WorldWideScience

Sample records for approved sterile connecting

  1. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products has been widely used throughout the world, but application of pharmaceuticals has not yet gain popularity due their complex nature. Radiation sterilization especially gamma radiation is a promising method for those pharmaceuticals which are sensitive to heat and ethylene oxide. This article compare various methods of sterilization and their shortcomings, radiation sterilization and its advantages over conventional methods, various radiation sources, effect of gamma irradiation on solid and aqueous pharmaceuticals and the methods of evaluation of irradiated products. Different pharmaceuticals approved for radiation treatment in different parts of the world and pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceutical kits sterilized in Pakistan have also been described. (author)

  2. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  3. Introduction to sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Volkas, R R

    2002-01-01

    Model-building issues raised by the prospect of light sterile neutrinos are discussed in a pedagogical way. I first review the na\\"{\\i}ve proposal that sterile neutrinos be identified with ``right handed neutrinos''. A critical discussion of the simple expedient of adding three gauge singlet fermions to the usual minimal standard model matter content is followed by an examination of right handed neutrinos in extended theories. I introduce the terminology of ``fully sterile'' and ``weakly sterile'' to classify varieties usually conflated under the sterile neutrino banner. After introducing the concepts of ``technical naturalness'' and plain ``naturalness'', the unbearable lightness of being a sterile neutrino is confronted. This problem is used to motivate mirror neutrinos, whose connection with pairwise maximal mixing is emphasised. Some brief remarks about phenomenology are made throughout. The impossibility of identifying the sole sterile neutrino of the currently favoured $2 + 2$ and $3 + 1$ phenomenologic...

  4. Spacecraft sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  5. Reversible Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  6. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  7. Sterilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  8. Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with beta-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments are discussed.

  9. Sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  10. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  11. Gamma sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal action of gamma radiation is based on the disruption of DNA molecules. The sensitivity of (micro)organisms towards radiation varies. In industrial sterilization generally a radiation dose of 25 kGy is applied. Industrial radiation facilities consist of a radiation source, a biological shield and an automatic transport system. Radiation penetrates from all directions into the product and at all positions approximately the same dose is received. The only variable parameter is the velocity of the transport, which in turn determines the total dose received by the product. A number of provisions ensure that the product receives the correct treatment. Some materials show dose-dependent changes resulting from a radiation treatment. Several manufacturers of plastics offer radiation-stable compositions. Hospitals and other users of an irradiation facility have to ensure that the product they offer for gamma sterilization, can stand a treatment. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  13. Characterization of known protein complexes using k-connectivity and other topological measures [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R Gallagher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many protein complexes are densely packed, so proteins within complexes often interact with several other proteins in the complex. Steric constraints prevent most proteins from simultaneously binding more than a handful of other proteins, regardless of the number of proteins in the complex. Because of this, as complex size increases, several measures of the complex decrease within protein-protein interaction networks. However, k-connectivity, the number of vertices or edges that need to be removed in order to disconnect a graph, may be consistently high for protein complexes. The property of k-connectivity has been little used previously in the investigation of protein-protein interactions. To understand the discriminative power of k-connectivity and other topological measures for identifying unknown protein complexes, we characterized these properties in known Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complexes in networks generated both from highly accurate X-ray crystallography experiments which give an accurate model of each complex, and also as the complexes appear in high-throughput yeast 2-hybrid studies in which new complexes may be discovered. We also computed these properties for appropriate random subgraphs.We found that clustering coefficient, mutual clustering coefficient, and k-connectivity are better indicators of known protein complexes than edge density, degree, or betweenness. This suggests new directions for future protein complex-finding algorithms.

  14. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  15. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  16. The Perils of Sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Guillermo A.

    1991-01-01

    The sterilization of capital inflows at the start of a price stabilization program may give rise to future pressures to discontinue the program as a result of the unduly high debt-service burden that the sterilization policy may generate.

  17. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  18. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  19. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with beta-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments are discussed.

  20. Dose mapping for documentation of radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards EN 552 and ISO 11137 require that dose mapping in real or simulated product be carried in connection with the process qualification. This paper reviews the recommendations given in the standards and discusses the difficulties and limitations of practical dose...

  1. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  2. Modular ionizing sterilizer (MIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated

  3. Radiation sterilization of some pharmaceutical preparations and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In connection with intensive development of pharmacology and medical techniques, use of the products contacting to blood, with the internal environment of an organism, with wound surface, with mucous membranes and skin there were high requirements to sterility of pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Traditional methods of sterilization (heat treatment, gas processing and processing the ferry) have some restrictions in application, and not insufficient degree of sterilization required for pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Thermal processing can lead to degradation of structure (medicine), mechanical changes and loss of medical properties. Besides, it is impossible to carry out sterilization of many pharmaceutical preparations by a method of heat treatment. Sterilization of products in packing is very complicated, because sterilization temperature of packing and a product is different. Gas processing is basically applied to sterilization of medical products (syringes, bandage, cotton wools, etc.). However, the degree of sterility is low, because of rather low ability and heterogeneity of sterilizing substance. Sterilization in packing represents special difficulty and demands additional charges related with delivery of the purified gas from abroad. Last years alongside with known technological methods of sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations radiating methods of processing have found wide application. Use of electronic bunches with the moderate energy and various isotopes became a basis for formation and development of a new direction in the medicine, called by 'radiation sterilization'. The radiation technology is highly harmless and economic, not polluting substance and surrounding space. Unlike the specified traditional methods, radiating processing of products by the isotope 60Co, radiating the gamma quantum, has unique opportunities - high penetrability in substance, providing uniformity of

  4. Light sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gariazzo, S; Laveder, M; Li, Y F; Zavanin, E M

    2015-01-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, Gallium and LSND anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3+1 and 3+2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for beta-decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives.

  5. Sterile neutrinos at LBNE

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sensitivity of the Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment to the inclusion of two new sterile neutrino flavors with masses in the eV range. We implement a modified Casas-Ibarra parametrization which can accommodate medium scale mass eigenstates and introduces a new complex mixing angle. We explore the new mixing angle parameter space and demonstrate how LBNE can be used to either provide evidence for or rule out a particular model of sterile neutrinos. Certain three-flavor CP-violation scenarios cannot be distinguished from the sterile neutrinos. Constraints from the Daya Bay reactor experiment are used to help lift this degeneracy.

  6. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2016 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  7. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  8. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  9. Sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends greatly on the production of good quality sterile male insects that are released into target wild populations. Quality is assured through a system of bioassays of quality parameters that reflect the insect's ability to survive, interact with its environment, and locate, mate and fertilize females of the target population. The system was developed by compartmentalizing the essential survival and mating behaviours of the species involved, and then developing a series of tests to confirm that these behavioural traits are present in the mass-reared insects. The system also has a feedback loop to correct problems in the production portion of the system before they become evident. Nevertheless, regular implementation of field or field-cage tests under semi-natural conditions, where sterile males have to compete with wild males for wild females, is required to provide the ultimate assurance that the sterile insects have the ability to fulfil their mission after release. (author)

  10. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation), and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities. (author)

  11. Radiation sterilization - chemical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on cartilage and on a protein polysaccharide extract (CMP) from cartilage are evaluated. The results indicate that the hydroxyl radicals (produced when ionizing radiation interacts with water) are the most important species in altering the integrity of the cartilage during sterilization. Further data show how suitably designed chemial agents can protect the tissue from radiation damage. It is now hoped that practical use can be made of these developments during the radiation sterilization of tissues. (author)

  12. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  13. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  14. Radiation sterilization as compared with another methods of making sterile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation is devoted to sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics. Radiosterilization is compared with other methods. Advantages of fast electron- and gamma radiation sterilization are stressed

  15. Sterility induction in tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 110C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse. (author)

  16. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  17. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  18. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. It was observed that the contact lens solutions available ir, the domestic market were not upto the mark Suggestions for improvement have also been made.

  19. Radiation and ethylene oxide terminal sterilization experiences with drug eluting stent products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Byron J; Mendelson, Todd A; Craven, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Radiation and ethylene oxide terminal sterilization are the two most frequently used processes in the medical device industry to render product within the final sterile barrier package free from viable microorganisms. They are efficacious, safe, and efficient approaches to the manufacture of sterile product. Terminal sterilization is routinely applied to a wide variety of commodity healthcare products (drapes, gowns, etc.) and implantable medical devices (bare metal stents, heart valves, vessel closure devices, etc.) along with products used during implantation procedures (catheters, guidewires, etc.). Terminal sterilization is also routinely used for processing combination products where devices, drugs, and/or biologics are combined on a single product. High patient safety, robust standards, routine process controls, and low-cost manufacturing are appealing aspects of terminal sterilization. As the field of combination products continues to expand and evolve, opportunity exists to expand the application of terminal sterilization to new combination products. Material compatibility challenges must be overcome to realize these opportunities. This article introduces the reader to terminal sterilization concepts, technologies, and the related standards that span different industries (pharmaceutical, medical device, biopharmaceuticals, etc.) and provides guidance on the application of these technologies. Guidance and examples of the application of terminal sterilization are discussed using experiences with drug eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular restoration devices. The examples provide insight into selecting the sterilization method, developing the process around it, and finally qualifying/validating the product in preparation for regulatory approval and commercialization. Future activities, including new sterilization technologies, are briefly discussed. PMID:21887604

  20. Biological indicators and sterilization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of biological indicators, e.g. bacterial spores, used for monitoring the efficiency of sterilization processes. The choice of a suitable biological indicator depending on its resistance to heat sterilization, ionizing radiation and gaseous sterilization is discussed. Factors affecting the reliability of biological indicators are also discussed including genotypically determined resistance, environmental influences during growth and sporulation, the influence of the environment during storage and sterilization and the influence of recovery conditions. (U.K.)

  1. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  2. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)x10-8 mol J-1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixture of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization

  3. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)]. E-mail: brazem@irb.hr; Hamitouche, Katia [Centre de Recherche et Developpement Saidal, El Harrach (Algeria); Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Kos, Karmen [Belupo Pharmaceutical Works, Koprivnica 48000 (Croatia); Pucic, Irina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Britvic-Budicin, Smiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Razem, Dusan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6{+-}0.1)x10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixture of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  4. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  5. Sterilization of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Brint

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)

  6. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason; /University Coll. London

    2009-09-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} V{sub {tau}} transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  7. Hierarchically Acting Sterile Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chian-Shu(Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan); Takahashi, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    We propose that a hierarchical spectrum of sterile neutrinos (eV, keV, $10^{13-15}$ GeV) is considered to as the explanations for MiniBooNE and LSND oscillation anomalies, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU) respectively. The scenario can also realize the smallness of active neutrino masses by seesaw mechanism.

  8. Radiation sterilization centres worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial radiation sterilization has been used for more than 50 years. The Ethicon Division of Johnson and Johnson inaugurated medical device sterilization in 1954 for use with sutures. Over the decades, there has been enormous growth in the disposable medical products market. With this, there has been significant growth in the use of ionizing radiation as a method for sterilization. At present, 40-50% of all disposable medical products manufactured in North America are radiation sterilized. There are now some 160 commercial 60Co irradiators for radiation sterilization operating in 47 countries worldwide, containing approximately 240-260 MCi (8.9-9.6 x 1018 Bq) of gamma emitting 60Co. Included in this are service type facilities operated in research and development centres. Because of the ability to downscale 60Co units, there are many R and D and pilot scale small facilities as well, almost equal in number (approximately 150). When other uses are taken into account, there are in total over 200 gamma irradiators being operated for a variety of purposes in 55 different countries: 100-120 gamma irradiators are located in Europe and in the United States of America. Syringes, surgical gloves, gowns, masks, sticking plasters, dressings, medical 'tetrapacks', bottle teats for premature babies, artificial joints, food packaging, raw materials for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and even wine corks, are gamma sterilized. An increasing number of e-beam accelerators are also being operated, but at present e-beam is used for only a minority of radiation sterilized product. The use of e-beam as a radiation source has many attractive features, such as near instantaneous dose delivery, scalability for different throughput, and the capability to integrate in an on-line process. E-beam processing is, however, limited by the penetration of electrons, which is proportional to the accelerator voltage. The highest electron energy used in commercial applications, 10 MeV, penetrates

  9. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  10. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  11. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy

  13. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, mhdmeff < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ Neff < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in Neff and mhdmeff, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities

  14. Radiation sterilization of chitosan sealant for vascular prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was used as a sealant of knitted polyester vascular grafts. Three sterilization methods for chitosan-coated protheses were tested: sterilization with ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and irradiation with gamma rays. Radiation sterilization was found to be the most promising of tested methods. The radiation-induced changes in chitosan irradiated in solid state were investigated. Main chain scission was found as the predominant effect of irradiation. Changes in IR and UV spectra were analyzed. Existence of some post-effects was detected. It seems that the observed increase in biocompatibility of chitosan surface caused by irradiation with sterilizing dose (25 kGy) is due to some structural factor connected with a decrease in molecular weight. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  15. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  16. Electron beam sterilization for dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern biological science often needs various fine strike devices which are often made from non-toxic transparent plastic. The application of high temperature steam to the sterilization as a traditional methods often causes deformation and colour change. When chemicals are applied to the sterilization residure of chemical grain often causes toxicity. Only application of radiation to the sterilization can overcome this faults and carry out with sterility assurance at room temperature. In this research 1.3 MeV electron beam coming from Model JJ-2 accelerator was applied for sterilization to 96-well tissue culture plates. After clean packaging the plates were irradiated with 31.7 XGy and operational voltage 1.3 MeV and 100 μA on the PY device. Repeated tests demonstrate that the products are sterile. The output is 2 x 105 pieces for each year. (author)

  17. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  18. Cosmology of "Visible" Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, G B

    2004-01-01

    We point out that in scenarios with a low reheating temperature $T_R << 100$ MeV at the end of (the last episode of) inflation or entropy production, the abundance of sterile neutrinos becomes largely independent of their coupling to active neutrinos. Thus, cosmological bounds become less stringent than usually assumed, allowing sterile neutrinos to be ``visible'' in future experiments. For example, the sterile neutrino required by the LSND result does not have any cosmological problem within these scenarios.

  19. Radiation sterilization and other methods for sterilization of medical utensils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization with γ-radiation and electron beams use have been performed on the background of other methods especially the chemical sterilization with ethylene oxide. The state of legislation as well as economical analysis for comparison both methods have been done. 3 tabs

  20. Sensitivity of viruses to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    kGy, the reduction of 9 (6+3) log 10 units, or a dose of 36 kGy, would be required, and if D 10 is 5.6 kGy, than a dose >50 kGy would be needed to inactivate HIV (Conway and Tomford , CID 14: 978, 1992). These results are in agreement with data published by Fideler et al. (J Bone Jnt Surg.76A: 1032, 1994) who found that doses of 30-40 kGy are required to inactivate HIV in fresh frozen bone allografts. The doses cited above exceed the dose of 25 kGy currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw, where the dose of 33 kGy + 10% has been routinely used since 1963. Taking into consideration the results cited above it seems advisable to increase the sterilizing dose for tissue allografts at least up to 35 kGy. It should be kept in mind, however, that high doses of ionizing radiation can evoke numerous chemical and physical changes which may affect the quality of tissue allografts, such as the mechanical properties of bone or other connective tissue grafts or the osteoinductive capacity of bone allografts as well as their resorption rate. It has been observed, however, that radiation-induced changes in quality of tissue allografts depend on two groups of factors: i) conditions of irradiation (dose, temperature) and ii) the method of preservation (deep-freezing, lyophilization). These factors may dramatically influence the radiation damage of collagen a major constituent of connective tissue allografts. Further studies are needed on the effect of radiation sterilization conditions and preservation procedures on degradation of connective tissue allograft constituents

  1. Sterile Neutrino and Accelerating Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, P. Q.

    2000-01-01

    If all three neutrino oscillation data were to be confirmed in the near future, it is probable that one might need a sterile neutrino, in addition to the three active ones. This sterile neutrino, nu_S, would be very light with mass m_{nu_S} less than or equal to 1 eV or even with m_{\

  2. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  3. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  4. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  5. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  6. [Sterility in medieval noblemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eickels, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The social competence of the medieval nobleman was closely associated with his male sense of honour. One essential aspect of his masculinity was the ability to produce progeny. The childlessness of a good ruler needed special justification, the childlessness of a bad ruler was seen as God's punishment. In terms of canon law, the inability to procreate was irrelevant as long as the marriage could be consummated. Considering the importance of the procreative capacity and its symbolic significance one must ask to what extent it was possible to ascertain sterility in the Middle Ages. In the case of noblemen one can assume that they could obtain certainty about their fertility through their premarital and extramarital intercourse. This might explain why some rulers and nobles accepted a childless marriage without deeming it necessary to take another wife (or plan their itinerary in a way that enabled them to produce progeny). PMID:20506725

  7. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  8. Radiation-sterilization of frozen biostatic grafts by means of an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal conditions for radiation sterilization of frozen transplants were determined. When using on 10 MeV electron accelerator the thickness of different transplants should not exceed the following values: 15 mm for compact bone, 25 mm for spongy bone, 50 mm for lyophilized fibrous connective tissue transplants and 20 mm for hydrated connective tissue transplants. The temperature rise in the samples during sterilization does not exceed critical value. Freezing of tissues before and during radiation sterilization has a certain protective effect in respect to tissue proteins. (author)

  9. Radiation sterilization of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After years of neglect, the value of sterile non-viable (allograft) tissue grafts in transplant surgery is now being recognised. Sterilization using γ-radiation is now becoming the method of choice for a wide range of tissues in a spectrum of Human Tissues banks throughout the world. The radiation treatment can initiate physical and chemical damage in the tissues. Where necessary methods of protection have been developed. Examples are given of the successful utilization of radiation for tissue sterilization and use. (author)

  10. Microbiological aspects of radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of microorganism, mainly bacteria and, less frequently, moulds and yeasts, have been found on many medical devices and pharmaceuticals. Complete eradication of these microorganisms (sterilization) is essential to the safety of medical devices and pharmaceutical products. The sterilization process must be validated to verify that it effectively and reliably kills any microorganisms that may be present on the presterilized product. Radiation sterilization, as a physical cold process, has been widely used in many developed and developing countries for the sterilization of health care products. Earlier, a minimum dose of 25 kGy was routinely applied for many medical devices, pharmaceutical products and biological tissues. Now, as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the sterilization dose must be set for each type of product depending on its bioburden. Generally, the determination of sterilization dose is the responsibility of the principal manufacturer of the medical product, who must have access to a well qualified microbiology laboratory. Radiation sterilization is currently regulated by two standards, ISO 11137:1995 and EN 552. These standards will be harmonized in the very near future and published by the ISO as ISO 11137 part 1, part 2 and part 3. Currently, all three parts of the revised ISO 11137 are at the Final Draft International Standard stage (FDIS), and they are expected to be published together. These three parts then will replace ISO 11137:1995 and EN552. In this section, the requirements of ISO 11137:1995 have been followed, which is valid at the time of writing. A sterile product is one that is free from viable microorganisms. Items produced under controlled manufacturing conditions can, prior to sterilization, have microorganisms on them, although ordinarily in low numbers. Such products are, by definition, non-sterile. The purpose of sterilization processing is to destroy the microbiological

  11. [Sterilization: necessity or genocide?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, R M

    1991-01-01

    Recent warnings by the UN Fund for Population Activities about the rapid growth of the world population and the overwhelming role in it played by impoverished women in developing countries are of interest to all women in Latin America. According to the document, Third World Women require drastic improvements in their socioeconomic positions in order to achieve reductions in their family sizes and avoid an increase in the world population from 5 billion at present to 10 billion in 2025, which would be a disaster for the planet. The document states that much of the environmental damage that would occur would be attributable to the combination of poverty and rapid population increase. If the proportion of the world's women using contraceptives increases from the current 45% to 58% by the year 2000, the world population in 2025 will be 8.5 billion. The document recommends that the amount of money invested in family planning be greatly increased by 2000 in order to make possible increased use of family planning. It appears, however, that much of the funding for family planning is under the control of private organizations and is used to serve the interests of foreign countries. The 2 principal private family planning organizations in Brazil, for example, received 18.2 million US dollars between 1978--84, which were used largely to finance a campaign of mass sterilization. Brazil's rate of population growth, which was 2.1% in 1980-85 and 1.8% in 1990, is expected to drop to 1.6% in 1995. With the decline in the rate of growth, the population will be 170 million in 2000 instead of the 220 million projected using data from the 1970s. A much higher proportion of fertile-aged women in Brazil is sterilized than in the US or Europe . Closer examination of the premises behind family planning policies shows them to be questionable. The premise that population density affects the environment is questionable; Japan, West Germany, and Holland have some of the highest population

  12. Sterilization. Low-income women have special counseling needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    An increasing percentage of low income women are using sterilization as a method of contraception. 26% of low income women in 1982 used sterilization; 37% used it in 1988. This group of women has less access to services and information than women in other income brackets, who use sterilization less. A 16 page booklet, which is based on a study, conducted from 1985-1989 at three hospital clinics, of 1800 low income women, has been prepared by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) for use by counselors. According to Joseph Feldman of Planned Parenthood of Central and Northern Arizona (PPCNA), low motivation to postpone pregnancy (due to concentration on the roles of wife and mother) and a sense of powerlessness over their lives are problems among poor women. Libby Antarsh of AVSC states the booklet has been designed to give women all the information necessary for an informed decision. Susan Philliber of the State University of New York at New Paltz, one of the investigators in the study, says the booklet removes one of the barriers to sterilization by alleviating the fears of physicians concerned about litigation. Barriers faced by low income women in undergoing sterilization, as revealed by the study, include 1) inadequate health care services and overburdened clinic staff; 2) less access to information about contraception, and less knowledge about using the health care system; and 3) little economic or psychological support for these, often, single parents. Culture effects support for the women and their ability to use the information provided. The number of women who actually follow through on being sterilized is double among those with the approval of their male partners. Counselors should include partners and discuss the influences of others who are pressuring the woman (friends, family, physicians). The woman should separate her feelings, but be aware of the consequences of the disapproval of others. Accurate information concerning

  13. Comparison of postoperative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary grade markers versus sterile surgical markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To compare the frequencies of post- operative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary. grade markers versus sterile surgical markers in the same patient. Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: The department of Plastic surgery, Mayo hospital, Lahore from August 2013 to August 2014. Methods: This study was conducted after taking approval from the departmental ethical committee. Forty consecutive patients were included. A sterile surgical marker was used to mark one incision site while an alcohol based stationary grade marker was used to mark another incision site on the same patient. A standard preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative protocol was followed. Cultures were performed on swabs taken from the incision sites and surgical site infection was assessed for 30 days. Results: The study included 40 patients; 17 males and 23 females. The mean age of subjects was 25.32 ± 19.69 years with the minimum age being 2 years and the maximum being 63 years. No growth was seen in cultures taken from all the incision sites after skin preparation in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. Also no surgical site infection appeared during the 30 day postoperative observation period in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. (author)

  14. Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the possibility of sterilization of certain pharmaceuticals and materials involved by gamma radiation from cobalt-60 and cesium-137 sources, and illustrates the importance of gamma ray sterilization compared with other sterilization methods. The paper also reviews some pharmaceuticals and materials involved, which proved the possibility of gamma ray sterilization. (author)

  15. Phenomenology of the Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate several topics in neutrino physics, with an em- phasis on the phenomenology of the sterile neutrinos. We study the existence of a light sterile neutrino within the so called 3+1 scenario using the data of the medium baseline reactor experiments. We will also probe the parameters of the Large Extra Dimension model with the high energy atmospheric data of the IceCube experiment, and will find an equivalence between the Kaluza Klein modes and the sterile neutrinos. We will study the secret interaction of the ster- ile neutrinos which is proposed to solve the tension between cosmology and the sterile neutrino hypothesis. In addition to these, we will show that a minimal 2-Higgs-Doublet-Model extended with a U(1) or Z_2 symmetry cannot explain the smallness of the neutrino masses.

  16. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  17. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 800C (bacon to 530C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-400C to -200C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  18. Voluntary sterilization in North Tyneside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Smith, K

    1984-04-01

    Since 1975, sterilization operations, on both men and women have been performed with increasing frequency within the National Health Service in the North Tyneside Area in northeast England. A prospective study was undertaken to discover some of the reasons why healthy young men and women chose surgical sterilization rather than use the established reversible methods of family planning available to them. The study examined some of the characteristics of those requesting sterilization, attempted to understand why they did so at that particular time, and assessed the patient-perceived morbidity resulting from this elective procedure. The study population included all individuals referred for consultation following the patient's request for voluntary sterilization by vasectomy or occlusive tubal surgery, during the period of 1 year (August 1, 1980-July 31, 1981). Women sterilized in association with a pregnancy outcome were not included in the study. Data on pregnancies and sterilizations in North Tyneside demonstrate a rapid increase in requests for vasectomy after 1975. Patients requesting sterilization were admitted to the study during the initial out-patient appointment with their surgeon. Couples seeking sterilization show similar age range for men (mean 34.2) and women (33.1). The proportion of patients who were not married at the time of the operation is perhaps a reflection of doctors' increasing willingness to perform sterilizations on the unmarried, and of individuals to seek such surgery in a committed manner. The increasing tendency for requests to be received from people still in their early 20s is seen as a problem. Data indicates that married people who request the operation at an early age are also those who were married under age 21, started a family immediately and with a 25% divorce rate. At the other end of the age range, couples who ahve been sucessfully using oral contraceptives have become concerned about its safety, especially after age 35. Data

  19. Gamma sterilization of perfumed talcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formula of talcs powders manufactured in cosmetic industry often includes starch and therefore they cannot be sterilized by ordinary dry heat processes. Gamma ray are most convenient, but one might expect a resulting adulteration of perfume, if present in the item. Contrarely, it was found that no modification seemed to occur, in the scent of the sterilized product. Increase of stability, after long storage, was even observed

  20. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  1. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  2. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxid...

  3. Multiple matings among glossina and the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that multiple matings are a common phenomenon among glossina turns the sterile male technique into a competition not between adult insects but between two types of sperm, and the proportion of females inseminated with the one or the other is given by the binomial (p+q)sup(n), where p is the percentage of normal males, q the percentage of sterile males and n the average number of matings per female. However, multiple matings cannot damage the effectiveness of the technique unless two conditions are present either separately or simultaneously: precocious death of the spermatozoa and reduced inseminating potential among the sterile males. Study of the factors which can alter the inseminating potential is thus important for those who wish to use the sterile male technique. These factors are of three kinds: factors connected with quality, with quantity and with availability. The first are associated with the nature and intensity of the alterations brought about in the spermatozoa by the sterilizing agent, the second with possible variations in the amount of sperm reaching the spermotheca, the third with the behaviour of the sterile males in the nature - that is, the question whether sterilization has a favourable or unfavourable influence on their chances of mating with wild females. The author describes his observations of the quantity of sperm produced by Glossina morsitans submorsitans males from the colony reared at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medicine in Lisbon, compares them with the observations of other authors and discusses their practical significance. Specific research is suggested. Advantages from assessing the behaviour of colonies not by female productivity but by male inseminating potential, and appropriate laboratory techniques

  4. Prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmaceutical industry in Egypt is continually expanding its activity and each year marks new accomplishments and additions which enable the companies to apply the most modern scientific means in the production of pharmaceutical preparations and consequently to improve their market potentialities. The certainty of expansion and the possibility of increasing exports of sterilized medical products, particularly to Arab and African countries, indicate a need for a gamma-sterilization plant. This technology permits the introduction of the latest practices with regard to used disposables, thus greatly reducing the chances of cross-contamination which usually results in serious complications enhanced by local environmental conditions. This paper reviews the current state and future prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues in connection with other related industrial radiation processings. Moreover, the paper reviews the Egyptian scientific and technical experience with irradiation facilities and the parameters underlying the choice of Egypt's first industrial gamma and electron-beam irradiators designed for more than a single-purpose use, with hygienic measures taken to avoid biological contamination of sterilized medical packages throughout the sterilization process. In addition, the paper deals with the policy set up for establishing the Egyptian National Centre for Radiation Technology with a view to introducing irradiation techniques in the sterilization of medical products, and to improving the properties and increasing the competitiveness of Egyptian fabrics. Apart from medical sterilization, certain industrial processes have been mentioned to show how a multi-purpose irradiation facility may be utilized in a developing country to justify significantly the large investment required. (author)

  5. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairiyama, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: kairiyam@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, O. [J.P. Garrahan Hospital, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10{sup -6}. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm{sup 2}. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  6. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  7. Radiation sterilization of buckwheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For buckwheat noodle in which taste is important and its main material, buckwheat flour, the ordinary sterilization by heating or ozone cannot be applied. The number of the bacteria sticking to buckwheat flour is much more as compared with that of wheat flour, and is 105-107 per 1 g. The effective countermeasures are not yet found. Also noxious insects are apt to infect buckwheat flour. It has been known that radiation is effective for the sterilization of flavorings. In this study, the microorganism contamination of buckwheat flour and sterilization dose, the change of taste and properties after irradiation, and the capability of storage were examined, and the results are reported. The bacteria in buckwheat flour were mostly Erwinia which forms yellow colonies, and is plant-parasitic bacteria having sugar fermentation function, and also some Enterobacer, Klebsiella and Aspergillus were found. When gamma ray was irradiated on buckwheat flour, it was sterilized to less than 103 per 1 g bacteria at the dose of 5 kGy, and microorganisms were almost sterilized at 10 kGy. With the electron beam of 3 MeV, the effect of sterilization somewhat decreased. The noodle-making property of irradiated buckwheat flour, and the taste and storage capability of the noodle of irradiated flour were tested. (K.I.)

  8. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2016-01-01

    This work estimates the probability of $\\mu$ to $e$ neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5x5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4x4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  9. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  10. Prospects of radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since radiation sterilization was first introduced in the United States in 1956 in the field of disposable medical devices, it has become an indispensable technique for sterilization because of the following reasons: (1) introduction into dialyzers, (2) introduction in medical device makers, (3) development of disposable medical devices associated with developing both high molecular chemistry and cool sterilization, (4) rationality of sterilization process, and (5) problems of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. To promote the further development of radiation sterilization, the following items are considered necessary: (1) an increase in the number of facilities for radiation sterilization, (2) recommendation of the international standardization of sterilization method, (3) decrease in radiation doses associated with sterilization, (4) development of electron accelerators and bremsstrahlung equipments for radiation sources, and (5) simplification of sterilization process management. Factors precluding the development of radiation sterilization are: (1) development of other methods than radiation sterilization, (2) development of technique for sterile products, (3) high facility cost, (4) high irradiation cost, (5) benefits and limits of sterilization markets, and (6) influences of materials. (N.K.)

  11. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market

  12. [Psychosexual implications of female sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grio, R; Fusi, D; Corsello, F P; Canestrelli, M; Abbondanza, M; Arrichiello, G; Marchino, G L

    1991-12-01

    According to data of the Italian Association for Demographic Education, from 1978 to 1991 a total of 16,000 sterilizations were carried out in patients with an average age of 36 years. There was an increasing frequency of anxiety, depression, and lack of satisfaction with sexual life, and deterioration of marital life as the consequence of the operations. Psychological improvement has been reported in only a few cases. Hysterectomy, mastectomy, abortion, and sterilization produce profound psychological effects in women. The ideal candidate for such intervention should be fully aware of the choice and be well informed about the reproductive system, and aged over 30 with at least 2 children in a stable marital relationship. A 1973 review of 80 different studies carried out in 12 different countries reported that 82% of women benefited from the operation. In a study of 180 patients in Glasgow, Scotland, psychosexual disorders were found, in only 3.6%. In a 1975 report, postoperative psychiatric disturbances in sexual life were recorded in 2% of 98 women. Another study of 94 women who were sterilized did not find any medical or psychological problems but did find patients who were completely satisfied 2 years later. In a study of 50 patients who underwent surgical sterilization by the Pomeroy technique during cesarean section, sexual behavior in the women, measured as desire, frequency of intercourse, and satisfaction, was unchanged in 47, while in 3 there were only modest variations in libido and frequency of intercourse. On the basis of these reports in the majority of cases the outcome of sterilization was favorable when assessing various gynecological problems over time. On the other hand, when the candidate is a young woman the information has to be particularly detailed and scrupulous with respect to risks and the probable irreversibility of sterilization. PMID:1819775

  13. Nanoscale topographic changes on sterilized glass surfaces affect cell adhesion and spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenburg, Gretel; Lauer, Günter; Oswald, Steffen; Labudde, Dirk; Franz, Clemens M

    2014-08-01

    Producing sterile glass surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of laboratory and medical applications, including in vitro cell culture and tissue engineering. However, sterilization may change the surface properties of glass and thereby affect its use for medical applications, for instance as a substrate for culturing cells. To investigate potential effects of sterilization on glass surface topography, borosilicate glass coverslips were left untreated or subjected to several common sterilization procedures, including low-temperature plasma gas, gamma irradiation and steam. Imaging by atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the surface of untreated borosilicate coverslips features a complex landscape of microislands ranging from 1000 to 3000 nm in diameter and 1 to 3 nm in height. Steam treatment completely removes these microislands, producing a nanosmooth glass surface. In contrast, plasma treatment partially degrades the microisland structure, while gamma irradiation has no effect on microisland topography. To test for possible effects of the nanotopographic structures on cell adhesion, human gingival fibroblasts were seeded on untreated or sterilized glass surfaces. Analyzing fibroblast adhesion 3, 6, and 24 h after cell seeding revealed significant differences in cell attachment and spreading depending on the sterilization method applied. Furthermore, single-cell force spectroscopy revealed a connection between the nanotopographic landscape of glass and the formation of cellular adhesion forces, indicating that fibroblasts generally adhere weakly to nanosmooth but strongly to nanorough glass surfaces. Nanotopographic changes induced by different sterilization methods may therefore need to be considered when preparing sterile glass surfaces for cell culture or biomedical applications. PMID:24027204

  14. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  15. Sterility of the uterine cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Birger R.; Kristiansen, Frank V.; Thorsen, Poul;

    1995-01-01

    In a prospective open study the sterility of the uterine cavity was evaluated in 99 women admitted for hysterectomy. The indications for hysterectomy were in most cases persistent irregular vaginal bleeding and fibromyomas of the uterus. Samples for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia...... trachomatis, yeasts and viruses were taken preoperatively from the apex of the vagina and cervical os. Immediately after hysterectomy the uterus was opened under sterile conditions and samples obtained from the isthmus and fundus of the uterine cavity for microbiological examination. Wet smears were taken...

  16. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  17. Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sterilization Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, R. P.; Beeler, D.; Meyyappan, M.; Khare, B. N.

    2012-10-01

    Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sterilization shower to address both forward and backward biological contamination issues is presented. The molecular effects of plasma exposure required to sterilize microorganisms is also analysed.

  18. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  19. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  20. Establishment of a sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors that impact on product bioburden (population of diable microorganisms on or in product and/or sterile barrier system) are: Raw materials, components, product design and size, manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment, manufacturing environment and manufacturing location. Presented lecture describes all these factors in details

  1. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  2. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.;

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  3. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public...

  4. Sterilizing tissue-materials using pulsed power plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarkhan Tehrani, Ashkan; Davari, Pooya; Singh, Sanjleena; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the potential of pulsed power to sterilize hard and soft tissues and its impact on their physico-mechanical properties. It hypothesizes that pulsed plasma can sterilize both vascular and avascular tissues and the transitive layers in between without deleterious effects on their functional characteristics. Cartilage/bone laminate was chosen as a model to demonstrate the concept, treated at low temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in short durations and in buffered environment using a purposed-built pulsed power unit. Input voltage and time of exposure were assigned as controlling parameters in a full factorial design of experiment to determine physical and mechanical alteration pre- and post-treatment. The results demonstrated that, discharges of 11 kV sterilized samples in 45 s, reducing intrinsic elastic modules from 1.4 ± 0.9 to 0.9 ± 0.6 MPa. There was a decrease of 14.1 % in stiffness and 27.8 % in elastic-strain energy for the top quartile. Mechanical impairment was directly proportional to input voltage (P value sterilization of connective tissues with varying level of loss in mechanical robustness which we argue to be acceptable in certain medical and tissue engineering application. PMID:24449024

  5. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  6. Implementing AORN recommended practices for sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill-D'Ercole, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Any hospital or facility in which surgery and other invasive procedures are performed should have accommodations for cleaning, decontaminating, disinfecting, and sterilizing instruments, equipment, and other essential supplies that are used for patient procedures. Sterilization is essential to reducing or preventing the risk of surgical site infections. This is a collaborative process and should include all health care providers who handle these instruments, including perioperative nurses. The revised AORN "Recommended practices for sterilization," which became effective June 15, 2012, includes updates on sterilizing single-use items, inspecting critical items before sterilization, using low-temperature hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization methods, and immediate use steam sterilization. This RP document is the first AORN document to be evidence rated and accepted for inclusion in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Guideline Clearinghouse. PMID:23622825

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay and heavy sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental rate of neutrinoless double beta decay can be saturated by the exchange of virtual sterile neutrinos, that mix with the ordinary neutrinos and are heavier than 200 MeV. Interestingly, this hypothesis is subject only to marginal experimental constraints, because of the new nuclear matrix elements. This possibility is analyzed in the context of the Type I seesaw model, performing also exploratory investigations of the implications for heavy neutrino mass spectra, rare decays of mesons as well as neutrino-decay search, LHC, and lepton flavor violation. The heavy sterile neutrinos can saturate the rate only when their masses are below some 10 TeV, but in this case, the suppression of the light-neutrino masses has to be more than the ratio of the electroweak scale and the heavy-neutrino scale; i.e., more suppressed than the naive seesaw expectation. We classify the cases when this condition holds true in the minimal version of the seesaw model, showing its compatibility (1) with neutrinoless double beta rate being dominated by heavy neutrinos and (2) with any light neutrino mass spectra. The absence of excessive fine-tunings and the radiative stability of light neutrino mass matrices, together with a saturating sterile neutrino contribution, imply an upper bound on the heavy neutrino masses of about 10 GeV. We extend our analysis to the Extended seesaw scenario, where the light and the heavy sterile neutrino contributions are completely decoupled, allowing the sterile neutrinos to saturate the present experimental bound on neutrinoless double beta decay. In the models analyzed, the rate of this process is not strictly connected with the values of the light neutrino masses, and a fast transition rate is compatible with neutrinos lighter than 100 meV.

  8. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  9. Observation of Effectiveness of Clinical Sterilization by CASP-80A Low-Temperature Plasma Sterilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence on the effectiveness of sterilization by low-temperature plasma sterilizer CASP-80A was investigated so as to provide a theoretical basis for reducing medical costs and achieving ideal sterilization effectiveness. To conduct the on-site simulation test, a clinical material sterilization test and a test of the influence of organic substance were conducted, the former by using the representative of Bacillus Stearothermophilus, preparing the bacteria-contaminated carrier through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) simulated hose endoscopes, and the latter by using calf serum as the influence factor of the organic substance. The results show that the CASP-80A low-temperature plasma sterilizer could achieve effective sterilization by either the short-cycle or the long-cycle sterilization method depending on different materials, apparatus, and extent of contamination. The organic substances could influence the effectiveness of sterilization by the low-temperature plasma (H2O2) sterilizer

  10. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Sownak; Jun, Hou; Lacey, Cedric G; Lovell, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflecte...

  11. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  12. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  13. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Requirements for validation and routine control. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These recommendations for the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts adopt the principles that the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) applies to the radiation sterilization of health care products. The approach has been adapted to take into account the special features associated with human tissues and the features that distinguish them from industrially produced sterile health care products. The approach as described here is not applicable if viral contamination is identified. Thus it is emphasized that the human donors of the tissues must be medically and serologically screened. To further support this screening it is recommended that autopsy reports be reviewed if available. This adaptation of established ISO methods can thus only be applied to sterilization of tissue allografts if the radiation sterilization described here is the terminal stage of a careful, detailed, documented sequence of procedures involving: donor selection; tissue retrieval; tissue banking general procedures; specific processing procedures; labelling; and distribution. The methods proposed here for the establishment of a sterilization dose are based on statistical approaches used for the sterilization of health care products and modified appropriately for the low numbers of tissue allograft samples typically available. This code of practice will be useful to tissue banking staff, surgeons using tissues for transplantation, regulators who oversee the safety of transplantation and radiation sterilization procedures, members of tissue banking associations, health service personnel in hospitals in which tissue transplantations are performed and inter-governmental organizations involved in transplantation issues, for example the World Health Organization. This publication was discussed extensively at an international meeting in Wrexham in the United Kingdom and was approved by the Technical Advisory Committee of the relevant IAEA project, which included the Chairpersons

  14. Mechanism of Sterility and Breeding Strategies for Photoperiod/Thermo- Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; XIAO Ying-hui; LEI Dong-yang

    2010-01-01

    To understand the male sterility mechanism of photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile [P(T)GMS] lines in rice, the research progress on genetics of photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genic male sterility in rice was reviewed. A new idea was proposed to explain the sterility mechanism of P(T)GMS rice. The fertility transition from sterile to fertile is the result of cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes with photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genes, but not the so-called pgms gene in P(T)GMS rice. The minor-effect genes, which exhibit accumulative effect on sterility, are the important factors for the critical temperature of sterility transition. The more minor-effect genes the sterile line holds, the lower the critical temperature of sterility transition is. The critical temperature of sterility transition will be invariable if all the minor-effect genes are homozygous. The strategies for breeding P(T)GMS rice were also proposed. The selective indices of critical photoperiod and temperature for sterility transition should be set according to varietal type and ecological region. Imposing selection pressure is a key technology for breeding P(T)GMS rice with lower critical temperature for sterility, and improving the comprehensive performance of the whole traits and combining ability is vital for breeding P(T)GMS rice lines.

  15. 7 CFR 1717.308 - RUS approval of nonconforming rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS approval of nonconforming rates. 1717.308 Section... Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With Power Supply Borrowers § 1717.308 RUS approval of nonconforming rates. Borrowers may request and RUS may approve rates which do not conform with the...

  16. Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Tram, Thomas [Institut de Théorie des Phénomenènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Recent cosmological data favor additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons. Light sterile neutrinos are prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived assuming that they are thermalized at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch and such assumption is not justified a priori. We will discuss the evolution of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe and their thermalization just before BBN begins.

  17. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  18. Sterilization of heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopen, ten, R.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated. Sterilization did not result in a release of heparin or heparin fragments from heparinized Cuprophan. Sterilization of heparinized Cuprophan by means of EtO exposure and gamma irradiation induced a slight, i...

  19. Electron accelerators for radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiation processes using high power electron accelerators are attractive because the throughput rates are very high and the treatment costs per unit of product are often competitive with more conventional chemical processes. The utilization of energy in e-beam processing is more efficient than typical thermal processing. The use of volatiles or toxic chemicals can be avoided. Strict temperature or moisture controls may not be needed. Irradiated materials are usable immediately after processing. These capabilities are unique in that beneficial changes can be induced rapidly in solid materials and preformed products. In recent years, e-beam accelerators have emerged as the preferred alternative for industrial processing as they offer advantages over isotope radiation sources, such as (a) increased public acceptance since the storage, transport and disposal of radioactive material is not an issue; (b) the ability to hook up with the manufacturing process for in-line processing; (c) higher dose rates resulting in high throughputs. During the 1980s and 1990s, accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed, since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain low unit costs for the treatment. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, advances in e-beam technology produced new high energy, high power e-beam accelerators suitable for use in sterilization on an industrial scale. These newer designs achieved high levels of reliability and proved to be competitive with gamma sterilization by 60Co and fumigation with EtO. In parallel, technological advances towards 'miniaturization' of accelerators also made it possible to

  20. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  1. Mating competitiveness of radiation sterilized greenhouse whiteflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussed in the paper are the results of studies on the competitiveness of radiation sterilized whiteflies, which represent part of a complex research programme on the potential of the sterile insect technique for genetic control of this insect under greenhouse conditions. Data obtained in laboratory experiments are compared with the effects predicted by using a combinatorial statistical model which describes the interactions between sterile and fertile insects, depending on their ratio in the population, their reproduction physiology and the type of induced sterility. Results of small scale greenhouse trials are also presented. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Cryoradiation sterilization - contemporary state and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new approach of radiation sterilization -cryoradiosterilization with programmed freezing - was developed for pharmaceutical solutions. Both scientific and technical problems are solved, the results are discussed. Programmed freezing of vials with the drug's solutions provides the high stability of soluted components with biological activity at sterilizing irradiation without significant change of sterilization doses. Physical, chemical, biological and pharmacological properties of a lot of drug solutions for injection satisfy official requirements after cryoradiation sterilization treatment. This method seems to be especially important for the protein systems which could be infected by dangerous viruses (VIH, hepatitis B): blood plasma, diagnostic sera, protein preparations manufactured from donor's blood, etc. (Author)

  3. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue. PMID:27131131

  4. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jun, Hou; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold ...

  5. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Tamil Kendall; Claire Albert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods: Drawing on community-based res...

  6. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  7. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.;

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  8. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  9. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Arranon (Nelarabine) Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi ...

  10. Iran eases limits on sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1991-03-01

    The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother. PMID:12343087

  11. Interleukin 2 maintains biologic stability and sterility over prolonged time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, M; Junghans, R P

    2000-09-01

    The FDA approved interleukin 2 (IL2) for clinical use in 1992 in a high-dose bolus intravenous infusion schedule. IL2 administered by continuous low- and intermediate-dose infusion can result in a variety of immunologic effects including the expansion of the Natural Killer (NK) cell pool and immune reconstitution in immune-deficient hosts. These immune modifications are essential for augmentation of both currently available and evolving immunotherapies. The manufacturer's data indicate stability of the IL2 for a period of 6 days. This time frame is not practical for prolonged infusional schemes necessitating frequent changes of drug depots. We tested the biologic stability and sterility of the commercially available recombinant IL2 preparation (aldesleukin; Proleukin, Chiron) under clinical conditions for up to 30 days. Our results confirm that IL2 retains its biologic activity and sterility under these conditions for prolonged periods. This information will simplify IL2 outpatient regimens, allowing for convenient intervals for drug depot renewal, leading to improved patient compliance and conserved health care expenditures. PMID:10996039

  12. New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'Hocine

    1997-06-01

    Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

  13. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  14. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  15. Insect control by using sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male technique used in insect control is presented as an alternative for chemical control of pest insect. Description and effects of sterile male technique on morphology and physiology of different classes of pest insects are given. Prerequisite conditions necessary to work out SMT are presented. As an example of the application of this technique: control of Ephestia Cartella is studied. Gamma radiation effects on deformation, sterilization and longevity of the male insect as well as fecondity and fertility with respects of gamma irradiation are presented. 11 refs. 3 tabs

  16. Light Sterile Neutrinos: Models and Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, J; Rodejohann, W.; Zhang, H.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent hints in particle physics and cosmology, we study the realization of eV-scale sterile neutrinos within both the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetry theories. We show that light sterile neutrinos can rather easily be accommodated in the popular A_4 flavor symmetry models. The exact tri-bimaximal mixing pattern is perturbed due to active-sterile mixing, which we discuss in detail for one example. In addition, we find an interesting extension of the type I seesaw, which can ...

  17. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range.

  18. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.;

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile...... neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range....

  19. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards......, the uncertainty of the dose measurement and the environmental influences must be known. This paper discusses how to obtain and maintain traceability and how to document measurement uncertainty. The implications of these requirements in the process control of radiation sterilization are further discussed. Known...

  20. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Rodejohann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  1. Reconciling sterile neutrinos with Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reexamine the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mixing of neutrinos with sterile species. These bounds depend on the assumption that the relic neutrino asymmetry Lν is very small. We show that for Lν large enough (greater than about 10endash5) the standard BBN bounds do not apply. We apply this result to the sterile neutrino solution to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and show that for Lν approx-gt 7x10-5 it is consistent with BBN. The BBN bounds on sterile neutrinos mixing with electron neutrinos can also be weakened considerably. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  2. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical-ophthalmic ointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ophthalmic suspension whose active compounds are antibiotic and corticosteroids, was submitted, in the final package, to radiation in a Cobalt-60 source and their stability to gamma radiation has been investigated. This procedure aims to substitute the conventional aseptic method of manufacturing and packaging for radiation sterilization. Microbiological studies have been carried out to determine the minimum absorbed dose achieving the required Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10-6. The microbiological and product stability data obtained till the present time, support the use of radiation sterilization. (author)

  3. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  4. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: Sterilization to polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu

    1995-09-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization.

  5. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522....1085 Guaifenesin sterile powder. (a) Specifications. It is a sterile powder containing guaifenesin. (b... drug in sterile water for injection to make a solution containing 50 milligrams of guaifenesin...

  6. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  7. Suture loosening and γ sterilization of 10-0 nylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue reaction to 10-0 nylon sutures sterilized with γ-rays was compared to the reaction caused by 10-0 nylon thread sterilized with ethylene oxide. In a vascularized cornea more tissue reaction was seen to 10-0 nylon thread sterilized with γ-rays than to sutures sterilized with ethylene oxide gas. (Auth.)

  8. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Timmons, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  9. Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

    1964-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

  10. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-04-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  11. Radiation sterilization of pancreatin preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzymatic activities (in detail, amylase-, lipase- and protease-activity) of γ-irradiated pancreatin powder preparation decrease to 50 - 95% at doses range of 50 kR - 8 MR. The dose-inactivation relation-ships vary depending on every different manufactory lot. In the case of higher moisture content preparation as irradiation sample, amylase activities are more stable, the other side, protease activities are less stable. On the variation of these activities by γ-irradiation, there are no difference between room temperature and lower temperature (-700C) as irradiation condition. The D10 values of contamined bacteria and fungus (contamination number: about 1x103 cells/g and 9x102 spores/g) of a pancreatin preparation are 74C/kg (280 kR) and 60 C/kg(230 kR). Then, these values are corresponded to 645 C/kg (2.5 MR) and 540 C/kg (2.1 MR) as perfect sterilization. (author)

  12. Genetic Studies on Wheat Genic Male Sterility and Inheritance Mode of Male Sterility in Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Advance in the genetic study on male sterility in plant was reviewed. A dominant gene Ms2(Ta1) for male sterility, which hasa recombination percentage of 31. 16 with the centromere , is located on the short arm of chromosome 4D in Taigu wheat. Dwarfing male sterile wheat is a dwarf marked male sterile material, carrying the gene Ms2 for male sterility and dominant dwarf gene Rht10. The two genes, Ms2 and Rht10, are closely linked with a crossing-over value as small as 0. 18. The linkage character of genes Ms2 and Rht10 was transferred to CS ph1b mutant and octoploid triticale. A female-male sterility controlled by a set of genes and a male sterility carrying double recessive genes were discovered in wheat. The hypothesis of the origin of the male sterile form for gene interaction was proposed. An inheritance mode of fertility in sib-mating progenies of reces sive genic male sterile material in plant was established.

  13. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  14. Advance in the research of sterilants against rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advances in the application of sterilizing techniques against pest rodents in China are introduced in the paper. The development of chemosterilants, improvements of botanic sterilants, production of new steroid hormone sterilants, introduction of immunosterility and excellent properties of the sterilants are outlined. The "Space Occupation Theory" of sterile techniques is advanced after practice. The botanic sterilants with gossypol and trichosanthin as its main agents were screened and successfully applied in the large area control in the northern forest area of China. The safety of sterilants to non-target animals such as rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys and chickens was summarized.

  15. Sterile insect technique in codling moth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mature pupae or adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), to 30-40 krad of gamma radiation induces a high level of sterility in the male and complete sterility in the female without seriously affecting behaviour except for sperm competitiveness which is drastically reduced. Substerilizing doses (below about 25 krad) have very little adverse effect and induces higher level of sterility in the F1 male than in the irradiated male parent. The most satisfactory method of measuring the population density of native moths is by examining fruit for larval exit holes. Population increase per generation depends largely on evening temperatures during the moth's reproductive period. The codling moth is a sedentary species, and its distribution is very uneven in commercial orchards. Neglected host trees must be sprayed or destroyed to avoid reinfestation of sterile insect release orchards with immigrant moths. Laboratory-reared moths may be marked externally with fluorescent powders or internally with calco oil red without adverse effects. Mass rearing is still unreliable and expensive, and prolonged colonization affects the insects' behaviour. Successful codling moth suppression was achieved in North America and/or Europe by release of sterile males, sterile females or sterile mixed sexes; by substerile males; and by F1 male progeny (released as diapausing larvae) of substerile males X untreated females. Arthropod predators and parasites held aphids and spider mites at noninjurious levels in most insect release orchards, but leafrollers eventually built up to damaging numbers. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the codling moth is not feasible at this time because of high costs. (author)

  16. Delivery actuator for a transcervical sterilization device

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan, Muhammad; Coleman, J; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    The use of delivery systems in the human body for positioning and deploying implants, such as closure devices, dilation balloons, stents, coils and sterilization devices, are gaining more importance to preclude surgical incisions and general anesthesia. The majorities of the non-surgical medical devices are delivered in a low profile into human body form and subsequently require specialized operations for their deployment and release. An analogous procedure for permanent female sterilization...

  17. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Yezdani; Krishnan Mahalakshmi; Kesavaram Padmavathy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrors used in the patient′s mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups - Group I with oral rinse-...

  18. Antiophidian sera sterility control: topics in perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Gomes Santos; Dilvani Oliveira Santos; Lilia Ribeiro Seródio; Rachel de Souza Marinho; Carlos Rangel Rodrigues; Lucio Mendes Cabral; Marcelo de Pádula; Valéria Pereira de Sousa; Helena Carla Castro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to review the most important topics about the antiophidic sera sterility, including obtaining methods, sterilization procedures and clean room control using Vital Brazil Institute (VBI) as an example. Bibliographical research was performed through Medline, Lilacs, PubMed, ISI and the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - RJ and VBI Libraries, from 1960 to 2009. The antiophidic sera for human use are immunobiologic products produced in Brazil by three national laboratories, including...

  19. Sterile neutrino dark matter and core-collapse supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Grant. J.; Warren, MacKenzie; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the impact of sterile neutrino dark matter on core-collapse supernova explosions. We have included oscillations between electron neutrinos or mixed $\\mu,\\tau$ neutrinos and right-handed sterile neutrinos into a supernova model. We have chosen sterile neutrino masses and mixing angles that are consistent with sterile neutrino dark matter candidates as indicated by recent x-ray flux measurements. Using these simulations, we have explored the impact of sterile neutrinos on the c...

  20. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  1. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  2. Effect of Sterilization Methods on Electrospun Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Fiber Alignment for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T A M; Silva, D M; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Santos, J D; Sencadas, V

    2016-02-10

    Medically approved sterility methods should be a major concern when developing a polymeric scaffold, mainly when commercialization is envisaged. In the present work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber membranes were processed by electrospinning with random and aligned fiber alignment and sterilized under UV, ethylene oxide (EO), and γ-radiation, the most common ones for clinical applications. It was observed that UV light and γ-radiation do not influence fiber morphology or alignment, while electrospun samples treated with EO lead to fiber orientation loss and morphology changing from cylindrical fibers to ribbon-like structures, accompanied to an increase of polymer crystallinity up to 28%. UV light and γ-radiation sterilization methods showed to be less harmful to polymer morphology, without significant changes in polymer thermal and mechanical properties, but a slight increase of polymer wettability was detected, especially for the samples treated with UV radiation. In vitro results indicate that both UV and γ-radiation treatments of PLA membranes allow the adhesion and proliferation of MG 63 osteoblastic cells in a close interaction with the fiber meshes and with a growth pattern highly sensitive to the underlying random or aligned fiber orientation. These results are suggestive of the potential of both γ-radiation sterilized PLA membranes for clinical applications in regenerative medicine, especially those where customized membrane morphology and fiber alignment is an important issue. PMID:26756809

  3. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  4. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Kendall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods: Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua, we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results: A quarter (23% of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001. WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions: The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services

  5. The effect of dose distribution on sterility assurance for gamma sterilized medical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.D.H.; Vandyk, G.G. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, ON (Canada))

    Medical products sterilized in a gamma processing facility are given an absorbed dose greater than or equal to a specified minimum dose chosen to achieve a required sterility assurance level. Because of the dose variation in the product volume, most of the product receives a dose greater than the minimum value. The actual sterility assurance level achieved will depend on the dose distribution in the product volume, the microbial bioburden, and the radiation resistance of the microbial population. Calculations were performed for typical product densities for two gamma irradiator designs to determine the fraction of the product receiving different doses. Assuming the microbial resistance distribution, the actual sterility assurance levels obtained were calculated and compared with the specified sterility assurance levels. (author).

  6. Bioburden and sterility dose setting for radiation sterilization of locally manufactured sanitary pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial bioburden or count of colony forming unit (CFU) were determined on the locally manufactured non-sterilized sanitary pads and Sterilization Dose (SD) and Device Verification Dose (DVD) calculations were done. A total of 180 tests were carried out on sixty samples. The maximum and minimum microbial contaminants found were 248 and 92 respectively with an average of 175. The 20% samples were subjected to identification, only aerobic microorganisms were isolated and identified as bacilli. Most of the isolates (83%) were Bacillus pumilus and subtillis. The Sterilization Dose (SD) calculated by the method proposed by Sterilization Standards Committee, Association of the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), for a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10/sup -3/ set for this item was 1.18 Mrads whereas Device Verification Dose (DVD) was 0.59 Mrads. (author)

  7. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 μm filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m-2 yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile. (author)

  8. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products. (S.K.K.)

  9. Post-Approval Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH Post-Approval Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated as a condition of approval of a...

  10. Sterilization and disinfection: the prevailing indifference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals towards the process of sterilization and disinfection, and to check the adequacy of the reading material accessible to them. The study comprised of three components. In the first part, sections devoted to this subject in the popular books read by the students of operation theatre assistant course and students of diploma in general nursing were examined for adequacy and authenticity of information. In the second part, standard operating procedures were examined regarding sterilization of textile, rubber tubes of suction units and diathermy hand pieces of 20 operation theatres of three teaching hospital attached to undergraduate medical college of Punjab. In the third part of the study, working knowledge of 64 practicing operation theatre assistants and 57 practicing nurses was assessed through a questionnaire. It was found that popular books either did not contain the required information or the information provided was misleading or incorrect. Standard operating procedures for sterilization of selected items of all the operation theatres studied fell much below the standard of practice desired in the light of current knowledge and contemporary practices. Finally the working knowledge of the professionals studied was much below the bare minimum expected by the profession. There is a dire need for upgrading the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding sterilization, besides improving the operation theatres sterilization procedures. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  12. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  13. Cosmological and Astrophysical Implications of Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino masses implies the existence of new particles, the sterile neutrinos. These particles can have important implications for cosmology and astrophysics. A sterile neutrino with mass of a few keV can account for the dark matter of the universe. Its relic abundance can be produced via different mechanisms. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge-singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce relic keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. This mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. The resulting dark matter is "colder" than the one produced via oscillations. This property changes the small-scale structure formation limits. Heavier sterile neutrinos can be produced in supernova cores and affect the thermal evolution of the star. Being short-lived, they decay inside the envelope an...

  14. Coupling active and sterile neutrinos in the cosmon plus seesaw framework

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Alex E

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological evolution of neutrino energy densities driven by cosmon-type field equations is introduced assuming that active and sterile neutrinos are intrinsically connected by cosmon fields through the {\\em seesaw} mechanism. Interpreting sterile neutrinos as dark matter adiabatically coupled with dark energy results in a natural decoupling of (active) mass varying neutrino (MaVaN) equations. Identifying the dimensionless scale of the {\\em seesaw} mechanism, $m/M$, with a power of the cosmological scale factor, $a$, allows for embedding the resulting masses into the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) scenario for the dark sector. Without additional assumptions, our findings establish a precise connection among three distinct frameworks: the cosmon field dynamics for MaVaN's, the {\\em seesaw} mechanism for dynamical mass generation and the GCG scenario. Our results also corroborate with previous assertions that mass varying particles can be the right responsible for the stability issue and for the cosmic ac...

  15. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  16. Sterile neutrinos as subdominant warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of recent findings which seem to disfavor a scenario with (warm) dark matter entirely constituted of sterile neutrinos produced via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we investigate the constraints attainable for this mechanism by relaxing the usual hypothesis that the relic neutrino abundance must necessarily account for all of the dark matter. We first study how to reinterpret the limits attainable from x-ray nondetection and Lyman-α forest measurements in the case that sterile neutrinos constitute only a fraction fs of the total amount of dark matter. Then, assuming that sterile neutrinos are generated in the early universe solely through the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we show how the x-ray and Lyman-α results jointly constrain the mass-mixing parameters governing their production. Furthermore, we show how the same data allow us to set a robust upper limit fs s=1) at the ∼3σ level

  17. Proceedings of 3. autumn school of radiation sterilization of medical utensils and grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polish experience and review of worldwide development of radiation techniques and technologies have been presented and discussed in the field of radiation sterilization of medical supplies and grafts as well as for food processing. These problems have found now in Poland industrial or pilot plant solutions. Also some technologies connected with medical utensils production from with polymeric material resistant for radiation have been developed in Poland

  18. “The Germans are Beating us at our own Game”: American Eugenics and the German Sterilization Law of 1933

    OpenAIRE

    Klautke, E. F.

    2016-01-01

    This article re-interprets the connection between American 'mainline' eugenicists and German 'race hygienist' through the prism of the German Sterilization Law of 1933; it shows the 'normality' of this relationship, and its importance for the slow demise of eugenics after 1945.

  19. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  20. Light sterile neutrinos after BICEP-2

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Gariazzo, Stefano; Giunti, Carlo; Hannestad, Steen; Laveder, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of B-modes in the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the BICEP2 experiment has important implications for neutrino physics. We revisit cosmological bounds on light sterile neutrinos and show that they are compatible with all current cosmological data provided that the mass is relatively low. Using CMB data, including BICEP-2, we find an upper bound of $m_s 10$). However, if the sterile neutrino only partly thermalises it can be compatible with all current data, both cosmological and terrestrial.

  1. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  2. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by radiation is accompanied by chemical degradation which must be eliminated or minimised if the method is to be successfully applied. In order to devise ways in which the pharmaceutical can be protected it is necessary to know the yield and nature of the decomposition products, the mechanisms by which degradation occurs, and the rate constants for the reactions involved. We have obtained such data for a variety of pharmaceutical compounds, viz. vitamin B12, benzyl penicillin, sulphonamides, indoles, heparin, alginates and phenylmercurics, both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. The scope and limitations of radiation sterilization are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  3. Development of Industrial Sterilization of Medical Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is well established on a worldwide basis as being suitable for sterilization of medical products. The penetrating nature of die radiation and the negligible temperature rise resulting from the process make it suitable for pre-packaged equipment. The hermetic sealing of individual items ensures a long shelf life. Most experience has been gained with plastic equipment and only a few drugs have so far been considered suitable for radiation sterilization. The basic features of radiation plant are discussed and the effect of type of installation and the magnitude of the throughput on the cost of the process are outlined. (author)

  4. Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2013-10-01

    Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature.

  5. Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature

  6. Improving radiation sterilization dose of bone tissue in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 2002 our tissue banks policy is to deliver radiosterilized bones in order to deliver safety and reliable tissues for clinical uses.The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that sterile or most clean environment for bone tissue retrieval, the INDT maintains the low bioburden and it could decrease the radiation sterilization dose of processed bone tissue following Good Processing Practices. Bones were retrieved from cadaveric and brain death multiorganic donors with informed consent, according to 14.005 and 17.668 Transplant Laws and 160/06 Decret. Between 2005 and 2007, 157 long bones (mostly femur and tibia) were retrieved. 101 structural bones were used for patients with tumors, total hip revision replacement and trauma surgery, and 10 kg. were used in spine, benign tumors and bucomaxillary surgery. All batches were radiosterilized in a Gamma cell unit. Radiation dose was determined according tissue bioburden. The bioburden were analyzed during 1 year simultaneously in (Ezeiza CNEA and INDT microbiological Lab), and then by our microbiological Lab. after quality certification. The proceeding of Radiation as well as the radiation dose determination were monitorized by AIEA/URU/7/005 Project. Bioburden was studied using AIEA Code of Practice approved technique. The Co-60 source used were the Energy Committee - Ezeiza Plant in Bs. As. And since June 2007 Uruguay got a Radiation Unit (Gamma cell 220 Excel) through AIEA URU 2005/003 RQ-URU/7/005 Project. In 2002 bioburden was between 0.1 and 0.3 CFU/cc for frozen bones and freeze dried bones, showing a radiation dose lower than 25 kGy. During the period 2005 - 2007 the bioburden rate was about 0.1 CFU/cc and the radiation dose between 15.2- 25 kGy. We point out that we keep bioburden and radiation sterilization dose in the same rate and the Good Processing Practices are the key to warranty microbiologically safety tissues. (Author)

  7. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  8. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  9. The Use of Tygon Tubing Sterilized by Gamma Radiation in Heart-Lung By-Pass Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tygon tubing is a co-polymer polyvinyl chloride. This tubing is used throughout the circuit of our heart-lung by-pass machines and had been sterilized by autoclaving or exposure to ethylene oxide gas. Tubing sterilized by autoclaving was noted to have a decrease in tensile strength and the transparency of the tubing was affected. Sterilization by ethylene oxide had the disadvantage that gas was often present in the lumen of the tube when connected to the machine. Lengths of Tygon tubing were sterilized by gamma radiation at varying radiation levels and temperatures. Bacteriological studies were done on the tubing and estimation of tensile strength carried out. We have found that a level of radiation of 2. 5 to 3. 0 Mrad at 20°C produces little or no change in tensile strength and the tubing remains bacteriologically sterile. Tygon tubing sterilized in this way has now been used in over sixty heart-lung by-pass machine operations. (author)

  10. Control of the sterilization of gamma irradiated surgical sutures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a reminder of the requirements of the French pharmacopiea in which four controls are recommended -precontamination, dosimetry, microbiological efficiency control and sterility test- a practical application is proposed. Criticism of the sterility test

  11. Characteristics of validation in radiation sterilization and some practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization validation is one of the required conditions for Japanese enterprises dealing with medical device sterilization to receive authorization from Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The guideline for sterilization validation has been released in 1998 based on international standard ISO11137 (1995, 2006). In this paper are presented the characteristics of the radiation sterilization validation of medical device and its practical problems with history of the changes. The process through which the the sterilization radiation dose in radiation sterilization is determined is explained (ISO11137-2) in comparison with the cases of moist heat sterilization and ethylene oxide sterilization. Here standard distribution of resistance (SDR) is measured in advance for a variety of microorganisms, and the resistance is compared to SDR and bioburden. The manuals for ordinance or laws, specification and standard, and the confirmation of several qualifications such as installation, operational and performance are briefly introduced. Future prospects are also given. (S. Ohno)

  12. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  13. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  14. Stage-structured models for interacting wild and sterile mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the sterile insect technique,in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population,is an effective weapon to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on the disease transmissions,we formulate stage-structured discrete-time mathematical models,based on difference equations,for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes. We incorporate different strategies for releasing ster...

  15. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages

    OpenAIRE

    Maïga, H.; Damiens, D.; Niang, A.; Sawadogo, SP; Fatherhaman, O.; Lees, RS; Roux, O.; Dabiré, RK; Ouédraogo, GA; Tripet, F; Diabaté, A.; Gilles, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Methods: Sterile and untreated males ...

  16. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide. PMID:7594394

  17. Ethylene oxide sterilization of medical devices: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Gisela C. C.; Brandão, Teresa R. S.; Cristina L.M. Silva

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a well-known sterilizing agent. However, only recently has its use significantly emerged, based on its range of applications in the field of new medical device development and sterilization. This paper describes the progress in terms of EO sterilization and concludes that it remains a promising field to explore and develop. The EO action mechanism and toxicity are analyzed, and a critical analysis is made on how it is possible to use EO sterilization for medical devices...

  18. Status Report for the 21th J-PARC PAC : Searching for a Sterile Neutrino at J-PARC MLF (J-PARC E56, JSNS2)

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, M; Hasegawa, S.; Kasugai, Y.; Meigo, S.; Sakai, K.; Sakamoto, S.; Suzuya, K.; Iwai, E.; Maruyama, T; Monjushiro, S.; Nishikawa, K; Taira, M.; Niiyama, M.; Ajimura, S.; Hiraiwa, T.

    2016-01-01

    The JSNS2 (J-PARC E56) experiment aims to search for sterile neutrinos at the J-PARC Materials and Life Sciences Experimental Facility (MLF).After the submission of a proposal to the J-PARC PAC, stage-1 approval was granted to the JSNS2 experiment. The approval followed a series of background measurements which were performed in 2014. Subsequent for stage-1 approval, the JSNS2 collaboration has made continuous efforts to write a Technical Design Report (TDR).This TDR will include two major it...

  19. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  20. Light sterile neutrinos after BICEP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, Aarhus C, DK-8000 Denmark (Denmark); Fornengo, Nicolao; Gariazzo, Stefano; Giunti, Carlo [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I–10125 (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: gariazzo@to.infn.it, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marco.laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, Padova, I–35131 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The recent discovery of B-modes in the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the BICEP2 experiment has important implications for neutrino physics. We revisit cosmological bounds on light sterile neutrinos and show that they are compatible with all current cosmological data provided that the mass is relatively low. Using CMB data, including BICEP-2, we find an upper bound of m{sub s} < 0.85 eV (2σ Confidence Level). This bound is strengthened to 0.48 eV when HST measurements of H{sub 0} are included. However, the inclusion of SZ cluster data from the Planck mission and weak gravitational measurements from the CFHTLenS project favours a non-zero sterile neutrino mass of 0.44{sup +0.11}{sub −0.16} eV. Short baseline neutrino oscillations, on the other hand, indicate a new mass state around 1.2 eV. This mass is highly incompatible with cosmological data if the sterile neutrino is fully thermalised (Δχ{sup 2} > 10). However, if the sterile neutrino only partly thermalises it can be compatible with all current data, both cosmological and terrestrial.

  1. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  2. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  3. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  4. Whey powder sterilization by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whey powder was sterilized by gamma waves application. As a source of irridiation isotope 60Co was used in Institute of Nuclear sciences Boris Kidrich, Vincha-Belgrade (Yugoslavia). The applied doses were: a, b, c, d, and e Kgy. The dose d was radappertization. After whey powder irradiation no adverse changes of organoleptic properties were noticed

  5. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem. PMID:6362319

  6. Detecting sterile neutrinos with KATRIN like experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen

    2011-01-01

    A sterile neutrino with mass in the eV range, mixing with bar nue, is allowed and possibly even preferred by cosmology and oscillation experiments. If such eV-mass neutrinos exist they provide a much better target for direct detection in beta decay experiments than the active neutrinos which...

  7. Sterilization: A Conference and a Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Brint

    1978-01-01

    This article continues a series on Native American sterilization, based on a conference of the National Council of Churches' Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization (IFCO). Also included are an article and a report by the American Civil Liberties Union. (Author/RTS)

  8. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  9. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F1(AB), maintainer S1(C-S1) and either maintainer or restorer S1s(D-S1, E-S1) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F1(ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S2(D-S2) are produced. In the case that D-S2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F1(DE) should be produced from D-S1 x E-S1. These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F1(ABCD) or hybrid F1(ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  10. Particulate contamination of sterile syringes and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A

    1982-08-01

    Commercially available sterile needles and syringes have been examined for particulate contamination using the Hiac light blockage technique. The number of particles delivered was small compared with the total number permitted for large volume parenterals. Where syringes are used in particle counting techniques, the contribution of particles should be taken into account. PMID:6126558

  11. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author)

  12. Sterilization Efficiency of Spore forming Bacteria in Powdery Food by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Sterilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Kikuchi, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    To provide food sterilization method capable of killing highly heat resistant spore forming bacteria, we have studied effects of plasma treatment method at atmospheric pressure in order to develop a new high speed plasma sterilization apparatus with a low cost and a high efficiency. It is also difficult even for the plasma treatment to sterilize powdery food including spices such as soybean, basil and turmeric. This paper describes that an introduction of mechanical rotation of a treatment space increases the efficiency so that perfect inactivation of spore forming bacteria in these materials by a short treatment time has been demonstrated in our experiments. We also will discuss the sterilization mechanism by dielectric barrier discharge.

  13. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.88 Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension. (a)(1) Specifications. Each vial contains 3 grams of amoxicillin as the trihydrate. The powder is reconstituted with sterile water...

  14. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  15. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  16. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform...

  17. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441.255 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for...

  18. Monitoring of steam sterilization processes in the dental office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C.M. van Doornmalen; A.G.M. Rietmeijer; A.J. Feilzer; K. Kopinga

    2013-01-01

    In dental offices steam sterilization is used to prevent infection of staff and patient. The necessity of sterilization is obvious. To ensure effective sterilization processes each load has to be monitored. Based on literature and standards a state of the art concept of every load monitoring is desc

  19. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  1. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yezdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged, molar bands and mouth mirrors used in the patient′s mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups - Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate and set B (0.025% betadine and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse. The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37°C for 24 h. For sterility control, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518 was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculated with the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min.

  2. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  3. More New Medication Approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved many new drugs for treating a wide variety of patient health problems. In a previous article, examples of approvals for the early part of last year were addressed. In this article, selected new FDA approvals through January 2016 are discussed. Nurses who are knowledgeable and informed about these new drugs will be able to answer patients' questions, clarify misunderstandings, and reduce the potential for medication misadventures. PMID:27441881

  4. Stage-structured models for interacting wild and sterile mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the sterile insect technique,in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population,is an effective weapon to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on the disease transmissions,we formulate stage-structured discrete-time mathematical models,based on difference equations,for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes. We incorporate different strategies for releasing sterile mosquitoes,investigate the model dynamics,and compare the impact of the different release strategies.Numerical examples are also provided to demonstrate dynamical features of the models.

  5. Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models. PMID:25377433

  6. Male sterility in cotton and possibilities for its utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilova, Ana; Rusev, Vladimir; Spasova, Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Five male sterile lines were crossed to G.hirsutum male parents under the nature field conditions to produce hybrid plants. At the flowering time in different days and hours observations were made on pollen sterility. The trials were carried in 2005 and 2006 Results obtained showed that the available sterile lines were not completely sterile, there was no pollen in the early hours (from 9a.m to 2p.m) or in case of presence it was highly sterile. The absence of pollen in the early hours if day...

  7. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  8. A double inductively coupled plasma for sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double inductively coupled low pressure plasma for sterilization of bio-medical materials is introduced. It is developed for homogeneous treatment of three-dimensional objects. The short treatment times and low temperatures allow the sterilization of heat sensitive materials like ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride. Using a non-toxic atmosphere reduces the total process time in comparision with common methods. Langmuir probe measurements are presented to show the difference between ICP- and CCP-mode discharges, the spatial homogeneity and the influence on the sterilization efficiency. To know more about the sterilization mechanisms optical emission is measured and correlated with sterilization results

  9. Radiosterilization and steam autoclaving sterilization effects on phosphite antioxidant stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubi, N.; Boucherie, P.; Ferrier, D.

    1997-08-01

    While the radiosterilization by γ rays, is mainly employed for medical devices, this procedure is not commonly used to sterilize and decontaminate raw material and finished product used in the pharmaceutical industry. Depending on the countries, the requirements for obtaining approval to treat this class of product with γ rays may be different. Usually it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to demonstrate not only the integrity of the irradiated product, but olso its efficiency, safety and quality. Our work consists of a comparative study of the effects of γ radiotreatment at 25 kGy and steam sterilisation on phosphite antioxidant incorporated in polypropylene. The γ radiosensitivity compared with thermolability of this antioxidant was studied by reversed phase HPLC, Fourier Transform Infrared (IRFT) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained proved that the phosphite incorporated into the polymer and treated with the two types of sterilisation is rapidly oxidized in phosphate. Nevertheless, this oxidation is more important when using radiotreatment at 25 kGy.

  10. Sterile neutrino dark matter and core-collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, Grant J; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the impact of sterile neutrino dark matter on core-collapse supernova explosions. We have included oscillations between electron neutrinos or mixed $\\mu,\\tau$ neutrinos and right-handed sterile neutrinos into a supernova model. We have chosen sterile neutrino masses and mixing angles that are consistent with sterile neutrino dark matter candidates as indicated by recent x-ray flux measurements. Using these simulations, we have explored the impact of sterile neutrinos on the core bounce and shock reheating. We find that, for ranges of sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle consistent with most dark matter constraints, the shock energy can be significantly enhanced and even a model that does not explode can be made to explode. In addition, we have found that the presence of a sterile neutrino may lead to detectable changes in the observed neutrino luminosities.

  11. Transgenic arthropods and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique can benefit from transgenesis in three ways by creating; (1) genetically marked strains, (2) genetic sexing strains and (3) strains that induce molecular sterility in the field. Experience with the development of genetic sexing strains based on indicates that caution is required during the experimental evaluation of any potential transgenic strain. Two major scientific concerns involve the overall fitness of transgenic strains and their stability over time. The latter being very important especially when the extremely large numbers of insects that are mass reared is taken into account. Currently transformation events are random and it will probably be necessary to select suitable strains from many that are induced. The success of transformation itself in many insect species will enable many new strategies to be developed and tested. (author)

  12. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry; /Texas U.

    2007-12-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and {theta}{sub 23} through the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}, MINOS is able to measure {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub sterile} by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  13. Longevity Problem of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2013-01-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter of mass O(1-10)keV decays into an active neutrino and an X-ray photon, and the non-observation of the corresponding X-ray line requires the sterile neutrino to be more long-lived than estimated based on the seesaw formula: the longevity problem. We show that, if one or more of the B-L Higgs fields are charged under a flavor symmetry, the split mass spectrum for the right-handed neutrinos is realized, and most importantly, the longevity problem can be solved naturally. We provide several examples which solve the longevity problem and predict the X-ray flux just below the current bound.

  14. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  15. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation, in the form of high energy electrons as well as gamma radiation, has featured in the last 15 yr as a promising sterilization agent for many heat sensitive and ethylene oxide incompatible pharmaceuticals and polymers of medical usage. This article deals with (i) a comparison of the various methods of sterilization and their shortcomings, (ii) modes of interaction of radiation with matter, (iii) the types of radiation sources in common use, (iv) dosimetry, (v) dose rate effect, (vi) a literature survey of the radiation effect on pharmaceuticals in solid form as well as in aqueous solution and on polymers in the form of plastic medical products and (vii) the evaluation of the irradiated products. The effect of dose rate on the stability of these materials is emphasized. Either very little work has been done on the dose rate effect or the published information is scanty. The literature survey covers the recent period of 5 to 6 years. (author)

  16. Energy analysis in sterilization process of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure was developed for predicting energy consumption of batch type thermal processing of food. From mass and energy balance equations various energy usages or losses were estimated for steam sterilization of model food system in No.301-7 can (Φ74.1 x 113.0mm) at three different temperatures. Selected models were 5 % bentonite solution for conductive food and tap water for convective food. Total steam or energy consumption was higher at 110 deg C than at two other higher temperatures (121 deg C and 130 deg C). High energy consumption at low sterilization temperature was mainly due to high bleeding steam energy and convective and radiative heat losses. Thermal energy efficiency was also disscussed. (Author)

  17. Constraints on Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Abazajian, Kevork N; Abazajian, Kevork; Koushiappas, Savvas M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of constraints on the sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate. The minimal production scenario with a standard thermal history and negligible cosmological lepton number is in conflict with conservative radiative decay constraints from the cosmic X-ray background in combination with stringent small-scale structure limits from the Lyman-alpha forest. We show that entropy release through massive particle decay after production does not alleviate these constraints. We further show that radiative decay constraints from local group dwarf galaxies are subject to large uncertainties in the dark matter density profile of these systems. Within the strongest set of constraints, resonant production of cold sterile neutrino dark matter in non-zero lepton number cosmologies remains allowed.

  18. Sterilization Methods, Validation of Sterilization Process and Sterility Testing for Medical Devices%医疗器械灭菌方法、灭菌工艺验证及无菌检查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲; 徐玉茵; 高勇; 周静; 张娟丽

    2011-01-01

    文章阐述了湿热灭菌、干热灭菌、环氧乙烷灭菌、辐射灭菌、低温等离子体灭菌等5种医疗器械灭菌方法,并介绍了灭菌工艺验证和无菌检查方面的内容.%This paper describes five sterilization methods for medical devices, such as moist heat sterilization, dry heat sterilization, EO sterilization, radiation sterilization, low-temperature plasmas sterilization etc. The method of validation of sterilization process and sterility testing are introduced.

  19. Denitrification in Rhisobium in sterile soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of denitrification has been studied in two strains of root nodule bacteria, R. vigna 164 and R. meliloti 425a, introduced into soil samples sterilized by γ-irradiation. Intensity of denitrification was shown to depend on the type of soil, wetness, introduction of glucose. 57.3-78% of the introduced nitrates have been consumed by R. vigna, and 21.1-29.1 %, by R. melioti by the end of incubation (22 days)

  20. Sterilized food for hospitals and military purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the state-of-the-art on food irradiation performed at adequate doses for completing sterilization of food products. It deals with applications on some ingredients to be used by food industries or ready-to-use foods, mostly stable without refrigeration, for immune-depressed patients. High dose irradiated foods can be used also for military purposes and as stocks for civil defense. (author)

  1. Gas dynamics of ethylene oxide during sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Matthews, I. P.; Wang, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article reports a case study of the dynamics of ethylene oxide gas during sterilization using a microwave spectrometer. A diffusion equation is used to describe the processes of gas penetration, gas sorption, and chemical reactions. The three processes, although mathematically related, may be solved separately under simplified assumptions. This permits the prediction of gas penetration and sorption as well as the effect of chemical reactions upon the gas concentration for loads of differing dimensions and densities.

  2. Scope of commercial gamma sterilization in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usefulness of gamma sterilization has been demonstrated to the Pakistani manufactureres by irradiating (to 2.5 Megarads) different articles namely: surgical gloves, catgut sutures, phials, transfusion sets, catheters, medicines like betamethasone etc., using a gamma source at PINSTECH on a limited scale. Attempts to develop some colour-change dosimeters from various dyes/polymer systems for possible use in a commercial irradiator are briefly described. (authors)

  3. Radio-sterilization of diagnostic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic device is introduced that enables the semiquantitative determination of germs in liquids or suspensions, and supplies satisfactory hygienic information for use in food hygiene and other related areas. The equipment offers a standard method and medium for tests. The condition of the large-scale industrial production of the device is gamma irradiation for ensuring the necessary sterility. A dose of 1 Mrad gave a safe result. (author)

  4. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 7 on beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems

  5. From pollen actin to crop male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Actin plays an important role in the life activity of animal and plant cells. Pollen cells have plenty of actin whose structure and characteristics are very similar to the animal actin. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of plant actin gene are very similar to those of the animal gene. The content of pollen actin from male sterile plants is much more lower than that from its maintainer plants. The expression of actin gene is organ-specific during the plant development. The expression quantity of actin gene in pollen is much more higher than those from root, stem and leaf. The expression plasmid of the anti-sense actin gene was constructed, transferred to the protoplasts of wheat and tomato to inhibit the expression of actin gene in pollen and thus the male sterile plants of wheat and tomato were obtained. The actin in pollens from the transgenic plants was reduced significantly, whereas the pistil was not affected. This study might pave a new way to breeding male sterile lines for the application of hybrid vigor of wheat and tomato.

  6. Theory of oscillations and sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a concise review of the theoretical status of neutrino oscillations within the (standard) 3-flavor framework and the (non-standard) 4-flavor scheme endowed with one additional sterile species (the so-called 3+1 scheme). We emphasize the slight overall preference that recently emerged for CP-violation in the 3-flavor analysis and highlight the unique role of the global data combination in the near future. After a brief introduction of the motivations for light (eV) sterile neutrinos, we discuss the bounds on their mixing with the electron neutrinos, attainable from the solar sector. The upper limit so obtained is independent of the reactor neutrino fluxes, whose calculations are affected by systematic uncertainties not completely under control. Finally, we highlight the possibility to explore sub-eV ''super-light'' sterile neutrinos exploiting the θ13-dedicated reactor experiments also commenting on the robustness of the 3- flavor results within the enlarged 3+1 scheme

  7. [Principles of antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Navarrete, María-Jesús; Celorrio-Pascual, José-Miguel; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Solano Bernad, Victor-Manuel

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to provide a brief review of the main concepts on which the prevention and control of infection are based. Antisepsis comprises a set of techniques aimed at the total sterilization, or at most, disinfection, removing germs that contaminate an environment. Both procedures must be preceded by an environmental cleanup in the location in which they intend to be applied. The disinfection is carried out using biocides or germicides. Antimicrobial chemicals, that have mechanisms of action and resistances very similar to antibiotics, are generating concern due to the possibility of crossing genetic information that aggravates the problem of bacterial resistance. Most biocides can act as antiseptics, and applied to skin tissue, or disinfectants on inanimate materials. The spectrum of action of germicides depends on the product itself and external controllable factors: temperature, concentration, exposure time, etc. Sterilization techniques are primarily physical, by exposing the material to steam, or sterilizing gas, using autoclaves. Major advances are the use of low temperatures with shorter exposure times, in parallel with technological advances in instrumentation in order to avoid high temperatures and high use rotations due to workload. PMID:25023372

  8. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  9. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acmachado@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  10. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  11. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  12. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) Becenum ( ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) Becenum ( ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  16. Chemosterilants in Entomology and the Sterile-Male Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemosterilants have been often referred to as agents producing dominant lethal mutations in the germ cells of treated organisms. Recent studies of the mode of action of various chemosterilants in insects indicate that there are many other pathways by which chemical compounds can induce sterility in insects. Although the genetic mechanism still appears to be the most plausible explanation of the mode of action of many chemosterilants in male insects, other alternatives must be considered for explaining the chemical sterilization of female insects. The elucidation of the biochemical processes leading to sterility is important not only because chemical mutagenesis was first discovered in an insect (Drosophila melanogaster); chemicals offer a flexible, and sometimes the only available, method of inducing sterility in economically important insects which can be utilized in the sterile-male technique of insect control. As distinct from radiation, chemosterilants can be utilized for sterilization of the naturally occurring pest populations. In sterile- insect release programmes, chemosterilants become of importance whenever secondary radiation effects interfere with longevity and sexual competitiveness of radiation-sterilized insects. The understanding of the mechanism and mode of action of chemosterilants will aid in the search for new types of effective compounds and in designing new materials specific to insects or even to individual insect species. The sterility principle in pest control has thus far been successfully applied only to insects, but vertebrate pests will certainly be considered in the future. Chemosterilants may be the most effective tool for sterilization of vertebrate organisms. (author)

  17. Identification of four loci for genetic male sterility in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The five spontaneously mutated sterile lines, Line 5495ms, Line 5683ms Milyang 55ms, Milyang 67ms and Milyang 77ms, and the male sterile line Milyang 54ms, bred by transferring the artificially induced genetic male sterility of IR 36ms, were tested for inheritance and allelism relations. The F1 from crossing the male sterile and the original line exhibited normal seed fertility. The segregation ratio in F2 showed that the male sterile mutants were controlled each by a single recessive gene. Allelism test with those six recessive male sterility genes revealed that Line 5495ms, Line 5683ms and Milyang 54ms are controlled by the common gene, and Milyang 55ms, Milyang 67ms and Milyang 77ms each by a different gene. Thus, four different loci for male sterility in rice were found from the six male sterile lines tested. Many male sterile rices reported in literature were mutants induced by El, x-rays or γ-rays. Most remained unidentified in their allelic relationship. There is a need for international co-operation to genetically identify reported male sterilities. (author)

  18. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [18F]fludeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [18F]Flu deoxyglucose (18FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 μm filter membrane is usually adopted for 18FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for 18FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. 18FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, 18FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of 18FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure 18FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of 18FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for 18FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. 18FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine 18FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  19. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  20. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

    2012-02-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  1. Induced mutant for male-sterility of lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lentil has very small flowers which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety LL-78 were irradiated with gamma rays 5 to 20 krad. In M2 some male-sterile plants were observed. Male-sterile plants could easily be identified at the start of maturity. They remain green and continue flowering when other plants mature. Due to natural outcrossing a few seeds formed on these male-sterile plants. These were grown in M2 for progeny testing. Some M3 lines were having both normal seed set and male-sterile plants in the ratio of 3 normal : 1 male-sterile, whereas in other lines all the plants were male-sterile. The former are assumed to be genic male-sterile and the latter cytoplasmic male-sterile. When the putative cytoplasmic male-sterile plants were selfed, there was no seed setting. Cytoplasmic male-sterility has not yet been reported in lentil. its use could make cross-breeding easier. (author)

  2. Some aspects of the sterilization program in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshat, H; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar

    1984-06-01

    Sterilization is most often indicated when the desired family size is reached and no more children are desired. Because of technical advances and societal changes surgical sterilization is increasingly becoming the most utilized method of contraception. Since female sterilization is more common, several methods have been devised to make it safe and reliable. The traditional large abdominal incision (laparotomy) is now replaced by minilaparotomy, which is a small abdominal incision. Other techniques, such as transvaginal and trancervical approaches require no incision at all. These method permit occlusion of any part of the fallopian tube. Minilapatomy is the recommended method of female sterilization for 3rd world countries. Laparoscopic sterilization appears to be more psychologically acceptable to 3rd world women who have an inherent dread of surgery. A higher incidence of hematoma formation has been reported in puerperal laparoscopic sterilizations and the failure rate is also higher than in other methods. Other complications associated with laparoscopic sterilization include wound sepsis, surgical emphysema of the parieties and uterine perforation. Laparoscopic sterilizations can be performed under local, general, spinal or epidural anesthesia. Local and general anesthesia is the commonest. Both tubal ligations and vasectomies have been available in Malaysia since the 1960s. Laparoscopy was 1st introduced in Malaysia in the early 1970s. Several laparoscopy centers have been established in Malaysia to provide specialized family planning services. Outpatient laparoscopic sterilization is a feature of the Kuala Lumpur Specialist Center. Traditonally doctors and specialists in Malaysia received their practical training in sterilization techniques during their internship or residency. Since 1980, however, a formal training program was initiated. Because laparoscopy provides interval sterilization without major abdominal surgery, this procedure has played a major

  3. Radiation sterilization of surgical instruments with a consideration of metal shielding on sterilization efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of the use of radiation for sterilization of surgical instruments was evaluated. Two aspects were considered: radiation biology of relevant microorganisms, that is, bacterial spores and viruses, and shielding and radiation protection by the metal of the instruments. After proper cleaning and hot water machine washing, surgical instruments carry few, if any contaminants; however, subsequent handling increases the contamination load. Although large instruments may attenuate as much as 30% of the incident radiation, spores dried on the metal are sensitized to irradiation by some 40%. A dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad) is adequate to inactivate a potential contamination load of approximately 10(7) bacterial spores or approximately 10(4) viruses. Therefore, 25 kGy will provide a high sterility assurance level, and can be recommended with a considerable degree of confidence for hospital-based sterilization of surgical instruments

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    Full Text Available The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1 up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2 down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3 down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  5. Medical Device Approvals Through the Premarket Approval Pathway in Obstetrics and Gynecology From 2000 to 2015: Process and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica R; Hayman, Emily; Tsai, Shelun; Ghobadi, Comeron W; Xu, Shuai

    2016-06-01

    Recent controversies surrounding obstetrics and gynecology devices, including a permanent sterilization device, pelvic meshes, and laparoscopic morcellators, highlight the need for deeper understanding of obstetrics and gynecology medical device regulation. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration premarket approval database was queried for approvals assigned to the obstetrics and gynecology advisory committee from January 2000 to December 2015. Eighteen device approvals occurred in the time period studied. The most common clinical indications included endometrial ablation (33%), contraception (28%), and fetal monitoring (17%). The median approval time was 290 days (range 178-1,399 days). Regarding the pivotal trials leading to approval, there were 11 randomized controlled trials, one randomized crossover study, five nonrandomized prospective studies, and two human factor studies. Fourteen devices (78%) met their primary clinical efficacy endpoint. Only 12 of 18 devices were required to conduct postmarket surveillance. A significant proportion of devices (42%) were approved on the basis of nonrandomized controlled trials. Three devices have been withdrawn after approval, all of which were either not referred or not recommended for approval by the obstetrics and gynecology advisory committee. Of the three devices withdrawn from the market, two failed to demonstrate clinical benefit in their pivotal trials. One device was not required to undergo postmarketing surveillance and was subsequently withdrawn as a result of patient safety concerns. Our results reveal significant weaknesses in the preapproval and postapproval regulation of high-risk obstetrics and gynecology devices. Greater specialty group involvement is necessary to ensure the development of safe and clinically effective devices. PMID:27159747

  6. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  7. Cytological causes of blond psyllium for male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish G. Vala, Fougat. R.S. ,Roshni.S. and Vinay Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytological male sterility is a useful trait in plant breeding, especially in medicinal plants such as Cassia angustifolia, Commiphorawightii, Asparagus racemosus .Abnormalities appeared to be the cause of male sterility in plants, we carried out this research in anattempt to make clear the characteristics and inheritance of this male sterility. In Plantago ovata germplasm cytoplasmicabnormality was found to be the cause of abnormality. cytomixis varied from 2% to 48 % in plants. Maximum numbers of PMCscarrying B-chromosomes were recorded in male sterile plants of line JI-214(62%. No B-chromosomes were observed in fertile,sterile and partial male sterile line of JI-107 and maximum abnormal chromosomal segregation was recorded in JI-206. Thesecytological abnormality parameters can be used for hetrosis breeding and hybrid seed production to improve quality of psyllium.

  8. Studies on induced mutation of sesame male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry seeds of the high yielding cultivar, Yuzhi-4, were irradiated with 300, 500 and 700 Gy of 60Co- gamma rays. 3277 M1 plants were harvested separately as single plants and also in bulk, by doses. In M2, the single plant seeds were grown in progeny rows and the bulked seeds were grown as bulks. 25 male sterile plants were screened from M2. 10 of the 25 male sterile plants were from the progenies of the single plant seeds and 15 were from the progenies of the bulked seeds. In further genetic research of the 25 male sterile plants in M3 and M4, 6 separate genic male sterile (GMS) lines were identified. Their male sterility was stable and was controlled by a pair of alleles, male fertility being dominant to sterility. (author)

  9. Probing light sterile neutrinos in medium baseline reactor experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O L G; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Medium baseline reactor experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO) provide a unique opportunity to test the presence of light sterile neutrinos. We analyze the data of these experiments in the search of sterile neutrinos and also test the robustness of theta_13 determination in the presence of sterile neutrinos. We show that existence of a light sterile neutrino state improves the fit to these data moderately. We also show that the measured value of theta_{13} by these experiments is reliable even in the presence of sterile neutrinos, and the reliability owes significantly to the Daya Bay and RENO data. From the combined analysis of the data of these experiments we constrain the mixing of a sterile neutrino with mass squared difference in the range of (10^{-3}-10^{-1}) eV^2 to sin^2 2 theta_{14} <0.1 at 95 % C.L..

  10. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  11. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. DESIGN: The review...... 30 years, who had been sterilized by the Essure method. INTERVENTION(S): Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization using Essure system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Efficacy/effectiveness, adverse events, costs. RESULT(S): Sterilization by Essure can be performed under local anesthesia or with oral analgesics...... in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly...

  12. Male sterility in plants. Induction, isolation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both induced and spontaneously arising male sterility mutants exist in a number of important plant species. These mutants are somewhat unique in that they effect procedures for breeding improved varieties. They allow for the possibility of easily obtaining large numbers of hybrids, population breeding systems and the production of hybrid varieties. These mutants are normally classified as cytoplasmic mutants or chromosomal mutants, the latter also being referred to as nuclear or genic mutants. Specific examples of these types of sterility are examined in relation to the breeding system of the species and their potential use for varietal development. Male sterility in diploid and polyploid species is compared, with reference to gene duplication in polyploids. The mechanism of male sterility is examined in the various species at the anatomical and biochemical levels. Methods of isolating male sterility mutants are compared and a specific example is outlined for hexaploid wheat. Future use of male sterility mutants for improving varieties of various crops is examined. (author)

  13. The effect of formaldehyde on the radiation sterilization of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of peat by combined effect of Co60- gamma-radiation and formaldehyde has been studied. The degree of sterilization has been determined by the method of count of microorganisms colonies grown on culture agar extracted from peat. It has been determined that with the increase of formaldehyde concentration in peat from 0 to 0.6%, sterilization dose decreases from 10 kGy to zero. The decrease in sterilization dose by 40% results in the same decrease in sterilization cost as in this case the cost of formaldehyde can be ignored in comparison with radiation cost. The given method is recommended for use to decrease the sterilization dose in objects where the effect of residual formaldehyde does not matter

  14. Premarket Approvals (PMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Premarket approval by FDA is the required process of scientific review to ensure the safety and effectiveness of all devices classified as Class III devices. An...

  15. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome (Dacarbazine) IL-2 (Aldesleukin) Imlygic (Talimogene Laherparepvec) Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) Intron A ( ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North...

  19. Advances in application and research of sterile insect irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect irradiation techniques have developed rapidly and achieved many results in the world in recent years. In practice, it has become one of the important measures to area-wide integrated pest management.Here the sterile insect irradiation techniques were reviewed, including their strategy, mechanism and quality control. How to break through the constraints in the practical application of the sterile insects was also discussed in this paper

  20. Image Sterilization to Prevent LSB-based Steganographic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Goutam; Mukherjee, Imon

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is a very popular word used in biomedical testing (like removal of all microorganisms on surface of an article or in fluid using appropriate chemical products). Motivated by this biological analogy, we, for the first time, introduce the concept of sterilization of an image, i.e., removing any steganographic information embedded in the image. Experimental results show that our technique succeeded in sterilizing around 76% to 91% of stego pixels in an image on average, where data ...

  1. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; LI, SHAOQING

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  2. Sterilization of Preserved Fish by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in which various vacuum-packed fish products (boiled, fried and stuffed fish, fried fish fillets, hot-smoked fish) were subjected to irradiation showed that doses of 1.5 to 2.0 Mrad sterilize the products but have an adverse effect on their organoleptic properties. During storage the fat of the irradiated product is damaged by oxidation, and colloidal senescence of albuminous tissues accompanied by synaeresis occurs. To prevent these undesirable changes the author tried lowering the pH of the product and introducing carotinoids, ascorbic acid, etc., using commercial tomato sauces and vegetable dressings for the purpose. Pieces of fish (catfish, carp, cod, pike-perch) were cooked until ready for eating, placed in glass preserve jars and vacuum-sealed. For purposes of comparison, samples of the same products were autoclaved. The fish were then subjected to doses of 0.2 to 2.0 Mrad of gamma radiation from a 60Co source at a dose-rate of 800 rad/s. Both the irradiated and autoclaved products were analysed immediately after processing, and again after certain temperature tests and periods of storage. Microbiological, chemical, electrophoretic, spectrophotometric, physico-chemical and organoleptic tests were performed on them. It was shown that a dose of 1.5 Mrad is sufficient to sterilize such products. The bactericidal action of the radiation was more effective in these tests than in the irradiation of fresh fish. The quality of the irradiated product, both immediately after irradiation and after a year of storage, did not differ from the quality of unirradiated fish and was better than that of the autoclaved samples. Moreover, there was less change in the quality of the fat and a smaller reduction in the content of vitamins and amino acids in the irradiated product. Preserved fish products sterilized by gamma radiation can be kept for more than 2½ years without any substantial changes. (author)

  3. Recent developments in the radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.; Wills, Pamela A.

    Recent developments appear to have contributed to the increased interest in sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma irradiation. The choice of a sterilizing radiation dose is no longer fixed at 25 kGray (2.5 Mrad) but rather based on the initial microbial load (bioburden) coupled with the desired sterility assurance level. Our own efforts have focused on the irradiation of beta lactam antibiotics powders, most of which are radiation stable at commonly employed sterilization doses. In parallel, efforts have been directed at minimising radiolysis in aqueous solutions by the choice of appropriate irradiation conditions. A brief review of the literature on the irradiation of pharmaceuticals is given.

  4. Recent developments in the radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.P.; Wills, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments appear to have contributed to the increased interest in sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma irradiation. The choice of a sterilizing radiation dose is no longer fixed at 25 kGray (2.5 Mrad) but rather based on the initial microbial load (bioburden) coupled with the desired sterility assurance level. Our own efforts have focused on the irradiation of beta lactam antibiotics powders, most of which are radiation stable at commonly employed sterilization doses. In parallel, efforts have been directed at minimising radiolysis in aqueous solutions by the choice of appropriate irradiation conditions. A brief review of the literature on the irradiation of pharmaceuticals is given.

  5. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests. PMID:24261146

  6. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  7. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F2. Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  8. Continuous grain rotator designed for soft-electron sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous grain rotator which was equipped with a vibrating tray at a variable slope was developed for sterilization of dry food ingredients. The doses necessary for soft-electron (low-energy electron) sterilization of rice, buckwheat, wheat, tea leaf and black pepper with this continuous rotator were much lower than those with a batch-type grain rotator and at almost the same level as the doses for gamma-ray sterilization. The results suggest that the continuous grain rotator enables efficient soft-electron sterilization

  9. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum...... resistance of BC to microbial degradation. The difference between soil respiration in sterilized and non-sterilized soil with plant material was visible from the beginning of the experiment, unlike with BC amendments where differences only occurred after some days. In addition, the CO evolution from...

  10. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen; Tamborra, Irene; Tram, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as 'dark' radiation. Light sterile neutrinos is one of the prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based...... on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of the sterile neutrino at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario...

  11. Sterile neutrino production in models with low reheating temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Yaguna, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    By numerically solving the appropriate Boltzmann equations, we study the production of sterile neutrinos in models with low reheating temperatures. We take into account the production in oscillations as well as in direct decays and compute the sterile neutrino primordial spectrum, the effective number of neutrino species, and the sterile neutrino contribution to the mass density of the Universe as a function of the mixing and the reheating parameters. It is shown that sterile neutrinos with non-negligible mixing angles do not necessarily lead to $N_\

  12. Device for the sterilization of radioactive inserts for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization of radium needles (applicators) is possible with the device. The system has the simultaneous function of a shielding container (concrete or lead chamber), of a washing vessel and of a sterilization chamber. The shielding container surrounds the cleaning vessel into which the cleaning liquids can be sprayed and extracted again and into which a bactericide gas (ethylene oxide with CO or freon) can be introduced. Due to the poison gas sterilization of the applicators collected in the wash vessel or sterilization chamber, a temperature of 800C is not exceeded so that the soldered points on the applicators do not become loose. (DG)

  13. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  14. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  15. Durability of radiation-sterilized polymers, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that radiation resistance Profax PD 621 and copolyqropylene including 6 % of ethylene unit have lower crystallinity than polypropylene (homopolymer) which is unstable during storage after irradiation. Polymer crystallinity can be made to vary by cooling rate in the molding. During postirradiation storage, degradation of lower crystallinity polypropylene (I) quenched in water and methanol at -60 deg C hardly occurred after one month. Peroxy radical formed by irradiation which cause degradation during storage was smaller in the I compared with high crystallinity polypropylene cooled in press at room temperature. Therefore, the lower crystallinity polypropylene in which formation of peroxy radical is small, is favolable to medical devices in irradiation sterilization. (author)

  16. Basic radiation sterilization properties of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foils of various materials were irradiated with 60Co with an activity of 11,538 TBq. The minimum radiation dose was 25 kGy. Changes in chemico-physical properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and were not detected after irradiation with 25 kGy. Packing foils were subjected to the following tests: mechanical tests, tests of weld strength, tests of impact resistance, free fall tests, permeability tests for water vapour and microbiological tests. The results of all tests were tabulated. The tests showed that the foils are impermeable for microorganisms and provided the welds are airtight the packed products remain sterile. (J.P.)

  17. International standard (ISO) of radiation sterilization and issues in the sterilization dose setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehisa, Masaaki [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Gunma (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    The ISO dose setting method 1 uses bioburden and verification by sublethal sterility test. Current devices produced in clean environment have low bioburden, however, sensitivity of verification test declines at low bioburden. Validation of verification in this region should be further studied. A dose setting using D{sub 10} of bioburden isolates should be reevaluated and included in the ISO. (author).

  18. International standard (ISO) of radiation sterilization and issues in the sterilization dose setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISO dose setting method 1 uses bioburden and verification by sublethal sterility test. Current devices produced in clean environment have low bioburden, however, sensitivity of verification test declines at low bioburden. Validation of verification in this region should be further studied. A dose setting using D10 of bioburden isolates should be reevaluated and included in the ISO. (author)

  19. Sterilization of medical devices. Validation and routine control of sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard is intended for gamma irradiation facilities working in the continuous or batch mode and using 60Co or 137Cs radionuclides and for irradiation facilities using electrons at energies not exceeding 10 MeV, produced by accelerators. The standard specifies requirements assuring that the object will consistently absorb the predetermined dose during the sterilization process. (P.A.)

  20. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  1. Study on the role of active radicals on plasma sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mstsuura, Hiroto; Fujiyama, Takatomo; Okuno, Yasuki; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Takemura, Yuichiro

    2015-09-01

    Recently, atmospheric pressure discharge plasma has gathered attention in various fields. Among them, plasma sterilization with many types of plasma source has studied for decades and its mechanism is still an open question. If active radicals produced in plasma has main contribution of killing bacterias, direct contact of the so-called plasma flame might not be necessary. To confirm this, sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes is studied in present work. DBD type plasma jet is produce by flowing helium gas in a glass tube. A long polymeric tube is connected and plasma jet is introduced into it. Plasma flame length depends on helium gas flow rate, but limited to about 10 cm in our experimental condition. E.colis set at the exit plasma source is easily killed during 10 min irradiation. At the tube end (about 20 cm away from plasma source exit), sterilization is possible with 30 min operation. This result shows that active radical is produced with helium plasma and mist contained in sample, and it can be transferred more than 20 cm during it life time. More plasma diagnostic data will also be shown at the conference. This work was partially supported by the ''ZE Research Program, IAE(ZE27B-4).

  2. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  3. Sterile neutrinos and IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the framework for oscillations of the three neutrino flavors in the Standard Model has been convincingly established, indications persist that it may be incomplete. Challenges are coming from the LSND and MiniBooNe short-baseline experiments, from the neutrino sources used in the Gallex and Sage solar neutrino experiments and, more recently, from an a-posteriori analysis of reactor neutrino experiments. One way to accommodate the reported anomalies, if real, is to introduce one or more sterile neutrinos in the mass range δm2 ∼ 1eV2. TeV atmospheric neutrinos propagating through the Earth undergo resonant oscillations in the presence of sterile neutrinos; a clear signature in a neutrino telescope like IceCube is the the change in shape of the zenith-energy distribution of the atmospheric neutrinos. IceCube detects more than 100,000 atmospheric neutrinos per year. Statistics do not limit such a measurement, but the uncertainties in modeling the expectations of the conventional 3-flavor scenario, including the systematics of the detector, do. We review the status and future perspectives of understanding the zenith and energy response of IceCube in the TeV energy range.

  4. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  5. Inheritance of the Male Sterility in a New Photo/Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line B06S of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hao-hua; HUANG Wen-xin; PENG Xiao-song; ZHU Chang-lan; LIU Yi-bai

    2004-01-01

    The major male sterile genes in a new photo/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) line B06S of rice were analyzed by the manipulation of mixture distribution theory. The results indicated that a pair of major male sterile nuclear genes with large effects were responsible for controlling the male sterility of B06S.

  6. Tissue banking and clinical research on radiation and ethylene oxide sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research works carried out in Rangoon, Burma under the Agency supported project RC4420/RB have dealt with an elucidation of the radiation interaction(s) with the species of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, collagens, connective tissues present in the cleaned and freeze-dried non-viable tissue grafts. Radiation as a cool process furthermore effectively helps to destroy the microbial bioburden as the undesirable contaminants which may associate the tissue grafts. Radiation also concomitantly helps to suppress the tissue-specific immunogenicity. All these attributes of radiation induced effects have proved successful towards the development of a sterilization process. A series of non-viable tissue grafts, such as bone, nerve, fascia, dura, cartilage, chorion-amnion (as dressings in burn wounds) and tympanic membrane have been successfully attempted in Burma and many more possibilities seem to still remain unexplored. Radiation sterilization modality has proved as a blessing for the promotion of clinical surgical applications of tissue allografts in the corrective/reconstructive surgery on the disability cases due to diseases which accompany tissue losses. The investigator in Burma has reported on the case histories where freeze dried radiation sterilized tissue allografts have been successfully used in the osteogenic inductions (bone grafts); midear tympanoplasty; partial recovery of nerve sensation throught nerve allografts; rapid healing of high degree burn wounds through the use of amnion dressings. Besides, there have been a widespread surgical use of radiation sterilized dura and fascia as allografts. A national tissue banking facility has been established in Burma surrounding the processing and clinical utilization of tissue allografts which has involved over ten hospital centres throughout the country. Radiation induced effects on the biomolecules of clinical significance in the tissue grafts have been researched to help gain insight into a better

  7. Sterilization dose auditing for various types of medical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Zbigniew; Kaluska, Iwona E-mail: kaluska@orange.ichtj.waw.pl

    2002-03-01

    Different types of products require a different methodology of processing. The homogenous materials with well-known bioburden do not cause much problems nowadays and radiation processing and the sterilization dose can be easily audited. In this technical note the difficulties associated with the validation of radiation sterilization of tissue allografts have been mentioned.

  8. Producing massive sterile neutrinos as warm Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D

    2001-01-01

    Cosmological production of sterile neutrinos mixed with active ones is recalculated with the exact form of the coherence breaking terms in the density matrix. The results differ by approximately a factor 4 with respect to earlier simplified calculations. Sterile neutrinos remain viable candidates for warm dark matter particles.

  9. 21 CFR 522.90a - Ampicillin trihydrate sterile suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin trihydrate sterile suspension. 522.90a... § 522.90a Ampicillin trihydrate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains... to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (iv) Swine. (A) Amount. 3 milligrams per...

  10. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  11. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  12. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F)...

  13. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  14. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  15. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  16. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  17. Alternative methods of terminal sterilization for biologically active macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, A

    2001-11-01

    The traditional perception within the pharmaceutical industry of the manufacture of injectable drug products is that active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are peptides, proteins or biopolymers, such as poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) and poly(DL-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA), cannot be terminally sterilized. This perception exists largely because terminal sterilization is assumed by many to be only carried out by steam sterilization in a standard autoclave. Thus, it is understood that these API candidates must be manufactured by aseptic techniques. With the current technological advances in the area of protein and peptide sterilization, which has largely come from the food industry and has in recent years been developed for pharmaceutical use, techniques have been developed for the terminal sterilization of thermally sensitive APIs and biopolymers. In this review, the focus will be on the four major types of sterilization that are presented in the literature: (i) gamma-irradiation; (ii) e-Beam; (iii) natural light; and (iv) microwave. Each of these sterilization techniques present advantages and disadvantages for use in large-scale terminal sterilization of bioactive macromolecules. PMID:11899616

  18. Sterile devices: A GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) workshop manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derision, R.; Lower, A.; Bimonte, R.

    1983-05-01

    The manual, which covers GMPs for sterilization processes, presents model procedures and forms as well as a variety of articles and reprints. It is a compilation of GMP materials that small device firms may find useful in understanding how some manufacturers have successfully compiled with the GMP requirements as they apply to the manufacture of sterile devices.

  19. Physical measurements for quality control in industrial radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation has brought about a growing industry for the sterilization of disposable surgical equipment, medical supplies, and containers for biological specimens. For many products, irradiation has become an alternative to autoclaving or gas treatment by ethylene oxide. Over fifteen years of experience with industrial sterilization by cobalt-60 gamma radiation have shown that radiation methods provide a clear advantage over gas sterilization, in that sterilization can be performed on non-permeable sealed packages. Moreover, regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S.A., are reappraising the requirements for sterility assurance. For products released to the public, consideration is now being given to the use of physical dosimetry, i.e., the measurement of radiation dose by physical methods. This is based on a knowledge of the microbial burden of the product before sterilization and on the probability of killing microorganisms by a given radiation dose. Because physical dosimetry is easier to control and less complicated than biological tests, it may be considered in the future the basis for quality assurance of the sterilized product. Some of the problems associated with standardized measurement techniques in radiation sterilization include the choice of dosimetry and its calibration, as well as methods and procedures used to minimize errors due to variations in radiation flux density, source geometry with respect to the product, and environmental factors. (author)

  20. Future short-baseline sterile neutrino searches with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experimental anomalies in neutrino oscillation physics point to the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino. This hypothesis can be precisely tested using neutrinos from reactors, radioactive isotopes, and particle accelerators. The focus of these proceedings is on future dedicated short-baseline sterile neutrino searches using accelerators

  1. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  2. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological effectiveness

  3. Sterile neutrinos with pseudoscalar self-interactions and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos in the electronvolt mass range are hinted at by a number of terrestrial neutrino experiments. However, such neutrinos are highly incompatible with data from the Cosmic Microwave Background and large scale structure. This paper discusses how charging sterile neutrinos under a new pseudoscalar interaction can reconcile eV sterile neutrinos with terrestrial neutrino data. We show that this model can reconcile eV sterile neutrinos in cosmology, providing a fit to all available data which is way better than the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model with one additional fully thermalized sterile neutrino. In particular it also prefers a value of the Hubble parameter much closer to the locally measured value.

  4. Electric Dipole Moments of Charged Leptons with Sterile Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Abada, Asmaa

    2015-01-01

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. Any experimental signal of these observables calls for scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model providing new sources of CP violation. In this work, we consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions which mix with active neutrinos and we derive the corresponding analytical expressions for the electric dipole moments of charged leptons at two-loop order. Our study reveals that, in order to have a non-vanishing contribution in this framework, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least 2 sterile fermion states to the Standard Model field content. Our conclusion is that sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments, some of them lying within present and future experimental sensitivity if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. The Majorana nature of neutrinos is also im...

  5. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, C.E.

    1991-03-20

    This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  6. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  7. Quantitative effects of sterilizing irradiation on human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the results of a quantitative assessment of the linear electron accelerator as the radiation source for human bone sterilization. Tissue activation, tissue heating, dose penetration, effects on storage containers, alterations in the physical properties of bone, tissue graft incorporation after radiation, and the minimal lethal dose required for reliable sterilization were the conditions examined by this study. Our results suggest electron bombardment is a rapid, safe, and reliable method for sterilization of bone. Irradiation sterilization up to 2.5 Mrads does not appear to alter significantly the material properties of cortical bone. Our quantitative bacteriological studies suggest that 100% of the bacteria are killed by a dose of 1.5 Mrads. Since a 1.5 Mrad dose represents a significantly smaller quantity of irradiation to achieve sterilization, further studies are now needed to determine physical and biological property changes in cortical bone at this lower dose of exposure. (author)

  8. Brodalumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-09-01

    Brodalumab (Lumicef(®)) is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody that is being developed by Kyowa Hakko Kirin in Japan, where it has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. Brodalumab binds with high affinity to interleukin (IL)-17 receptor A, thereby inhibiting several pro-inflammatory cytokines from the IL-17 family. Regulatory applications for brodalumab in plaque psoriasis are also under review in the USA, EU and Canada. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of brodalumab leading to this first approval for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27577550

  9. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  10. Technology developments accompanied with internationalization of radiation sterilization. The trend of radiation sterilization obtained through questionnaires and the re-(small bar) evaluation of sterilization dose setting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the informations obtained through questionnaires sent to medical device manufacturers and selling agents, the trend in the future and current problems on the introduction of radiosterilization of medical products were examined. Most of answerers expected the further developments of gamma ray and electron beam sterilization in future. However, they did not understand X-ray sterilization well. While answerers were much interested in the standardization of sterilization by ISO (International Organization of Standard), they had only insufficient informations on that content. Furthermore, the differences between AAMI method proposed as an original draft of sterilization dose setting method in ISO documents and Japan log method, were examined to clarify which is more suitable for low bioburden product such as a hypodermic needle. The sterilization dose and auditing dose for the hypodermic needle estimated by AAMI method markedly changed with bioburden fluctuation. As a consequence, it was considered that the possibility of failure in auditing experiment became higher. On the other hand, Japan log method could be considered to provide a stable and reasonable sterilization dose when this dose was calculated by the estimated value of maximum bioburden with a safety margin. (author)

  11. Technology developments accompanied with internationalization of radiation sterilization. The trend of radiation sterilization obtained through questionnaires and the re-(small bar) evaluation of sterilization dose setting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Tabei, Masae [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    By the informations obtained through questionnaires sent to medical device manufacturers and selling agents, the trend in the future and current problems on the introduction of radiosterilization of medical products were examined. Most of answerers expected the further developments of gamma ray and electron beam sterilization in future. However, they did not understand X-ray sterilization well. While answerers were much interested in the standardization of sterilization by ISO (International Organization of Standard), they had only insufficient informations on that content. Furthermore, the differences between AAMI method proposed as an original draft of sterilization dose setting method in ISO documents and Japan log method, were examined to clarify which is more suitable for low bioburden product such as a hypodermic needle. The sterilization dose and auditing dose for the hypodermic needle estimated by AAMI method markedly changed with bioburden fluctuation. As a consequence, it was considered that the possibility of failure in auditing experiment became higher. On the other hand, Japan log method could be considered to provide a stable and reasonable sterilization dose when this dose was calculated by the estimated value of maximum bioburden with a safety margin. (author).

  12. Durability of radiation-sterilized polymers, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that radiation resistances of polypropylene (PP) and copolypropylene (CPP) consisting 6 % of ethylene unit far differ by molding conditions. And polymer quenched (quenching polymer) in methanol at -60 deg C and water at 25 deg C were more stable against irradiation compared with one quenched in cold press circulating water. In particular, effect of quenching was remarkable for the PP. From dynamic viscoelastic measurement, separation of α relaxation on crystal part and β relaxation on amorphous part were not clear for quenching polymer. On the contrary, when the separation of α and β relaxations in the quenching polymer became clear by heat treatment, the radiation resistance of the polymer was greatly decreased. Thus, lower crystallinity of polypropylene in which separation of its crystal and its amorphous parts are not good, are favorable to materials of medical devices in the irradiation sterilization. (author)

  13. A stochastic bioburden model for spacecraft sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a stochastic model of the probability distribution for the random variable representing the number of microorganisms on a surface as a function of time. The first basic principle associated with bioburden estimation is that viable particles are removed from surfaces. The second notion important to the analysis is that microorganisms in environments and on surfaces occur in clumps. The last basic principle relating to bioburden modeling is that viable particles are deposited on a surface. The bioburden on a spacecraft is determined by the amount and kind of control exercised on the spacecraft assembly location, the shedding characteristics of the individuals in the vicinity of the spacecraft, its orientation, the geographical location in which the assembly takes place, and the steps in the assembly procedure. The model presented has many of the features which are desirable for its use in the spacecraft sterilization programs currently being planned by NASA.

  14. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  15. Radiation sterilization of gelatin with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sterilization of gelatin contaminated with 4 x 103 to 4 x 106 bacteria per gram was investigated with electron beam from a JJ-2 accelerator. After treatment with the doses of 3-4 kGy, the initial microbial counts in the gelatin could be approximately reduced by two orders of magnitude and the coliforms were substantively killed at the same time. The viscosities, transparencies and major gelatin compositions of the irradiated gelatin (with doses of 1.5-10 kGy) and the control sample were determined. The results show that the viscosity of the gelatin solution decreases gradually with the increase of the irradiation doses, the irradiation degradation of the gelatin molecules can not be decreased under the condition of nitrogen atomosphere of lower irradiation temperature, and the amino acid contents of the gelatin irradiated do not undergo any marked changes in comparison with the control sample except for cystine

  16. Experimental radio-sterilization of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For maintaining the quality of drinking water during storage, the sterilizing effect of gamma-radiation was examined in model experiments. Autoclaved tap water seeded with different cell densities of nine test-microorganisms was irradiated with 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 kilorads. With the exception of Cl.perfringens, the spores of all the microorganisms became inviable at as low as 200 kilorads. However, the spores were destroyed only with 99.99 per cent efficiency even at 1000 kilorads. After an interval of two weeks no aftergrowth of bacteria was detected. The confirmation of the preliminary results and the acquisition of further relevant details require the extension of this research. (author)

  17. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0x104-1.0x105 Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar+O2 plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy

  18. Radiation sterilized bone response to dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardas, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.mardas@skpp.edu.pl [Department of Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Szamarzewskiego 82/84, 60-569 Poznan (Poland); Kubisz, Leszek [Department of Biophysics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan (Poland); Biskupski, Piotr; Mielcarek, Slawomir [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Stelmach-Mardas, Marta [Department of Bromatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Marcelinska 420, 60-354 Poznan (Poland); Kaluska, Iwona [Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Allogeneic bone grafts are used on a large scale in surgeries. To avoid the risk of infectious diseases, allografts should be radiation-sterilized. So far, no international consensus has been achieved regarding the optimal radiation dose. Many authors suggest that bone sterilization deteriorates bone mechanical properties. However, no data on the influence of ionizing radiation on bone dynamic mechanical properties are available. Bovine femurs from 2-year old animal were machine cut and irradiated with the doses 10, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 50 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed at 1-10 Hz at the temperature range of 0-350 Degree-Sign C in 3-point bending configuration. No statistically significant differences in storage modulus were observed. However, there were significant decreased values of loss modulus between the samples irradiated with doses of 10 ({down_arrow}14.3%), 15, 45 and 50 kGy ({down_arrow}33.2%) and controls. It was stated that increased irradiation dose decreases the temperature where collagen denaturation process starts and increases the temperature where the collagen denaturation process finishes. It was shown that activation energy of denaturation process is significantly higher for the samples irradiated with the dose of 50 kGy (615 kJ/mol) in comparison with control samples and irradiation with other doses (100-135 kJ/mol). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the storage modulus and loss modulus of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the denaturation temperature of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the activation energy of denaturation process of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy.

  19. Radiation sterilized bone response to dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allogeneic bone grafts are used on a large scale in surgeries. To avoid the risk of infectious diseases, allografts should be radiation-sterilized. So far, no international consensus has been achieved regarding the optimal radiation dose. Many authors suggest that bone sterilization deteriorates bone mechanical properties. However, no data on the influence of ionizing radiation on bone dynamic mechanical properties are available. Bovine femurs from 2-year old animal were machine cut and irradiated with the doses 10, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 50 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed at 1–10 Hz at the temperature range of 0–350 °C in 3-point bending configuration. No statistically significant differences in storage modulus were observed. However, there were significant decreased values of loss modulus between the samples irradiated with doses of 10 (↓14.3%), 15, 45 and 50 kGy (↓33.2%) and controls. It was stated that increased irradiation dose decreases the temperature where collagen denaturation process starts and increases the temperature where the collagen denaturation process finishes. It was shown that activation energy of denaturation process is significantly higher for the samples irradiated with the dose of 50 kGy (615 kJ/mol) in comparison with control samples and irradiation with other doses (100–135 kJ/mol). - Highlights: ► We examine changes in the storage modulus and loss modulus of samples irradiated with doses of 10–50 kGy. ► We examine changes in the denaturation temperature of samples irradiated with doses of 10–50 kGy. ► We examine changes in the activation energy of denaturation process of samples irradiated with doses of 10–50 kGy.

  20. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C.-P.; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-05-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile neutrino can give rise to its conversion to an active neutrino through radiative decay or nonstandard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic x-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with low-threshold low-background germanium detectors, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from astrophysical observations.

  1. Venetoclax: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-06-01

    Venetoclax (Venclexta™) is an oral selective inhibitor of the prosurvival protein BCL-2 and therefore restores the apoptotic ability of malignant cells. The drug arose from research by Abbott Laboratories (now AbbVie) during a collaboration with Genentech and is being co-developed by AbbVie and Genentech/Roche primarily for the treatment of haematological malignancies. Venetoclax is approved in the USA for use as monotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) with the 17p deletion (as detected by an approved FDA test) who have received at least one prior therapy, and is awaiting approval for similar indications in the EU and Canada. Venetoclax is also in phase I-III development as combination therapy for CLL, phase I/II development as monotherapy and/or combination therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma) and acute myeloid leukaemia, and phase I development for multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus and breast cancer. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of venetoclax leading to this first approval for CLL. PMID:27260335

  2. FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FDA is the abbreviation of American Food and Drug Administration. It s main job is assuring the safety and reliability of the food, cosmetics, medicines, medical devices and radiation emitting products such as microwave oven, the food and medicine for animals. Radiopharmaceuticals are also under its management. The basic information of FDA and FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals are introduced

  3. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  4. Adaptation and validation of indicators concerning the sterilization process of supplies in Primary Health Care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Pienta Batista Dias Passos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate, by expert consensus, a set of indicators used to assess the sterilization process of dental, medical and hospital supplies to be used in PHC services.METHOD: qualitative methodological study performed in two stages. The first stage included a focal group composed of experts to adapt the indicators to be used in PHC. In the second stage, the indicators were validated using a 4-point Likert scale, which was completed by judges. A Content Validity Index of ≥ 0.75 was considered to show approval of the indicators.RESULTS: the adaptations implemented by the focal group mainly referred to the physical structure, inclusion of dental care professionals, inclusion of chemical disinfection, and replacement of the hot air and moist heat sterilization methods. The validation stage resulted in an index of 0.96, which ranged from 0.90 to 1.00, for the components of the indicators.CONCLUSION: the judges considered the indicators after adaptation to be validated. Even though there may be differences among items processed around the world, there certainly are common characteristics, especially in countries with economic and cultural environments similar to Brazil. The inclusion of these indicators to assess the safety of healthcare supplies used in PHC services should be considered.

  5. A research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. The output value of radiation sterilization industry reached 0.1% of the GDP in some advanced countries (America and Japan...), under this standard, its output value in Sichuan province would be RMB1.2 hundred million, but now our capacity and scale of this industry is less than RMB40million.Research shows: there are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the 'bottleneck' restrictions of capacity and Inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity for radiation sterilization, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  6. Retrospective Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Quinacrine Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菊红; 陆卫群; 丁婉华; 朱红; 童建孙

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization.Methods A total of 572 cases of quinacrine sterilization preformed during the 4 years from 1993to 1997in Jiangsu and Guizhou Provinces were employed in this study. The efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization in those case were studied and evaluated, with 588 cases of surgical sterilization performed at the same time being the control group.Results Both groups were with identical demographic and gynecological characteristics. The result of multiple decrement life table analysis showed the 12th gross cumulative failure rates for quinacrine sterilization was 3. 13% and serious side effects occurred in only 2 cases accounting for O. 35%. One was ectopic pregnancy (20 months after treatment). The other was due to anaphylaxis in 10 minutes after the second insertion). No difference in the liver and nephic functions was detected and no suspected cancer cells or cancer cells were found in the two groups. 99. 6% of the 572 women interviewed accepted the quinacrine sterilization.Conclusions Quinacrine sterilization method is with high acceptability but comparatively low effectiveness. It has been proved to be a safe method of contraception in short-term. However, the safety of long-term still needs further study.

  7. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  8. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape by...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form of...

  9. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  10. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  11. Radio-sterilization and processing of frozen human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory of Radio-sterilized Biological Tissues Processing (LPTR) belonging to the Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency have played a paramount role in our country, concerning the biological tissue processing, which can be radio-sterilized as human skin, pig skin, amniotic membrane, human bone and bovine bone. The frozen radio.-sterilized human skin processing began in 2001, by means of putting into practice the knowledge acquired in training courses through the IAEA and the experience transferred by experts who visited our laboratory. The human skin processing of dead donor can be divided into 6 stages: a) Profuse washing with physiological sterilized serum in to remove the microorganisms, chemical and pharmacological compounds; b) immersion in glycerol solution at 10% to better keep the stored tissues; c) packing, to avoid post manipulation of the sterilized tissue; d) microbiological controls which allow and guarantee a sterility assurance level of 106; e) radio-sterilization, technique that consists of exposing the grafts to electromagnetic gamma waves which eliminate the microorganisms of the tissue, f) and finally, dispatching and liberation of the frozen sterilized human skin for its clinical use in different centers that take care of burned people. The LPTR receives feedback from surgeons who have used these tissues in order to improve the processing stages based in an integral quality system ISO 9001.2000. The State Health System in our country counts on limited and scarce resources to implement synthetic substitutes that is why It is considered necessary to spread the use of these noble tissues which have sterility assurance and they are processed at low price

  12. Radiation sterilization by 10 MeV electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray sterilization by 60Co source has been already popular in Japan. Many Kinds of medical plastic devices such as catheters, disposable syringes, dializers etc, has been irradiated at 60Co irradiation facilities instead of the conventional ethylene oxide fumigation method. On the other hand, improvement of the quality of electron accelerators has made it easier to take advantage of relatively high energy electrons which are profitable for radiation sterilization because of their high dose rate saving process hours and easiness of source handling and radiation control. So electron-beam sterilization is now under investigation in Japan and, partly, it will be practiced in the near future. Yet few data are available in the present situation. Especially for high energy electron beams near 10 MeV, more data are necessary for practical application of electron-beam sterilization. Therefore, in this study, sensitivity of Bacillus pumilus E601, the biological standard of radiation sterilization, was examined using 10 MeV electron beams from linear accelerator and sterility of the beams was also checked at each depth of plastic boards in order to get basic information for determination of sterility dose. Endospores from B. pumilus were dried on filter papers (Toyo No.1) and irradiated by 10 MeV electron beams of 60Co gamma-rays. The survival curves were shown in Fig. 1. The D values were obtained as 1.9 kGy ± 0.2 for electron beams and 1.7 kGy ± 0.1 for 60Co gamma-rays, both of which were similar. Electron beams could sterilize the endospores nearly uniformly till 3 cm depth of plastic boards at 10 MeV (Fig. 2,3). This indicates a possibility to sterilize relatively bulky products such as dializers etc. (author)

  13. Study of male sterility in Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-H; Chung, N-J; Wang, Y-N; Lee, C-L; Lee, Y-L; Tsai, P-F

    2006-08-01

    A study of male sterility over a period of three consecutive years on a conifer species endemic to Taiwan, Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae), was done for this article. With the aids of fluorescence and electron microscopic observations, the ontogenic processes in the fertile and sterile microsporangia are compared, using samples collected from Chitou Experimental Forest and Yeou-Shoei-Keng Clonal Orchard of the National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan. The development of male strobili occurred from August to the end of March. Microsporogenesis starts with the formation of the archesporium and ends with the maturation of 2-celled pollen grains within the dehiscing microsporangium. Before meiosis, there was no significant difference in ultrastructure between the fertile and sterile microsporangia. Asynchronous pollen development with various tetrad forms may occur in the same microsporangium of either fertile or sterile strobili. However, a callose wall was observable in the fertile dyad and tetrad, but not in the sterile one. After dissolution of the callose wall, the fertile microspores were released into the locule, while some sterile microspores still retained as tetrads or dyads with intertwining of exine walls in the proximal faces. As a result, there was no well developed lamellated endexine and no granulate ectexine or intine in the sterile microspores. Eventually, the intracellular structures in sterile microspores were dramatically collapsed before anthesis. The present study shows that the abortion in pollen development is possibly attributed to the absence of the callose wall. The importance of this structure to the male sterility of T. cryptomerioides is discussed. PMID:16937067

  14. Properties of resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter subhaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Bozek, Brandon; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resona...

  15. Image Sterilization to Prevent LSB-based Steganographic Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Goutam

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is a very popular word used in biomedical testing (like removal of all microorganisms on surface of an article or in fluid using appropriate chemical products). Motivated by this biological analogy, we, for the first time, introduce the concept of sterilization of an image, i.e., removing any steganographic information embedded in the image. Experimental results show that our technique succeeded in sterilizing around 76% to 91% of stego pixels in an image on average, where data is embedded using LSB-based steganography.

  16. Electron beam sterilization of the agarose gel used for electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by electron beam (EB) sterilization of the plates with agarose gel used for human serum protein electrophoresis are presented. Also, the results obtained by human serum protein electrophoresis performed with agarose gel plates irradiated at different EB doses, from 4 kGy to 20 kGy, are presented. The microbiological results demonstrate that above 5 kGy the irradiated agarose plates are sterile. The EB irradiation of the agarose gel plates in the dose range of 7-9 kGy gives the best results for both, sterilization and protein fraction separation processes. (author)

  17. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  18. Gamma-irradiation sterilization of lipases for cheese making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of sterilizing the enzyme compounds of lipases from Oospora fragrans strains by gamma irradiation was studied. The enzyme compounds were exposed to gamma irradiation at the doses from 0.1 to 0.8 Mrad with the discreteness of 0.1 Mrad and at the dose of 2.0 Mrad. After the radiation treatment the lipases were investigated for bacterial invasion by the cultivation method and for the lipolytic activity by the titrometrical method. It is shown that the sterilization effect is achieved without losses of lipase activity and the radiation dose necessary for sterilization depends on initial invasion levels in the enzyme compounds

  19. Electron-positron Annihilation Lines and Decaying Sterile Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, M. H.; Chu, M. -C.

    2011-01-01

    If massive sterile neutrinos exist, their decays into photons and/or electron-positron pairs may give rise to observable consequences. We consider the possibility that MeV sterile neutrino decays lead to the diffuse positron annihilation line in the Milky Way center, and we thus obtain bounds on the sterile neutrino decay rate $\\Gamma_e \\ge 10^{-28}$ s$^{-1}$ from relevant astrophysical/cosmological data. Also, we expect a soft gamma flux of $1.2 \\times 10^{-4}-9.7 \\times 10^{-4}$ ph cm$^{-2}...

  20. Sterility and meeting competitiveness of medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic methodology in the determination of sterilising dosage in male med flies and mating competitiveness with the normal males was carried out in the laboratory. Application of the Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) by three irradiation dosages on Seib-6096 pupae results in sterility when dosage increased. A lower mating competitiveness was observed with the increase in sterility value. This value was determined from the corrected egg hatch percent. The resulting data showed that irradiation dosage of γ 10.0 Krad gave a good advantage to suppress the population in the next generation. The method suggested a good application in the control and eradication of fruit flies. (author)

  1. Deviations in Tribimaximal Mixing From Sterile Neutrino Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, S; Gautam, Radha Raman

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero $U_{e3}$ element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and atmospheric mixing $\\theta_{23}$ different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.

  2. Pseudoscalar - sterile neutrino interactions: reconciling the cosmos with neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Giunti, Carlo; Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus; Laveder, Marco; Tram, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Short BaseLine (SBL) neutrino oscillation anomalies hint at the presence of a sterile neutrino with a mass of around 1 eV. However, such a neutrino is incompatible with cosmological data, in particular observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. However, this conclusion can change by invoking new physics. One possibility is to introduce a secret interaction in the sterile neutrino sector mediated by a light pseudoscalar. In this pseudoscalar model, CMB data prefer a sterile neutrino mass that is fully compatible with the mass ranges suggested by SBL anomalies. In addition, this model predicts a value of the Hubble parameter which is completely consistent with local measurements.

  3. Search For Sterile Neutrinos Using The Miniboone Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, M

    2005-01-01

    The possible existence of light sterile neutrinos in Nature is motivated, and the prospects to extend sterile neutrino searches beyond current limits is substantiated, using the MiniBooNE neutrino beam and detector at Fermilab. We report on the neutrino flux predictions for the MiniBooNE experiment, on the characterization of the charged-current, quasi-elastic interactions of muon neutrinos (νμn → μ −p) observed, and on the experiment's sensitivity to sterile neutrinos via muon neutrino disappearance.

  4. Sterile Neutrinos in Non-Standard Cosmologies and Particle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoba, Efunwande

    2010-12-01

    The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. These sterile neutrinos can shed new light on open questions in cosmology. I will highlight some interesting contributions that sterile neutrinos bring to the understanding of cosmology. In this dissertation, I will show a novel way in which sterile neutrinos could be a dark matter candidate in the form of "Inert-Sterile" neutrinos. In usual particle models, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter of the Universe only if they have niasses in the keV range and are warm dark matter. Stringent cosmological and astrophysical bounds, in particular imposed by X-ray observations, apply to them. I will point out that in a particular variation of the Inert Doublet Model, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter in the Universe and may be either cold or warm dark matter candidates, even for masses much larger than the keV range. These "Inert-Sterile" neutrinos, produced non-thermally in the early Universe, would be stable and have very small couplings to Standard Model particles, rendering very difficult their detection in either direct or indirect dark matter searches. They could be, in principle, revealed in colliders by discovering other particles in the model. I also show how the existence of the sterile neutrino may force us to rethink the standard cosmology. It is commonly assumed that the cosmological and astrophysical bounds on the mixings of sterile with active neutrinos are much more stringent than those obtained from laboratory measurements. In this dissertation, I show that in scenarios with a very low reheating temperature at the end of (the last episode of) inflation or entropy creation, the abundance of heavy (> 1 MeV) sterile neutrinos becomes largely suppressed with respect to that obtained within the standard framework. Thus, in this case cosmological bounds become much less stringent

  5. Low reheating temperature and the visible sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B; Pascoli, S

    2004-01-01

    We present here a scenario, based on a low reheating temperature T_R << 100 MeV at the end of (the last episode of) inflation, in which the coupling of sterile neutrinos to active neutrinos can be as large as experimental bounds permit (thus making this neutrino ``visible'' in future experiments). In previous models this coupling was forced to be very small to prevent a cosmological overabundance of sterile neutrinos. Here the abundance depends on how low the reheating temperature is. For example, the sterile neutrino required by the LSND result does not have any cosmological problem within our scenario.

  6. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration ConnectED Workshop AGENCY: National... in the United States to next- generation broadband. This Notice announces that the ConnectED Workshop... ConnectED Workshop will discuss the growing bandwidth needs of K-12 schools as more schools use...

  7. Cariprazine: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    Cariprazine (Vraylar) is an oral atypical antipsychotic originated by Gedeon Richter. It is a potent dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, which preferentially binds to the D3 receptor. Cariprazine also has partial agonist activity at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. In September 2015, cariprazine received its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of schizophrenia and for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. It is also in development in a variety of countries for the treatment of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms (phase III), as adjunctive therapy for major depressive disorder (phase II/III) and for the treatment of bipolar depression (phase II). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of cariprazine leading to this first approval for schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. PMID:26510944

  8. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia F Oliva

    Full Text Available Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs.

  9. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  10. Obiltoxaximab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-05-01

    Obiltoxaximab (Anthim(®), ETI-204) is a monoclonal antibody that is being developed by Elusys Therapeutics and the US Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority for the prevention and treatment of inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab has been designed to neutralize the free protective antigen of B. anthracis, thereby inhibiting the lethal effects of anthrax toxins. In March 2016, intravenous obiltoxaximab was approved in the USA for the treatment (in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs) and prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax. Obiltoxaximab is being developed under the US FDA Animal Rule, in which marketing approval is based on its efficacy in relevant animal models and safety in phase I studies in healthy human volunteers. An intramuscular formulation of obiltoxaximab has also been evaluated in animal studies and a phase I study in healthy human volunteers. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of obiltoxaximab leading to this first approval for the treatment and prevention of inhalation anthrax. PMID:27085536

  11. Osimertinib: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-02-01

    Osimertinib (Tagrisso(™), AZD9291) is an oral, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) that is being developed by AstraZeneca for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Osimertinib has been designed to target the EGFR T790M mutation that is often present in NSCLC patients with acquired EGFR TKI resistance, while sparing wild-type EGFR. In November 2015, the tablet formulation of osimertinib was granted accelerated approval in the USA for the treatment of patients with metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC (as detected by an FDA-approved test) who have progressed on or after EGFR TKI therapy. Osimertinib has also been granted accelerated assessment status for this indication in the EU, and is in phase III development for first- and second-line and adjuvant treatment of advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC in several countries. Phase I trials in patients with advanced solid tumours are also being conducted. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of osimertinib leading to this first approval for NSCLC. PMID:26729184

  12. The Microwave Sterilizer Design and Study to the Solidified Media of the Edible Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Geng Yuefeng; Ge Xinfeng; Zhao Daxu

    2013-01-01

    The microwave sterilization equipment is designed according to the microwave sterilization craft of solid culture medium in fungus growth. The designed microwave sterilization facility contains microwave power generator, microwave sterilizer, control system, transmission system and so on. From the setting-to-work test, the design was success.

  13. The effects of inbreeding and heat stress on male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Bijlsma, Kuke; Bundgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    sterility indicates an interaction between the effects of inbreeding and high-temperature stress on male sterility. In addition, the stress-induced temporary and permanent sterility showed significant positive correlation, as did stress-induced sterility and the decrease in egg-to-adult viability. This...

  14. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. FFP is available in expenditures for the sterilization of an individual only...

  15. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as 'dark' radiation. Light sterile neutrinos is one of the prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of the sterile neutrino at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario and derive the number of thermalised species just before BBN begins (T~1MeV) for null (L=0) and large (L=0.01) initial lepton asymmetry and for a range of possible mass-mixing parameters. We find that the full thermalisation assumption during the BBN epoch is justified for initial small lepton asymmetry only. Partial or null thermalisation occurs when the initial lepton asymmetry is large.

  16. Light sterile neutrino in the minimal extended seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the recent observations on sterile neutrinos, we present a minimal extension of the canonical type-I seesaw by adding one extra singlet fermion. After the decoupling of right-handed neutrinos, an eV-scale mass eigenstate is obtained without the need of artificially inserting tiny mass scales or Yukawa couplings for sterile neutrinos. In particular, the active-sterile mixing is predicted to be of the order of 0.1. Moreover, we show a concrete flavor A4 model, in which the required structures of the minimal extended seesaw are realized. We also comment on the feasibility of accommodating a keV sterile neutrino as an attractive candidate for warm dark matter.

  17. Isolation of Endophytic Streptomyces Strains from Surface-Sterilized Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, P.; Saracchi, M.; Quaroni, S.; Petrolini, B.; Borgonovi, G. E.; Merli, S.

    1992-01-01

    When the roots of 28 plant species were surface sterilized and incubated on agar medium, endophytic actinomycetes in the root cortex were observed by direct microscopic observation and pure culture techniques.

  18. Radiation sterilization of plastic packing materials and aseptic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present day of 'satiation', quality, not quantity, is emphasized for foods, the consumers being oriented toward raw and healthy foodstuff. Aseptic Packaging is excellent means of conservation. While conventionally chemicals have been used for sterilization of packing materials for aseptic packaging, the sterilization by radiation is used in part recently. The following are described : history of aseptic packaging and its features, sterilization by radiation, γ-ray sterilization of large-sized containers, the development of an aseptic packaging system using electron rays, the occurrence of offensive odors from packing materials (comparison of odors from various materials, volatile substances occurring in irradiated polyethylene, influence of film grade upon the formation of carboxylic acid, influence of the irradiation conditions upon the occurrences of volatile substances, volatile substances occurring in the irradiation of bag-in-box packing materials), changes in properties of the packing materials. (Mori, K.)

  19. Bounds on sterile neutrino mixing for cosmologically interesting mass range

    CERN Document Server

    Nunokawa, H; Rossi, A; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    This talk summarizes our recent work which studied the impact of resonant neutrino) conversions on supernova physics, under the assumption that the mass of the sterile state is in the few eV -cosmologically significant range.

  20. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author)

  1. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, N. D.; Canh, T. T.; Thuy, T. T.

    1995-02-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance.

  2. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  3. Light sterile neutrinos from a late phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Light sterile neutrinos represent a well-motivated extension of the 3-neutrino paradigm. However, the impressive agreement between standard cosmology and data casts doubts on their existence. Here we present a class of scenarios that robustly avoids this tension. In these models the sterile neutrinos are light, chiral states of a new sector interacting with the Standard Model via the right-handed neutrino portal and, crucially, active-sterile neutrino oscillations require a phase transition in the hidden sector. We explore the hidden-couplings/critical-temperature plane and identify regions where several sterile neutrinos can be accommodated. A late phase transition is usually preferred and may also ward off a potential threat posed by the formation of topologically stable defects.

  4. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the sterilization of microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of reactive oxygen species on living cells, including various microbes, is discussed. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores reveals that an argoneoxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby indicating that oxygen radic...

  5. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  6. Impact of sterile neutrinos in lepton flavour violating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Romeri, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    We discuss charged lepton flavour violating processes occurring in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions. We firstly investigate the possibility of their indirect detection at a future high-luminosity Z-factory (such as FCC-ee). Rare decays such as Z → l 1 ± l 2 ± can indeed be complementary to low-energy (high-intensity) observables of lepton flavour violation. We further consider a sterile neutrino-induced charged lepton flavour violating process occurring in the presence of muonic atoms: their (Coulomb enhanced) decay into a pair of electrons μ¯e¯ → e¯e¯. Our study reveals that, depending on their mass range and on the active-sterile mixing angles, sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the above mentioned observables, some of them even lying within present and future sensitivity of dedicated cLFV experiments and of FCC-ee.

  7. Self-shielding Electron Beam Installation for Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linac; Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has developed a self-shielding electron beam installationfor sterilization as handling letters with anthrax germ or spores which has the least volume and the least

  8. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and disposable medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of disposable products in medical care has become one of the essential tools in the prevention of cross-contamination and nosocomial infections. This is especially important in the transfer of vital diseases like hepatitis and, more recently, AIDS. The widespread use of disposables has been made possible by the availability of cheap materials (plastics) for its manufacture, the large scale/low cost production and development of industrial sterilization techniques. The emphasis here is on radiation sterilization techniques and their importance at the industrial level. Technical, economical, safety and other aspects are compared with other techniques, mainly based on the use of toxic gases. Sterilization of plastic medical products and pharmaceuticals is discussed. The comparative analysis indicates much higher reliability of radiation sterilization combined with higher safety standards at acceptable or lower cost, as compared with other techniques. (author). 169 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Kinetics of ethylene oxide desorption from sterilized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gisela C; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene oxide gas is commonly used to sterilize medical devices, and concerns about using this agent on biological systems are well-established. Medical devices sterilized by ethylene oxide must be properly aerated to remove residual gas and by-products. In this work, kinetics of ethylene oxide desorption from different sterilized materials were studied in a range of aeration temperatures. The experimental data were well-described by a Fickian diffusion mass transfer behavior, and diffusivities were estimated for two textile and two polymeric materials within the temperature range of 1.5 to 59.0 degrees C. The results will allow predictions of ethylene oxide desorption, which is a key step for the design of sterilization/aeration processes, contributing to an efficient removal of residual ethylene oxide content. PMID:23513954

  10. The inherited sterility of the corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherited sterility of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen.) irradiated with substerilizing doses of 200-300 Gy has been studied in Beijing, China. The irradiated male parents were substerile and females were fully sterile. The females were more sensitive to radiation. Experiments for mating competitiveness and release from field cages demonstrated that the irradiated male moths had a stronger level of competitiveness, and it was found that a ratio of 1:5 or more could suppress the native population effectively. The F1 generation was more sterile than the parents and the sex ratio was changed to significantly more males than females. Inherited sterility could be maintained up to the F2 generation and fertility recovered in the F3 generation. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  11. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006

  12. Astronomical constraints on properties of sterile neutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. H.; Chu, M.-C.

    2011-04-01

    We consider sterile neutrinos as a component of dark matter in the Milky Way and clusters, and compare their rest mass, decay rate and the mixing angle. A radiative decaying rate of order Γ˜10-19 s-1 for sterile neutrino rest mass m s =18-19 keV can satisfactorily account for the cooling flow problem and heating source in Milky Way center simultaneously. Also, these ranges of decay rate and rest mass match the prediction of the mixing angle sin 22 θ˜10-3 with a low reheating temperature in the inflation model, which enables the sterile-active neutrino oscillation to be visible in future experiments. However, decaying sterile neutrinos have to be ruled out as a major component of dark matter because of the high decay rate.

  13. Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernova simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, MacKenzie L; Mathews, Grant; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that an interesting oscillation in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

  14. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co60, source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  15. The Optimal Release of Sterile Males in Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    With an application of the sterile insect technique, it is our goal to know the optimal rate of production of sterile males in order to control an insect pest invasion and protect crops. Starting with a fundametal relationship between costs of production and feeding rates, we construct an objective functional. We then use the relationships between the dierent stages of female reproduction to build the state equations. Once, we have dened the optimal control problem, we use the simulated annea...

  16. How secret interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  17. Radiation sterilization of antibiotic liposome formulations: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M. L.; Cabo Verde, S.; Alves, L.; Belchior, A.; Reymão, J.; Trabulo, S.; Gaspar, M. M.; Cruz, M. E. M.; Simões, S.

    2007-08-01

    New liposome formulations for antimycobacterial purpose are under development in Portugal. The drug must be submitted to a sterilization process. In order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied, microbiological and chemical studies were developed based on ISO standards. The bioburden was determined, the main critical points of line production were detected and the sterilization dose was determined based on a chart control for bioburden. A preliminary maximum acceptable dose for product was found out based on the main functional parameters.

  18. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes. PMID:26697757

  19. Radiation sterilization of antibiotic liposome formulations: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, M.L. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: mlb@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, S. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Alves, L. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Belchior, A. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Reymao, J. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-048 Lisboa (Portugal); Trabulo, S. [Bluepharma, S.A., Rua da Bayer Sao Martinho do Bispo, Apartado 7003, 3045-016 Coimbra (Portugal); Gaspar, M.M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-048 Lisboa (Portugal); Cruz, M.E.M [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-048 Lisboa (Portugal); Simoes, S. [Bluepharma, S.A., Rua da Bayer Sao Martinho do Bispo, Apartado 7003, 3045-016 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2007-08-15

    New liposome formulations for antimycobacterial purpose are under development in Portugal. The drug must be submitted to a sterilization process. In order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied, microbiological and chemical studies were developed based on ISO standards. The bioburden was determined, the main critical points of line production were detected and the sterilization dose was determined based on a chart control for bioburden. A preliminary maximum acceptable dose for product was found out based on the main functional parameters.

  20. Radiation sterilization of antibiotic liposome formulations: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New liposome formulations for antimycobacterial purpose are under development in Portugal. The drug must be submitted to a sterilization process. In order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied, microbiological and chemical studies were developed based on ISO standards. The bioburden was determined, the main critical points of line production were detected and the sterilization dose was determined based on a chart control for bioburden. A preliminary maximum acceptable dose for product was found out based on the main functional parameters

  1. Monetary sterilization and dual nominal anchors: some Caribbean examples

    OpenAIRE

    Khemraj, Tarron; Pasha, Sukrishnalall

    2011-01-01

    This paper notes that a high sterilization coefficient plus a de facto pegged exchange rate indicates the existence of dual nominal anchors. The econometric evidence presented shows that several Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rate regimes also possess high sterilization coefficients. Given open capital accounts in the various economies, the paper argues that this finding contravenes the money neutrality thesis, which holds that only one nominal anchor can prevail in the long-term. Th...

  2. Quality assessment for processed and sterilized bone using Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takeaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Urabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Suto, Kaori; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate the potential for infection, many tissue banks routinely process and terminally sterilize allografts prior to transplantation. A number of techniques, including the use of scanning electron microscopy, bone graft models, and mechanical property tests, are used to evaluate the properties of allograft bone. However, as these methods are time consuming and often destroy the bone sample, the quality assessment of allograft bones are not routinely performed after processing and steril...

  3. A dominant gene for male sterility in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Shu

    Full Text Available A natural male sterile mutant of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Sh-B was found during field survey in 2002. Our objective was to analyze its genetic mechanism for producing F1 hybrid seeds and to develop a molecular marker linked to male sterile gene for selection of a hybrid parent line. The segregation ratios of male sterile plants to fertile plants in the progenies of both testcross and backcross were 1:1 in continuous experiments conducted in 2006-2009. The male sterile Sh-B was heterozygous (Msms. The male sterile plants could capture most pollen (2 granule/cm(2·24 h with row ratio (female:male 2:1 within 45-cm distance and harvest the largest amount of 6495 g hybrid seeds per hectare. We also developed DNA markers linked to the male sterile gene in a segregating population using bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP techniques. The segregating population was subjected to BSA-AFLP with 128 primer combinations. One out of fourteen AFLP markers (E11/M4208 was identified as tightly linked to the dominant male sterile gene with a recombination frequency of 6.85% and at a distance of 6.89 cM. This marker could be converted to PCR-based assay for large-scale selection of fertile plants in MAS (marker-assisted selection at the seedling stage. Blastn analysis indicated that the male sterile gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1-5, and was more likely to encode S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, in which DNA methylation regulated the development of plant gametogenesis.

  4. Bioluminescence for USP sterility testing of pharmaceutical suspension products.

    OpenAIRE

    Bussey, D M; K. Tsuji

    1986-01-01

    Bioluminescence measurement significantly improved the accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and reliability of the current visual endpoint determination for the USP sterility test and eliminated the day 7 transfer/dilution step required for testing suspension products. Thirteen strains of bacteria and fungi (representing potential contaminants in sterile products), three pharmaceutical suspension products, and four media were used in the experiment. No interference from suspension products was e...

  5. Gamma radiation sterilization in production of Nitrogen bio fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary result of the experiment on application of gamma sterilization of carrier based on Dong Anh peat soil for producing nitrogen fixation inoculant NITRAGIN was reported. Dose of 25 kGy is satisfied to reduced microbial impurity to suitable level, while keeping pH, humidity and other chemical composition no changed. This shows advantage of radiation sterilization, in comparing with conventional methods, to upgrade the quality of inoculant and to improve the production process. (author). 4 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o......Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy...

  7. Search for Sterile Neutrinos at Long and Short Baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino physics is currently suffering from lack of knowledge from at least four major ingredients. One of them is the presence or not of new sterile neutrino states at the mass scale of around 1 eV. Settling this point should be the highest priority for the neutrino community. We will discuss the state-of-the art of experimental searches for sterile neutrinos with accelerators, both at long and short baselines.

  8. Pharmaceutical aerosols. Study of their gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical aerosols was studied. The following topics were investigated: radiosterilization of nitrogen protoxide used as a propellant; radiosterilization of packaging materials (aluminium containers, plastics valves); radio-sterilization of excipients and active ingredients. Most of the investigated materials proved to be stable to irradiation (2,5 Mrads) from pharmacopoeial aspect. Stability tests of the preparations packaged showed no change in the parameters investigated

  9. Overview on different sterilization techniques for baby food

    OpenAIRE

    SÀrkkÀ-Tirkkonen, Marjo; VÀisÀnen, Hanna-Maija; Beck, Alex; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Seidel, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    The nutritional quality of the product as well as other quality attributes like microbiological and sensory quality are essential factors in baby food industry, and therefore different alternative sterilizing methods for conventional heating processes are of great interest in this food sector. This report gives an overview on different sterilization techniques for baby food. The report is a part of the work done in work package 3 ”QACCP Analysis Processing: Quality – driven distribution ...

  10. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  11. "Thinking the unthinkable": the prospect of compulsory sterilization in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, M

    1977-01-01

    The National Population Policy Statement adopted by the Government of India in April 1976 gave states the mandate to adopt coercive and compulsory sterilization measures toward the end of bringing under control the nation's massive population growth. Many states have since adopted stringent measures which penalize couples having three or more children, and four states additionally have proposed legislation for compulsory sterilization. While the demographic impact of compulsory sterilization after the third child is undisputed, the administrative feasibility of such and undertaking has been widely questioned, particularly in light of the inadequacy of India's medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Critics further have raised questions concerning the social and ethical implications of compulsory sterilization and of measures which penalize the poor through means which may have adverse effects on their health and welfare. Finally, opponents of the new sterilization measures have suggested that they divert attention from the need for more basic changes in the nation's economic and social structure. While the need for bringing down India's continued high birth rate is widely recognized, alternative population measures-e.g. increased abortion facilities and an enforcement of the raised age at marriage-have been advocated in lieu of the compulsory sterilization measures currently being proposed. PMID:856744

  12. Material Compatibility of Medical Sterilizer Using Oxygen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Hanada, Yasushi; Noda, Minoru; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Material compatibility of oxygen plasma sterilizer is investigated comparing with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sterilizers and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer. Organic materials such as ABS, PE, PP, and PET are used as sample materials, and are irradiated by active oxygen species produced in oxygen plasma. After plasma irradiation, surface of the sample materials is observed using a scanning electron microscope and FTIR spectroscopy. Strengths of the organic materials are evaluated by the tension test. Also, H2O2 plasma sterilizer and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer those are commercially available are utilized to compare the material compatibility, especially organic compounds. The ABS resin becomes slightly soft after irradiation by both plasmas and gaseous H2O2. Also, PET material becomes soften by each sterilization treatment. Decrease of peak heights of CH around 1200 and 1730 cm-1 and increase of that of OH at 3300 cm-1 in FTIR spectra indicates the oxidation of ABS resin by both plasma and gaseous H2O2. In the case of PET material, treatment by the plasma has not modified chemical composition but changed the crystal structure. The gaseous H2O2 is completely friendly for the PET material.

  13. Electric dipole moments of charged leptons with sterile fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. Any experimental signal of these observables calls for scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model providing new sources of CP violation. In this work, we consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions which mix with active neutrinos and we derive the corresponding analytical expressions for the electric dipole moments of charged leptons at two-loop order. Our study reveals that, in order to have a non-vanishing contribution in this framework, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least 2 sterile fermion states to the Standard Model field content. Our conclusion is that sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments, some of them lying within present and future experimental sensitivity if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. The Majorana nature of neutrinos is also important in order to allow for significative contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments. In our analysis we impose all available experimental and observational constraints on sterile neutrinos and we further discuss the prospect of probing this scenario at low and high energy experiments.

  14. Gamma radiations an effective way of monoclonal antibodies sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization for radiations of pharmaceutical products is an effective, sure and reliable procedure; that it have been proving technically and grateful for different pharmacopoeia. The Monoclonal Antibodies (Acm) produced in the Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM) are products parenteral for the one which results indispensable that they complete the requirements of established sterility. The radio sterilization result the method more recommend for the sterilization of the Acm deep drying, due to the contained first floor of humidity remnant that minimizes the formation of sub-product that they affect their properties. With the objective of proposing a good dose of irradiation for the sterilization, we were carried out a study of the radius sensibility so much of the product like of the polluting of greater frequency of isolation of the clean area of the CIM. The characterization of the radius sensibility of the different micro- organisms was determined by D10 characteristic of each isolated strains. From the developed studies the Gram-positive rods endospore-forming were the most resistant strains at the deep drying, the radiations and they were of the greater frequency of apparition in the carried out isolations. We could conclude that utilizing a dose of 10 kGy it is possible to eliminate of the pollution more radio resistant, assuring the sterility required in the product, and without inducing effects under desire radiolytic in the same

  15. Implications of Higgs Sterility for the Higgs and Stop Sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun; Li, Jinmin; Li, Tianjun

    2013-01-01

    The LHC data implies that the newly discovered Higgs boson h may be sterile (highly SM-like). In supersymmetric SMs (SSMs), Higgs couplings are often modified by Higgs mixing and stop loop corrections, so we study the Higgs sterility in the Higgs and stop sectors in two SSMs: (I) The Minimal SSM (MSSM). In the nearly decoupling region, the doublet-doublet mixing effect can only enhance C_{hb\\bar b} by 2m_Z^2/M_A^2. Sterility places M_A\\gtrsim 900 GeV. But it hardly constrains the stop sector due to the heaviness of Higgs boson mass m_h; (II) The next to MSSM(NMSSM). In the presence of doublet-singlet mixing, the mixing structure is complicated. We find a simple approximation to understand Higgs sterility and its implications, says the amount of pushing-up m_h\\lesssim 5 GeV while the pulling-down scenario is favored. Stops can be light here, so Higgs sterility significantly constrains them directly and indirectly except for blind spots. We also study the LHC features of the whole stop sector facing a sterile H...

  16. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-01-01

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.).

  17. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  18. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.)

  19. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  20. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C -P; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-01-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile-to-active neutrino conversion gives rise to not only radiative decay of a sterile neutrino, but also its non-standard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic X-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with germanium detectors that have fine energy resolution in keV and sub-keV regimes, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from ast...

  1. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  2. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  3. Discordant connections

    OpenAIRE

    Arora-Jonsson, Seema

    2009-01-01

    The importance of gender-equality and of women’s work in relation to the environment are considered to be crucial questions for development in ‘third world’ rural societies. ‘Development’ and a certain standard of welfare make these issues appear to be less urgent in a wealthier country like Sweden. In this paper I trace some of the contradictions and connections in the ways in which gender equality is conceptualised in women’s struggles vis á vis environmental issues in rural areas in Swede...

  4. Necitumumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-02-01

    Eli Lilly is developing necitumumab (Portrazza™), an intravenously administered fully human IgG monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is expressed in a variety of solid tumours and has been implicated in promoting oncogenesis and tumour progression. Necitumumab is approved as a part of combination therapy (with gemcitabine and cisplatin) in the USA for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and regulatory submissions have been made in the EU for this same indication. Necitumumab was derived from the proprietary phage display library of Dyax Corp, and originated with ImClone Systems, which was acquired by Eli Lilly in November 2008. Necitumumab was also under phase II development for colorectal cancer in Belgium and Spain; however, no recent development has been reported for this indication. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of necitumumab leading to this first approval for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC, in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin. PMID:26729188

  5. Pre-Sterilization Bacterial Contamination on Disposable Hypodermic Syringes: Necessary Information for the Rational Choice of Dose for Radiation Sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numbers and types of micro-organisms contaminating disposable plastic hypodermic syringes have been assessed prior to sterilization. A large number of syringes have been taken at random from the production lines of three independent manufacturers. The microbiological investigations were carried out in the laboratories maintained by each of these manufacturers for routine sterility testing, according to a standard protocol devised by the Research Committee of the UK Panel on Gamma and Electron Irradiation, which co-ordinated the investigation and analysed the results. Items produced by any one manufacturer were assessed for microbial contamination both in their own laboratories and in the laboratories of the other manufacturers. The level of false positive' results was determined independently for each laboratory by the testing of known sterile' items which had been subjected to the radiation sterilization process. Both the percentage of syringes initially sterile, and the average number of organisms per contaminated syringe differed among the three manufacturers. When corrected for differences between the assessments by the various laboratories, the ranges observed were 16-48% initially sterile, and 20-70 organisms per contaminated syringe. Of 964 syringes tested by all three laboratories, only one contained over 1000 aerobic organisms (1133). The most common organisms found on the 62 more heavily contaminated syringes (100-1000 organisms) were coagulase-negative Gram-positive cocci. Two manufacturers assessed contamination by anaerobic organisms; on 610 syringes, one contained 4275 organisms, three more had 100- 1000 organisms, but 488 (80%) were uncontaminated by anaerobes. The results are discussed in the context of the choice of radiation dose necessary for the sterilization of medical products manufactured under controlled hygienic conditions. (author)

  6. Management of long-term and reversible hysteroscopic sterilization: a novel device with nickel-titanium shape memory alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bin; Zhu, Ke-an; Xu, Dabao; Aili, Aixingzi

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sterilization is the second most commonly used method of contraception in the United States. Female sterilization can now be performed through laparoscopic, abdominal, or hysteroscopic approaches. The hysteroscopic sterilization may be a safer option than sterilization through laparoscopy or laparotomy because it avoids invading the abdominal cavity and undergoing general anaesthesia. Hysteroscopic sterilization mainly includes chemical agents and mechanical devices. Common ...

  7. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  8. [Legal liability in failed sterilization from the physician's viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, J

    1995-11-01

    Recanalization of oviducts as well as spermatic ducts occur at a low promille rate after sterilization even if correctly performed. Therefore, pregnancies after unsuccessful sterilization cannot be taken as an immediate proof for a faulty surgical procedure. The surgeon is recommended to have the correctness of a sterilization confirmed in writing by competent witness of the operation (assistant doctor, nurse). Whenever possible, tissues of the occluded organs should be sent to the pathologist for histologic proof. In addition, special attention must be payed to a proper information of the patient on the failure rate in order to avoid the risk to become sued subsequently for incomplete information if the woman becomes pregnant. In the German jurisdiction, a child born after a faulty performed sterilization is classified as damage or cause of a damage according to the law of contract. Based on this judicial principle, a physicians may be sentenced to pay alimonies. This is felt by many physicians as an abasement of their professional engagement. It is also criticized, that suffering from an unwanted but otherwise normal pregnancy following faulty sterilization entitles a woman to financial compensations. Very recently, judicial differences in this respect have become known between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court. At present, it is still open which of the judicial points of view will finally predominate. PMID:8588445

  9. Research on dose setting for radiation sterilization of medical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish the radiation sterilization dose for medical devices using data of bioburden on the medical device. Methods: Firstly determination of recovery ratio and correction coefficient of the microbiological test method was used according to ISO11737 standard, then determination of bioburden on the products, finally the dose setting was completed based on the Method 1 in ISO11137 standard. Results: Fifteen kinds of medical devices were tested. Bioburden range was from 8.6-97271.2 CFU/device, recovery ration range 54.6%-100%, correction co-efficiency range 1.00-1.83, D10 distribution from 1.40 to 2.82 kGy, verification dose (dose at SAL = 10-2) range 5.1-17.6 kGy and sterilization dose (dose at SAL 10-6) range 17.5-32.5 kGy. Conclusion: One hundred samples of each kind of product were exposed to the pre-determined verification dose and then the sterility test was performed. Each sterility test showed positive number was not greater than two. This indicated that the sterilization dose established for each kind of product was statistically acceptable

  10. Electron beam sterilization of water discharged from sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the water treated at city sewerages is discharged to rivers after the chlorine sterilization, but it was clarified recently that this chlorine treatment produces carcinogenic organic chlorine compounds, and residual chlorine exerts harmful effect to aquatics, therefore, it is desirable to develop the sterilization techniques substituting for chlorine treatment. Already many reports elucidated that irradiation is effective for the sterilization of the water discharged from sewerage. However, as the technical subject for putting radiation process in practical use, the treatment of large quantity was a problem. Recently by the progress of the technology of manufacturing electron accelerators, the equipment with large power output which can treat in large quantity was developed, and it has become applicable also to sewage treatment. Therefore, the authors examined the practicality of electron beam process as the substitute technology for chlorine sterilizaiton. In the case of using electron beam, though the power output of accelerators is large, the flight range of electron beam in water is short. The comparison of the sterilization effect of electron beam with that of Co-60 gamma ray, the effects of water depth, discharged water quality and water velocity on the sterilization effect and so on were experimentally examined. (K.I.)

  11. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Junting [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm412 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  12. Radiation sterilization and effective utilization of sewer sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and disposal of the sludge that is generated in sewage treatment plants in large quantity have become a social problem. At present it is disposed mostly by landfill or reclamation. The research and development of the effective utilization of sewer sludge as fertilizer after sterilizing it by radiation have been carried out since relatively long ago. In this report, the technology of the sterilization and effective utilization of sludge by using radiation is introduced, centering around the research carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The general treatment process for sewage in Japan is explained. Sewer sludge is a useful resource, but when it is used for farmland as fertilizer, the problems are the possibility of the contamination with high concentration heavy metals, the possibility of the contamination by pathogenic bacteria and parasites and the bad smell of sludge. The radiation sterilization of sewer sludge, the electron sterilization of sewer sludge, the basic test and the pilot plant test on making compost, the effect of applying electron beam-sterilized sludge compost, and the economical efficiency of this process are reported. Accompanying recent environment pollution, small amount of harmful substances have become to be mixed in sludge, and it becomes the obstacle to the effective use of sludge. (K.I.)

  13. Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prolo, D.J.; Pedrotti, P.W.; Burres, K.P.; Oklund, S.

    1982-08-01

    Sterilization of allogeneic bone increases the availability of this tissue for supplanting skeletal defects and effecting fusions. The optimal sterilant destroys micro-organisms, preserves the physical and chemical integrity of bone and possibly even reduces immunogenicity. Cortical bone of skull heals slowly and is variably resorbed. Of 36 dogs, spontaneous regeneration in 72 paired 20 mm defects was constant but always incomplete, and restored only about one third of the cross-sectional area of the defect at six months. The repair in defects replaced with canine allogeneic bony disc, sterilized with ethylene oxide (n . 9), gamma irradiation (n . 7), or methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid (n . 7) and then lyophilizedd, was compared with repair in defects filled with aseptically procured lyophilized only (n . 23) discs from the same donor. Criteria for evaluation of implants at six months included volume of defect filled, radiodensity, extent of fusion around circumference, revascularization, and remodeling. Bony discs sterilized with methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid remodeled at a superior rate (p less than 0.01). Radiation sterilization resulted in diminished density and inferentially reduced protection of the brain (p less than 0.025). Ethylene oxide, lyophilized implants, and implants lyophilized only produced comparable repair. Whereas an acceptable cranioplasty was achieved in 86% of methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid, lyophilize implants, all other alloimplants served an osteoconductive function with a successful repair occurring in 56% to 58%.

  14. Genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvez A. Sofi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait that suppresses pollen production due to the interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In maize three types of CMS systems, namely CMS-T, CMS-S and CMS-C, have been documented and are differentiated by the reaction to restorers, mitochondrial DNA restriction digest patterns, and complements of low molecular weight plasmids. CMS-T is restored fully by Rf-1 and Rf-2, CMS-S by Rf-3, and CMS-C by Rf-4. All restorer genes except Rf-2 restore fertility by affecting the transcript profile of CMS-associated locus. The sterility is caused by the disorganization of the tapetum and surrounding cell layers as a result of the expression of pollen specific genes. Even though such phenotypes are associated with gene dysfunction in mitochondria, the chloroplasts have emerged as ideal organs for engineering male sterility in crop plants. A number of systems such as barnase-barstar have been standardized in Brassica. Recently, polyhydroxy butyrate was identified as a potential candidate gene for engineering male sterility. Moreover, a broad group of proteins called PPR (pentatricopeptide repeat proteins has also shown to hold great promise for engineering male sterility in crop plants as most of the restorers belong to this category. In maize one such protein, CRP-1, has been identified

  15. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm432 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  16. Research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. There are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the restrictions of capacity and inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  17. Fracture of Polymer-Coated Nitinol During Gamma Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Dennis W.

    2012-12-01

    After gamma sterilization of a packaged medical device, fractures were discovered in the superelastic nitinol wire used as part of the assembly. The nitinol wire was encased in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) shrink tube. The only fractures occurred where the encased wire was held under strain during gamma sterilization. A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of nitinol to this type of failure. The variables studied included wire diameter, wire surface finish, wire oxide layer, quantity of wires encased, type of tubing, and strain level during gamma sterilization. The greatest susceptibility to fracture occurred to single wire samples with a light oxide layer held under high strain in FEP shrink tube. Gamma sterilization experiments were conducted to isolate and confirm this failure mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fractured samples. Chemical analysis was performed in an attempt to detect trace elements to determine the root cause of the failures. Stress corrosion cracking caused by the liberation of fluorine due to the degradation of the polymer during gamma sterilization is suspected.

  18. Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of allogeneic bone increases the availability of this tissue for supplanting skeletal defects and effecting fusions. The optimal sterilant destroys micro-organisms, preserves the physical and chemical integrity of bone and possibly even reduces immunogenicity. Cortical bone of skull heals slowly and is variably resorbed. Of 36 dogs, spontaneous regeneration in 72 paired 20 mm defects was constant but always incomplete, and restored only about one third of the cross-sectional area of the defect at six months. The repair in defects replaced with canine allogeneic bony disc, sterilized with ethylene oxide (n . 9), gamma irradiation (n . 7), or methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid (n . 7) and then lyophilizedd, was compared with repair in defects filled with aseptically procured lyophilized only (n . 23) discs from the same donor. Criteria for evaluation of implants at six months included volume of defect filled, radiodensity, extent of fusion around circumference, revascularization, and remodeling. Bony discs sterilized with methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid remodeled at a superior rate (p less than 0.01). Radiation sterilization resulted in diminished density and inferentially reduced protection of the brain (p less than 0.025). Ethylene oxide, lyophilized implants, and implants lyophilized only produced comparable repair. Whereas an acceptable cranioplasty was achieved in 86% of methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid, lyophilize implants, all other alloimplants served an osteoconductive function with a successful repair occurring in 56% to 58%

  19. Sterilization of microbes by using various plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of various microbes was carried out by using several plasma jets. Argon plasma jets penetrate deep into ambient air and create a path for oxygen radicals to sterilize microbes including spores. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores indicates that an argon-oxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby demonstrating its capability to clean surfaces and its usefulness for reinstating contaminated equipment as free from toxic biological agents. The key element of the sterilization is oxygen radicals. The penciltype configuration produces a long, cold plasma jet capable of reaching 3.5 cm and having various excited plasma species shown through the optical emission spectrum. Operation of an air plasma jet at 2 W in a pencil-type electrode provides an excellent opportunity for sterilization of microbes. An electron microscope was used to observe the effects of the plasma on bacterial cell morphology. Transmission electron micrographs showed morphological changes in E. coli cells treated with an atmospheric plasma at 75 W for 2 min. The treated cells had severe cytoplasmic deformations and leakage of bacterial chromosome. The chromosomal DNA was either attached to the bacterial cells or released freely into the surrounding medium. The results clearly explain the loss of viability of bacterial cells after plasma treatment.

  20. Measuring growth index in a Universe with sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing-Fei; Li, Yun-He [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2014-12-12

    Consistency tests for the general relativity (GR) can be performed by constraining the growth index γ using the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD) in conjunction with other observations. In previous studies, deviations from the GR expected value of γ≈0.55 at the 2–3σ level were found. In this work, we reconsider the measurement of γ in a Universe with sterile neutrinos. We constrain the sterile neutrino cosmological model using the RSD measurements combined with the cosmic microwave background data (Planck temperature data plus WMAP 9-yr polarization data), the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich cluster counts data, and the galaxy shear data. We obtain the constraint result of the growth index, γ=0.584{sub −0.048}{sup +0.047}, well consistent with the GR expected value (the consistency is at the 0.6σ level). For the parameters of sterile neutrino, we obtain N{sub eff}=3.62{sub −0.42}{sup +0.26} and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff}=0.48{sub −0.14}{sup +0.11} eV. We also consider the BICEP2 data and perform an analysis on the model with tensor modes. Similar fit results are obtained, showing that once light sterile neutrino is considered in the Universe, GR will become well consistent with the current observations.

  1. Multinational design approval programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing of new nuclear power facilities is likely to pose many challenges to national regulatory organizations. The majority of nuclear power plants to be built around the world in the next 15 years will likely be limited to a small number of relatively standardized designs, purchased from a limited number of multinational corporations. Such standardization creates an opportunity to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who will be tasked with the review of the new reactor power plant designs. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed an innovative proposal for a multinational design approval programme (MDAP). This paper describes the stages of the MDAP and the benefits that could be derived from its implementation. (author)

  2. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed. PMID:27515140

  3. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action. PMID:27131132

  4. Reproducing sterile neutrinos and the behavior of flavor oscillations with superconducting-magnetic proximity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas E.

    2016-03-01

    The physics of a superconductor subjected to a magnetic field is known to be equivalent to neutrino oscillations. Examining the properties of singlet-triplet oscillations in the magnetic field, a sterile neutrino is suggested to be represented by singlet Cooper pairs and moderates flavor oscillations between three flavor neutrinos (triplet Cooper pairs). A superconductor-exchange spring system's rotating magnetization profile is used to simulate the mass-flavor oscillations in the neutrino case and the physics of neutrino oscillations are discussed. Connecting the condensed matter system and the particle physics system with this analogy may allow for the properties of the condensed matter system to inform neutrino experiments. Support is graciously acknowledged from the Pat Beckman Memorial Scholarship from the Orange County Chapter of the Achievement Rewards for College Scientists Foundation.

  5. Sterilization of health care products - Ethylene oxide - Part 1: Requirements for development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of ISO 11135 describes requirements that, if met, will provide an ethylene oxide sterilization process intended to sterilize medical devices, which has appropriate microbicidal activity. Furthermore, compliance with the requirements ensures that this activity is both reliable and reproducible so that it can be predicted, with reasonable confidence, that there is a low level of probability of there being a viable microorganism present on product after sterilization. Specification of this probability is a matter for regulatory authorities and may vary from country to country. The paper provides information on scope, normative references, terms and definitions, quality management systems, sterilizing agent characterization, process and equipment characterization, product definition, process definition, validation, routine monitoring and control, product release from sterilization and maintaining process effectiveness followed by Annex A (Determination of lethal rate of the sterilization process - Biological indicator/bioburden approach), Annex B (Conservative determination of lethal rate of the sterilization process - Overkill approach, annex C (General guidance) and a bibliography.

  6. Sterile neutrino dark matter from freeze-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan

    2016-01-01

    A sterile neutrino is a well-motivated and widely studied dark matter (DM) candidate. The most straightforward realization of sterile neutrino DM, through the Dodelson-Widrow (DW) mechanism, is now ruled out by a combination of X-ray and Lyman-α measurements. An alternative production mechanism that is becoming increasingly popular in the literature is the freeze-in mechanism, involving frameworks where a feeble coupling to a particle — usually a scalar beyond the Standard Model — in the thermal bath results in a gradual accumulation of the sterile neutrino DM abundance. This paper reviews the various motivations for realizing such frameworks in the literature, their common characteristic features and phenomenological signatures.

  7. Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter from Freeze-In

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Bibhushan

    2015-01-01

    A sterile neutrino is a well-motivated and widely studied dark matter candidate. The most straightforward realization of sterile neutrino dark matter, through the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, is now ruled out by a combination of X-ray and Lyman-\\alpha measurements. An alternative production mechanism that is becoming increasingly popular in the literature is the freeze-in mechanism, involving frameworks where a feeble coupling to a particle - usually a scalar beyond the Standard Model - in the thermal bath results in a gradual accumulation of the sterile neutrino dark matter abundance. This article reviews the various motivations for realizing such frameworks in the literature, their common characteristic features, and phenomenological signatures.

  8. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  9. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment

  10. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  11. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products. PMID:26041224

  12. Indirect dark matter detection in the light of sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent global fit of short baseline neutrino oscillation data favors the presence of one (or more) sterile neutrino state which leads to new mass splitting Δm2 ∼ 1 eV2. We consider the effect of this new states on the evolution of neutrinos from the dark matter annihilation inside the Sun. We show that neutrinos with energy Eν∼>100 GeV undergo resonant active-sterile oscillation which depletes the flux of neutrinos arriving at the Earth. As an example of this effect, we present the oscillation probabilities for the case of monochromatic neutrinos from the direct annihilation of dark matter particles to neutrinos and the depletion due to the presence of sterile neutrinos. We discuss the seasonal variation of oscillation probabilities which is expected for the case of monochromatic neutrinos

  13. Improved UHMWPE through the control of sterilization dose and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effects of sterilization dose and atmosphere on UHMWPE wear properties and crosslinking were examined. The relationship between crosslinking and adhesive / abrasive wear mechanisms of acetabular cups was investigated. The use of a vacuum sterilization atmosphere resulted in improvements in the wear resistance of UHMWPE for the adhesive/abrasive wear mechanisms for the doses examined in this study. The two measures of crosslinking, swelling ratio and gel fraction, values can be used to predict hip simulator wear rates over the sterilization dose range of 0 to 50 kGy for the vacuum atmosphere samples. Of the two measures, the swelling ratio is a more sensitive measure of the extent of crosslinking, particularly for highly crosslinked materials and therefore a more sensitive predictor of adhesive/abrasive wear rates

  14. Design Considerations of a Compounded Sterile Preparations Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Eric C; Petraglia, Christine; Mattison, Melissa J

    2016-02-25

    Objective. To design a comprehensive learning and assessment environment for the practical application of compounded sterile preparations using a constructivist approach. Design. Compounded Sterile Preparations Laboratory is a required 1-credit course that builds upon the themes of training aseptic technique typically used in health system settings and threads application of concepts from other courses in the curriculum. Students used critical-thinking skills to devise appropriate strategies to compound sterile preparations. Assessment. Aseptic technique skills were assessed with objective, structured, checklist-based rubrics. Most students successfully completed practical assessments using appropriate technique (mean assessment grade=83.2%). Almost all students passed the practical media fill (98%) and gloved fingertip sampling (86%) tests on the first attempt; all passed on the second attempt. Conclusion. Employing a constructivist scaffold approach to teaching proper hygiene and aseptic technique prepared students to pass media fill and gloved fingertip tests and to perform well on practical compounding assessments. PMID:26941438

  15. Sterile neutrinos and right-handed currents in KATRIN

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Kurie-plot experiments allow for neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics in an almost model-independent manner. A future tritium-based KATRIN-like experiment can be sensitive to light sterile neutrinos with masses below 18 keV, which are among the prime candidates for warm dark matter. Here we consider such keV neutrinos in left--right symmetric extensions, i.e. coupled to right-handed currents, which allow for an enhanced contribution to beta decay even for small active--sterile mixing, without violating astrophysical X-ray constraints. The modified spectral shape is in principle distinguishable from the standard contribution---especially for sterile neutrino masses below 9 keV, which can lead to a distinct peak. We compare the sensitivity to constraints from the LHC and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  16. Sterility inheritance in the irradiated European Corn Borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherited sterility in F1 and F2 of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses of 10 and 15 Krad has been studied at Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops, Fundulea, Romania. Irradiations were done with a 60 Co source delivering 1,805 roentgen/h/m in containers of 23 mm diameter and 125 mm height, placed apart from the 60 Co source. Following irradiation of male parent generation, no significant differences were recorded in F1 and F2 referring to the number of deposited egg-batches and adult longevity. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease of the percentage of viable eggs and an increase of the number of sterile couples. (author)

  17. Sterile Neutrino portal to Dark Matter II: Exact Dark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, Miguel; Sanz, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a dark sector composed of a scalar and a fermion, both singlets under the SM gauge group but charged under a dark sector symmetry group. Sterile neutrinos, which are singlets under both groups, mediate the interactions between the dark sector and the SM particles, and generate masses for the active neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. We explore the parameter space region where the observed Dark Matter relic abundance is determined by the annihilation into sterile neutrinos, both for fermion and scalar Dark Matter particles. The scalar Dark Matter case provides an interesting alternative to the usual Higgs portal scenario. We also study the constraints from direct Dark Matter searches and the prospects for indirect detection via sterile neutrino decays to leptons, which may be able to rule out Dark Matter masses below and around 100 GeV.

  18. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC's Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as $10^{-11}$.

  19. Toxicity of methods of implant material sterilization on corneal endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of different procedures utilized for the sterilization of intraocular implant material was assessed on the endothelium of organ-cultured porcine corneas. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses sterilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and gamma radiation were added to a culture medium containing normal porcine corneas. Considering the viability of endothelial cells, appearance of intracellular degenerative vacuoles, and denudation of corneal Descemet's membrane as criterion for the evaluation of toxicity of different methods of sterilization, the NaOH-treated lenses were found to be the least toxic to porcine corneal endothelium. Phase-contrast microscopy and vital staining of the endothelium permitted direct viewing of the endothelium aiding in the assessment of toxicity

  20. A study on radiation sterilization of SPF animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPF animal feed could be infected with various microorganisms in the crushing or granulating process. Fumigation with chemicals is generally employed for sterilization of feeds, but owing to low permeability of the chemicals, this sterilization method is not very good, and there may be residual chemicals in the feed. Research results of sterilization by radiation show that irradiation by 60Co gamma rays will reduce infections for SPF animals. 8 kGy can kill microorganisms in the feed with satisfactory efficiency. After the irradiation treatment with different doses, the changes of nutrient components in the feeds, such as crude fats, coarse fibres, calcium, phosphorus, salts and amino acids, were not found to change in our tests. (author)

  1. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic and brand names. This page also lists common drug combinations used in lung ...

  2. Population suppression and sterility rates induced by variable sex ratio, sterile insect releases of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile insect releases of a pupal color-based genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were made during the summer and fall of 1991 in coffee plantations in Kauai, HI. Four treatments compared with respect to trap recapture and sterility rates induced in native populations were: (1) genetic sexing strain (≍99% males = males only), (2) genetic sexing strain (males and females), (3) genetic sexing strain (high % ♀ ♀), and (4) standard strain (males and females). Each week either 2 liters (≍120,000) of irradiated pupae for the bisexual populations or 1 liter of irradiated pupae for the unisexual populations were dye-marked and ground released in buckets. Adult flies emerged and dispersed throughout individual (≍1 ha) coffee fields. Flies were trapped weekly in standard dry traps or in liquid protein traps. Coffee berry samples were collected weekly to determine egg sterility rates, and females trapped in liquid protein were dissected for presence of sperm and sperm type. A new technique was developed to type sperm as either sterile (irradiated) or wild in mated females. An estimate of sterile fly competitiveness based on relative degrees of egg hatch suppression indicated an overall three- to five-fold increase in competitiveness of the males-only strain compared with the standard bisexual strain. Significantly, however, this difference even widened to a qualitative degree by the end of the test

  3. Proceedings of 3. autumn school of radiation sterilization of medical utensils and grafts; 3. jesiennea szkola sterylizacji radiacyjnej sprzetu medycznego i przeszczepow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish experience and review of worldwide development of radiation techniques and technologies have been presented and discussed in the field of radiation sterilization of medical supplies and grafts as well as for food processing. These problems have found now in Poland industrial or pilot plant solutions. Also some technologies connected with medical utensils production from with polymeric material resistant for radiation have been developed in Poland.

  4. Application of ionizing radiations in the field of decontamination and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation technology has been successfully applied in sterilization of medical supplies and packaging materials in Japan. Currently, 7 60Co-gamma facilities and 9 electron-beam facilities are operated for radiation sterilization of medical supply. Total economic scale of the irradiated medical supplies in 2005 was estimated to be more than 1,700 billion Japanese Yen (JPY). Food irradiation has been recognized as an effective measure for microbial control of fresh foods and grains worldwide. The total quantity and economic scale of irradiated foods in the world were estimated as 405,000 tons and 1.61 trillion Japanese Yen (JPY), respectively. Processed foods totaled 183,000 tons (45%) in Asia and Oceania, 116,000 tons (29%) in the American region, 90,000 tons (22%) in Africa and Ukraine, and 15,000 tons (4%) in the EU. The economic scale, estimated using the price at retail stores converted to JPY using an IMF conversion table, was 1.07 trillion JPY (67%) in the American region, 309 billion JPY (19%) in Asia and Oceania, 181 billion JPY (11%) in Africa and Ukraine, and 50 billion JPY (3%) in the EU. On the other hand, in Japan, only potato irradiation for sprout inhibition has been cleared, so far, and approximately 8000 tons of irradiated potatoes are distributed in domestic market every year. All Nippon Spice Association, the association of spice industries in Japan, has submitted a petition for the approval of spice irradiation for decontamination to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare for more than 8 years. (author)

  5. Sterility in breeding sows as a consequence of reproductive tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the effects of certain pathological conditions on the sterility of breeding sows. Pathomorphological investigations were performed on 185 reproductive organs. We analyzed the reasons for elimination from local records. The biggest number of sows with pathological changes on reproductive organs were in the group of barren sows, 48.68% followed by anestric sows, 30.26%, and the smallest number in sows with failed fertilizations, 21.05%. Cysts in ovaries, ovarian tubes, oviducts and  the mesosalpinx were found in 23.77% of the examined sows. Lutein cysts were found in a significantly higher percentage in sows which fail to be fertilized than in barren or anestric animals. Small granular degeneration of the ovaries was determined in barren sows and those which cannot be fertilized, while it was not determined in anestric sows. Cysts on uterus ligaments and ovaries and on ovarian tubes and oviducts were found in significantly higher numbers in sows which fail be fertilized than in barren or anestric sows. Their presence can be connected to obstructions in the transport process of spermatozoa, eggs, and the fertilization process in sows which fail to be fertilized, especially in cases of cysts located on the very serosa of ovarian tubes which we found in these sows. We determined small granular degeneration of the ovaries in barren sows and those which fail to fertilized, but not in anestric sows. Ovarian insufficiency was mostly connected to anestric sows. Vaginitis, endometritis, periometritis and oocytis present an important factor in the occurrence of sterility primarily in sows which are barren or which fail to be fertilized.

  6. Absorption capacity and toxicity of paper points after sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Marubayashi Hidalgo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the sterilization process on paper cones as regards their absorption capacity, and consequently, root canal drying, in addition to the possible release of any antimicrobial or cytotoxic product. Methods: The cones used were of three of the brands found on the Brazilian market Dentsply (Dentsply Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Petrópolis, Brazil, Endopoints (Endopoints Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Paraíba do Sul, Brazil and Tanari (Tanari Industrial Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil. To evaluate the absorption capacity, the cones were submitted to four sterilization cycles, and the modified Holland technique was performed. The antimicrobial/cytotoxic capacity was verified by means of depositing the sterilized cones in Petri dishes containing Miller-Hinton Agar and Blood Agar, seeded with S.aureus and E. coli. Results: The Dentsply (Dentsply Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Petrópolis, Brazil and Tanari (Tanari Industrial Ltda., São Paulo, Brazilcones presented greater absorption after the first sterilization cycle, followed by a drop in the second and third cycles, and a new increase in the fourth cycle. For the Endopoints (Endopoints Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Paraíba do Sul, Brazil cones, the values were inverted, with a small drop in absorption after the first cycle, increase in the second and third cycles, and a new drop in the fourth cycle. None of the cones presented antimicrobial activity after the sterilization process. Conclusion: The sterilization process by damp heat does not alter the properties of absorption and there is no release of by-products from the tested paper cones.

  7. Model business plan for a sterile insect production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 50 years the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy which has been used for eradication, and more recently for suppression, containment and prevention, of unwanted insect pest populations. Examples of successful applications of SIT, almost always applied in conjunction with other control methods in an area-wide integrated approach, are available from around the world. The development and application of SIT has relied overwhelmingly on public or donor initiative and funding throughout its history, although the private sector has always been involved as participants, cooperators or partners in funding. The demand for SIT, and therefore the market for sterile insects, has increased in recent years. This increase coincides with the introduction of new pests through the expansion of global trade and, at the same time, widespread pressure to find alternatives to pesticides. Recent improvements in the technology supporting SIT facilitate its application and suggest lower costs can be achieved. The conditions are therefore met for a greater commercialization of the technique to bring it in line with other pest control approaches that are fully integrated into a market approach. Several challenges arise, however, in pursuing sterile insect production as a commercial venture, ranging from intellectual property protection to pricing of the product. Routine insurance requirements, for instance, are complicated by the biological aspects of the business. This report is aimed at facilitating private sector involvement in the production of sterile insects for use in pest control. It provides guidelines and tools to support the development of specific business plans for a new SIT venture. By providing an international perspective on such issues as initial capital costs and recurring operational expenditures for a sterile insect facility, it may be used to evaluate the feasibility of proceeding with the construction or expansion of a sterile insect

  8. Electronic Approval of Invoices (AEF)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With a view to the simplification of administrative procedures, AS and FI Departments have completed the second phase of the new procedure for the electronic approval of invoices via the EDH application. The aim of this new procedure is to rationalise the invoice approval process, notably by eliminating paper copies from the approval circuit. This will simplify the processing of invoices and facilitate their timely settlement, while at the same time maintaining a high level of security. Phase II includes handling the electronic approval process of invoices whose amounts do not correspond exactly to those of the associated orders. In such cases, budgetary approval is required for the entire invoiced amount. Further information can be obtained at : http://ais.cern.ch/projs/AEF/help/F_help.htm Phase II of the procedure will be introduced gradually with effect from April 2004. Finance Department, Accounts Payable Section Tel: 72295 Organisation and Procedures Tel: 75885 Information Technologies Department,...

  9. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  10. Economical aspects of radiation sterilization with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization has been introduced in Poland in the early seventies. Since then continuous progress is observed in quantity of sterilized products. The commercial irradiation facility was built in 1993 to fulfill growing demands for radiation service. The real costs of running this plant were shown. The share of the cost of investment and the cost of maintenance and spare parts in accelerator exploitation, as well as the cost of one hour accelerator exploitation against time of one year accelerator exploitation were taken into account

  11. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  12. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under 'ISO lead', with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements, (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects of the old standards that have caused problems, when they were used in practice, are addressed in the revision. Input from users of the standards is necessary in order that the standards be developed as useful tools in the documentation of radiation sterilization

  13. Thermal stability of surgical gloves sterilized with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical gloves were manufactured from vulcanizated natural rubber latex by gamma rays, in the presence of n-butyl acrylate and K O H, by immersion coagulant process. Vulcanization dose was 10 kGy. The Ca Cl2 was used as coagulant electrolyte. Surgical gloves were gamma sterilized with 10 and 215 kGy. Surgical gloves quality was evaluated by mechanical tests after the aging process. Tensile strength decreases after aging process when surgical gloves are radio sterilized showing the occurrence of radiolytic degradation. (author). 9 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. PMID:21315994

  15. Control of anoplophora glabripennis by releasing sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of released sterile insects on reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was conducted at a 30-hectare poplar tree forest in Ying County of Shanxi Province from July 10 to August 29, 2001. Though the releasing ratio was only about 2-5, results from different methods showed that the reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was suppressed effectively by releasing sterile insects, and that hatch ratio of eggs laid by parent generation was about 20% and survival ratio of F1 progeny about 27%. (authors)

  16. Microbiological studies of tissue bank samples for radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue bank samples such as femoral head, amnion membrane and bone dust received for radiation sterilization when analyzed for pre-sterilization microbial count. One type of fungal strain and two types of bacterial strains were isolated. The bacterial strains resemble the characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus but surprisingly shows no growth on Pca even after 48 hrs. of incubation at 37degC but grows well on SCD agar. Thus these bacterial strains seem to be fastidious organisms having some special nutritional requirements and may be having some pathological significance in tissue processing. The fungal strain isolated was found to be Aspergillus spp. (author)

  17. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  18. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hansen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements. (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects...... of the old standards that have caused problems, when they were used in practice, are addressed in the revision. Input from users of the standards is necessary in order that the standards be developed as useful tools in the documentation of radiation sterilization. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights...

  19. Male sterile line in Rice Xu 29A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The line is an early Indica rice line of WA type and with early maturity. It is bred by CHHRRC and was released by HCVRC in January, 2000.Its maintaining line is bred with the backcrossing Progeny of V20A×the F3 of (Digu B×Jin 23B).The line is characterizied by its short growth duration,about two days earlier than Jin 23 A, Stable sterility which is proved by its sterile plant rate to 100%,aborted pollen rate to 99.99% and selfed seeds to zero under the tests by pollen microscopic inspection and bagged for selfing for multiple generations.

  20. Self-sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A body encountering the atmosphere of an outer planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  1. Sterilization of sera and vaccines by cobalt gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diphtheria, tetanus, anti-snake venom sera and Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus vaccine were submitted to different intensities of gamma radiation, in order to: verify the resistance of their specific activities to the action of gamma rays; evaluate the possibility of using this type of energy to sterilize some heterogeneous hyper immune sera and vaccines commonly utilized in Public Health. The results, according to the range employed, show the possibility of sterilizing the products tested, without any alteration to specific biological and chemical properties. (author)

  2. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frias, Jose E [Instituto de BioquImica Vegetal y FotosIntesis (IBVF-CSIC). Centro de Investigaciones CientIficas Isla de la Cartuja. Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: jhueso@icmse.csic.es

    2008-05-07

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma mixtures. The NO{sup *} species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O{sup *} and Ar{sup *} species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO{sup *} species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  3. Product Sterility Testing . . . To Test or Not to Test? That Is the Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Elaine; Bryans, Trabue; Darnell, Kimbrell; Hansen, Joyce; Hitchins, Victoria M; Saavedra, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The applications for sterility testing in the validation and routine control of sterilization of medical devices have changed dramatically over the years. As the definition of sterility assurance has evolved, so has the state of the science associated with product sterility testing. Historically, product sterility testing has been applied to such things as sterilization validation, sterilization lot release, packaging qualification, aseptic processing qualification, and determination of shelf life for the packaged medical device. In most of these cases, however, the results obtained from performing sterility testing on products do not provide the desired confirmation and assurance. Utilizing sterility testing on fully processed finished product is not appropriate for determination of sterilization process effectiveness, sterility assurance level, package integrity, or shelf life. The industry has developed more robust methods for validation of these applications to assure sterility and package performance. This article outlines the appropriate applications for sterility testing and highlight the applications currently in use that have significant limitations within the results and introduce undesirable risk to the validity of the data. PMID:27100074

  4. Radiating sterilization of fruits of the barberry ordinary berberis vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The riches of flora of Azerbaijan with its specific saturation represent a huge raw-material base for a farmaceutical industry. In territory of republic 3 kinds of a barberry wildly grow, a perspective kind is the barberry ordinary Berberis vulgaris L.In the medical purposes leaves, a root, stalks and fruits of a barberry are applied. Berries as water tincture are applied at rheumatism, a malaria, a diabetes [I.A.Damirov and etn-tilde 1988; Hofbauer F., Askeril M, 2002, etc.], at diseases of a gastroenteric path, easy, at diseases of a mouth [Ikram M, 1975]. Biochemical processes in the collected raw material during first time proceed, as in an alive plant, that is synthesis of biologi-cally active substances prevails. On a measure natural losing water in connection with the termination of receipt of a moisture and nutrients, processes of an exchange are shifted aside disintegration that results in decrease of biologically active substances in vegetative raw material. However in some cases the processes proceeding in drying raw material result on the contrary, in increase in the maintenance of working substances. Therefore improvement of ways of drying and processing of medicinal raw material by influence of small dozes ? - radiations c the purpose of reception of the high-quality raw material, connected with growing need of a global farmaceutical industry for herbs and phitopreparats is an actual problem. As a result of experimental researches conditions of radiating sterilization of fruits of a barberry ?-radiation are picked up at small dozes and at different values ionizating radiations. Fruits of a barberry were irradiated with ?-radiation on radioisotope installation 60n-tildei-circumflex at values of a doze of an irradiation in limits from 1.0 up to 1.5eGr at duration of an irradiation till 30 minutes. The qualitative control were carried out chromatografic (thin layer chromatography) and spectral (UV-VIS and IR) methods later 6, 12 and 24 months

  5. Searching for a strategy to gamma-sterilize Portuguese cork stoppers - preliminary studies on bioburden, radioresistance and sterility assurance level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, M.L.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Andrade, M.E.; Tenreiro, R.

    1988-01-01

    A gamma radiation plant will start running next year in Portugal, to sterilize medical devices and wine cork stoppers. As Portugal is the first world producer, manufacturer and exporter of wine cork stoppers, an efficient sterilizing procedure is required to overcome moulding from long term shipping. Preliminary research on cork stoppers bioburden and microflora radioresistance allowed to establish reliable D/sub 10/ and Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) values. Studied samples showed an initial average contamination of about 10/sup 4/ c.f.u. per cork stopper. The determined D/sub 10/ values for fungi were not higher than 2 kGy. In these conditions, a SAL of 10/sup -4/ can be expected when the product is treated at a minimum absorbed dose of 15 kGy

  6. Searching for a strategy to gamma-sterilize Portuguese cork stoppers - preliminary studies on bioburden, radioresistance and sterility assurance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma radiation plant will start running next year in Portugal, to sterilize medical devices and wine cork stoppers. As Portugal is the first world producer, manufacturer and exporter of wine cork stoppers, an efficient sterilizing procedure is required to overcome moulding from long term shipping. Preliminary research on cork stoppers bioburden and microflora radioresistance allowed to establish reliable D10 and Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) values. Studied samples showed an initial average contamination of about 104 c.f.u. per cork stopper. The determined D10 values for fungi were not higher than 2 kGy. In these conditions, a SAL of 10-4 can be expected when the product is treated at a minimum absorbed dose of 15 kGy. (author)

  7. 77 FR 488 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Approval of New Scheduled Maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...This notice announces that EPA has granted certain diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers' requests for approval of emission- related maintenance and scheduled maintenance intervals for replenishment of reducing agent in connection with their use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. EPA's approval pertains to the use of SCR with 2011 and later model year (MY) diesel- fueled......

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  9. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5- ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin ( ...

  11. Laparoscopic Filshie clip sterilization and selective use of the methylene blue dye test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh; Yoong, Wai

    2004-01-01

    In laparoscopic Filshie clip sterilization, difficulties may arise in identifying the length of the fallopian tube, with the possibility of failure of sterilization. This article describes a novel intraoperative method of demonstrating adequate tubal closure. PMID:15481482

  12. Sterilization as last resort in women with intellectual disabilities: protection or disservice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insogna, Iris; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of the eugenics movement in the United States, including the involuntary sterilization of those deemed unfit to reproduce, has created a profound backlash against sterilization among certain populations. Particularly in treating women with intellectual disabilities, the field of obstetrics and gynecology has widely adopted an antisterilization stance. When treating women with intellectual disabilities, sterilization is generally considered a last resort. This essay revisits the issue of sterilization in women with intellectual disabilities, asking whether the field's stance of sterilization as a last resort is best viewed as a protection of this vulnerable population or one that actually does significant harm. We use a hypothetical but realistic patient case to examine the potential risks and benefits of sterilization. After reviewing the arguments against sterilization as a first-line treatment, we defend the controversial position that, in some cases, sterilization should be presented as an equally legitimate choice to reversible contraceptives. PMID:25447957

  13. The application of electron beam equipment for the sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electron beam equipment for the sterilization of medical devices is described. Sterilization costs are compared for the following processes: ETO, heat (steam), radiation (Co-60, Linac, Dynamitron). (U.K.)

  14. [Cytotoxicity of PVC tubes sterilized in ethylene oxide after gamma radiation exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Ikeda, Tamiko Ichikawa; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Cruz, Aurea Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Do materials sterilized using gamma rays become toxic when re-sterilized in ethylene oxide? This question guided the objective of this study, which was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effect of PVC sterilized by gamma radiation and re-sterilized with EO by the agar diffusion method in cell cultures. Nine PVC tubes were subjected to gamma radiation sterilization and were re-sterilized in EO. The tubes were divided into a total of 81 units of analysis that were tested so as to represent the internal and external surfaces and mass of each tube. It was concluded that the PVC materials sterilized in gamma radiation and re-sterilized in EO are not cytotoxic. PMID:23743920

  15. Current systems of sterilization in the Philippines in both government and private hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Philippines, there are 1,700 registered hospitals, both private and government. There are 80,000 beds. The systems of sterilization are mainly using steam or to use ethylene oxide sterilization. Gamma ray sterilization is purely on experimental basis and very limited scale for industrial products. The author will trace the history of sterilization, practised since a century ago and trace back to the present system of sterilization. The principles applied, precautions and limitations or advantages of the different systems will be discussed particularly steam sterilization and ethylene oxide. Other forms of sterilization either chemical or physical will be discussed in passing. Experience in gamma ray sterilization in Japan and Australia will be presented when available data are obtained, to encourage local investors to engage in such venture. Philippines has been left behind by our neighbors. (author)

  16. 消毒供应中心常用低温灭菌技术%Common Hypothermia Sterilization Techniques in Central Sterile Supply Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓滨; 徐习

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the application status of hypothermia sterilization technique in central sterile supply department. A comparison was made among the three sterile techniques: ethylene oxide sterile technique, hydrogen peroxide hypothermia plasma sterile technique, and hypothermia steam formaldehyde sterile technique. The paper analyzed the sterilization principle, sterilization time, temperature, humidity control, sterilization effect, influential factors, and pros and cons of the three common hypothermia sterilization techniques.%本文分析了当前消毒供应中心常用低温灭菌技术的应用现状,对比了环氧乙烷低温灭菌技术、过氧化氢低温等离子灭菌技术、低温蒸汽甲醛灭菌技术3种低温灭菌技术的灭菌原理、时间、温度、湿度控制、灭菌效果、影响因素以及优点与局限性。

  17. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  18. First method of ISO standard 11137 for trofin cap bottle sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization dose for gamma radiation of Trofin (liquid) bottle cap was calculated according to the method I of ISO standard 11137. The sterilization dose was reduce from 25 kGy to 15kGy and as a results it is possible to increase product quantity irradiated. The dose setting validated method to reduce the sterilization dose is described. It was used an sterility assurance level of 10-3 enough for this kind of product

  19. Radiation and Ethylene Oxide Terminal Sterilization Experiences with Drug Eluting Stent Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Byron J.; Mendelson, Todd A.; Craven, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation and ethylene oxide terminal sterilization are the two most frequently used processes in the medical device industry to render product within the final sterile barrier package free from viable microorganisms. They are efficacious, safe, and efficient approaches to the manufacture of sterile product. Terminal sterilization is routinely applied to a wide variety of commodity healthcare products (drapes, gowns, etc.) and implantable medical devices (bare metal stents, heart valves, vess...

  20. Influence of Sterilization Techniques on the In Vitro Bioactivity of Pseudowollastonite

    OpenAIRE

    Piedad N. De Aza; Aza Moya, Antonio H. de; Herrera, A.; López-Prats, F. A.; Peña, P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four sterilization methods (Steam autoclave, Hydrogen peroxide plasma, Ethylene oxide, and Gamma sterilization) on the surface chemistry and in vitro bioactivity of polycrystalline pseudowollastonite (psW). psW samples obtained by solid-state reaction sintering were sterilized and soaked in Kokubo et al.’s proposed simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 30 days. The sterilization procedure was found to result in no sign...