate the $\\mu$-type spectral distortion. Although numerical calculation of important processes involved (double Compton process, comptonization and bremsstrahlung) is not difficult, analytic solutions are much faster and easier to calculate and provide valuable physical insights. We provide precise (better than 1%) analytic solutions for the decay of $\\m...

  9. Approximate homotopy symmetry method:Homotopy series solutions to the sixth-order Boussinesq equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An approximate homotopy symmetry method for nonlinear problems is proposed and applied to the sixth-order Boussinesq equation,which arises from fluid dynamics.We summarize the general formulas for similarity reduction solutions and similarity reduction equations of different orders,educing the related homotopy series solutions.Zero-order similarity reduction equations are equivalent to the Painlevé IV type equation or Weierstrass elliptic equation.Higher order similarity solutions can be obtained by solving linear variable coefficients ordinary differential equations.The auxiliary parameter has an effect on the convergence of homotopy series solutions.Series solutions and similarity reduction equations from the approximate symmetry method can be retrieved from the approximate homotopy symmetry method.

  10. On uniform approximation by n-analytic functions on closed sets in C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, A [Department of Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Gauthier, P M [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Paramonov, P V [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-30

    Necessary and (or) sufficient conditions on a closed set F subset of C are given for any function f, continuous on F and n-analytic on F{sup 0}, to be the uniform limit on F of a sequence of n-analytic entire or n-analytic meromorphic functions.

  11. A new reliable analytical solution for strongly nonlinear oscillator with cubic and harmonic restoring force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Alal Hosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a complicated strongly nonlinear oscillator with cubic and harmonic restoring force, has been analysed and solved completely by harmonic balance method (HBM. Investigating analytically such kinds of oscillator is very difficult task and cumbersome. In this study, the offered technique gives desired results and to avoid numerical complexity. An excellent agreement was found between approximate and numerical solutions, which prove that HBM is very efficient and produces high accuracy results. It is remarkably important that, second-order approximate results are almost same with exact solutions. The advantage of this method is its simple procedure and applicable for many other oscillatory problems arising in science and engineering.

  12. Analytic Solutions of Three-Level Dressed-Atom Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Ling; YIN Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the dressed-atom model, the general analytic expressions for the eigenenergies, eigenstates and their optical potentials of the A-configuration three-level atom system are derived and analysed. From the calculation of dipole matrix element of different dressed states, we obtain the spontaneous-emission rates in the dressed-atom picture. We find that our general expressions of optical potentials for the three-level dressed atom can be reduced to the same as ones in previous references under the approximation of a small saturation parameter. We also analyse the dependences of the optical potentials of a three-level 85Rb atom on the laser detuning and the dependences of spontaneous-emission rates on the radial position in the dark hollow beam, and discuss the probability (population) evolutions of dressed-atomic eigenstates in three levels in the hollow beam.

  13. A New Analytical Solution to the Relativistic Polytropic Fluid Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Nouh, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an accelerated power series solution for Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, which represents the relativistic polytropic fluid spheres. We constructed a recurrence relation for the series coefficients in the power series expansion of the solution of TOV equation. For the range of the polytropic index 01.5, the series diverges except for some values of sigma. To improve the convergence radii of the series, we used a combination of two techniques Euler-Abel transformation and Pad\\'e approximation. The new transformed series converges everywhere for the range of the polytropic index 0<=n<=3. Comparison between the results obtained by the proposed accelerating scheme presented here and the numerical one, revealed good agreement with maximum relative error is of order 0.001.

  14. Assessing the Clinical Impact of Approximations in Analytical Dose Calculations for Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemann, Jan, E-mail: jschuemann@mgh.harvard.edu; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Moteabbed, Maryam; Min, Chul Hee; Paganetti, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of approximations in current analytical dose calculation methods (ADCs) on tumor control probability (TCP) in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions planned with ADC were compared with delivered dose distributions as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. A total of 50 patients were investigated in this analysis with 10 patients per site for 5 treatment sites (head and neck, lung, breast, prostate, liver). Differences were evaluated using dosimetric indices based on a dose-volume histogram analysis, a γ-index analysis, and estimations of TCP. Results: We found that ADC overestimated the target doses on average by 1% to 2% for all patients considered. The mean dose, D95, D50, and D02 (the dose value covering 95%, 50% and 2% of the target volume, respectively) were predicted within 5% of the delivered dose. The γ-index passing rate for target volumes was above 96% for a 3%/3 mm criterion. Differences in TCP were up to 2%, 2.5%, 6%, 6.5%, and 11% for liver and breast, prostate, head and neck, and lung patients, respectively. Differences in normal tissue complication probabilities for bladder and anterior rectum of prostate patients were less than 3%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that current dose calculation algorithms lead to underdosage of the target by as much as 5%, resulting in differences in TCP of up to 11%. To ensure full target coverage, advanced dose calculation methods like Monte Carlo simulations may be necessary in proton therapy. Monte Carlo simulations may also be required to avoid biases resulting from systematic discrepancies in calculated dose distributions for clinical trials comparing proton therapy with conventional radiation therapy.

  15. Refinement of approximated solution of nonlinear differential equation of second order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Sidorova, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    The boundary problem for nonlinear differential equation of the second order is considered. The problem is assumed to have a unique solution, stable over the right part. It was proved that if the step of the net is small, then the corresponding difference value problem has a unique solution, stable over the right part. Expansion over degrees of discrediting step for approximate solutions is established. The expansion allows one to apply the Richardson type extrapolation. Efficiency of extrapolation is illustrated by numerical example.

  16. FORECAST OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN RESERVOIR BASED ON ANALYTICAL SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shun-wen; ZHU Yue-ming; QIANG Sheng; ZENG Deng-feng

    2008-01-01

    The water temperature in reservoirs is difficult to be predicted by numerical simulations. In this article, a statistical model of forecasting the water temperature was proposed. In this model, the 3-D thermal conduction-diffusion equations were converted into a system consisting of 2-D equations with the Fourier expansion and some hypotheses. Then the statistical model of forecasting the water temperature was developed based on the analytical solution to the 2-D thermal equations. The simplified statistical model can elucidate the main physical mechanism of the temperature variation much more clearly than the numerical simulation with the Navier-Stokes equations. Finally, with the presented statistical model, the distribution of water temperature in the Shangyoujiang reservoir was determined.

  17. Pseudo analytical solution to time periodic stiffness systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan-Zhong; Zhou Yuan-Zi

    2011-01-01

    An analytical form of state transition matrix for a system of equations with time periodic stiffness is derived in order to solve the free response and also allow for the determination of system stability and bifurcation. A pseudoclosed form complete solution for parametrically excited systems subjected to inhomogeneous generalized forcing is developed, based on the Fourier expansion of periodic matrices and the substitution of matrix exponential terms via Lagrange-Sylvester theorem. A Mathieu type of equation with large amplitude is presented to demonstrate the method of formulating state transition matrix and Floquet multipliers. A two-degree-of-freedom system with irregular time periodic stiffness characterized by spiral bevel gear mesh vibration is presented to find forced response in stability and instability. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

  18. Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution Analytical Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weaver, Jamie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document is a companion report to a previous report, PNNL 24519, Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution, A Brief Review of the Literature, August 2015. In this companion report, we report a fast, accurate, newly developed analytical method for measurement of trace alpha-emitting actinide elements in commercial high-activity molybdenum-99 solution. Molybdenum-99 is widely used to produce 99mTc for medical imaging. Because it is used as a radiopharmaceutical, its purity must be proven to be extremely high, particularly for the alpha emitting actinides. The sample of 99Mo solution is measured into a vessel (such as a polyethylene centrifuge tube) and acidified with dilute nitric acid. A gadolinium carrier is added (50 µg). Tracers and spikes are added as necessary. Then the solution is made strongly basic with ammonium hydroxide, which causes the gadolinium carrier to precipitate as hydrous Gd(OH)3. The precipitate of Gd(OH)3 carries all of the actinide elements. The suspension of gadolinium hydroxide is then passed through a membrane filter to make a counting mount suitable for direct alpha spectrometry. The high-activity 99Mo and 99mTc pass through the membrane filter and are separated from the alpha emitters. The gadolinium hydroxide, carrying any trace actinide elements that might be present in the sample, forms a thin, uniform cake on the surface of the membrane filter. The filter cake is first washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide to push the last traces of molybdate through, then with water. The filter is then mounted on a stainless steel counting disk. Finally, the alpha emitting actinide elements are measured by alpha spectrometry.

  19. Analytic expressions of radial integral on multiple transitions for Coulomb-Born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytic expression for the two-electron integral of electron-ion scattering is re-examined carefully in terms of Appell's functions and Horn's functions. We study several analytic formulae in order to find actual programming code for the multipole transitions on electron-ion collisions. (author)

  20. The Analytical Solution of the Schr\\"odinger Particle in Multiparameter Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Taş, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present analytical solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation with the Multiparameter potential containing the different types of physical potential via the asymptotic iteration method (AIM) by applying a Pekeris-type approximation to the centrifugal potential. For any n and l (states) quantum numbers, we get the bound state energy eigenvalues numerically and the corresponding eigenfunctions.Furthermore, we compare our results with the ones obtained in previous works and it is seen that our numerical results are in good agreement with the literature.

  1. Analytical solution of the Klein Gordon equation for a quadratic exponential-type potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzatpour, Somayyeh; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei

    2016-07-01

    In this research study, analytical solutions of the Klein Gordon equation by considering the potential as a quadratic exponential will be presented. However, the potential is assumed to be within the framework of an approximation for the centrifugal potential in any state. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used to calculate the wave function, as well as corresponding exact energy equation, in bound states. We finally concluded that the quadratic exponential-type potential under which the results were deduced, led to outcomes that were comparable to the results obtained from the well-known potentials in some special cases.

  2. An analytical model for solute transport in an infiltration tracer test in soil with a shallow groundwater table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    solution against the approximate solutions that derived from the previous analytical solution and has been suggested to serve as fast tools for simultaneously estimating the longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients. The results indicate that the approximate solutions offer predictions that are markedly distinct from our solution for the entire range of dispersion coefficient values. Thus, it is not appropriate to use the approximate solution for interpreting the results of an infiltration tracer test.

  3. Variability of the vertical profile of wind speed: characterization at various time scales and analytical approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdier, Bénédicte; Plougonven, Riwal; Drobinski, Philippe; Dupont, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    Wind measurements are key for the wind resource assessment. But as wind turbines get higher, wind measurement masts are often lower than the future wind turbine hub height. Therefore one of the first steps in the energy yield assessment is the vertical extrapolation of wind measurements. Such extrapolation is often done by approximating the vertical profile of wind speed with an analytical expression: either a logarithmic law which has a theoretical basis in Monin-Obukhov similarity theory; or a power law which is empirical. The present study analyzes the variability of the wind profile and how this variability affects the results of the vertical extrapolation methods. The study is conducted with data from the SIRTA observatory, 20km south of Paris (France). A large set of instrumentation is available, including sonic anemometers at 10 and 30 meters, a LIDAR measuring wind speeds from 40 to 200 meters and a SODAR measuring wind speeds starting from 100m up to 1km. The comparison between the instruments enables to characterize the measurements uncertainties. The observations show that close to the ground the wind is stronger during daytime and weaker at night while higher, around 150 m, the wind is weaker during daytime and stronger at night. Indeed the wind shear has a pronounced diurnal cycle. The vertical extrapolation methods currently used in the industry do not usually take into account the strong variability of the wind profile. The often fit the parameters of the extrapolation law, not on each time step, but on time-averaged profiles. The averaging period may be the whole measurement period or some part of it: there may be one constant parameter computed on the wind profile that was averaged on the whole year of measures, or the year of measures may be divided into a small number of cases (for example into night or daytime data, or into 4 seasons) and the parameter is adjusted for each case. The study analyzes thoroughly the errors generated by both

  4. A Method for Generating Approximate Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard application of similarity method to find solutions of PDEs mostly results in reduction to ODEs which are not easily integrable in terms of elementary or tabulated functions. Such situations usually demand solving reduced ODEs numerically. However, there are no systematic procedures available to utilize these numerical solutions of reduced ODE to obtain the solution of original PDE. A practical and tractable approach is proposed to deal with such situations and is applied to obtain approximate similarity solutions to different cases of an initial-boundary value problem of unsteady gas flow through a semi-infinite porous medium.

  5. General analytical solutions for DC/AC circuit network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rubido, Nicolás; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present novel general analytical solutions for the currents that are developed in the edges of network-like circuits when some nodes of the network act as sources/sinks of DC or AC current. We assume that Ohm's law is valid at every edge and that charge at every node is conserved (with the exception of the source/sink nodes). The resistive, capacitive, and/or inductive properties of the lines in the circuit define a complex network structure with given impedances for each edge. Our solution for the currents at each edge is derived in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the network defined from the impedances. This derivation also allows us to compute the equivalent impedance between any two nodes of the circuit and relate it to currents in a closed circuit which has a single voltage generator instead of many input/output source/sink nodes. Contrary to solving Kirchhoff's equations, our derivation allows to easily calculate the redistribution of currents that o...

  6. Analytical solutions for elastic binary nanotubes of arbitrary chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lai; Guo, Wanlin

    2016-09-01

    Analytical solutions for the elastic properties of a variety of binary nanotubes with arbitrary chirality are obtained through the study of systematic molecular mechanics. This molecular mechanics model is first extended to chiral binary nanotubes by introducing an additional out-of-plane inversion term into the so-called stick-spiral model, which results from the polar bonds and the buckling of binary graphitic crystals. The closed-form expressions for the longitudinal and circumferential Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of chiral binary nanotubes are derived as functions of the tube diameter. The obtained inversion force constants are negative for all types of binary nanotubes, and the predicted tube stiffness is lower than that by the former stick-spiral model without consideration of the inversion term, reflecting the softening effect of the buckling on the elastic properties of binary nanotubes. The obtained properties are shown to be comparable to available density functional theory calculated results and to be chirality and size sensitive. The developed model and explicit solutions provide a systematic understanding of the mechanical performance of binary nanotubes consisting of III-V and II-VI group elements.

  7. Approximate solution of two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph models arising in mathematical physics using optimal homotopy asymptotic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, S.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the analytical approximate solutions for two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph equations. The fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], (1,2), and [1,2], respectively. In this paper, we extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) for two-term fractional-order wave-diffusion equations. Highly approximate solution is obtained in series form using this extended method. Approximate solution obtained by OHAM is compared with the exact solution. It is observed that OHAM is a prevailing and convergent method for the solutions of nonlinear-fractional-order time-dependent partial differential problems. The numerical results rendering that the applied method is explicit, effective, and easy to use, for handling more general fractional-order wave diffusion, diffusion, and telegraph problems.

  8. POLYNOMIAL SOLUTIONS TO PIEZOELECTRIC BEAMS(Ⅱ)--ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS TO TYPICAL PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hao-jiang; JIANG Ai-min

    2005-01-01

    For the orthotropic piezoelectric plane problem, a series of piezoelectric beams is solved and the corresponding analytical solutions are obtained with the trialand-error method on the basis of the general solution in the case of three distinct eigenvalues, in which all displacements, electrical potential, stresses and electrical displacements are expressed by three displacement functions in terms of harmonic polynomials. These problems are cantilever beam with cross force and point charge at free end, cantilever beam and simply-supported beam subjected to uniform loads on the upper and lower surfaces, and cantilever beam subjected to linear electrical potential.

  9. Strong convergence and convergence rates of approximating solutions for algebraic Riccati equations in Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazufumi

    1987-01-01

    The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.

  10. Higher accurate approximate solutions for the simple pendulum in terms of elementary functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Frances, Jorge; Ortuno, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi; Guillermo Bernabeu, Jose, E-mail: a.belendez@ua.e [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A closed-form approximate expression for the solution of a simple pendulum in terms of elementary functions is obtained. To do this, the exact expression for the maximum tension of the string of the pendulum is first considered and a trial approximate solution depending on some parameters is used, which is substituted in the tension equation. We obtain the parameters for the approximate by means of a term-by-term comparison of the power series expansion for the approximate maximum tension with the corresponding series for the exact one. We believe that this letter may be a suitable and fruitful exercise for teaching and better understanding nonlinear oscillations of a simple pendulum in undergraduate courses on classical mechanics. (letters and comments)

  11. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-08-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses augmented by approximately 100% with respect to the matched asymptotic expansions, a factor that may contribute jointly with other pathological factors to the faster aging of the

  12. AN EFFECTIVE CONTINUOUS ALGORITHM FOR APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS OF LARGE SCALE MAX-CUT PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-xian Xu; Xiao-liang He; Feng-min Xu

    2006-01-01

    An effective continuous algorithm is proposed to find approximate solutions of NP-hard max-cut problems. The algorithm relaxes the max-cut problem into a continuous nonlinear programming problem by replacing n discrete constraints in the original problem with one single continuous constraint. A feasible direction method is designed to solve the resulting nonlinear programming problem. The method employs only the gradient evaluations of the objective function, and no any matrix calculations and no line searches are required.This greatly reduces the calculation cost of the method, and is suitable for the solution of large size max-cut problems. The convergence properties of the proposed method to KKT points of the nonlinear programming are analyzed. If the solution obtained by the proposed method is a global solution of the nonlinear programming problem, the solution will provide an upper bound on the max-cut value. Then an approximate solution to the max-cut problem is generated from the solution of the nonlinear programming and provides a lower bound on the max-cut value. Numerical experiments and comparisons on some max-cut test problems (small and large size) show that the proposed algorithm is efficient to get the exact solutions for all small test problems and well satisfied solutions for most of the large size test problems with less calculation costs.

  13. An approximate solution for the free vibrations of rotating uniform cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Approximate solutions are obtained for the uncoupled frequencies and modes of rotating uniform cantilever beams. The frequency approximations for flab bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion are simple expressions having errors of less than a few percent over the entire frequency range. These expressions provide a simple way of determining the relations between mass and stiffness parameters and the resultant frequencies and mode shapes of rotating uniform beams.

  14. A posteriori error estimates for approximate solutions of Barenblatt-Biot poroelastic model

    CERN Document Server

    Nordbotten, J M; Repin, S I; Valdman, J

    2010-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the Barenblatt-Biott model in the theory of poroelasticity. We derive a guaranteed estimate of the difference between exact and approximate solutions expressed in a combined norm that encompasses errors for the pressure fields computed from the diffusion part of the model and errors related to stresses (strains) of the elastic part. Estimates do not contain generic (mesh-dependent) constants and are valid for any conforming approximation of pressure and stress fields.

  15. An explicit approximate solution to the Duffing-harmonic oscillator by a cubication method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A., E-mail: a.belendez@ua.e [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Mendez, D.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E. [Departamento de Optica, Farmacologia y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Marini, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Pascual, I. [Departamento de Optica, Farmacologia y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2009-08-03

    The nonlinear oscillations of a Duffing-harmonic oscillator are investigated by an approximated method based on the 'cubication' of the initial nonlinear differential equation. In this cubication method the restoring force is expanded in Chebyshev polynomials and the original nonlinear differential equation is approximated by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain explicit approximate formulas for the frequency and the solution as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the Jacobi elliptic function, respectively. These explicit formulas are valid for all values of the initial amplitude and we conclude this cubication method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes. Excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones is demonstrated and discussed and the relative error for the approximate frequency is as low as 0.071%. Unlike other approximate methods applied to this oscillator, which are not capable to reproduce exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency when A tends to zero, the cubication method used in this Letter predicts exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency not only when A tends to infinity, but also when A tends to zero. Finally, a closed-form expression for the approximate frequency is obtained in terms of elementary functions. To do this, the relationship between the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the arithmetic-geometric mean as well as Legendre's formula to approximately obtain this mean are used.

  16. HYBRID FINITE ANALYTIC SOLUTION FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL TIDAL FLOW WITH SIGMA COORDINATE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was developed to predict the behavior of tidal flow by using the σ-coordinate transformation. Conservation equations were solved by hybrid finite analytic techniques. The hydrodynamic model was verified with the analytical solutions for tidal forcing flow in an open channel. The simulation shows good agreement with analytic solutions.

  17. Stochastic quasi-steady state approximations for asymptotic solutions of the chemical master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón, Tomás [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.

  18. Ermod: fast and versatile computation software for solvation free energy with approximate theory of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Shun; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-01

    ERmod is a software package to efficiently and approximately compute the solvation free energy using the method of energy representation. Molecular simulation is to be conducted at two condensed-phase systems of the solution of interest and the reference solvent with test-particle insertion of the solute. The subprogram ermod in ERmod then provides a set of energy distribution functions from the simulation trajectories, and another subprogram slvfe determines the solvation free energy from the distribution functions through an approximate functional. This article describes the design and implementation of ERmod, and illustrates its performance in solvent water for two organic solutes and two protein solutes. Actually, the free-energy computation with ERmod is not restricted to the solvation in homogeneous medium such as fluid and polymer and can treat the binding into weakly ordered system with nano-inhomogeneity such as micelle and lipid membrane. ERmod is available on web at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ermod.

  19. A Discrete Meta-Control Procedure for Approximating Solutions to Binary Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda B. Zabinsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale binary integer programs occur frequently in many real-world applications. For some binary integer problems, finding an optimal solution or even a feasible solution is computationally expensive. In this paper, we develop a discrete meta-control procedure to approximately solve large-scale binary integer programs efficiently. The key idea is to map the vector of n binary decision variables into a scalar function defined over a time interval [0; n] and construct a linear quadratic tracking (LQT problem that can be solved efficiently. We prove that an LQT formulation has an optimal binary solution, analogous to a classical bang-bang control in continuous time. Our LQT approach can provide advantages in reducing computation while generating a good approximate solution. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  20. Higher accuracy analytical approximations to a nonlinear oscillator with discontinuity by He's homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es; Hernandez, A.; Belendez, T.; Neipp, C.; Marquez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-03-17

    He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order approximate periodic solutions of a nonlinear oscillator with discontinuity for which the elastic force term is proportional to sgn(x). We find He's homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. Only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate period of less than 1.56% for all values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.30% for the second iteration and as low as 0.057% when the third-order approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by different harmonic balance methods reveals that He's homotopy perturbation method is very effective and convenient.

  1. Analytical Solution and Physics of a Propellant Damping Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA design teams have been investigating options for "detuning" Ares I to prevent oscillations originating in the vehicle solid-rocket main stage from synching up with the natural resonance of the rest of the vehicle. An experimental work started at NASA MSFC center in 2008 using a damping device showed great promise in damping the vibration level of an 8 resonant tank. However, the mechanisms of the vibration damping were not well understood and there were many unknowns such as the physics, scalability, technology readiness level (TRL), and applicability for the Ares I vehicle. The objectives of this study are to understand the physics of intriguing slosh damping observed in the experiments, to further validate a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software in propellant sloshing against experiments with water, and to study the applicability and efficiency of the slosh damper to a full scale propellant tank and to cryogenic fluids. First a 2D fluid-structure interaction model is built to model the system resonance of liquid sloshing and structure vibration. A damper is then added into the above model to simulate experimentally observed system damping phenomena. Qualitative agreement is found. An analytical solution is then derived from the Newtonian dynamics for the thrust oscillation damper frequency, and a slave mass concept is introduced in deriving the damper and tank interaction dynamics. The paper will elucidate the fundamental physics behind the LOX damper success from the derivation of the above analytical equation of the lumped Newtonian dynamics. Discussion of simulation results using high fidelity multi-phase, multi-physics, fully coupled CFD structure interaction model will show why the LOX damper is unique and superior compared to other proposed mitigation techniques.

  2. Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Christophe; Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Bessaire, Thomas; Frank, Nancy; Zbinden, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Crises related to the presence of melamine in milk or horse meat in beef have been a wake-up call to the whole food industry showing that adulteration of food raw materials is a complex issue. By analysing the situation, it became clear that the risk-based approach applied to ensure the safety related to chemical contaminants in food is not adequate for food fraud. Therefore, a specific approach has been developed to evaluate adulteration vulnerabilities within the food chain. Vulnerabilities will require the development of new analytical solutions. Fingerprinting methodologies can be very powerful in determining the status of a raw material without knowing the identity of each constituent. Milk adulterated by addition of adulterants with very different chemical properties could be detected rapidly by Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) fingerprinting technology. In parallel, a fast and simple multi-analytes liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed to detect either high levels of nitrogen-rich compounds resulting from adulteration or low levels due to accidental contamination either in milk or in other sensitive food matrices. To verify meat species authenticity, DNA-based methods are preferred for both raw ingredients and processed food. DNA macro-array, and more specifically the Meat LCD Array have showed efficient and reliable meat identification, allowing the simultaneous detection of 32 meat species. While the Meat LCD Array is still a targeted approach, DNA sequencing is a significant step towards an untargeted one. PMID:27198809

  3. Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Christophe; Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Bessaire, Thomas; Frank, Nancy; Zbinden, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Crises related to the presence of melamine in milk or horse meat in beef have been a wake-up call to the whole food industry showing that adulteration of food raw materials is a complex issue. By analysing the situation, it became clear that the risk-based approach applied to ensure the safety related to chemical contaminants in food is not adequate for food fraud. Therefore, a specific approach has been developed to evaluate adulteration vulnerabilities within the food chain. Vulnerabilities will require the development of new analytical solutions. Fingerprinting methodologies can be very powerful in determining the status of a raw material without knowing the identity of each constituent. Milk adulterated by addition of adulterants with very different chemical properties could be detected rapidly by Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) fingerprinting technology. In parallel, a fast and simple multi-analytes liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed to detect either high levels of nitrogen-rich compounds resulting from adulteration or low levels due to accidental contamination either in milk or in other sensitive food matrices. To verify meat species authenticity, DNA-based methods are preferred for both raw ingredients and processed food. DNA macro-array, and more specifically the Meat LCD Array have showed efficient and reliable meat identification, allowing the simultaneous detection of 32 meat species. While the Meat LCD Array is still a targeted approach, DNA sequencing is a significant step towards an untargeted one.

  4. An Approximation to the Periodic Solution of a Differential Equation of Abel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    2011-10-01

    The Abel equation, in canonical form, is y^' = sint- y^3 (*) and corresponds to the singular (ɛ --> 0) limit of the nonlinear, forced oscillator ɛy^'' + y^' + y^3 = sint, ɛ-> 0. (**) Equation (*) has the property that it has a unique periodic solution defined on (-∞,∞). Further, as t increases, all solutions are attracted into the strip |y| ∞ and for t negatively decreasing, each solution, except for the periodic solution, becomes unbounded.ootnotetextU. Elias, American Mathematical Monthly, vol.115, (Feb. 2008), pps. 147-149. Our purpose is to calculate an approximation to the unique periodic solution of Eq. (*) using the method of harmonic balance. We also determine an estimation for the blow-up time of the non-periodic solutions.

  5. Solutions of random-phase approximation equation for positive-semidefinite stability matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Nakada, H

    2016-01-01

    It is mathematically proven that, if the stability matrix $\\mathsf{S}$ is positive-semidefinite, solutions of the random-phase approximation (RPA) equation are all physical or belong to Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes, and the NG-mode solutions may form Jordan blocks of $\\mathsf{N\\,S}$ ($\\mathsf{N}$ is the norm matrix) but their dimension is not more than two. This guarantees that the NG modes in the RPA can be separated out via canonically conjugate variables.

  6. Higher-order approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators by modified He's homotopy methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Pascual, C [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Neipp, C [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Belendez, T [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order analytical approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. The approximate formulae obtained show excellent agreement with the exact solutions, and are valid for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation, including the limiting cases of amplitude approaching zero and infinity. For the relativistic oscillator, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 1.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.65% for two iterations with two harmonics and as low as 0.18% when three harmonics are considered in the second approximation. For the Duffing-harmonic oscillator the relative error is as low as 0.078% when the second approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by the harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient.

  7. Analysing an Analytical Solution Model for Simultaneous Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current mobility models for simultaneous mobility h ave their convolution in designing simultaneous movement where mobile nodes (MNs travel randomly f rom the two adjacent cells at the same time and also have their complexity in the measurement of th e occurrences of simultaneous handover. Simultaneou s mobility problem incurs when two of the MNs start h andover approximately at the same time. As Simultaneous mobility is different for the other mo bility pattern, generally occurs less number of tim es in real time; we analyze that a simplified simultaneou s mobility model can be considered by taking only symmetric positions of MNs with random steps. In ad dition to that, we simulated the model using mSCTP and compare the simulation results in different sce narios with customized cell ranges. The analytical results shows that with the bigger the cell sizes, simultaneous handover with random steps occurrences become lees and for the sequential mobility (where initial positions of MNs is predetermined with ran dom steps, simultaneous handover is more frequent.

  8. Analytical solutions for the Bohr Hamiltonian with the Woods-Saxon potential

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, M; Gonul, B; Bonatsos, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Approximate analytical solutions in closed form are obtained for the 5-dimensional Bohr Hamiltonian with the Woods-Saxon potential, taking advantage of the Pekeris approximation and the exactly soluble one-dimensional extended Woods-Saxon potential with a dip near its surface. Comparison to the data for several gamma-unstable and prolate deformed nuclei indicates that the potential can describe well the ground state and gamma-1 bands of many prolate deformed nuclei corresponding to large enough "well size" and diffuseness, while it fails in describing the beta-1 bands, due to its lack of a hard core, as well as in describing gamma-unstable nuclei, because of the small "well size" and diffuseness they exhibit.

  9. A uniformly valid approximation algorithm for nonlinear ordinary singular perturbation problems with boundary layer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengizci, Süleyman; Atay, Mehmet Tarık; Eryılmaz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two-point boundary value problems for singularly perturbed nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The case when the solution only has one boundary layer is examined. An efficient method so called Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM) is used to obtain uniformly valid approximations to this kind of solutions. Four test problems are considered to check the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact and existing solutions in literature. The results confirm that SCEM has a superiority over other existing methods in terms of easy-applicability and effectiveness. PMID:27006888

  10. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  11. Analytical solutions for peak and residual uplift resistance of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Oswell, J.M. [Naviq Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Frost heave can occur on cold pipelines that traverse unfrozen, non permafrost terrain. The stresses experienced by the pipeline are partly a function of the strength of the soil on the non heaving side of the frozen-unfrozen interface. This paper proposed three analytical solutions to estimate the soil uplift resistance by considering the pipeline and soil to act similar to a strip footing, a punching shear failure, and by considering the formation of horizontal crack emanating from the spring line of the pipe. Peak uplift resistance and residual uplift resistance were discussed. Results for full scale pipe and for laboratory scale model pipes were presented, with particular reference to cover depth, temperature and crack width; and limits to residual uplift resistance. It was concluded that the peak uplift resistance and the residual uplift resistance are generally independent and controlled by different factors. The peak resistance is related directly to pipe diameter, and less strongly dependent on springline depth. It is also strongly dependent on soil temperature. However, the residual uplift resistance is strongly dependent on burial depth, weakly dependent on pipe displacement rate and also on soil temperature. 15 refs., 19 figs.

  12. Electronic states of graphene nanoribbons and analytical solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi Sasaki, Takeshi Nakanishi and Toshiaki Enoki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of graphite, where low-energy electronic states are described by the massless Dirac fermion. The orientation of the graphene edge determines the energy spectrum of π-electrons. For example, zigzag edges possess localized edge states with energies close to the Fermi level. In this review, we investigate nanoscale effects on the physical properties of graphene nanoribbons and clarify the role of edge boundaries. We also provide analytical solutions for electronic dispersion and the corresponding wavefunction in graphene nanoribbons with their detailed derivation using wave mechanics based on the tight-binding model. The energy band structures of armchair nanoribbons can be obtained by making the transverse wavenumber discrete, in accordance with the edge boundary condition, as in the case of carbon nanotubes. However, zigzag nanoribbons are not analogous to carbon nanotubes, because in zigzag nanoribbons the transverse wavenumber depends not only on the ribbon width but also on the longitudinal wavenumber. The quantization rule of electronic conductance as well as the magnetic instability of edge states due to the electron–electron interaction are briefly discussed.

  13. Numerical solution of 2D-vector tomography problem using the method of approximate inverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetov, Ivan; Maltseva, Svetlana; Polyakova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    We propose a numerical solution of reconstruction problem of a two-dimensional vector field in a unit disk from the known values of the longitudinal and transverse ray transforms. The algorithm is based on the method of approximate inverse. Numerical simulations confirm that the proposed method yields good results of reconstruction of vector fields.

  14. Solution of Equations of Internal Ballistics for the Composite Charge Using Lagrange Density Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Narvilkar

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the equations of internal ballistics of composite charge consisting of N component charge with quadratic form are solved. Largange density approximation and hydrodynamic flow behaviour, have been assumed and the solutions are obtained for the composite charge for these assumptions.

  15. Average optimization of the approximate solution of operator equations and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴华; 马万

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a definition of the optimization of operator equations in the average case setting is given. And the general result (Theorem 1) about the relevant optimization problem is obtained. This result is applied to the optimization of approximate solution of some classes of integral equations.

  16. An analytical solution to patient prioritisation in radiotherapy based on utilitarian optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M A; Li, W; Jennings, L

    2014-03-01

    The detrimental impact of a radiotherapy waiting list can in part be compensated by patient prioritisation. Such prioritisation is phrased as an optimisation problem where the probability of local control for the overall population is the objective to be maximised and a simple analytical solution derived. This solution is compared with a simulation of a waiting list for the same population of patients. It is found that the analytical solution can provide an optimal ordering of patients though cannot explicitly constrain optimal waiting times. The simulation-based solution was undertaken using both the analytical solution and a numerical optimisation routine for daily patient ordering. Both solutions provided very similar results with the analytical approach reducing the calculation time of the numerical solution by several orders of magnitude. It is suggested that treatment delays due to resource limitations and resulting waiting lists be incorporated into treatment optimisation and that the derived analytical solution provides a mechanism for this to occur.

  17. SDP-based approximation of stabilising solutions for periodic matrix Riccati differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Sergei V.; Shiriaev, Anton S.; Freidovich, Leonid B.

    2016-07-01

    Numerically finding stabilising feedback control laws for linear systems of periodic differential equations is a nontrivial task with no known reliable solutions. The most successful method requires solving matrix differential Riccati equations with periodic coefficients. All previously proposed techniques for solving such equations involve numerical integration of unstable differential equations and consequently fail whenever the period is too large or the coefficients vary too much. Here, a new method for numerical computation of stabilising solutions for matrix differential Riccati equations with periodic coefficients is proposed. Our approach does not involve numerical solution of any differential equations. The approximation for a stabilising solution is found in the form of a trigonometric polynomial, matrix coefficients of which are found solving a specially constructed finite-dimensional semidefinite programming (SDP) problem. This problem is obtained using maximality property of the stabilising solution of the Riccati equation for the associated Riccati inequality and sampling technique. Our previously published numerical comparisons with other methods shows that for a class of problems only this technique provides a working solution. Asymptotic convergence of the computed approximations to the stabilising solution is proved below under the assumption that certain combinations of the key parameters are sufficiently large. Although the rate of convergence is not analysed, it appeared to be exponential in our numerical studies.

  18. An analytical solution of non-Fourier Chen-Holmes bioheat transfer equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Chenhua; CAI Ruixian

    2005-01-01

    An algebraically explicit analytical solution with heat wave effect is derived for the non-Fourier bioheat transfer Chen-Holmes model. Besides its important theoretical meaning (for example, to expand the understanding of heat wave phenomena in living tissues), this analytical solution is also valuable as the benchmark solution to check the numerical calculation and to develop various numerical computational approaches.

  19. Thin double layer approximation to describe streaming current fields in complex geometries: analytical framework and applications to microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Edouard; Ajdari, Armand

    2006-05-01

    We set up an analytical framework that allows one to describe and compute streaming effects and electro-osmosis on an equal footing. This framework relies on the thin double layer approximation commonly used for description of electroosmotic flows, but rarely used for streaming problems. Using this framework we quantitatively assess the induction of bulk streaming current patterns by topographic or charge heterogeneities on surfaces. This too also permits analytical computation of all linear electrokinetic effects in complex microfluidic geometries, and we discuss a few immediate applications. PMID:16803036

  20. Deriving Coarse-Grained Charges from All-Atom Systems: An Analytic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Peter; Lake, Peter T; McCullagh, Martin

    2016-09-13

    An analytic method to assign optimal coarse-grained charges based on electrostatic potential matching is presented. This solution is the infinite size and density limit of grid-integration charge-fitting and is computationally more efficient by several orders of magnitude. The solution is also minimized with respect to coarse-grained positions which proves to be an extremely important step in reproducing the all-atom electrostatic potential. The joint optimal-charge optimal-position coarse-graining procedure is applied to a number of aggregating proteins using single-site per amino acid resolution. These models provide a good estimate of both the vacuum and Debye-Hückel screened all-atom electrostatic potentials in the vicinity and in the far-field of the protein. Additionally, these coarse-grained models are shown to approximate the all-atom dimerization electrostatic potential energy of 10 aggregating proteins with good accuracy.

  1. A model for reactive nonadiabatic transitions: Comparison between exact numerical and approximate analytical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, M. S.; Baer, M.

    1981-03-01

    Exact diabatic/adiabatic branching ratios and final state distributions are presented for a reactive model for nonadiabatic transitions, applicable to situations where the coupling term is approximately constant over the region where the interpotential seam crosses the two valleys. Comparison is made with the Bauer-Fischer-Gilmore (BFG) and Franck-Condon (FC) models for a variety of situations. A new index γ=(vRΔGR/vrΔGR), where subscripts R and r denote translational and vibrational variables, respectively, is introduced as a measure of the validity of the two approximations. The FC approximation is shown to become exact for γ≳≳1, while the BFG approximation is preferred for γ<<1.

  2. A conjugate direction method for approximating the analytic center of a polytope

    OpenAIRE

    Megiddo Nimrod; Mizuno Shinji; Kojima Masakazu

    1998-01-01

    The analytic center of an -dimensional polytope with a nonempty interior is defined as the unique minimizer of the logarithmic potential function over . It is shown that one cycle of a conjugate direction method, applied to the potential function at any such that , generates a point such that .

  3. Analytical approximations of diving-wave imaging in constant-gradient medium

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey

    2014-06-24

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) in practical applications is currently used to invert the direct arrivals (diving waves, no reflections) using relatively long offsets. This is driven mainly by the high nonlinearity introduced to the inversion problem when reflection data are included, which in some cases require extremely low frequency for convergence. However, analytical insights into diving waves have lagged behind this sudden interest. We use analytical formulas that describe the diving wave’s behavior and traveltime in a constant-gradient medium to develop insights into the traveltime moveout of diving waves and the image (model) point dispersal (residual) when the wrong velocity is used. The explicit formulations that describe these phenomena reveal the high dependence of diving-wave imaging on the gradient and the initial velocity. The analytical image point residual equation can be further used to scan for the best-fit linear velocity model, which is now becoming a common sight as an initial velocity model for FWI. We determined the accuracy and versatility of these analytical formulas through numerical tests.

  4. Communication: Analytic continuation of the virial series through the critical point using parametric approximants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Nathaniel S., E-mail: nsbsma@rit.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schultz, Andrew J., E-mail: ajs42@buffalo.edu; Kofke, David A., E-mail: kofke@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Weinstein, Steven J., E-mail: sjweme@rit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone.

  5. Communication: Analytic continuation of the virial series through the critical point using parametric approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone

  6. Communication: Analytic continuation of the virial series through the critical point using parametric approximants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathaniel S; Schultz, Andrew J; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A

    2015-08-21

    The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone.

  7. Distribution of Steps with Finite-Range Interactions: Analytic Approximations and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    GonzáLez, Diego Luis; Jaramillo, Diego Felipe; TéLlez, Gabriel; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    While most Monte Carlo simulations assume only nearest-neighbor steps interact elastically, most analytic frameworks (especially the generalized Wigner distribution) posit that each step elastically repels all others. In addition to the elastic repulsions, we allow for possible surface-state-mediated interactions. We investigate analytically and numerically how next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interactions and, more generally, interactions out to q'th nearest neighbor alter the form of the terrace-width distribution and of pair correlation functions (i.e. the sum over n'th neighbor distribution functions, which we investigated recently.[2] For physically plausible interactions, we find modest changes when NNN interactions are included and generally negligible changes when more distant interactions are allowed. We discuss methods for extracting from simulated experimental data the characteristic scale-setting terms in assumed potential forms.

  8. Analytical approximation of the InGaZnO thin-film transistors surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colalongo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Surface-potential-based mathematical models are among the most accurate and physically based compact models of thin-film transistors, and in turn of indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs, available today. However, the need of iterative computations of the surface potential limits their computational efficiency and diffusion in CAD applications. The existing closed-form approximations of the surface potential are based on regional approximations and empirical smoothing functions that could result not accurate enough in particular to model transconductances and transcapacitances. In this work we present an extremely accurate (in the range of nV) and computationally efficient non-iterative approximation of the surface potential that can serve as a basis for advanced surface-potential-based indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs models.

  9. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR FIXED-FIXED ANISOTROPIC BEAM SUBJECTED TO UNIFORM LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hao-jiang; HUANG De-jin; WANG Hui-ming

    2006-01-01

    The analytical solutions of the stresses and displacements were obtained for fixed-fixed anisotropic beams subjected to uniform load. A stress function involving unknown coefficients was constructed, and the general expressions of stress and displacement were obtained by means of Airy stress function method. Two types of the description for the fixed end boundary condition were considered. The introduced unknown coefficients in stress function were determined by using the boundary conditions. The analytical solutions for stresses and displacements were finally obtained. Numerical tests show that the analytical solutions agree with the FEM results. The analytical solution supplies a classical example for the elasticity theory.

  10. Analytical solution of a model for complex food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Castro, Juan; Guimerà, Roger; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2002-01-01

    We investigate numerically and analytically a recently proposed model for food webs [Nature {\\bf 404}, 180 (2000)] in the limit of large web sizes and sparse interaction matrices. We obtain analytical expressions for several quantities with ecological interest, in particular the probability distributions for the number of prey and the number of predators. We find that these distributions have fast-decaying exponential and Gaussian tails, respectively. We also find that our analytical expressi...

  11. Communication: Analytic continuation of the virial series through the critical point using parametric approximants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathaniel S; Schultz, Andrew J; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A

    2015-08-21

    The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone. PMID:26298108

  12. Approximate solutions for Forchheimer flow during water injection and water production in an unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Moutsopoulos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the hydraulics around injection and production wells in unconfined aquifers associated with rainwater and reclaimed water aquifer storage schemes is an issue of increasing importance. Much work has been done previously to understand the mathematics associated with Darcy's law in this context. However, groundwater flow velocities around injection and production wells are likely to be sufficiently large such as to induce significant non-Darcy effects. This article presents a mathematical analysis to look at Forchheimer's equation in the context of water injection and water production in unconfined aquifers. Three different approximate solutions are derived using quasi-steady-state assumptions and the method of matched asymptotic expansion. The resulting approximate solutions are shown to be accurate for a wide range of practical scenarios by comparison with a finite difference solution to the full problem of concern. The approximate solutions have led to an improved understanding of the flow dynamics. They can also be used as verification tools for future numerical models in this context.

  13. Analytical approximations for prices of swap rate dependent embedded options in insurance products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Plat; A. Pelsser

    2009-01-01

    Life insurance products have profit sharing features in combination with guarantees. These so-called embedded options are often dependent on or approximated by forward swap rates. In practice, these kinds of options are mostly valued by Monte Carlo simulations. However, for risk management calculati

  14. Approximate solutions to the deep bed filtration problem; Solucoes aproximadas para o problema de deposicao profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio M.; Marchesin, Dan [Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The deep bed filtration problem is closely related to secondary oil recovery. In this work we derive explicit solutions to two filtration problems. The filtration function varies non-linearly with the Darcy speed and linearly with the deposition, but very little. The first solution is built by the method of perturbations and although it is only an approximation it is available in multiple symmetries, including the radial geometry used in the field. The main motivation is the validation of numerical methods. The second solution is exact but it is only available in the linear symmetry, i.e., laboratory geometry. We use it to verify the accuracy of the first solution, but it can also be used to simulate the deposition in experiments. (author)

  15. Parametric effects of CFL number and artificial smoothing on numerical solutions using implicit approximate factorization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, E. O.

    1986-01-01

    An implicit approximate factorization algorithm is employed to quantify the parametric effects of Courant number and artificial smoothing on numerical solutions of the unsteady 3-D Euler equations for a windmilling propeller (low speed) flow field. The results show that propeller global or performance chracteristics vary strongly with Courant number and artificial dissipation parameters, though the variation is such less severe at high Courant numbers. Candidate sets of Courant number and dissipation parameters could result in parameter-dependent solutions. Parameter-independent numerical solutions can be obtained if low values of the dissipation parameter-time step ratio are used in the computations. Furthermore, it is realized that too much artificial damping can degrade numerical stability. Finally, it is demonstrated that highly resolved meshes may, in some cases, delay convergence, thereby suggesting some optimum cell size for a given flow solution. It is suspected that improper boundary treatment may account for the cell size constraint.

  16. Two-species Bose–Einstein condensate in an optical lattice: analytical approximate formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing a general variational method and perturbation theory, we derived explicit solutions for the description of one-dimensional two species Bose–Einstein condensates confined by a harmonic trap potential in an optical lattice. We consider the system of two coupled Gross–Pitaevskii equations (GPE) and derive explicit expressions for the chemical potentials and wavefunctions in terms of the atom–atom interaction parameters and laser intensity. We have compared our results with the numerical solutions of the GPE and performed a quantitative analysis for the both considered methods. We underline the importance of the obtained explicit solutions to characterize the density profile or degree of miscibility of the two components. (paper)

  17. Analytic Solution for Magnetohydrodynamic Stagnation Point Flow towards a Stretching Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Qi; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2009-01-01

    A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow towards a stretching sheet with variable surface temperature is investigated. The analytic solution is obtained by homotopy analysis method. Theconvergence region is computed and the feature of the solution is discussed.

  18. Approximate Explicit Solution of Falkner-Skan Equation by Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moallemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by mean`s of He`s Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM an approximate solution of Falkner-Skan equation obtained. In boundary layer theory, we have seen how similarity methods combine two independent variables into one, and therefore our problems our simplified to ODE Equations. If we use HPM we can deforms a difficult ordinary differential equation into a simple problem which can be easily solved. Comparison is made between the solution of Falkner Skan equation for 4 cases and those in open literature to verify accuracy of this work. Results show that the method is very effective and simple.

  19. Analytical approximation to the dynamics of a binary stars system with time depending mass variation

    CERN Document Server

    López, Gustavo V

    2016-01-01

    We study the classical dynamics of a binary stars when there is an interchange of mass between them. Assuming that one of the star is more massive than the other, the dynamics of the lighter one is analyzed as a function of its time depending mass variation. Within our approximations and models for mass transference, we obtain a general result which establishes that if the lightest star looses mass, its period increases. If the lightest star win mass, its period decreases.

  20. An Approximate Analytical Propagation Formula for Gaussian Beams through a Cat-Eye Optical Lens under Large Incidence Angle Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-Zhong; SUN Hua-Yan; ZHENG Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the generalized diffraction integral formula and the idea that the angle misalignment of the cat-eye optical lens can be transformed into the displacement misalignment,an approximate analytical propagation formula for Gaussian beams through a cat-eye optical lens under large incidence angle condition is derived.Numerical results show that the diffraction effect of the apertures of the cat-eye optical lens becomes stronger along with the increase in incidence angle. The results are also compared with those from using an angular spectrum diffraction integral and experiment to illustrate the applicability and validity of our theoretical formula.It is shown that the approximate extent is good enough for the application of a cat-eye optical lens with a radius of 20 mm and a propagation distance of 100m,and the approximate extent becomes better along with the increase in the radius of the cat-eye optical lens and the propagation distance.

  1. Using trees to compute approximate solutions to ordinary differential equations exactly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Some recent work is reviewed which relates families of trees to symbolic algorithms for the exact computation of series which approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations. It turns out that the vector space whose basis is the set of finite, rooted trees carries a natural multiplication related to the composition of differential operators, making the space of trees an algebra. This algebraic structure can be exploited to yield a variety of algorithms for manipulating vector fields and the series and algebras they generate.

  2. MHD FLOW OF A NEWTONIAN FLUID OVER A STRETCHING SHEET: AN APPROXIMATE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakraborty, B.K; Mazumdar, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    An approximate solution to the problem of steady laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically con ducting fluid over a stretching sheet is presented. The approach is based on the idea of stretching the variables of the flow problem and then using least squares method to minimize the residual of a differential equation. The effects of the magnetic field on the flow characteristics are demonstrated through numerical computations with di f ferent values of the Hartman monber.

  3. Approximate Periodic Solutions for Oscillatory Phenomena Modelled by Nonlinear Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Fourier-least squares method (FLSM which allows us to find approximate periodic solutions for a very general class of nonlinear differential equations modelling oscillatory phenomena. We illustrate the accuracy of the method by using several significant examples of nonlinear problems including the cubic Duffing oscillator, the Van der Pol oscillator, and the Jerk equations. The results are compared to those obtained by other methods.

  4. Approximating solutions of nonlinear PBVPs of second-order differential equations via hybrid fixed point theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we prove the existence and approximations of solutions of periodic boundary-value problems of second-order ordinary nonlinear hybrid differential equations. We rely our results on Dhage iteration principle or method embodied in a recent hybrid fixed point theorem of Dhage (2014 in partially ordered normed linear spaces. Our resutls are proved under weaker continuity and Lipschitz conditions. An example illustrates the theory developed in this article.

  5. Solución aproximada de sistemas diferenciales mixtos Approximated solution of differentials mixed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge I. Castaño–Bedoya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone encontrar una solución aproximada para problemas de valor en la frontera y problemas de valor inicial de un sistema diferencial utilizando el método de los desarrollos de Fer.In this paper we propose to find an approximate solution to boundary value problems and initial value differential system problems using the method of Fer developments.

  6. Approximate Ad Hoc Parametric Solutions for Nonlinear First-Order PDEs Governing Two-Dimensional Steady Vector Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Markakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a suitable ad hoc assumption, a nonlinear PDE governing a three-dimensional weak, irrotational, steady vector field is reduced to a system of two nonlinear ODEs: the first of which corresponds to the two-dimensional case, while the second involves also the third field component. By using several analytical tools as well as linear approximations based on the weakness of the field, the first equation is transformed to an Abel differential equation which is solved parametrically. Thus, we obtain the two components of the field as explicit functions of a parameter. The derived solution is applied to the two-dimensional small perturbation frictionless flow past solid surfaces with either sinusoidal or parabolic geometry, where the plane velocities are evaluated over the body's surface in the case of a subsonic flow.

  7. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  8. Global collocation methods for approximation and the solution of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonoff, A.; Turkel, E.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial interpolation methods are applied both to the approximation of functions and to the numerical solutions of hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations. The derivative matrix for a general sequence of the collocation points is constructed. The approximate derivative is then found by a matrix times vector multiply. The effects of several factors on the performance of these methods including the effect of different collocation points are then explored. The resolution of the schemes for both smooth functions and functions with steep gradients or discontinuities in some derivative are also studied. The accuracy when the gradients occur both near the center of the region and in the vicinity of the boundary is investigated. The importance of the aliasing limit on the resolution of the approximation is investigated in detail. Also examined is the effect of boundary treatment on the stability and accuracy of the scheme.

  9. Computing a Finite Size Representation of the Set of Approximate Solutions of an MOP

    CERN Document Server

    Schuetze, Oliver; Tantar, Emilia; Talbi, El-Ghazali

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a framework for the approximation of the entire set of $\\epsilon$-efficient solutions (denote by $E_\\epsilon$) of a multi-objective optimization problem with stochastic search algorithms has been proposed. It was proven that such an algorithm produces -- under mild assumptions on the process to generate new candidate solutions --a sequence of archives which converges to $E_{\\epsilon}$ in the limit and in the probabilistic sense. The result, though satisfactory for most discrete MOPs, is at least from the practical viewpoint not sufficient for continuous models: in this case, the set of approximate solutions typically forms an $n$-dimensional object, where $n$ denotes the dimension of the parameter space, and thus, it may come to perfomance problems since in practise one has to cope with a finite archive. Here we focus on obtaining finite and tight approximations of $E_\\epsilon$, the latter measured by the Hausdorff distance. We propose and investigate a novel archiving strategy theoretically and emp...

  10. Interacting steps with finite-range interactions: Analytical approximation and numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Diego Felipe; Téllez, Gabriel; González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-05-01

    We calculate an analytical expression for the terrace-width distribution P(s) for an interacting step system with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions. Our model is derived by mapping the step system onto a statistically equivalent one-dimensional system of classical particles. The validity of the model is tested with several numerical simulations and experimental results. We explore the effect of the range of interactions q on the functional form of the terrace-width distribution and pair correlation functions. For physically plausible interactions, we find modest changes when next-nearest neighbor interactions are included and generally negligible changes when more distant interactions are allowed. We discuss methods for extracting from simulated experimental data the characteristic scale-setting terms in assumed potential forms.

  11. Analytical Approximation of the Deconvolution of Strongly Overlapping Broad Fluorescence Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovkin, J. M.; Tomin, V. I.; Ushakou, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    A method for deconvoluting strongly overlapping spectral bands into separate components that enables the uniqueness of the deconvolution procedure to be monitored was proposed. An asymmetric polynomial-modified function subjected to Fourier filtering (PMGFS) that allowed more accurate and physically reasonable band shapes to be obtained and also improved significantly the deconvolution convergence was used as the band model. The method was applied to the analysis of complexation in solutions of the molecular probe 4'-(diethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone with added LiCl. Two-band fluorescence of the probe in such solutions was the result of proton transfer in an excited singlet state and overlapped strongly with stronger spontaneous emission of complexes with the ions. Physically correct deconvolutions of overlapping bands could not always be obtained using available software.

  12. Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning algorithms for the solution of the data truncation problem in 3-D PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallègue, Fayçal Ben; Crouzet, Jean-François; Comtat, Claude; Fourcade, Marjolaine; Mohammadi, Bijan; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an extended 3-D exact rebinning formula in the Fourier space that leads to an iterative reprojection algorithm (iterative FOREPROJ), which enables the estimation of unmeasured oblique projection data on the basis of the whole set of measured data. In first approximation, this analytical formula also leads to an extended Fourier rebinning equation that is the basis for an approximate reprojection algorithm (extended FORE). These algorithms were evaluated on numerically simulated 3-D positron emission tomography (PET) data for the solution of the truncation problem, i.e., the estimation of the missing portions in the oblique projection data, before the application of algorithms that require complete projection data such as some rebinning methods (FOREX) or 3-D reconstruction algorithms (3DRP or direct Fourier methods). By taking advantage of all the 3-D data statistics, the iterative FOREPROJ reprojection provides a reliable alternative to the classical FOREPROJ method, which only exploits the low-statistics nonoblique data. It significantly improves the quality of the external reconstructed slices without loss of spatial resolution. As for the approximate extended FORE algorithm, it clearly exhibits limitations due to axial interpolations, but will require clinical studies with more realistic measured data in order to decide on its pertinence. PMID:17649913

  13. Analytical mechanics solutions to problems in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Merches, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Analytical Mechanics Constraints Classification Criteria for Constraints The Fundamental Dynamical Problem for a Constrained Particle System of Particles Subject to Constraints Lagrange Equations of the First KindElementary Displacements Generalities Real, Possible and Virtual Displacements Virtual Work and Connected Principles Principle of Virtual WorkPrinciple of Virtual Velocities Torricelli's Principle Principles of Analytical Mechanics D'alembert's Principle Configuration Space Generalized Forces Hamilton's Principle The Simple Pendulum Problem Classical (Newtonian) Formal

  14. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 1. The equilibrium advection-dispersion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and related models are indispensable for predicting or analyzing contaminant transport processes in streams and rivers, as well as in other surface water bodies. Many useful analytical solutions originated in disciplines other than surface-w...

  15. Asymptotic stability of Riemann solutions in BGK approximations to certain multidimensional systems of conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Hermano; Rendón, Leonardo

    We prove the asymptotic stability of nonplanar two-states Riemann solutions in BGK approximations of a class of multidimensional systems of conservation laws. The latter consists of systems whose flux-functions in different directions share a common complete system of Riemann invariants, the level surfaces of which are hyperplanes. The asymptotic stability to which the main result refers is in the sense of the convergence as t→∞ in Lloc1 of the space of directions ζ=x/t. That is, the solution z(t,x,ξ) of the perturbed Cauchy problem for the corresponding BGK system satisfies ∫z(t,tζ,ξ) dμ(ξ)→R(ζ) as t→∞, in Lloc1(R), where R(ζ) is the self-similar entropy solution of the two-states nonplanar Riemann problem for the system of conservation laws.

  16. Analytical approximation of the dose distribution from point beta-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for analytical calculation of the beta-ray dose from point sources which accounts for the total beta-spectrum shape are presented and the results are compared to calculations of Loevinger and the Monte-Carlo groups. The most important feature is that it can be used for the resultant sum of several spectra and also for distorted or experimentally measured spectra. The method uses tabulated values for the specific energy lost and calculated or measured values for the shape of the total spectrum from nuclide or mixture of nuclides. The approach have been tested with isotopes with different beta-ray shapes(90Sr, 90Y) and in the presence of conversion electrons - 137Cs. 106Rh is included because of high Emax = 3.54 MeV. The agreement of the proposed method with the Monte-Carlo simulations is very good. The chosen spectra are with very different initial shape, which confirms the applicability of the approach. The major deviation is for the large distances due to the limited accuracy of the Loevinger method. The approach can be used for the soft biological tissue and for other than point sources. For the skin contamination it is necessary the backscattering electrons to be taken into account. An initial version of the approach has been used for calculations of beta-ray doses due to hot particles after the Chernobyl accident

  17. Analytical solutions for thermal forcing vortices in boundary layer and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-ran; LI Guo-ping

    2007-01-01

    Using the Boussinesq approximation, the vortex in the boundary layer is assumed to be axisymmetrical and thermal-wind balanced system forced by diabatic heating and friction, and is solved as an initial-value problem of linearized vortex equation set in cylindrical coordinates. The impacts of thermal forcing on the flow field structure of vortex are analyzed. It is found that thermal forcing has significant impacts on the flow field structure, and the material representative forms of these impacts are closely related to the radial distribution of heating. The discussion for the analytical solutions for the vortex in the boundary layer can explain some main structures of the vortex over the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Low-energy total K-shell ionisation cross sections in the plane-wave Born approximation: an analytical result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the general formulation of the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) an analytical expression for the low-energy total K-shell ionisation cross section is obtained. The reduced cross section is given as a power series in the adimensional parameters xi2 and theta which reproduces the values obtained by numerical integration within the precision inherent in the available tables. The universal part of the reduced cross section in the PWBA (that part of F(xi2,theta) that does not depend explicitly on theta) is expressed in terms of a few elementary analytical functions. The exact physical limits of integration are taken into account through the introduction of an effective parameter xisub(eff). (author)

  19. Analytical determination of the two-body gravitational interaction potential at the 4th post-Newtonian approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2013-01-01

    We complete the analytical determination, at the 4th post-Newtonian approximation, of the main radial potential describing the gravitational interaction of two bodies within the effective one-body formalism. The (non logarithmic) coefficient a_5 (nu) measuring this 4th post-Newtonian interaction potential is found to be linear in the symmetric mass ratio nu. Its nu-independent part a_5 (0) is obtained by an analytical gravitational self-force calculation that unambiguously resolves the formal infrared divergencies which currently impede its direct post-Newtonian calculation. Its nu-linear part a_5 (nu) - a_5 (0) is deduced from recent results of Jaranowski and Sch\\"afer, and is found to be significantly negative.

  20. Approximate N-Player Nonzero-Sum Game Solution for an Uncertain Continuous Nonlinear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Bhasin, Shubhendu; Dixon, Warren E

    2015-08-01

    An approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum game subject to continuous-time nonlinear unknown dynamics and an infinite horizon quadratic cost. A novel actor-critic-identifier structure is used, wherein a robust dynamic neural network is used to asymptotically identify the uncertain system with additive disturbances, and a set of critic and actor NNs are used to approximate the value functions and equilibrium policies, respectively. The weight update laws for the actor neural networks (NNs) are generated using a gradient-descent method, and the critic NNs are generated by least square regression, which are both based on the modified Bellman error that is independent of the system dynamics. A Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that uniformly ultimately bounded tracking is achieved, and a convergence analysis demonstrates that the approximate control policies converge to a neighborhood of the optimal solutions. The actor, critic, and identifier structures are implemented in real time continuously and simultaneously. Simulations on two and three player games illustrate the performance of the developed method. PMID:25312943

  1. Can We Remove Secular Terms for Analytical Solution of Groundwater Response under Tidal Influence?

    CERN Document Server

    Munusamy, Selva Balaji

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a secular term removal methodology based on the homotopy perturbation method for analytical solutions of nonlinear problems with periodic boundary condition. The analytical solution for groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a coastal unconfined aquifer system with the vertical beach is provided as an example. The non-linear one-dimensional Boussinesq's equation is considered as the governing equation for the groundwater flow. An analytical solution is provided for non-dimensional Boussinesq's equation with cosine harmonic boundary condition representing tidal boundary condition. The analytical solution is obtained by using homotopy perturbation method with a virtual embedding parameter. The present approach does not require pre-specified perturbation parameter and also facilitates secular terms elimination in the perturbation solution. The solutions starting from zeroth-order up to third-order are obtained. The non-dimensional expression, $A/D_{\\infty}$ emerges as an implicit parame...

  2. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving aggregation and breakage in terms of auxiliary equation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zehra Pinar; Abhishek Dutta; Guido Bény; Turgut Öziş

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use of appropriate solution(s) of associated complementary equation via auxiliary equation method (AEM). Travelling wave solutions of the complementary equation of a nonlinear PBE with appropriately chosen parameters is taken to be analogous to the description of the dynamic behaviour of the particulate processes. For an initial proof-of-concept, a general case when the number of particles varies with respect to time is chosen. Three cases, i.e. (1) balanced aggregation and breakage, (2) when aggregation can dominate and (3) breakage can dominate, are selected and solved for their corresponding analytical solutions. The results are then compared with the available analytical solution, based on Laplace transform obtained from literature. In this communication, it is shown that the solution approach proposed via AEM is flexible and therefore more efficient than the analytical approach used in the literature.

  3. An Examination of the Multi-Peaked Analytically Extended Function for Approximation of Lightning Channel-Base Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Lundengård, Karl; Javor, Vesna; Silvestrov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    A multi-peaked version of the analytically extended function (AEF) intended for approximation of multi-peaked lightning current wave-forms will be presented along with some of its basic properties. A general framework for estimating the parameters of the AEF using the Marquardt least-squares method (MLSM) for a waveform with an arbitrary (finite) number of peaks as well as a given charge trans-fer and specific energy will also be described. This framework is used to find parameters for some common single-peak wave-forms and some advantages and disadvantages of the approach will be discussed.

  4. The albedo problem of low-energy light ions treated analytically in the DP0 flux approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependent albedo problem of low-energy light ions from heavy targets is considered in a multiple-collision model. The ion transport equation is treated with the assumptions that (i) the distribution function is almost isotropic and (ii) the transport cross section depends only on initial ion energy. The transport equation is Laplace transformed in relative path length and solved by applying the DP0 flux approximation in angle. Reflected energy spectra, particle and energy reflection coefficients are analytically derived. A comparison of DP0 results with age theory, computer simulation data and experimental results is made. (Author)

  5. Analytical solution and meaning of feasible regions in two-component three-way arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidikia, Nematollah; Abdollahi, Hamid; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Rajkó, Róbert

    2016-10-01

    Although many efforts have been directed to the development of approximation methods for determining the extent of feasible regions in two- and three-way data sets; analytical determination (i.e. using only finite-step direct calculation(s) instead of the less exact numerical ones) of feasible regions in three-way arrays has remained unexplored. In this contribution, an analytical solution of trilinear decomposition is introduced which can be considered as a new direct method for the resolution of three-way two-component systems. The proposed analytical calculation method is applied to the full rank three-way data array and arrays with rank overlap (a type of rank deficiency) loadings in a mode. Close inspections of the analytically calculated feasible regions of rank deficient cases help us to make clearer the information gathered from multi-way problems frequently emerged in physics, chemistry, biology, agricultural, environmental and clinical sciences, etc. These examinations can also help to answer, e.g., the following practical question: "Is two-component three-way data with proportional loading in a mode actually a three-way data array?" By the aid of the additional information resulted from the investigated feasible regions of two-component three-way data arrays with proportional profile in a mode, reasons for the inadequacy of the seemingly trilinear data treatment methods published in the literature (e.g., U-PLS/RBL-LD that was used for extraction of quantitative and qualitative information reported by Olivieri et al. (Anal. Chem. 82 (2010) 4510-4519)) could be completely understood.

  6. Analytic Molecular Hessian Calculations for CC2 and MP2 Combined with the Resolution of Identity Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H; Hättig, Christof; Koβmann, Jörg

    2013-03-12

    An implementation of analytic second derivatives for the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles model CC2 and for second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) will be presented. The RI approximation for the two-electron repulsion integrals is used to reduce memory demands, operation count, and I/O requirements. During the calculation, the storage of [Formula: see text] quantities (where [Formula: see text] is a measure for the system size) can completely be avoided. It is shown that with the MP2 method and an appropriate scaling of the harmonic frequencies, especially C-F stretch frequencies are reproduced much better in comparison to experiments than with the B3LYP density functional. Similar advantages are observed for molecules with strong, internal van der Waals interactions. Spin scaling offers additional improvements in these cases. The implementation has been tested for molecules with up to 81 atoms and 684 basis functions. PMID:26587609

  7. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna;

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate analytical methods for characterizing the assembly and morphology of polymer-based vesicles, or polymersomes are required to reach their full potential in biotechnology. This work presents and compares 17 different techniques for their ability to adequately report size, ...

  8. Analytical solution based on stream-aquifer interactions in partially penetrating streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of drawdown caused by pumping is developed in an aquifer hydraulically connected to a finite-width stream on the condition of two streams. The proposed analytical solution modified Hunt’s analytical solution and not only considers the effect of stream width on drawdown, but also takes the distribution of drawdown on the interaction of two streams into account. Advantages of the solution include its simple structure, consisting of the Theis well function, parameters of aquifer and streambed semipervious material. The calculated results show that the proposed analytical solution agrees well with the previous solution and the errors between the two solutions are equal to zero on the condition of a stream without considering the effect of stream width. Also, deviations between the two analytical solutions increase with the increase of stream width. Furthermore, four cases are studied to discuss the effect of two streams on drawdown. It assumes that some parameters are changeable, and other parameters are constant, such as stream width, the distance between stream and pumping well, stream recharge rate, and the leakance coefficient of streambed semipervious material, etc. The analytical solution may provide estimates for parameters of aquifer and streambed semipervious material using the Type Curve Method through the data of field test.

  9. Analytical solutions for two-dimensional soil heat flow with radiation surface boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat flow add temperature variations in soil are important in agriculture, forestry, and ecology. Nonuniform surface cover and variability in soil properties result in two-dimensional soil heat flow. This study derives analytical solutions for unsteady two-dimensional soil heat transfer problems with standard (constant temperature coefficient) and modified (temperature coefficient varies with position) radiation surface boundary conditions. Solutions are periodic in time and horizontal direction. The structure of the solutions guarantees that soil temperatures are smooth functions of position and time, even if the temperature coefficient or forcing function in the radiation boundary condition are discontinuous. Calculated soil temperature heat flux densities, and surface energy balance components for bare wet strips alternating with strips covered with either chalk, black plastic, or clear plastic were found to vary strongly with time and position. For diurnal variations, lateral heat flow only significantly affected temperatures in the middle of strips narrower than approximately 0.2 m. Sensitivity of soil temperature to changes in soil thermal properties increased as the temperature coefficient in the surface boundary condition decreased. Both cases showed that spatial differences in albedo, surface resistance, and serodynamic resistance spatially alter the surface energy balance and soil thermal regimes, including surface temperature and heat flux density

  10. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  11. Born approximation to a perturbative numerical method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A step function perturbative numerical method (SF-PN method) is developed for the solution of the Cauchy problem for the second order liniar differential equation in normal form. An important point stressed in the present paper, which seems to have been previously ignored in the literature devoted to the PN methods, is the close connection between the first order perturbation theory of the PN approach and the wellknown Born approximation, and, in general, the connection between the varjous orders of the PN corrections and the Neumann series. (author)

  12. An analytical solution for simulation of the fission gas behaviors with time-dependent piece-wise boundary resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yi; Huo Yongzhong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ding Shurong, E-mail: dsr1971@163.com [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Nuclear Power Institution of China, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Zhang Lin; Li Yuanming [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Nuclear Power Institution of China, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2012-05-15

    An analytical solution of gas concentration for the equivalent spherical grain is obtained first in Laplace space, then the inverse-Laplace transformed solution is further developed. The corresponding analytical expressions for the grain boundary gaseous swelling and the fission gas release in UO{sub 2} nuclear fuels are developed in the absence of grain growth. The following phenomena and assumptions are taken into account in our model, including the gas atom diffusion, saturation and the time-varying piece-wise inter-granular resolution. The explicit expression for saturation time of the grain boundary gas atoms is also obtained. Our approximated analytical solutions for the fission gas behaviors are validated through comparison with those solved by finite difference method. Good agreement has been achieved for the cases with different input parameters. Based on the developed analytical solutions, the effects of the grain sizes and the external pressure on the fission gas behaviors are investigated. This study lays a foundation for the multi-scale simulation of the thermo-mechanical behaviors in nuclear fuel elements.

  13. An analytical solution for simulation of the fission gas behaviors with time-dependent piece-wise boundary resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical solution of gas concentration for the equivalent spherical grain is obtained first in Laplace space, then the inverse-Laplace transformed solution is further developed. The corresponding analytical expressions for the grain boundary gaseous swelling and the fission gas release in UO2 nuclear fuels are developed in the absence of grain growth. The following phenomena and assumptions are taken into account in our model, including the gas atom diffusion, saturation and the time-varying piece-wise inter-granular resolution. The explicit expression for saturation time of the grain boundary gas atoms is also obtained. Our approximated analytical solutions for the fission gas behaviors are validated through comparison with those solved by finite difference method. Good agreement has been achieved for the cases with different input parameters. Based on the developed analytical solutions, the effects of the grain sizes and the external pressure on the fission gas behaviors are investigated. This study lays a foundation for the multi-scale simulation of the thermo-mechanical behaviors in nuclear fuel elements.

  14. An approximate solution to the stress and deformation states of functionally graded rotating disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, Lakshman; Sanyal, Shubhashis; Saha, Kashi Nath; Bhowmick, Shubhankar

    2016-07-01

    The present work employs variational principle to investigate the stress and deformation states and estimate the limit angular speed of functionally graded high-speed rotating annular disks of constant thickness. Assuming a series approximation following Galerkin's principle, the solution of the governing equation is obtained. In the present study, elasticity modulus and density of the disk material are taken as power function of radius with the gradient parameter ranging between 0.0 and 1.0. Results obtained from numerical solutions are validated with benchmark results and are found to be in good agreement. The results are reported in dimensional form and presented graphically. The results provide a substantial insight in understanding the behavior of FGM rotating disks with constant thickness and different gradient parameter. Furthermore, the stress and deformation state of the disk at constant angular speed and limit angular speed is investigated to explain the existence of optimum gradient parameters.

  15. Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equation Using Sobolev Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Raza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation (KGE models many nonlinear phenomena. In this paper, we propose a scheme for numerical approximation of solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear KGE. A common approach to find a solution of a nonlinear system is to first linearize the equations by successive substitution or the Newton iteration method and then solve a linear least squares problem. Here, we show that it can be advantageous to form a sum of squared residuals of the nonlinear problem and then find a zero of the gradient. Our scheme is based on the Sobolev gradient method for solving a nonlinear least square problem directly. The numerical results are compared with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM. The L2, L∞, and Root-Mean-Square (RMS values indicate better accuracy of the proposed method with less computational effort.

  16. Explicit analytical wave solutions of unsteady 1D ideal gas flow with friction and heat transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several families of algebraically explicit analytical wavesolutions are derived for the unsteady 1D ideal gas flow with friction and heat-transfer, which include one family of travelling wave solutions, three families of standing wave solutions and one standing wave solution. \\{Among\\} them, the former four solution families contain arbitrary functions, so actually there are infinite analytical wave solutions having been derived. Besides their very important theoretical meaning, such analytical wave solutions can guide the development of some new equipment, and can be the benchmark solutions to promote the development of computational fluid dynamics. For example, we can use them to check the accuracy, convergence and effectiveness of various numerical computational methods and to improve the numerical computation skills such as differential schemes, grid generation ways and so on.

  17. Explicit analytical solutions of the anisotropic Brinkman model for the natural convection in porous media (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Ruixian; GOU; Chenhua; ZHANG; Na

    2005-01-01

    Some algebraically explicit analytical solutions are derived for the anisotropic Brinkman model―an improved Darcy model―describing the natural convection in porous media. Besides their important theoretical meaning (for example, in analyzing the non-Darcy and anisotropic effects on the convection), such analytical solutions can be the benchmark solutions that can promote the development of computational heat and mass transfer. Some solutions considering the anisotropic effect of permeability have been given previously by the authors, and this paper gives solutions including the anisotropic effect of thermal conductivity and the effect of heat sources.

  18. Analytic Solutions of Some Self-Adjoint Equations by Using Variable Change Method and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Delkhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of various self-adjoint differential equations, whose solutions are complex, are produced (Arfken, 1985; Gandarias, 2011; and Delkhosh, 2011. In this work we propose a method for the solving some self-adjoint equations with variable change in problem, and then we obtain a analytical solutions. Because this solution, an exact analytical solution can be provided to us, we benefited from the solution of numerical Self-adjoint equations (Mohynl-Din, 2009; Allame and Azal, 2011; Borhanifar et al. 2011; Sweilam and Nagy, 2011; Gülsu et al. 2011; Mohyud-Din et al. 2010; and Li et al. 1996.

  19. Analytical Hessian of electronic excited states in time-dependent density functional theory with Tamm-Dancoff approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liang, WanZhen

    2011-07-01

    We present the analytical expression and computer implementation for the second-order energy derivatives of the electronic excited state with respect to the nuclear coordinates in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets. Here, the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to the full TDDFT is adopted, and therefore the formulation process of TDDFT excited-state Hessian is similar to that of configuration interaction singles (CIS) Hessian. However, due to the replacement of the Hartree-Fock exchange integrals in CIS with the exchange-correlation kernels in TDDFT, many quantitative changes in the derived equations are arisen. The replacement also causes additional technical difficulties associated with the calculation of a large number of multiple-order functional derivatives with respect to the density variables and the nuclear coordinates. Numerical tests on a set of test molecules are performed. The simulated excited-state vibrational frequencies by the analytical Hessian approach are compared with those computed by CIS and the finite-difference method. It is found that the analytical Hessian method is superior to the finite-difference method in terms of the computational accuracy and efficiency. The numerical differentiation can be difficult due to root flipping for excited states that are close in energy. TDDFT yields more exact excited-state vibrational frequencies than CIS, which usually overestimates the values. PMID:21744894

  20. Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion solute transport equation subject to time-dependent boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion solute transport equation remain useful for a large number of applications in science and engineering. In this paper we extend the Duhamel theorem, originally established for diffusion type problems, to the case of advective-dispersive transport subj...

  1. Analytical solutions of simply supported magnetoelectroelastic circular plate under uniform loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江瑛; 丁皓江; 侯鹏飞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the axisymmetric general solutions of transversely isotropic magnetoelectroelastic media are expressed with four harmonic displacement functions at first. Then, based on the solutions, the analytical three-dimensional solutions are provided for a simply supported magnetoelectroelastic circular plate subjected to uniform loads. Finally, the example of circular plate is presented.

  2. Analytical Solution of a Tapering Cable Equation for Dendrites and Conformal Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Juan M.; Trenado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Progress towards detailed characterization of structural and biophysical properties of dendrites emphasizes the importance of finding analytical solutions for more realistic dendrite models with circular cross-section and varying diameter. In this regard, we employ symmetry methods and the passive cable theory to deduce a generalized analytical solution for electric propagation in a family of tapering dendrites. In particular, we study the effect of such tapering geometries on the obtained electric voltage. Simulations using the deduced analytical solution indicate that for a subfamily of tapering profiles neural integration is better than in the stereotypical profile given by a cylinder.

  3. Approximate solutions to a nonintegrable problem of propagation of elliptically polarised waves in an isotropic gyrotropic nonlinear medium, and periodic analogues of multisoliton complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, V A; Petnikova, V M; Potravkin, N N; Shuvalov, V V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-28

    Using the linearization method, we obtain approximate solutions to a one-dimensional nonintegrable problem of propagation of elliptically polarised light waves in an isotropic gyrotropic medium with local and nonlocal components of the Kerr nonlinearity and group-velocity dispersion. The consistent evolution of two orthogonal circularly polarised components of the field is described analytically in the case when their phases vary linearly during propagation. The conditions are determined for the excitation of waves with a regular and 'chaotic' change in the polarisation state. The character of the corresponding nonlinear solutions, i.e., periodic analogues of multisoliton complexes, is analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. Weak and Strong Solutions for the Stokes Approximation of Non-homogeneous Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the Dirichlet problem of Stokes approximate of non-homogeneous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is studied. It is shown that there exist global weak solutions as well as global and unique strong solution for this problem, under the assumption that initial density ρ0(x) is bounded away from 0 and other appropriate assumptions (see Theorem 1 and Theorem 2). The semi-Galerkin method is applied to construct the approximate solutions and a prior estimates are made to elaborate upon the compactness of the approximate solutions.

  5. Analytical Solutions to Non-linear Mechanical Oscillation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaliji, H. D.; Ghadimi, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the Max-Min Method is utilized for solving the nonlinear oscillation problems. The proposed approach is applied to three systems with complex nonlinear terms in their motion equations. By means of this method, the dynamic behavior of oscillation systems can be easily approximated u...

  6. Analyticity of solutions of analytic non-linear general elliptic boundary value problems,and some results about linear problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rouhuai

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to discuss the problem concerning the analyticity of the solutions of analytic non-linear elliptic boundary value problems.It is proved that if the corresponding first variation is regular in Lopatinski(i) sense,then the solution is analytic up to the boundary.The method of proof really covers the case that the corresponding first variation is regularly elliptic in the sense of Douglis-Nirenberg-Volevich,and hence completely generalize the previous result of C.B.Morrey.The author also discusses linear elliptic boundary value problems for systems of ellip tic partial differential equations where the boundary operators are allowed to have singular integral operators as their coefficients.Combining the standard Fourier transform technique with analytic continuation argument,the author constructs the Poisson and Green's kernel matrices related to the problems discussed and hence obtain some representation formulae to the solutions.Some a priori estimates of Schauder type and Lp type are obtained.

  7. ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS AND DETERMINANT FORMULAS OF FUNCTION-VALUED PAD(E)-TYPE APPROXIMATION USING FOR SOLUTION OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chuan-qing; PAN Bao-zhen; WU Bei-bei

    2006-01-01

    To solve Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, a generalized linear functional is introduced and a new function-valued Padé-type approximation is defined.By means of the power series expansion of the solution, this method can construct an approximate solution to solve the given integral equation. On the basis of the orthogonal polynomials, two useful determinant expressions of the numerator polynomial and the denominator polynomial for padé-type approximation are explicitly given.

  8. A comparison of numerical and analytical radiative-transfer solutions for plane albedo of natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several numerical and analytical solutions of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) were compared for plane albedo in a problem of solar light reflection by sea water. The study incorporated the simplest case-a semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel absorbing and scattering homogeneous layer illuminated by a monodirectional light beam. Inelastic processes (such as Raman scattering and fluorescence), polarization and air-water surface refraction-reflection effects, were not considered. Algorithms were based on the invariant imbedding method and two different variants of the discrete ordinate method (DOM). Calculations were performed using parameters across all possible ranges (single-scattering albedo ω0 and refracted solar zenith angle θ1), but with a special emphasis on natural waters. All computations were made for two scattering phase functions, which included an almost isotropic Rayleigh phase function and strongly anisotropic double-peaked Fournier-Forand-Mobley phase function. Models were validated using quasi-single-scattering (QSSA) and exponential approximations, which represent the extreme cases of ω0→0 and ω0→1, respectively. All methods yielded relative differences within 1.8% for modeled natural waters. An analysis of plane albedo behavior resulted in the development of a new extended QSSA approximation, which when applied in conjunction with the extended Hapke approximation developed earlier, resulted in a maximum relative error of 2.7%. The study results demonstrated that for practical applications, the estimation of inherent optical properties from observed reflectance can best be achieved using an extended Hapke approximation.

  9. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  10. Visual analytics : towards intelligent interactive internet and security solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, James; Mansmann, Florian; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Keim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In the Future Internet, Big Data can not only be found in the amount of traffic, logs or alerts of the network infrastructure, but also on the content side. While the term Big Data refers to the increase in available data, this implicitly means that we must deal with problems at a larger scale and thus hints at scalability issues in the analysis of such data sets. Visual Analytics is an enabling technology, that offers new ways of extracting information from Big Data through intelligent, inte...

  11. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two new explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess clear advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the new solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the new analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  12. Technical Note: Approximate solution of transient drawdown for constant-flux pumping at a partially penetrating well in a radial two-zone confined aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-S. Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An aquifer consisting of a skin zone and a formation zone is considered as a two-zone aquifer. Existing solutions for the problem of constant-flux pumping (CFP in a two-zone confined aquifer involve laborious calculation. This study develops a new approximate solution for the problem based on a mathematical model including two steady-state flow equations with different hydraulic parameters for the skin and formation zones. A partially penetrating well may be treated as the Neumann condition with a known flux along the screened part and zero flux along the unscreened part. The aquifer domain is finite with an outer circle boundary treated as the Dirichlet condition. The steady-state drawdown solution of the model is derived by the finite Fourier cosine transform. Then, an approximate transient solution is developed by replacing the radius of the boundary in the steady-state solution with an analytical expression for a dimensionless time-dependent radius of influence. The approximate solution is capable of predicting good temporal drawdown distributions over the whole pumping period except at the early stage. A quantitative criterion for the validity of neglecting the vertical flow component due to a partially penetrating well is also provided. Conventional models considering radial flow without the vertical component for the CFP have good accuracy if satisfying the criterion.

  13. Analytic solution for relativistic transverse flow at the softest point

    CERN Document Server

    Biro, T S

    2000-01-01

    We obtain an extension of Bjorken's 1+1 dimensional scaling relativistic flow solution to relativistic transverse velocities with cylindrical symmetry in 1+3 dimensions at constant, homogeneous pressure (vanishing sound velocity). This can be the situation during a first order phase transition converting quark matter into hadron matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  14. An analytical solution to time-dependent fission-product diffusion in an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical time-dependent fission-product diffusion model is solved for the fuel-moderator regions of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during a hypothetical loss of forced circulation (LOFC) accident. A conservative approximate 1-D model is developed for the fuel and moderator regions, represented in cylindrical and slab geometries, from consideration of the hexagonal fuel-element symmetry. Transport is assumed along the shortest diffusion path and the concentration change across the fuel-moderator interface is approximated by a jump condition. The model is solved by construction of the Green's functions for the Laplace-transformed equations and identification of the pole structure. The concentration and current inverse Laplace transforms are obtained by the Cauchy residue theorem in each region for cubic piecewise polynomial initial conditions. A computer program was developed and validated to evaluate the solution, serve as a benchmark for more sophisticated numerical models and to investigate 90Sr diffusion during a hypothetical LOFC. (author)

  15. Analytical Solution of Boundary Integral Equations for 2-D Steady Linear Wave Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Fourier transform, the analytical solution of boundary integral equations formulated for the complex velocity of a 2-D steady linear surface flow is derived. It has been found that before the radiation condition is imposed,free waves appear both far upstream and downstream. In order to cancel the free waves in far upstream regions, the eigensolution of a specific eigenvalue, which satisfies the homogeneous boundary integral equation, is found and superposed to the analytical solution. An example, a submerged vortex, is used to demonstrate the derived analytical solution. Furthermore,an analytical approach to imposing the radiation condition in the numerical solution of boundary integral equations for 2-D steady linear wave problems is proposed.

  16. Analytical solution for 1D consolidation of unsaturated soil with mixed boundary condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-dong SHAN; Dao-sheng LING; Hao-jiang DING

    2013-01-01

    Based on consolidation equations proposed for unsaturated soil,an analytical solution for 1D consolidation of an unsaturated single-layer soil with nonhomogeneous mixed boundary condition is developed.The mixed boundary condition can be used for special applications,such as tests occur in laboratory.The analytical solution is obtained by assuming all material parameters remain constant during consolidation.In the derivation of the analytical solution,the nonhomogeneous boundary condition is first transformed into a homogeneous boundary condition.Then,the eigenfunction and eigenvalue are derived according to the consolidation equations and the new boundary condition.Finally,using the method of undetermined coefficients and the orthogonal relation of the eigenfunction,the analytical solution for the new boundary condition is obtained.The present method is applicable to various types of boundary conditions.Several numerical examples are provided to investigate the consolidation behavior of an unsaturated single-layer soil with mixed boundary condition.

  17. Application of Analytic Solution in Relative Motion to Spacecraft Formation Flying in Elliptic Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hancheol; Park, Sang-Young; Choi, Kyu-Hong

    2008-09-01

    The current paper presents application of a new analytic solution in general relative motion to spacecraft formation flying in an elliptic orbit. The calculus of variations is used to analytically find optimal trajectories and controls for the given problem. The inverse of the fundamental matrix associated with the dynamic equations is not required for the solution in the current study. It is verified that the optimal thrust vector is a function of the fundamental matrix of the given state equations. The cost function and the state vector during the reconfiguration can be analytically obtained as well. The results predict the form of optimal solutions in advance without having to solve the problem. Numerical simulation shows the brevity and the accuracy of the general analytic solutions developed in the current paper.

  18. The analyticity of solutions to a class of degenerate elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper,the analyticity of solutions to a class of degenerate elliptic equations is obtained.A kind of weighted norms are introduced and under such norms some degenerate elliptic operators are of weak coerciveness.

  19. A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, B.; Roy, B.

    2009-01-01

    The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.

  20. Approximate analytical solutions and experimental analysis for transient response of constrained damping cantilever beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-yong HU; An-wen WANG; Xiang-ming ZHANG

    2010-01-01

    Vibration mode of the constrained damping cantilever is built up according to the mode superposition of the elastic cantilever beam. The control equation of the constrained damping cantilever beam is then derived using Lagrange's equation. Dynamic response of the constrained damping cantilever beam is obtained according to the principle of virtual work,when the concentrated force is suddenly unloaded. Frequencies and transient response of a series of constrained damping cantilever beams are calculated and tested. Influence of parameters of the damping layer on the response time is analyzed. Analyitcai and experimental approaches are used for verification. The results show that the method is reliable.

  1. APPROXIMATE ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS FOR THE IONIZATION STRUCTURE OF A DUSTY STRÖMGREN SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Raga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un modelo de balance global de “esfera de Str ̈om gren” para el caso de regiones HII polvorientas. De este modelo, obtenemo s prescripciones para el radio exterior de las nebulosas en funci ́on del radio de St r ̈omgren R S (de la nebulosa correspondiente libre de polvo y del espesor ́opt ico del polvo. Tambien obtenemos una nueva soluci ́on anal ́ıtica aproximada para e l problema de transporte radiativo, dando formas anal ́ıticas para la fracci ́on de io nizaci ́on en funci ́on del radio. Estas soluciones se comparan con los resultados obte nidos del an ́alisis de esfera de Str ̈omgren. Nuestros resultados pueden ser usado s para evaluar bajo qu ́e condiciones la presencia de polvo puede tener un efecto importante sobre las estructuras de regiones HII

  2. Intertemporal Asset Allocation with Habit Formation in Preferences: An Approximate Analytical Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    assets: a risk free asset with constant return and a risky asset with a time-varying premium. We extend the ap- proach proposed by Campbell and Viceira (1999), which builds on log-linearizations of the Euler equation, intertemporal budget constraint, and portfolio return, to also contain the log......-linearized surplus consumption ratio. The "difference habit model" implies that the relative risk aversion is time-varying which is in line with recent ev- idence from the asset pricing literature. We show that accounting for habit a¤ects both the myopic and intertemporal hedge component of optimal asset demand...

  3. An approximate analytical solution for non-Darcy flow toward awell infractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Shu

    2001-06-08

    Estuarine suspended sediment is transported in a mixed nonuniform way under unsteady flows. Sediment of different grain sizes has different characteristics and transport behavior and has a different effect on the ecological system. Therefore classification and fractionization of the mixed sediment are required before the flux is estimated. A fuzzy clustering approach is applied to the classification of suspended fine-grained sediment in the Changjiang Estuary. Two populations are objectively found by considering the standard grain-size distribution statistics of each cluster. The critical grain size of {approx}10??m in diameter is the size limit for cohesive sediments. A grid with equal cell areas is used to estimate fractional sediment fluxes through an estuarine cross section since this type of grid introduces less statistical error in the flux calculation. The sediment transport mechanism is analyzed.

  4. An Analytical Solution for Acoustic Emission Source Location for Known P Wave Velocity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjun Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution for acoustic emission source location using time difference of arrival (TDOA measurements from N receivers, N⩾5. The nonlinear location equations for TDOA are simplified to linear equations, and the direct analytical solution is obtained by solving the linear equations. There are not calculations of square roots in solution equations. The method solved the problems of the existence and multiplicity of solutions induced by the calculations of square roots in existed close-form methods. Simulations are included to study the algorithms' performance and compare with the existing technique.

  5. New Analytical Solutions of a Modified Black-Scholes Equation with the European Put Option

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ospina

    2015-01-01

    Using Maple, we compute some analytical solutions of a modified Black-Scholes equation, recently proposed, in the case of the European put option. We show that the modified Black-Scholes equation with the European put option is exactly solvable in terms of associated Laguerre polynomials. We make some numerical experiments with the analytical solutions and we compare our results with the results derived from numerical experiments using the standard Black-Scholes equation.

  6. Analytical solutions for the slow neutron capture process of heavy element nucleosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kai-Su

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the network equation for the slow neutron capture process (s-process) of heavy element nucleosynthesis is investigated. Dividing the s-process network reaction chains into two standard forms and using the technique of matrix decomposition,a group of analytical solutions for the network equation are obtained. With the analytical solutions,a calculation for heavy element abundance of the solar system is carried out and the results are in good agreement with the astrophysical measurements.

  7. Analytical solutions for space charge fields in TPC drift volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, S; Schnizer, B

    2011-01-01

    At high particle rates and high multiplicities, Time Projection Chambers can suffer from field distortions due to slow moving ions that accumulate within the drift volume. These variations modify the electron trajectory along the drift path, affecting the tracking performance of the detector. In order to calculate the track distortions due to an arbitrary space charge distribution in a TPC, novel representations of the Green's function for a TPC-like geometry were worked out. This analytical approach permits accurate predictions of track distortions due to an arbitrary space charge distribution (by solving the Langevin equation) as well as the possibility to benchmark common numerical methods to calculate such space charge fields. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytic Asymptotic Solution to Spherical Relativistic Shock Breakout

    CERN Document Server

    Yalinewich, Almog

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relativistic breakout of a shock wave from the surface of a star. In this process, each fluid shell is endowed with some kinetic and thermal energy by the shock, and then continues to accelerate adiabatically by converting thermal energy into kinetic energy. This problem has been previously studied for a mildly relativistic breakout, where the acceleration ends close to the surface of the star. The current work focuses on the case where the acceleration ends at distances much greater than the radius of the star. We derive an analytic description for the hydrodynamic evolution of the ejecta in this regime, and validate it using a numerical simulation. We also provide predictions for the expected light curves and spectra from such an explosion. The relevance to astrophysical explosions is discussed, and it is shown that such events require more energy than is currently believed to result from astrophysical explosions.

  9. Analytical solution for dynamic pressurization of viscoelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemabadi, S.H.; Etemad, S.Gh.; Thibault, J.; Golkar Naranji, M.R

    2003-02-01

    The flow of simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model fluid between parallel plates is studied analytically for the case where the upper plate moves at constant velocity. Two forms of the stress coefficient, linear and exponential, are used in the constitutive equation. For the linear stress coefficient, the dimensionless pressure gradient, the velocity profile and the product of friction factor and Reynolds number are obtained for a wide range of flow rate, Deborah number and elongational parameter. The results indicate the strong effects of the viscoelastic parameter on the velocity profile, the extremum of the velocity, and the friction factor. A correlation for the maximum pressure rise in single screw extruders is proposed. For the exponential stress coefficient, only velocity profiles were obtained and compared with velocity profiles obtained with the linear stress coefficient.

  10. Explicit analytical solutions of the coupled differential equations for porous material drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡睿贤; 张娜

    2000-01-01

    Some explicit analytical solutions are derived for the coupled partial differential equation set describ-ing porous material drying with two extraordinary methods proposed by the authors, I.e. The method of separating vari-ables by addition and the method of evaluating the source term in reverse order. Besides their theoretical meaning, these solutions can also be the standard solutions for the computational solutions of heat and mass transfer.

  11. Analytical solutions for finite cylindrical dynamic cavity expansion in compressible elastic-plastic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄明; 蒋志刚; 宋殿义; 刘飞

    2014-01-01

    Analytical solutions for the dynamic cylindrical cavity expansion in a com-pressible elastic-plastic cylinder with a finite radius are developed by taking into account of the effect of lateral free boundary, which are different from the traditional cavity expan-sion models for targets with infinite dimensions. The finite cylindrical cavity expansion process begins with an elastic-plastic stage followed by a plastic stage. The elastic-plastic stage ends and the plastic stage starts when the plastic wave front reaches the lateral free boundary. Approximate solutions of radial stress on cavity wall are derived by using the Von-Mise yield criterion and Forrestal’s similarity transformation method. The effects of the lateral free boundary and finite radius on the radial stress on the cavity wall are discussed, and comparisons are also conducted with the finite cylindrical cavity expansion in incompressible elastic-plastic materials. Numerical results show that the lateral free boundary has significant influence on the cavity expansion process and the radial stress on the cavity wall of metal cylinder with a finite radius.

  12. Approximate solution of the multiple watchman routes problem with restricted visibility range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigl, Jan

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a new self-organizing map (SOM) based adaptation procedure is proposed to address the multiple watchman route problem with the restricted visibility range in the polygonal domain W. A watchman route is represented by a ring of connected neuron weights that evolves in W, while obstacles are considered by approximation of the shortest path. The adaptation procedure considers a coverage of W by the ring in order to attract nodes toward uncovered parts of W. The proposed procedure is experimentally verified in a set of environments and several visibility ranges. Performance of the procedure is compared with the decoupled approach based on solutions of the art gallery problem and the consecutive traveling salesman problem. The experimental results show the suitability of the proposed procedure based on relatively simple supporting geometrical structures, enabling application of the SOM principles to watchman route problems in W.

  13. Analytical solution for wave-induced response of isotropic poro-elastic seabed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By use of separation of variables,the governing equations describing the Biot consolidation model is firstly transformed into a complex coefficient linear homogeneous ordinary differential equation,and the general solution of the horizontal displacement of seabed is constructed by employing a complex wave number,thus,all the explicit analytical solutions of the Biot consolidation model are determined. By comparing with the experimental results and analytical solution of Yamamoto etc. and the analytical solution of Hsu and Jeng,the validity and superiority of the suggested solution are verified. After investigating the influence of seabed depth on the wave-induced response of isotropic poro-elastic seabed based on the present theory,it can be concluded that the influence depth of wave-induced hydrodynamic pressure in the seabed is equal to the wave length.

  14. Analytical solutions for Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations using Backlund transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, Jorge R.; Borges, Volnei, E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Ribeiro, Vinicius G., E-mail: vinicius_ribeiro@uniritter.edu.br [Centro Universitario Ritter dos Reis (UNIRITTER), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Marcio, E-mail: marciophd@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Interdisciplinares

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a new analytical method for solving Klein-Gordon type equations via Backlund transformations. The method consists in mapping the Klein-Gordon model into a first order system of partial differential equations, which contains a generalized velocity field instead of the Dirac matrices. This system is a tensor model for quantum field theory whose space solution is wider than the Dirac model in the original form. Thus, after finding analytical expressions for the wave functions, the Maxwell field can be readily obtained from the Dirac equations, furnishing a self-consistent field solution for the Maxwell-Dirac system. Analytical and numerical results are reported. (author)

  15. Inhomogeneous Poisson point process nucleation: comparison of analytical solution with cellular automata simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural evolution in three dimensions of nucleation and growth transformations is simulated by means of cellular automata (CA. In the simulation, nuclei are located in space according to a heterogeneous Poisson point processes. The simulation is compared with exact analytical solution recently obtained by Rios and Villa supposing that the intensity is a harmonic function of the spatial coordinate. The simulated data gives very good agreement with the analytical solution provided that the correct shape factor for the growing CA grains is used. This good agreement is auspicious because the analytical expressions were derived and thus are exact only if the shape of the growing regions is spherical.

  16. Analytic solutions for degenerate Raman-coupled model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-Ming; Yu Ya-Fei

    2008-01-01

    The Raman-coupled interaction between an atom and a single mode of a cavity field is studied. For the cases in which a light field is initially in a coherent state and in a thermal state separately, we have derived the analytic expressions for the time evolutions of atomic population difference W, modulus B of the Bloch vector, and entropy E. We find that the time evolutions of these quantities are periodic with a period of e. The maxima of W and B appear at the scaled interaction time points (τ) = κπ(κ =0, 1, 2,...). At these time points, E = 0, which shows that the atom and the field are not entangled. Between these time points, E ≠ 0, which means that the atom and the field are entangled. When the field is initially in a coherent state, near the maxima, the envelope of W is a Gaussian function with a variance of 1/(4(-n)) ((-n) is the mean number of photons). Under the envelope, W oscillates at a frequency of (-n)/e.When the field is initially in a thermal state, near the maxima, W is a Lorentz function with a width of 1/(-n).

  17. An Analytical Solution for Cylindrical Concrete Tank on Deformable Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Vichare

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical concrete tanks are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants. These are usually clarifier tanks. Design codes of practice provide methods to calculate design forces in the wall and raft of such tanks. These methods neglect self-weight of tank material and assume extreme, namely ‘fixed’ and ‘hinged’ conditions for the wall bottom. However, when founded on deformable soil, the actual condition at the wall bottom is neither fixed nor hinged. Further, the self-weight of the tank wall does affect the design forces. Thus, it is required to offer better insight of the combined effect of deformable soil and bottom raft stiffness on the design forces induced in such cylindrical concrete tanks. A systematic analytical method based on fundamental equations of shells is presented in this paper. Important observations on variation of design forces across the wall and the raft with different soil conditions are given. Set of commonly used tanks, are analysed using equations developed in the paper and are appended at the end.

  18. General Scalar-Tensor cosmology: Analytical solutions via Noether symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Masaeli, Erfan; Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the cosmology of a general Scalar-Tensor theory which encompasses generalized Brans-Dicke theory, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, non-minimal derivative gravity, generalized Galileon gravity and also the general k-essence type models. Instead of taking into account phenomenological considerations we adopt a Noether symmetry approach, as a physical criterion, to single out the form of undetermined functions in the action. These specified functions symmetrize equations of motion in the simplest possible form which result in exact solutions. Demanding de Sitter, power-law and bouncing universe solutions in the absence and presence of matter density leads to exploring new as well as well-investigated models. We show that there are models for which dynamics of the system allow transition from a decelerating phase (matter dominated era) to an accelerating phase (dark energy epoch) and could also lead to general Brans-Dicke with string correction without a self-interaction potential. Furthermore, we classify the mo...

  19. Analytic crack solutions for tilt fields around hydraulic fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R.

    2000-01-05

    The recent development of downhole tiltmeter arrays for monitoring hydraulic fractures has provided new information on fracture growth and geometry. These downhole arrays offer the significant advantages of being close to the fracture (large signal) and being unaffected by the free surface. As with surface tiltmeter data, analysis of these measurements requires the inversion of a crack or dislocation model. To supplement the dislocation models of Davis [1983], Okada [1992] and others, this work has extended several elastic crack solutions to provide tilt calculations. The solutions include constant-pressure 2D, penny-shaped, and 3D-elliptic cracks and a 2D-variable-pressure crack. Equations are developed for an arbitrary inclined fracture in an infinite elastic space. Effects of fracture height, fracture length, fracture dip, fracture azimuth, fracture width and monitoring distance on the tilt distribution are given, as well as comparisons with the dislocation model. The results show that the tilt measurements are very sensitive to the fracture dimensions, but also that it is difficult to separate the competing effects of the various parameters.

  20. Analytical solutions for sensitivity contribution in nuclear imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, Joseph Christopher

    The use of slit-slat collimation in diagnostic medical nuclear imaging is analyzed for the purpose of finding background sensitivity. A general derivation of sensitivity contribution is expressed for various camera positions outside particular radioactive objects. These objects can represent possible human or animal organs for different clinical imaging tasks. Rectangular, circular, elliptical, and parabolic cross-sections are analyzed for a given set of variables to represent the total background contribution within any particular shape for any given detector location, whether it is a point, line, or area sensitivity contribution. The sensitivity of a point source is calculated for any location inside the slit-slat's field-of-view as a function of the following constraints: (i) object shape, (ii) slit distance, (iii) depth within the object, (iv) acceptance angle, and if necessary (v) attenuation coefficient of the medium, and (vi) lateral displacement of the detector. The analysis is split into parts for all shapes to find the line or area contribution within an object. The sum of the point sources can be performed digitally to find a solution in terms of the provided situation; in some cases, an exact solution was found. The line sensitivity contributions can be applied to slit-slat cameras to reduce noise and fluctuation in imaging system design and analysis.

  1. Solution of two-dimensional problems of the statics of flexible shallow shells by spline approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spline functions have come into increasingly wide use recently in the solution of boundary-value problems of the theory of elasticity of plates and shells. This development stems from the advantages offered by spline approximations compared to other methods. Among the most important advantages are the following: (1) the behavior of the spline in the neighborhood of a point has no effect on the behavior of the spline as a whole; (2) spline interpolation converges well compared to polynomial interpolation; (3) algorithms for spline construction are simple and convenient to use. The use of spline functions to solve linear two-dimensional problems on the stress-strain state of shallow shells and plates that are rectangular in plan has proven their efficiency and made it possible to expand the range of problems that can be solved. The approach proposed in these investigations is based on reducing a linear two-dimensional problem to a unidimensional problem by the spline unidimensional problem by the method of discrete orthogonalization in the other coordinate direction. Such an approach makes it possible to account for local and edge effects in the stress state of plates and shells and obtain reliable solutions with complex boundary conditions. In the present study, we take the above approach, employing spline functions to solve linear problems, and use it to also solve geometrically nonlinear problems of the statics of shallow shells and plates with variable parameters

  2. Solitary wave solution to the nonlinear evolution equation in cascaded quadratic media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Amarendra K

    2012-01-01

    We report exact bright and dark soliton solution to the nonlinear evolution equation derived by Moses and Wise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073903, (2006)] for cascaded quadratic media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximations. The integrability aspects of the model are addressed. The traveling wave hypothesis as well as the ansatz method is employed to obtain an exact 1-soliton solution. Both bright and dark soliton solutions are obtained. The corresponding constraint conditions are obtained in order for the soliton solutions to exist.

  3. Continuum theory of critical phenomena in polymer solutions: Formalism and mean field approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Cherayil, Binny J.

    1989-06-01

    A theoretical description of the critical point of a polymer solution is formulated directly from the Edwards continuum model of polymers with two- and three-body excluded-volume interactions. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation analogous to that used in recent work on the liquid-vapor critical point of simple fluids is used to recast the grand partition function of the polymer solution as a functional integral over continuous fields. The resulting Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) Hamiltonian is of the form of a generalized nonsymmetric n=1 component vector model, with operators directly related to certain connected correlation functions of a reference system. The latter is taken to be an ensemble of Gaussian chains with three-body excluded-volume repulsions, and the operators are computed in three dimensions by means of a perturbation theory that is rapidly convergent for long chains. A mean field theory of the functional integral yields a description of the critical point in which the power-law variations of the critical polymer volume fraction φc, critical temperature Tc, and critical amplitudes on polymerization index N are essentially identical to those found in the Flory-Huggins theory. In particular, we find φc ˜N-1/2, Tθ-Tc˜N-1/2 with (Tθ the theta temperature), and that the composition difference between coexisting phases varies with reduced temperature t as N-1/4t1/2. The mean field theory of the interfacial tension σ between coexisting phases near the critical point, developed by considering the LGW Hamiltonian for a weakly inhomogeneous solution, yields σ˜N-1/4t3/2, with the correlation length diverging as ξ˜N1/4t-1/2 within the same approximation, consistent with the mean field limit of de Gennes' scaling form. Generalizations to polydisperse systems are discussed.

  4. Analytical solutions of solute transport in a fracture-matrix system with different reaction rates for fracture and matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghui; Zhan, Hongbin; Jin, Menggui

    2016-08-01

    This study deals with the problem of reactive solute transport in a fracture-matrix system using both analytical and numerical modeling methods. The groundwater flow velocity in the fracture is assumed to be high enough (no less than 0.1 m/day) to ensure the advection-dominant transport in the fracture. The problem includes advection along the fracture, transverse diffusion in the matrix, with linear sorption as well as first-order reactions operative in both the fracture and the matrix. A constant-concentration boundary condition and a decay source boundary condition in the fracture are considered. With a constant-concentration source, we obtain closed-form analytical solutions that account for the transport without reaction as well as steady-state solutions with different first-order reactions in the two media. With a decay source, a semi-analytical solution is obtained. The analytical and semi-analytical solutions are in excellent agreement with the numerical simulation results obtained using COMSOL Multiphysics. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the relative importance of matrix diffusion coefficient, fracture aperture, and matrix porosity. We conclude that the first-order reaction as well as the matrix diffusion in the fractured rock would decrease the solute peak concentration and shorten the penetration distance into the fracture. The solutions can be applied to assess the spatial-temporal distribution of concentrations in the fracture and the matrix as well as to assess the contaminant mass stored in the rock matrix. All of these are useful for designing remediation plans for contaminated fractured rocks or for risk assessment of contaminated fracture-matrix systems.

  5. Nonlinear Helicons ---an analytical solution elucidating multi-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelhamid, Hamdi M

    2016-01-01

    The helicon waves exhibit varying characters depending on plasma parameters, geometry, and wave numbers. Here we elucidate an intrinsic multi-scale property embodied by the combination of dispersive effect and nonlinearity. The extended magnetohydrodynamics model (exMHD) is capable of describing wide range of parameter space. By using the underlying Hamiltonian structure of exMHD, we construct an exact nonlinear solution which turns out to be a combination of two distinct modes, the helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) waves. In the regime of relatively low frequency or high density, however, the combination is made of the TG mode and an ion cyclotron wave (slow wave). The energy partition between these modes is determined by the helicities carried by the wave fields.

  6. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  7. A new method for deriving analytical solutions of partial differential equations--Algebraically explicit analytical solutions of two-buoyancy natural convection in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI RuiXian; LIU QiBin

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions of governing equations of various phenomena have their irre-placeable theoretical meanings. In addition, they can also be the benchmark solu-tions to verify the outcomes and codes of numerical solutions, and even to develop various numerical methods such as their differencing schemes and grid generation skills as well. A hybrid method of separating variables for simultaneous partial differential equation sets is presented. It is proposed that different methods of separating variables for different independent variables in the simultaneous equa-tion set may be used to improve the solution derivation procedure, for example, using the ordinary separating method for some variables and using extraordinary methods of separating variables, such as the separating variables with addition promoted by the first author, for some other variables. In order to prove the ability of the above-mentioned hybrid method, a lot of analytical exact solutions of two-buoyancy convection in porous media are successfully derived with such a method. The physical features of these solutions are given.

  8. A new method for deriving analytical solutions of partial differential equations-Algebraically explicit analytical solutions of two-buoyancy natural convection in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions of governing equations of various phenomena have their irre-placeable theoretical meanings. In addition, they can also be the benchmark solu-tions to verify the outcomes and codes of numerical solutions, and even to develop various numerical methods such as their differencing schemes and grid generation skills as well. A hybrid method of separating variables for simultaneous partial differential equation sets is presented. It is proposed that different methods of separating variables for different independent variables in the simultaneous equa-tion set may be used to improve the solution derivation procedure, for example, using the ordinary separating method for some variables and using extraordinary methods of separating variables, such as the separating variables with addition promoted by the first author, for some other variables. In order to prove the ability of the above-mentioned hybrid method, a lot of analytical exact solutions of two-buoyancy convection in porous media are successfully derived with such a method. The physical features of these solutions are given.

  9. Plasma flow structures as analytical solution of a magneto-hydro-dynamic model with pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, R.

    2012-03-01

    In this work starting from a set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven resistive/interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system, global solutions for the plasma flow relevant for toroidal pinches like tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs) are derived. Analytical solutions for the flow stream function associated with the dominant modes are presented.

  10. Some analytical properties of solutions of differential equations of noninteger order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Momani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical properties of solutions of the nonlinear differential equations x(α(t=f(t,x, α∈ℝ, 0<α≤1 of noninteger order have been investigated. We obtained two results concerning the frame curves of solutions. Moreover, we proved a result on differential inequality with fractional derivatives.

  11. Analytical solutions for whirling groundwater flow in two-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, K.; Bakker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for steady state groundwater flow in a heterogeneous, anisotropic, semiconfined aquifer. The aquifer consists of a number of horizontal layers, while each layer consists of a number of homogeneous cells with different hydraulic conductivity tensors. An exact solution

  12. Conservative solute approximation to the transport of a remedial reagent in a vertical circulation flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Cheng, Chung-Ting; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThis study presents a novel mathematical model for describing the transport of the remedial reagent in a vertical circulation flow field in an anisotropic aquifer. To develop the mathematical model, the radial and vertical components of the pore water velocity are calculated first by using an analytical solution for steady-state drawdown distribution near a vertical circulation well. Next, the obtained radial and vertical components of the pore water velocity are then incorporated into a three-dimensional axisymmetrical advection-dispersion equation in cylindrical coordinates from which to build the reagent transport equation. The Laplace transform finite difference technique is applied to solve the three-dimensional axisymmetrical advection-dispersion equation with spatial variable-dependent coefficients. The developed mathematical model is used to investigate the effects of various parameters such as hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, the placement of the extraction and injection screened intervals of the vertical circulation well and the injection modes on the transport regime of the remedial reagent. Results show that those parameters have different degrees of impacts on the distribution of the remedial reagent. The mathematical model provides an effective tool for designing and operating an enhanced groundwater remediation in an anisotropic aquifer using the vertical circulation well technology.

  13. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  14. Approximate k-state solutions to the Dirac-Yukawa problem based on the spin and pseudospin symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2012-01-01

    Using an approximation scheme to deal with the centrifugal (pseudo-centrifugal) term, we solve the Dirac equation with the screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential for any arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number {\\kappa}. Based on the spin and pseudospin symmetry, analytic bound state energy spectrum formulas and their corresponding upper- and lower-spinor components of two Dirac particles are obtained using a shortcut of the Nikiforov-Uvarov method. We find a wide range of permissible values for the spin symmetry constant C_{s} from the valence energy spectrum of particle and also for pseudospin symmetry constant C_{ps} from the hole energy spectrum of antiparticle. Further, we show that the present potential interaction becomes less (more) attractive for a long (short) range screening parameter {\\alpha}. To remove the degeneracies in energy levels we consider the spin and pseudospin solution of Dirac equation for Yukawa potential plus a centrifugal-like term. A few special cases such as the exact spin (pseudospin) s...

  15. Explicit analytical solutions of the anisotropic Brinkman model for the natural convection in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡睿贤; 张娜

    2002-01-01

    Some algebraically explicit analytical solutions are derived for the anisotropic Brinkman model an improved Darcy model describing the natural convection in porous media. Besides their important theoretical meaning (for example, to analyze the non-Darcy and anisotropic effects on the convection), such analytical solutions can be the benchmark solutions to promoting the develop ment of computational heat and mass transfer. For instance, we can use them to check the accuracy,convergence and effectiveness of various numerical computational methods and to improve numerical calculation skills such as differential schemes and grid generation ways.

  16. Analytical solutions of cracks emanating from an elliptical hole under shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuhong; Duan Shijie

    2014-01-01

    Based on the complex variable method, the analytical solutions of stress functions and stress intensity factors (SIFs) are provided for the plane problem of two collinear edge cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in an infinite plate under shear. The stress distribution along the horizontal axis is given in graphical forms, which conforms to Saint-Venant’s principle. The influences of crack length and ellipse shape on the stress intensity factors are evaluated. Comparing the analytical solutions with finite element method (FEM) results shows good coincidence. These numerical examples show that the present solutions are accurate.

  17. Nonlinear analytical solution for one-dimensional consolidation of soft soil under cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kang-he; QI Tian; DONG Ya-qin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for one-dimensional consolidation of soft soil under some common types of cyclic loading such as trapezoidal cyclic loading, based on the assumptions proposed by Davis and Raymond (1965) that the decrease in permeability is proportional to the decrease in compressibility during the consolidation process of the soil and that the distribution of initial effective stress is constant with depth. It is verified by the existing analytical solutions in special cases. Using the solution obtained, some diagrams are prepared and the relevant consolidation behavior is investigated.

  18. Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Problems in Classical Dynamics by Means of Lagrange-Ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Mahdavi, S. H; Rabbani, A.;

    2011-01-01

    equation is solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Methods. Present solution gives an expression which can be used in wide range of time for all domain of response. Comparisons of the obtained solutions with numerical results show that this method is effective and convenient for solving this problem.......In this work, a powerful analytical method, called Homotopy Analysis Methods (HAM) is coupled with Lagrange method to obtain the exact solution for nonlinear problems in classic dynamics. In this work, the governing equations are obtained by using Lagrange method, and then the nonlinear governing...

  19. Analytic solutions to dynamic equations of plasma armature railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahinpoor, M.; Hawke, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    General governing nonlinear differential equations pertaining to the dynamic behavior of a plasma armature electromagnetic railgun are first derived. Three different cases are then considered and the corresponding governing equations are then solved exactly by means of a set of nonlinear transformations. These cases correspond to (1) no-ablation, (2) continuous-ablation, and (3) partial-ablation for which an ablation threshold velocity v/sub t/ plays a fundamental role. Corresponding to each case, a nonlinear transformation is employed to reduce the nonlinear differential equations to their equivalent linear ones and subsequently allow solution of the pertinent linear differential equations, which are second order, by means of the transition matrix technique. It is concluded that in order to achieve very high projectile velocities the projectile should be injected into the railgun at velocities higher than the ablation threshold velocity. Thus, the ablation may be completely alleviated and the ensuing turbulent drag may be significantly diminished. It is shown that under these conditions one may typically accelerate projectiles up to 30 km/s or more while without hypervelocity injection, for the same railgun and typical operating conditions, one might severely limit the maximum projectile velocity.

  20. Analytic solutions to dynamic equations of plasma armature railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahinpoor, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Hawke, R.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    General governing nonlinear differential equations pertaining to the dynamic behavior of a plasma armature electromagnetic railgun are first derived. Three different cases are then considered and the corresponding governing equations are then solved exactly by means of a set of nonlinear transformations. These cases correspond to (1) no-ablation, (2) continuous-ablation, and (3) partial-ablation for which an ablation threshold velocity {nu}/sub tau/ plays a fundamental role. Corresponding to each case, a nonlinear transformation is employed to reduce the nonlinear differential equations to their equivalent linear ones and subsequently allow solution of the pertinent linear differential equations, which are second order, by means of the transition matrix technique. It is concluded that in order to achieve very high projectile velocities the projectile should be injected into the railgun at velocities higher than the ablation threshold velocity. Thus, the ablation may be completely alleviated and the ensuing turbulent drag may be significantly diminished. It is shown that under these conditions one may typically accelerate projectiles up to 30 km/s or more while without hypervelocity injection, for the same railgun and typical operating conditions, one might severely limit the maximum projectile velocity.

  1. Matching of analytical and numerical solutions for neutron stars of arbitrary rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, George, E-mail: gpappas@phys.uoa.g [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece)

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the results of an attempt to match the two-soliton analytical solution with the numerically produced solutions of the Einstein field equations, that describe the spacetime exterior of rotating neutron stars, for arbitrary rotation. The matching procedure is performed by equating the first four multipole moments of the analytical solution to the multipole moments of the numerical one. We then argue that in order to check the effectiveness of the matching of the analytical with the numerical solution we should compare the metric components, the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit (R{sub ISCO}), the rotation frequency and the epicyclic frequencies {Omega}{sub {rho}}, {Omega}{sub z}. Finally we present some results of the comparison.

  2. On Analytical Solutions of the Fractional Differential Equation with Uncertainty: Application to the Basset Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Salahshour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the concept of Caputo’s H-differentiability, constructed based on the generalized Hukuhara difference, to solve the fuzzy fractional differential equation (FFDE with uncertainty. This is in contrast to conventional solutions that either require a quantity of fractional derivatives of unknown solution at the initial point (Riemann–Liouville or a solution with increasing length of their support (Hukuhara difference. Then, in order to solve the FFDE analytically, we introduce the fuzzy Laplace transform of the Caputo H-derivative. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited research devoted to the analytical methods to solve the FFDE under the fuzzy Caputo fractional differentiability. An analytical solution is presented to confirm the capability of the proposed method.

  3. Algebraically explicit analytical solutions for the unsteady non-Newtonian swirling flow in an annular pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Ruixian; GOU; Chenhua

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two algebraically explicit analytical solutions for the incompressible unsteady rotational flow of Oldroyd-B type in an annular pipe. The first solution is derived with the common method of separation of variables. The second one is deduced with the method of separation of variables with addition developed in recent years. The first analytical solution is of clear physical meaning and both of them are fairly simple and valuable for the newly developing computational fluid dynamics. They can be used as the benchmark solutions to verify the applicability of the existing numerical computational methods and to inspire new differencing schemes, grid generation ways, etc. Moreover, a steady solution for the generalized second grade rheologic fluid flow is also presented. The correctness of these solutions can be easily proven by substituting them into the original governing equation.

  4. Construction of quasi-periodic solutions of state-dependent delay differential equations by the parameterization method II: Analytic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; de la Llave, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    We construct analytic quasi-periodic solutions of a state-dependent delay differential equation with quasi-periodically forcing. We show that if we consider a family of problems that depends on one dimensional parameters (with some non-degeneracy conditions), there is a positive measure set Π of parameters for which the system admits analytic quasi-periodic solutions. The main difficulty to be overcome is the appearance of small divisors and this is the reason why we need to exclude parameters. Our main result is proved by a Nash-Moser fast convergent method and is formulated in the a-posteriori format of numerical analysis. That is, given an approximate solution of a functional equation which satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, we can find a true solution close to it. This is in sharp contrast with the finite regularity theory developed in [18]. We conjecture that the exclusion of parameters is a real phenomenon and not a technical difficulty. More precisely, for generic families of perturbations, the quasi-periodic solutions are only finitely differentiable in open sets in the complement of parameters set Π.

  5. Analytical solution of two-phase spherical Stefan problem by heat polynomials and integral error functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Stanislav N.; Sarsengeldin, Merey M.; Nouri, Hassan

    2016-08-01

    On the base of the Holm model, we represent two phase spherical Stefan problem and its analytical solution, which can serve as a mathematical model for diverse thermo-physical phenomena in electrical contacts. Suggested solution is obtained from integral error function and its properties which are represented in the form of series whose coefficients have to be determined. Convergence of solution series is proved.

  6. Analytic solution of Riccati equations occurring in open-loop Nash multiplayer differential games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jódar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present explicit analytic solutions of coupled Riccati matrix differential systems appearing in open-loop Nash games. Two different cases are considered. Firstly, by means of appropriate algebraic transformations the problem is decoupled so that an explicit solution of the problem is available. The second is based on the existence of a solution of a rectangular Riccati type algebraic matrix equation associated with the problem.

  7. Analytical Solution for the SU(2) Hedgehog Skyrmion and Static Properties of Nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Duojie; Liu, Feng

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution for symmetric Skyrmion was proposed for the SU(2) Skyrme model, which take the form of the hybrid form of a kink-like solution and that given by the instanton method. The static properties of nucleons was then computed within the framework of collective quantization of the Skyrme model, with a good agreement with that given by the exact numeric solution. The comparisons with the previous results as well as the experimental values are also given.

  8. A Study of Analytics Driven Solutions for Customer Targeting and Sales Force Allocation in Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Soni

    2011-01-01

    OnTARGET and MAP are examples of analytics-based solutions that were designed from the outset to address specific business challenges in the broad area of sales force productivity. Although they address different underlying issues, these solutions implement a common approach that is generally applicable to a broad class of operational challenges. Both solutions rely on rigorously defined data models that integrate all relevant data into a common database. Choices of the data to be included in...

  9. Analytical solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model in photonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Y

    2006-06-01

    A phase space method is employed for the construction of analytical solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model in a photonic structure. This class of solutions is obtained under quite generic conditions, while the method is applicable to a large variety of systems. The location of the solutions on the spectral band gap structure as well as on the low dimensional space of system's conserved quantities is studied, and robust solitary wave propagation is shown.

  10. Analytical Solution for the SU(2)Hedgehog Skyrmion and Static Properties of Nucleons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Duo-Jie; WANG Xiao-Wei; LIU Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ An analytical solution for symmetric Skyrmion is proposed for the SU(2)Skyrme model,which takes the form of the hybrid form of a kink-like solution,given by the instanton method.The static properties of nucleons is then computed within the framework of collective quantization of the Skyrme model,in a good agreement with that given by the exact numeric solution.The comparisons with the previous results as well as the experimental values are also presented.

  11. Analytical solution and computer program (FAST) to estimate fluid fluxes from subsurface temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; Irvine, Dylan J.

    2016-02-01

    This study details the derivation and application of a new analytical solution to the one-dimensional, transient conduction-advection equation that is applied to trace vertical subsurface fluid fluxes. The solution employs a flexible initial condition that allows for nonlinear temperature-depth profiles, providing a key improvement over most previous solutions. The boundary condition is composed of any number of superimposed step changes in surface temperature, and thus it accommodates intermittent warming and cooling periods due to long-term changes in climate or land cover. The solution is verified using an established numerical model of coupled groundwater flow and heat transport. A new computer program FAST (Flexible Analytical Solution using Temperature) is also presented to facilitate the inversion of this analytical solution to estimate vertical groundwater flow. The program requires surface temperature history (which can be estimated from historic climate data), subsurface thermal properties, a present-day temperature-depth profile, and reasonable initial conditions. FAST is written in the Python computing language and can be run using a free graphical user interface. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution and FAST using measured subsurface temperature and climate data from the Sendia Plain, Japan. Results from these illustrative examples highlight the influence of the chosen initial and boundary conditions on estimated vertical flow rates.

  12. Analytical solutions to dissolved contaminant plume evolution with source depletion during carbon dioxide storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Liu, Yongzhong; Yu, Bo; Ding, Tian

    2016-06-01

    Volatile contaminants may migrate with carbon dioxide (CO2) injection or leakage in subsurface formations, which leads to the risk of the CO2 storage and the ecological environment. This study aims to develop an analytical model that could predict the contaminant migration process induced by CO2 storage. The analytical model with two moving boundaries is obtained through the simplification of the fully coupled model for the CO2-aqueous phase -stagnant phase displacement system. The analytical solutions are confirmed and assessed through the comparison with the numerical simulations of the fully coupled model. Then, some key variables in the analytical solutions, including the critical time, the locations of the dual moving boundaries and the advance velocity, are discussed to present the characteristics of contaminant migration in the multi-phase displacement system. The results show that these key variables are determined by four dimensionless numbers, Pe, RD, Sh and RF, which represent the effects of the convection, the dispersion, the interphase mass transfer and the retention factor of contaminant, respectively. The proposed analytical solutions could be used for tracking the migration of the injected CO2 and the contaminants in subsurface formations, and also provide an analytical tool for other solute transport in multi-phase displacement system.

  13. Analytical solutions to dissolved contaminant plume evolution with source depletion during carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Liu, Yongzhong; Yu, Bo; Ding, Tian

    2016-06-01

    Volatile contaminants may migrate with carbon dioxide (CO2) injection or leakage in subsurface formations, which leads to the risk of the CO2 storage and the ecological environment. This study aims to develop an analytical model that could predict the contaminant migration process induced by CO2 storage. The analytical model with two moving boundaries is obtained through the simplification of the fully coupled model for the CO2-aqueous phase -stagnant phase displacement system. The analytical solutions are confirmed and assessed through the comparison with the numerical simulations of the fully coupled model. Then, some key variables in the analytical solutions, including the critical time, the locations of the dual moving boundaries and the advance velocity, are discussed to present the characteristics of contaminant migration in the multi-phase displacement system. The results show that these key variables are determined by four dimensionless numbers, Pe, RD, Sh and RF, which represent the effects of the convection, the dispersion, the interphase mass transfer and the retention factor of contaminant, respectively. The proposed analytical solutions could be used for tracking the migration of the injected CO2 and the contaminants in subsurface formations, and also provide an analytical tool for other solute transport in multi-phase displacement system.

  14. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.

    2013-01-25

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. Approximate solutions to a weighted mixed-sensitivity H-infinity-control design for irrational transfer matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF; Weiss, M; Zhou, Y

    1996-01-01

    Approximate solutions to a weighted mixed-sensitivity H-infinity-control problem for an irrational transfer matrix are obtained by solving the same problem for a reduced-order (rational) transfer matrix. Upper and lower bounds are given in terms of the solution to the reduced-order problem and the a

  16. Transient radiative transfer in participating media with pulse-laser irradiation—an approximate Galerkin solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Tuba; Yener, Yaman; Busnaina, Ahmed A.

    2007-01-01

    An assessment is made of the Galerkin technique as an effective method of solution for transient radiative transfer problems in participating media. A one-dimensional absorbing and isotropically scattering plane-parallel gray medium irradiated with a short-pulse laser on one of its boundaries is considered for the application of the method. The medium is non-emitting and the boundaries are non-reflecting and non-refracting. In the integral formulation of the problem for the source function, the time-wise variation of the radiation intensity at any point and in any direction in the medium is assumed to be the same as the time-wise variation of the average intensity at the same point as an approximation for the application of the method. The transient transmittance and reflectance of the medium are evaluated for various values of the optical thickness, scattering albedo and pulse duration. The results are in agreement with those available in the literature. It is demonstrated that the method is relatively simple to implement and yields accurate results.

  17. Transient radiative transfer in participating media with pulse-laser irradiation-an approximate Galerkin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okutucu, Tuba [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Yener, Yaman [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: yaman@neu.edu; Busnaina, Ahmed A. [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    An assessment is made of the Galerkin technique as an effective method of solution for transient radiative transfer problems in participating media. A one-dimensional absorbing and isotropically scattering plane-parallel gray medium irradiated with a short-pulse laser on one of its boundaries is considered for the application of the method. The medium is non-emitting and the boundaries are non-reflecting and non-refracting. In the integral formulation of the problem for the source function, the time-wise variation of the radiation intensity at any point and in any direction in the medium is assumed to be the same as the time-wise variation of the average intensity at the same point as an approximation for the application of the method. The transient transmittance and reflectance of the medium are evaluated for various values of the optical thickness, scattering albedo and pulse duration. The results are in agreement with those available in the literature. It is demonstrated that the method is relatively simple to implement and yields accurate results.

  18. Transient radiative transfer in participating media with pulse-laser irradiation-an approximate Galerkin solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the Galerkin technique as an effective method of solution for transient radiative transfer problems in participating media. A one-dimensional absorbing and isotropically scattering plane-parallel gray medium irradiated with a short-pulse laser on one of its boundaries is considered for the application of the method. The medium is non-emitting and the boundaries are non-reflecting and non-refracting. In the integral formulation of the problem for the source function, the time-wise variation of the radiation intensity at any point and in any direction in the medium is assumed to be the same as the time-wise variation of the average intensity at the same point as an approximation for the application of the method. The transient transmittance and reflectance of the medium are evaluated for various values of the optical thickness, scattering albedo and pulse duration. The results are in agreement with those available in the literature. It is demonstrated that the method is relatively simple to implement and yields accurate results

  19. Sound energy decay in coupled spaces using a parametric analytical solution of a diffusion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizard, Paul; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Katz, Brian F G

    2014-05-01

    Sound field behavior in performance spaces is a complex phenomenon. Issues regarding coupled spaces present additional concerns due to sound energy exchanges. Coupled volume concert halls have been of increasing interest in recent decades because this architectural principle offers the possibility to modify the hall's acoustical environment in a passive way by modifying the coupling area. Under specific conditions, the use of coupled reverberation chambers can provide non-exponential sound energy decay in the main room, resulting in both high clarity and long reverberation which are antagonistic parameters in a single volume room. Previous studies have proposed various sound energy decay models based on statistical acoustics and diffusion theory. Statistical acoustics assumes a perfectly uniform sound field within a given room whereas measurements show an attenuation of energy with increasing source-receiver distance. While previously proposed models based on diffusion theory use numerical solvers, the present study proposes a heuristic model of sound energy behavior based on an analytical solution of the commonly used diffusion equation and physically justified approximations. This model is validated by means of comparisons to scale model measurements and numerical geometrical acoustics simulations, both applied to the same simple concert hall geometry. PMID:24815259

  20. New analytical solution for the analysis and design of permanent magnet thrust bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan YANG; Rong-xiang ZHAO; Shi-you YANG

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the current sheet model, a new analytical solution for permanent magnet (PM) bearings is developed.Compared with analytical methods based on the coupling energy model and the magnetic dipole model, the proposed one is more physically intuitive and convenient for engineering designers. According to the analytical model, the thrust characteristics of a novel PM thrust bearing is studied and verified by finite element analysis (FEA). In the proposed thrust bearing configuration, the rotor is composed of stacked PM rings with alternative axial magnetization directions, and the stator with alternative radial magnetization directions while copper rings are used to separate adjacent PM rings. A prototype PM thrust bearing with the proposed configuration is designed and fabricated. The performances of the PM thrust bearing are experimentally validated. It is shown that the calculation accuracy of the presented analytical solution is satisfying.