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Sample records for approved iron nanoparticles

  1. Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Iron nanoparticles as potential magnetic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a sequential synthesis offered by reverse micelles, stable magnetic nanoparticles based on iron can be formed. Sequential synthesis allows an iron core to be passivated by a thin layer of gold. These nanocomposite materials offer enhanced magnetic properties over existing iron oxide-based particles as well as reduced non-specific binding of proteins due to the small size

  3. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji(r)í Hradil; Alexander Pisarev; Michal Babi(c); Daniel Horák

    2007-01-01

    Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation of Fe(Ⅱ) and Fe(Ⅲ) salts with ammonium hydroxide by two methods.Iron oxide was precipitated either in the presence of dextran solution, or the dextran solution was added after precipitation. In the second method,the iron oxide particle size and size distribution could be controlled depending on the concentration of dextran in the solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Optimal conditions for preparation of stable iron oxide colloid particles were determined. The dextran/iron oxide ratio 0-0.16 used in precipitation of iron salts can be recommended for synthesis of nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications, as the colloid does not contain excess dextran and does not coagulate.

  4. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.; Fauth, K.; Goering, E.; Johnson, Erik; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Mørup, Steen

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  5. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.;

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  6. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH3)3)2]2] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ► Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH3)3)2]2]. ► The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ► The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH3)3)2]2] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  7. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropeza, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Corea, M., E-mail: mcoreat@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez-Yáñez, C. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Rivera, J.J. [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Instituto de Metalurgia, Sierra Leona 550, San Luis Potosí, C.P. 78210 (Mexico); Navarro-Clemente, M.E., E-mail: mnavarroc@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ► Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}]. ► The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ► The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  8. Radiation stability of iron nanoparticles irradiated with accelerated iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglov, V.V., E-mail: uglov@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosty ave., 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina ave., 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Remnev, G.E., E-mail: remnev06@mail.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina ave., 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Kvasov, N.T.; Safronov, I.V.; Shymanski, V.I. [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosty ave., 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic processes in nanoparticles after ion irradiation were studied. • The mechanism of the enhanced radiation stability of nanoparticles was showed. • The criteria of the enhanced radiation stability of nanoparticles was proposed. - Abstract: In the present work the dynamic processes occurring in a nanoscale iron particle exposed to irradiation with iron ions of different energies are studied in detailed. It is shown that the elastic and thermoelastic crystal lattice responses to irradiation form force factors affecting the evolution of defect-impurity system, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in the number of structural defects. Quantitative estimations of the spatial distribution of defects resulting in their migration to the surface were obtained. Such self-organization of nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation can be used as a basis for the production of radiation-resistant nanostructured materials capable of sustaining a long-term radiation influence.

  9. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  10. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe3O4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g−1 and 131 emu g−1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  11. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  12. Surface effects in metallic iron nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic iron on carbon supports have been studied in situ by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases with decreasing particle size, presumably because of the influence of surface anisotropy. Chemisorption of oxygen results in formation of a...

  13. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 μg/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 25.9 % in 500 μg/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 μg/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  14. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Sifeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China); Jia Jingfu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Guo Xiaokui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Zhao Yaping [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Liu Boyu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong, E-mail: zhangxianlong20101@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 {mu}g/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 25.9 % in 500 {mu}g/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 {mu}g/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 {mu}g/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  15. Synchrotron speciation data for zero-valent iron nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set encompasses a complete analysis of synchrotron speciation data for 5 iron nanoparticle samples (P1, P2, P3, S1, S2, and metallic iron) to include...

  16. Development and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Part 1): Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Contrast agents, such as iron oxide, enhance MR images by altering the relaxation times of tissues in which the agent is present. They can also be used to label targeted molecular imaging probes. Unfortunately, no molecular imaging probe is currently available on the clinical MRI market. A promising platform for MRI contrast agent development is nanotechnology, where superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS) are tailored for MR contrast enhancement, and/or for molecular imaging. SPI...

  17. Evaluation of Tumor Angiogenesis by MRI Study Using Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ashoor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels from existing ones and it is a perquisite for the growth, invasion and metastasis of solid tumors. This complex process involves multiple steps and pathways dependent on the local balance between positive and negative regulatory factors, as well as interactions among the tumor, its vasculature and the surrounding extracellular tissue matrix. Tumors lay dormant yet viable, unable to grow beyond 2-3 mm3 in size without angiogenesis."nWith the development of novel therapies for treat-ment of several diseases, directed noninvasive imaging strategies will be critical for defining the pathophysiology of angiogenesis. Imaging modalities used to detect angiogenesis include PET, SPECT, MRI, CT, US and near-infrared optical imaging. For these modalities, methods have been developed to measure blood volume, blood flow and several other semi quantitative and quantitative kinetic hemodynamic parameters such as vascular permeability. Characteristic molecular makers of angiogenesis may be visualized with the aid of molecular imaging agents such as VEGFs or the α vß3 integrin. "nMRI is a practical modality for assessing angiogenesis over time because it is already widely used clinically to assess tumor growth and for response evaluation. Anatomical information can be co registered with functional and molecular information within a single imaging method. Moreover, MRI does not involve ionizing radiation and the commonly used contrast agent has low toxicity. "nSuper paramagnetic iron oxides (SPIO are FDA-approved contrast agents for use in magnetic reson-ance (MR imaging. Most of the administered SPIO end up in the reticuloendotelial system via endocytosis and the iron core released from the SPIO is utilized in normal iron metabolism pathways. We utilize the paramagnetic characteristics of SPIO to improve the contrast of the image in MRI."nFor the first time we will introduce a method for evaluating angiogenesis

  18. Biomineralization of iron phosphate nanoparticles in yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous iron phosphate nanoparticles mineralized in yeast cells are studied by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph and micro electrophoresis. Iron phosphate nanoparticles in yeast cells show uniform morphology with extensive surface roughness and disperse well. The size distribution of iron phosphate is about 50-200 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages between iron phosphate nanoparticles with protein macromolecules in yeast cells. The mechanism of biomineralization was simply discussed by chemical bonds and surface charges.

  19. Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles affects iron absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Esch, Mandy B.; Tako, Elad; Southard, Teresa L.; Archer, Shivaun D.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2012-04-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron transport in an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model. Intestinal cells that are exposed to high doses of nanoparticles showed increased iron transport due to nanoparticle disruption of the cell membrane. Chickens acutely exposed to carboxylated particles (50 nm in diameter) had a lower iron absorption than unexposed or chronically exposed birds. Chronic exposure caused remodelling of the intestinal villi, which increased the surface area available for iron absorption. The agreement between the in vitro and in vivo results suggests that our in vitro intestinal epithelium model is potentially useful for toxicology studies.

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticle enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Courtney M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Gladstone, David J.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been investigated as a promising means for inducing tumor cell-specific hyperthermia. Although the ability to generate and use nanoparticles that are biocompatible, tumor specific, and have the ability to produce adequate cytotoxic heat is very promising, significant preclinical and clinical development will be required for clinical efficacy. At this time it appears using IONP-induced hyperthermia as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapeutics, rather than as an independent treatment, will provide the initial IONP clinical treatment. Due to their high-Z characteristics, another option is to use intracellular IONPs to enhance radiation therapy without excitation with AMF (production of heat). To test this concept IONPs were added to cell culture media at a concentration of 0.2 mg Fe/mL and incubated with murine breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) cells for either 48 or 72 hours. Extracellular iron was then removed and all cells were irradiated at 4 Gy. Although samples incubated with IONPs for 48 hrs did not demonstrate enhanced post-irradiation cytotoxicity as compared to the non-IONP-containing cells, cells incubated with IONPs for 72 hours, which contained 40% more Fe than 48 hr incubated cells, showed a 25% decrease in clonogenic survival compared to their non-IONP-containing counterparts. These results suggest that a critical concentration of intracellular IONPs is necessary for enhancing radiation cytotoxicity.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.;

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...

  2. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jií; Hradil

    2007-01-01

    [1]Anger,S.,Caldwell,K.,Mehnert,W.,& Muller,R.(1999).Coating of nanoparticles:Analysis of adsorption using sedimentation field-flow fractionation(SdFFF).Proceedings of International Symposium of Controlled Release of Bioactivated Materials,26,599-600.[2]Bonnemain,B.(1998).Superparamagnetic agents in magnetic resonance imaging:Physicochemical characteristics and clinical applications-A review.Journal of Drug Targeting,6(3),167-174.[3]Bootz,A.,Vogel,V.,Schubert,D.,& Kreuter,J.(2004).Comparison of scanning electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation for the sizing of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics,57(2),369-375.[4]Browarzik,D.(1997).Continuous kinetics of dextran degradation.Journal of Macromolecular Science Pure and Applied Chemistry,34(3),397-404.[5]Cabasso,I.,& Yuan,Y.(1996).Nanoparticles in polymer and polymer dendrimers.In J.Fendler & I.Dekany (Eds.),NATO ASI Series.Part 18Nanoparticles in Solids and Solutions (pp.131-153).[6]Chastellain,M.,Petri,A.,& Hofmann,H.(2004).Particle size investigation of a multistep synthesis of PVA coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles.Journal of Colloid Interface Science,278(2),353-360.[7]Chmela,E.,Tijssen,R.,Blom,M.T.,Gardeniers,H.J.G.E.,& van den Berg,A.(2002).A chip system for size separation of macromolecules and particles by hydrodynamic chromatography.Analytical Chemistry,74(14),3470-3475.[8]Confer,D.R.,& Logan,B.E.(1997).Molecular weight distribution of hydrolysis product during the biodegradation of model macromolecules in suspended and biofilm cultures.Ⅱ:Dextran and dextrin.Water Research,31(9),2137-2145.[9]Griffiths,C.H.,O'Horo,M.P.,& Smith,T.W.(1979).The structure,magnetic characterization and oxidation of colloidal iron dispersions.Journal of Applied Physics,50(11),7108-7115.[10]Gupta,A.K.,& Gupta,M.(2005).Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.Biomaterials,26

  3. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Gutmanas, Elazar Y.

    2016-08-01

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  4. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the only nanosized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents approved for clinical use, yet commercial manufacturing of these agents has been limited or discontinued. Though there is still widespread demand for these particles both for clinical use and research, they are difficult to obtain commercially, and complicated syntheses make in-house preparation unfeasible for most biological research labs or clinics. To make commercial production viable and increase accessibility of these products, it is crucial to develop simple, rapid and reproducible preparations of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we report a rapid, straightforward microwave-assisted synthesis of superparamagnetic dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were produced in two hydrodynamic sizes with differing core morphologies by varying the synthetic method as either a two-step or single-step process. A striking benefit of these methods is the ability to obtain swift and consistent results without the necessity for air-, pH- or temperature-sensitive techniques; therefore, reaction times and complex manufacturing processes are greatly reduced as compared to conventional synthetic methods. This is a great benefit for cost-effective translation to commercial production. The nanoparticles are found to be superparamagnetic and exhibit properties consistent for use in MRI. In addition, the dextran coating imparts the water solubility and biocompatibility necessary for in vivo utilization. (paper)

  5. Radiation-induced synthesis of gold, iron-oxide composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were synthesized using gamma-rays or electron beam. Ionizing irradiation induces the generation of reducing species inside the aqueous solution, and gold ions are reduced to form metallic Au nanoparticles. The size of Au nanoparticles depended on the dose rate and the concentration of support iron oxide. The gold nanoparticles on iron oxide nanoparticles selectively adsorb biomolecules via Au-S bonding. By using magnetic property of the support iron oxide nanoparticles, the composite nanoparticles are expected as a new type of magnetic nanocarrier for biomedical applications. (author)

  6. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bull,1 Seyed Yazdan Madani,1 Roosey Sheth,1 Amelia Seifalian,1 Mark Green,2 Alexander M Seifalian1,31UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, 2Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, UK; 3Royal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.Keywords: stem cells, nanoparticle, magnetic

  7. Synthesis of Carbon Encapsulated Mono- and Multi-Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Sanaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Core–shell nanostructures of carbon encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINPs show unique properties and technological applications, because carbon shell provides extreme chemical stability and protects pure iron core against oxidation without impairing the possibility of functionalization of the carbon surface. Enhancing iron core magnetic properties and, in parallel, improving carbon shell sealing are the two major challenges in the synthesis of CEINPs. Here, we present the synthesis of both CEINPs and a new carbon encapsulated multi-iron nanoparticle by a new modified arc discharge reactor. The nanoparticle size, composition, and crystallinity and the magnetic properties have been studied. The morphological properties were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to evaluate carbon shell protection, the iron cores were characterized by selected area diffraction and fast Fourier transform techniques as well as by electron energy loss and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Afterward, the magnetic properties were investigated using a superconducting quantum interference device. As main results, spherical, oval, and multi-iron cores were controllably synthesized by this new modified arc discharge method. The carbon shell with high crystallinity exhibited sufficient protection against oxidation of pure iron cores. The presented results also provided new elements for understanding the growth mechanism of iron core and carbon shell.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Natural Zeolite Modified with Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Ruíz-Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the structural and morphological characterization of natural and modified zeolite obtained from the state of Oaxaca (Mexico. Iron nanoparticles were used for the zeolite modification. The iron nanoparticles were loaded on the zeolite surface by homogeneous nucleation. Adsorption kinetic models of pseudo first and second order were surveyed. The characterization of pristine and modified zeolite was performed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. From the results, three main phases were identified: clinoptilolite, mordenite, and feldspar. We could also determine the adsorption capacity of the zeolites by means of adsorption kinetic models.

  9. Magnetic birefringence of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles stabilised by sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetically induced optical birefringence is used to investigate pharmaceutically important iron-sucrose aqueous suspensions. XRD and TEM measurements of the system of oxyhydroxide particles stabilised by sucrose have shown that this system contains iron oxyhydroxide in the form of 2-5 nm particles. The mineral form of the iron-core is suggested to be akaganeite. Anisotropy of the optical polarizability and magnetic susceptibility of akaganeite nanoparticles are calculated. The permanent dipole moment obtained for the nanoparticles studied was found to be negligible, in agreement with the characteristic superparamagnetic behaviour of the magnetic nanoparticles observed at room temperature. The Neel temperature of these nanoparticles is estimated as below 276 K. The results obtained are discussed against a background of the earlier studies of similar nanoscale systems. - Research highlights: → Polysaccharides iron complex, important in pharmaceutical applications, was studied by magnetic birefringence. → Magnetic and optical properties of the akaganeite core has been obtained. The superparamagnetic behaviour of the core has been confirmed. → The experiment suggests that the Neel temperature of these nanoparticles should be set below 276 K. The results show the importance of the magneto-optical method in recognition of magnetic properties of biologically important substances.

  10. Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Diagnostics, Therapy and Macromolecule Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics,...

  11. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)

    OpenAIRE

    Neenu Singh; Jenkins, Gareth J. S.; Romisa Asadi; Doak, Shareen H.

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this rev...

  12. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA coated iron oxide nanoparticles have served as a feasible, robust, and functional platform for various biomedical applications. However, there is scarcely a systemic paper reviewed about such functionalising nanomaterials to date. In this review, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of dopamine self-oxidation, the interaction between iron oxide and dopamine, and the functionality and the safety assessment of dopamine modified iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the biomedical application of such nanoparticles are discussed. To enlighten the future research, the opportunities and the limitations of functionalising iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PDA are also analyzed.

  13. Trapping Iron Oxide into Hollow Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiankai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synthesis of the core/shell-structured Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles by trapping Fe3O4 inside hollow Au nanoparticles is described. The produced composite nanoparticles are strongly magnetic with their surface plasmon resonance peaks in the near infrared region (wavelength from 700 to 800 nm, combining desirable magnetic and plasmonic properties into one nanoparticle. They are particularly suitable for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The intact Au surface provides convenient anchorage sites for attachment of targeting molecules, and the particles can be activated by both near infrared lights and magnetic fields. As more and more hollow nanoparticles become available, this synthetic method would find general applications in the fabrication of core–shell multifunctional nanostructures.

  14. Synthesis of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanoparticles without Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized with two kinds of precipitants through a precipitation method. As-prepared nanoparticles in the size around 10 nm with regular spherical-like shape were achieved by adjusting pH values. NaOH and NH3·H2O were used as two precipitants for comparison. The average size of nanoparticles with NH3·H2O precipitant got smaller and represented better dispersibility, while nanoparticles with NaOH precipitant represented better magnetic property. This work provided a simple method without using any organic solvents, organic metal salts, or surfactants which could easily obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with tunable morphology.

  15. Bacteria-mediated precursor-dependent biosynthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide and iron sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharde, Atul A; Parikh, Rasesh Y; Baidakova, Maria; Jouen, Samuel; Hannoyer, Baetrice; Enoki, Toshiaki; Prasad, B L V; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ogale, Satish; Sastry, Murali

    2008-06-01

    The bacterium Actinobacter sp. has been shown to be capable of extracellularly synthesizing iron based magnetic nanoparticles, namely maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) and greigite (Fe3S4) under ambient conditions depending on the nature of precursors used. More precisely, the bacterium synthesized maghemite when reacted with ferric chloride and iron sulfide when exposed to the aqueous solution of ferric chloride-ferrous sulfate. Challenging the bacterium with different metal ions resulted in induction of different proteins, which bring about the specific biochemical transformations in each case leading to the observed products. Maghemite and iron sulfide nanoparticles show superparamagnetic characteristics as expected. Compared to the earlier reports of magnetite and greigite synthesis by magnetotactic bacteria and iron reducing bacteria, which take place strictly under anaerobic conditions, the present procedure offers significant advancement since the reaction occurs under aerobic condition. Moreover, reaction end products can be tuned by the choice of precursors used. PMID:18454562

  16. Application of Iron Nanoparticles for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sukopová, M.; Matysíková, J.; Škvoran, O.; Holba, Marek

    Ostrava : Tanger, 2013, s. 456-460. ISBN 978-80-87294-44-4. [NANOCON 2013. Brno (CZ), 16.10.2013-18.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/196 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : zerovalent iron nanoparticles * copper and nickel removal * industrial wastewater treatment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. Iron nanoparticles prepared from natural ferrihydrite precursors: kinetics and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Filip, J.; David, Bohumil; Zbořil, R.; Mašláň, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 11 (2011), s. 5677-5684. ISSN 1388-0764. [ International Conference on Nanostructured Materials (NANO 2010) /10./. Rome, 13.09.2010-17.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Iron nanoparticles * Ferrihydrite * Reduction * Hydrogen * Magnetic moment * Activation enthalpy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.287, year: 2011

  18. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  19. Progress in electrochemical synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles have been emerged as significant nanomaterials due to its extensive range of application in various fields. In this regard, synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with desirable properties and high potential applications are greatly demanded. Therefore, investigation on different iron oxide phases and their magnetic properties along with various commonly used synthetic techniques are remarked and thoroughly described in this review. Electrochemical synthesis as a newfound method with unique advantages is elaborated, followed by design approaches and key parameters to control the properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Additionally, since the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles is as important as its preparation, surface modification issue has been a serious challenge which is comprehensively discussed using different surfactants. Despite the advantages of the electrochemical synthesis method, this technique has been poorly studied and requires deep investigations on effectual parameters such as current density, pH, electrolyte concentration etc. - Highlights: • IONPs are applied in chemical industries, medicine, magnetic storage etc. • Electrochemical synthesis (EC) is convenient, eco-friendly, selective and low-cost. • EC key factors are current density, pH, electrolyte concentration, electrode type. • Organic, inorganic and biological materials can be used to modify IONPs’ surface. • The physicochemical properties of IONPs can be controlled by adding surfactants

  20. Progress in electrochemical synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira, E-mail: samira_bagheri@um.edu.my; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2014-11-15

    Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles have been emerged as significant nanomaterials due to its extensive range of application in various fields. In this regard, synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with desirable properties and high potential applications are greatly demanded. Therefore, investigation on different iron oxide phases and their magnetic properties along with various commonly used synthetic techniques are remarked and thoroughly described in this review. Electrochemical synthesis as a newfound method with unique advantages is elaborated, followed by design approaches and key parameters to control the properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Additionally, since the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles is as important as its preparation, surface modification issue has been a serious challenge which is comprehensively discussed using different surfactants. Despite the advantages of the electrochemical synthesis method, this technique has been poorly studied and requires deep investigations on effectual parameters such as current density, pH, electrolyte concentration etc. - Highlights: • IONPs are applied in chemical industries, medicine, magnetic storage etc. • Electrochemical synthesis (EC) is convenient, eco-friendly, selective and low-cost. • EC key factors are current density, pH, electrolyte concentration, electrode type. • Organic, inorganic and biological materials can be used to modify IONPs’ surface. • The physicochemical properties of IONPs can be controlled by adding surfactants.

  1. Mercury removal in wastewater by iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, E.; Campillo, G. E.; Morales, G.; Hincapié, C.; Osorio, J.; Arnache, O.; Uribe, J. I.; Jaramillo, F.

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is one of the persistent pollutants in wastewater; it is becoming a severe environmental and public health problem, this is why nowadays its removal is an obligation. Iron oxide nanoparticles are receiving much attention due to their properties, such as: great biocompatibility, ease of separation, high relation of surface-area to volume, surface modifiability, reusability, excellent magnetic properties and relative low cost. In this experiment, Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents, and Aloe Vera as stabilizing agent; then these nanoparticles were characterized by three different measurements: first, using a Zetasizer Nano ZS for their size estimation, secondly UV-visible spectroscopy which showed the existence of resonance of plasmon at λmax∼360 nm, and lastly by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine nanoparticles form. The results of this characterization showed that the obtained Iron oxides nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution (∼100nm). Mercury removal of 70% approximately was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Magnetic irone oxide nanoparticles in photosynthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : It was found and studied the effect of biogenic formation of magnetic inclusions in photosynthetic systems - in various higher plants under the influence of some external stress factors (radiation impact, moisture deficit) and in a model system - a suspension of chloroplasts. For registration and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in the samples used EPR spectrometer because superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a chcracteristic signals of electron magnetic resonance. For direct visualization of magnetic nanoparticles it was used the method of transmission electron microscopy

  3. Laser-driven synthesis and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles of iron have been prepared by laser-driven decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl vapor. In this method, an infrared laser rapidly heats a dilute mixture of precursor vapors to decompose the precursor and initiate particle nucleation. It was found that when using SF6 as a photosensitizer during the synthesis, ferrous fluoride (FeF2) was produced as an undesired byproduct in the product powder. The particle size, composition, and crystalline structure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results of magnetization measurements for small iron nanoparticles (about 5 nm diameter) are also presented, showing superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and a blocking temperature near 125 K

  4. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanini, Amel; Schmitt, Alain; Kacem, Kamel; Chau, François; Ammar, Souad; Gavard, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting field of investigation for the development of new treatments for many human diseases. However, it is necessary to assess the biocompatibility of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo before considering clinical applications. Our characterization of polyol-produced maghemite γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles showed high structural quality. The particles showed a homogeneous spherical size around 10 nm and could form aggregates depending on the dispersion conditions. Such nanoparticles were efficiently taken up in vitro by human endothelial cells, which represent the first biological barrier to nanoparticles in vivo. However, γ-Fe(2)O(3) can cause cell death within 24 hours of exposure, most likely through oxidative stress. Further in vivo exploration suggests that although γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles are rapidly cleared through the urine, they can lead to toxicity in the liver, kidneys and lungs, while the brain and heart remain unaffected. In conclusion, γ-Fe(2)O(3) could exhibit harmful properties and therefore surface coating, cellular targeting, and local exposure should be considered before developing clinical applications. PMID:21589646

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles in different modifications for antimicrobial phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Kozina, Kristina V.; Shelest, Nikita A.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of microorganisms to combined action of blue light and iron oxide nanoparticles. Two strains of Staphylococcus aureus - methicillin-sensitive and meticillin-resistant were used. As a blue light source LED with spectral maximum at 405 nm was taken. The light exposure was ranged from 5 to 30 min. The Fe2O3 (diameter ˜27 nm), Fe3O4 nanoparticles (diameter ˜19 nm), and composite Fe2O3/TiO2 nanoparticles (diameter ˜100 nm) were synthesized. It was shown that irradiation by blue light caused from 20% to 88% decrease in the number of microorganisms treated with nanoparticles. Morphological changes in bacterial cells after phototreatment were analyzed using scanning electron microscope.

  6. Tactic response of bacteria to zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio; Jimenez-Sanchez, Celia; Pratarolo, Paolo; Pullin, Huw; Scott, Thomas B; Thompson, Ian P

    2016-06-01

    The microbial assessment of pollutant toxicity rarely includes behavioral responses. In this study, we investigated the tactic response of Pseudomonas putida G7, a representative of soil bacterium, towards engineered zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs), as a new end-point assessment of toxicity. The study integrated the characterization of size distribution and charge of nZVIs and tactic reaction response by means of inverted capillary assay and computer-assisted motion analysis of motility behavior. Iron nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) were prepared in the absence of oxygen to prevent aggregation, and then exposed in aerobic conditions. We first demonstrate that iron nanoparticles can elicit a negative tactic response in bacteria at low but environmentally-relevant, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 μg/L). Cells were repelled by nZVIs in the concentration gradients created inside the capillaries, and a significant increase in turning events, characteristic of negative taxis, was detected under exposure to nZVIs. These tactic responses were not detectable after sustained exposure of the nanoparticles to oxygen. This new behavioral assessment may be prospected for the design of sensitive bioassays for nanomaterial toxicity. PMID:26967351

  7. Magnetic properties of ultrasmall iron-oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles in organic fluid were synthesized with diameter d ∼ 3 nm. • Very low blocking temperature, TB = 10 K, is determined in accordance with size. • Nanoparticles in fluid are noninteracting, drying brings interaction between nanoparticles. • High influence of surface on the magnetic properties. • High magnetic anisotropy due to surface anisotropy, ∼ 106 erg/cm3, 100 times higher than in bulk. - Abstract: The work presents structural and magnetic properties of ultrasmall magnetic nanoparticles consisting of inorganic iron oxide core and organic ester shell, dispersed in an organic fluid, synthesized via polyol route. The structure analysis shows that nanoparticles are crystalline, less than 3 nm in size, mutually clearly separated. The magnetic properties are in accordance with the size of the nanoparticles and do not indicate interparticle interactions. The particles show pure superparamagnetic behavior with very low blocking temperature. ZFCFC bifurcation and ac susceptibility peaks are at temperatures TB < 12 K. The properties of fluid were compared with dried powder sample. Drying of fluid brings about interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles that considerably affect spin dynamics of the particles. The surface of nanoparticles has a significant influence on their behavior. The Mössbauer parameters indicate existence of γ-Fe2O3 core and non-stoichiometric surface layer. Magnetic field dependent magnetization analysis suggests smaller apparent size of the particles d0 = 0.56 nm. High magnetic anisotropy due to surface layer anisotropy was measured to be of the order 106 erg/cm3 that is two orders of magnitude higher than that in bulk material

  8. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  9. Multifunctional iron oxide nanoparticles for diagnostics, therapy and macromolecule delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics, an area used to combine therapeutics and diagnostics. The recent applications of NPs in miRNA delivery are also reviewed. PMID:24396508

  10. New findings about iron oxide nanoparticles and their different effects on murine primary brain cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Jenni; Wagner, Susanne; Kiwit, Jürgen; Bräuer, Anja U; Glumm, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) enable their application in the diagnostics and therapy of central nervous system diseases. However, since crucial information regarding side effects of particle–cell interactions within the central nervous system is still lacking, we investigated the influence of novel very small iron oxide particles or the clinically approved ferucarbotran or ferumoxytol on the vitality and morphology of brain cells. We exposed primary cell cultures of microglia and hippocampal neurons, as well as neuron–glia cocultures to varying concentrations of SPIOs for 6 and/or 24 hours, respectively. Here, we show that SPIO accumulation by microglia and subsequent morphological alterations strongly depend on the respective nanoparticle type. Microglial viability was severely compromised by high SPIO concentrations, except in the case of ferumoxytol. While ferumoxytol did not cause immediate microglial death, it induced severe morphological alterations and increased degeneration of primary neurons. Additionally, primary neurons clearly degenerated after very small iron oxide particle and ferucarbotran exposure. In neuron–glia cocultures, SPIOs rather stimulated the outgrowth of neuronal processes in a concentration- and particle-dependent manner. We conclude that the influence of SPIOs on brain cells not only depends on the particle type but also on the physiological system they are applied to. PMID:25792834

  11. Capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose approved iron oxide MR contrast agents in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Technical University Munich, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Munich (Germany); Bonaterra, Gabriel [Ruprecht-Karls-University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Heidelberg (Germany); Rudelius, Martina [Technical University Munich, Department of Pathology, Munich (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose various approved iron oxide based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents and to optimize in vitro labeling of these cells. Human monocytes were incubated with two superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) as well as two ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO) at varying iron oxide concentrations and incubation times. Iron uptake in monocytes was proven by histology, quantified by atomic emission absorption spectrometry and depicted with T2* weighted fast field echo (FFE) MR images at 1.5 T. Additionally, induction of apoptosis in iron oxide labeled monocytes was determined by YO-PRO-1 staining. Cellular iron uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with SPIO compared with USPIO. For SPIO, the iron oxide uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with the ionic Ferucarbotran as compared with the non-ionic Ferumoxides. Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with Ferucarbotran at concentrations {>=}500 {mu}g Fe/ml and incubation times {>=}1 h, resulting in a maximal iron oxide uptake of up to 50 pg Fe/cell without impairment of cell viability. In vitro labeling of human monocytes for MR imaging is most effectively obtained with the approved SPIO Ferucarbotran. Potential subsequent in vivo cell tracking applications comprise, e.g. specific targeting of inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  12. Capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose approved iron oxide MR contrast agents in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose various approved iron oxide based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents and to optimize in vitro labeling of these cells. Human monocytes were incubated with two superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) as well as two ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO) at varying iron oxide concentrations and incubation times. Iron uptake in monocytes was proven by histology, quantified by atomic emission absorption spectrometry and depicted with T2* weighted fast field echo (FFE) MR images at 1.5 T. Additionally, induction of apoptosis in iron oxide labeled monocytes was determined by YO-PRO-1 staining. Cellular iron uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with SPIO compared with USPIO. For SPIO, the iron oxide uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with the ionic Ferucarbotran as compared with the non-ionic Ferumoxides. Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with Ferucarbotran at concentrations ≥500 μg Fe/ml and incubation times ≥1 h, resulting in a maximal iron oxide uptake of up to 50 pg Fe/cell without impairment of cell viability. In vitro labeling of human monocytes for MR imaging is most effectively obtained with the approved SPIO Ferucarbotran. Potential subsequent in vivo cell tracking applications comprise, e.g. specific targeting of inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  13. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  14. The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling. (paper)

  15. The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

  16. Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Christy L.; Reece, Lisa M; Key, J.; Bergstrom, Donald E.; Leary, James F

    2008-01-01

    Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) are easily synthesized in organic solvents for industrial applications. However, biological applications require that the particles by readily dispersed in aqueous solutions. To improve their dispersion in aqueous solution, MION particles can be conjugated to water soluble polymers. These water soluble particles can then be used for nanomedicine, which utilizes nanometer scale constructs to treat diseases at the cellular level. Here we report the s...

  17. Size dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Jhunu; Haik, Yousef. E-mail: haik@eng.fsu.edu; Chen, C.-J.Ching-Jen

    2003-02-01

    {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been synthesized by a combination of chemical and ultrasonication procedure and further stabilized with surfactant. Their magnetic properties are compared with the different fractions (10-12, 20-30, 100-150 nm) of commercially available iron oxide. The sizes obtained from the scanning transmission electron micrographs are correlated with the magnetic properties of the particles.

  18. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  19. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  20. Synthesis of Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticle with Amino Pyridine Moiety and Studies on Their Catalytic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Girija, D.; Naik, Halehatty S. Bhojya; Kumar, B. Vinay; Sudhamani, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this paper is to study the synthesis of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle and its reactivity towards chromene synthesis Study design: Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle study. Place and duration of study: Department of Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, between December 2009 and July 2010. Methodology: This paper describes synthesis of stable functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles ...

  1. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosny KM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Mohamed Hosny,1,2 Zainy Mohammed Banjar,3 Amani H Hariri,4 Ali Habiballah Hassan5 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Consultant Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera Genaral Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world’s children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Hariri, Amani H; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world's children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs) were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In conclusion, Fe-SLNs could be a promising carrier for iron with enhanced oral bioavailability. PMID:25609917

  3. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangling Gu; Yancong Zhang; Hanwen Sun; Xinfeng Song; Chunhua Fu; Pingxuan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coated iron oxide nanoparticles have served as a feasible, robust, and functional platform for various biomedical applications. However, there is scarcely a systemic paper reviewed about such functionalising nanomaterials to date. In this review, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of dopamine self-oxidation, the interaction between iron oxide and dopamine, and the functionality and the safety assessment of dopamine modified iron oxide n...

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticle modified monolithic pipette tips for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Křenková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    We have developed iron oxide nanoparticle modified monolithic pipette tips for selective and efficient enrichment of phosphopeptides. Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and stabilized by citrate ions. A stable coating of nanoparticles was obtained via multivalent interactions of citrate ions on the nanoparticle surface with a quaternary amine functionalized surface of the methacrylate based monolithic tips. The performance of the developed and comme...

  5. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahajuddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wahajuddin,1,2 Sumit Arora21Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, IndiaAbstract: A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite or Fe3O4 (magnetite particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to

  6. Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Zafar, Hira; Zia, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Ihsan; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Ali, Joham Sarfraz; Hussain, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs. PMID:27578966

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically assisted patterned coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles able to magnetically assemble during the curing stage of a polymeric support to create micro-scale surface protuberances in a controlled manner were prepared and characterized. The bare Fe3O4 particles were obtained by two methods: co-precipitation from an aqueous solution containing Fe3+/Fe2+ ions with a molar ratio of 2:1 and partial oxidation of ferrous ions in alkaline conditions. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurement. They were subsequently functionalized using oleic acid, sodium oleate, or non-ionic surfactant mixtures with various hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Composite nanoparticle-polymer films prepared by spraying were deposited and cured by drying on glass slides under a static magnetic field in the range of 1.5–5.5 mT. Magnetic field generated surface roughness was evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum hierarchical patterning was obtained with the nanoparticles produced by partial oxidation and functionalized with hydrophobic surfactants. Possible applications may include ice-phobic composite coatings. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles bearing variable hydrophobic functionality were synthesized. • Partial oxidation in alkaline solution is proved to be the optimum synthesis method. • Nanoparticle assembly in magnetic field produced films with hierarchical roughness. • Coating patterning is controlled by surfactant nature and magnetic field strength. • Possible applications in composite films with ice-phobic properties are suggested

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically assisted patterned coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, Gianina; Hritcu, Doina, E-mail: dhritcu@ch.tuiasi.ro; Draganescu, Dan; Popa, Marcel I.

    2015-08-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles able to magnetically assemble during the curing stage of a polymeric support to create micro-scale surface protuberances in a controlled manner were prepared and characterized. The bare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were obtained by two methods: co-precipitation from an aqueous solution containing Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions with a molar ratio of 2:1 and partial oxidation of ferrous ions in alkaline conditions. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurement. They were subsequently functionalized using oleic acid, sodium oleate, or non-ionic surfactant mixtures with various hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Composite nanoparticle-polymer films prepared by spraying were deposited and cured by drying on glass slides under a static magnetic field in the range of 1.5–5.5 mT. Magnetic field generated surface roughness was evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum hierarchical patterning was obtained with the nanoparticles produced by partial oxidation and functionalized with hydrophobic surfactants. Possible applications may include ice-phobic composite coatings. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles bearing variable hydrophobic functionality were synthesized. • Partial oxidation in alkaline solution is proved to be the optimum synthesis method. • Nanoparticle assembly in magnetic field produced films with hierarchical roughness. • Coating patterning is controlled by surfactant nature and magnetic field strength. • Possible applications in composite films with ice-phobic properties are suggested.

  9. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan. PMID:27261762

  10. Mechanism of the reduction of hexavalent chromium by organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles were found to be more efficient in the removal of Cr(VI) than unsupported iron nanoparticles. ► The iron nanoparticles were accommodated by the sectional structure of the clay minerals which were helpful to protect the nanoparticles from aggregating. ► XPS and XANES provided some direct information about the reduction mechanisms. ► The structure of the supported iron nanoparticles was stable in the reaction with Cr(VI). - Abstract: Iron nanoparticles exhibit greater reactivity than micro-sized Fe0, and they impart advantages for groundwater remediation. In this paper, supported iron nanoparticles were synthesized to further enhance the speed and efficiency of remediation. Natural montmorillonite and organo-montmorillonite were chosen as supporting materials. The capacity of supported iron nanoparticles was evaluated, compared to unsupported iron nanoparticles, for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) was much greater with organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles and fitted the pseudo-second order equation better. With a dose at 0.47 g/L, a total removal capacity of 106 mg Cr/g Fe0 was obtained. Other factors that affect the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal, such as pH values, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and storage time of nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were used to figure out the mechanism of the removal of Cr(VI). XPS indicated that the Cr(VI) bound to the particle surface was completely reduced to Cr(III) under a range of conditions. XANES confirmed that the Cr(VI) reacted with iron nanoparticles was completely reduced to Cr(III).

  11. Polymer Films with Ion-Synthesized Cobalt and Iron Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of polymer samples implanted by iron and cobalt. The low-energy (40 keV) implantations were carried out into polyimide and polyethyleneterephthalate with fluences between 2.5x10e16-1.5x10e17 cm-2. The samples were...... studied using several different methods to obtain information on structural and compositional changes as well as on the evolution of electrical and magnetic properties. High-fluence implantation led to significant carbonization of the polymers and formation of metal nanoparticles in the shallow layers....... Correlation between the structural changes, nucleation and percolation of the particles in relation to electronic properties of the composites are found, described and analysed. A few models explaining electrical and magnetic properties of the polymer films with synthesized metal nanoparticles are suggested....

  12. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON DISACCHARIDE TEMPLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B ANILREDDY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharidetemplates. Interaction between iron sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase,followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution ofparticle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solventmedia, size, size distribution and crystallinity and it was found that when the negative value of thezeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with D100 = 275nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particlesize measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–VIS spectra values show that the template is completelyremoved from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks ofthe diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations ofour study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index,band gap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. Alarge negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, as theparticles remained discrete without agglomeration.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  14. Polymer/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Composites—A Straight Forward and Scalable Synthesis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Sommertune; Abhilash Sugunan; Anwar Ahniyaz; Rebecca Stjernberg Bejhed; Anna Sarwe; Christer Johansson; Christoph Balceris; Frank Ludwig; Oliver Posth; Andrea Fornara

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle systems can be divided into single-core nanoparticles (with only one magnetic core per particle) and magnetic multi-core nanoparticles (with several magnetic cores per particle). Here, we report multi-core nanoparticle synthesis based on a controlled precipitation process within a well-defined oil in water emulsion to trap the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in a range of polymer matrices of choice, such as poly(styrene), poly(lactid acid), poly(methyl...

  15. Synthesis, purification and assembly of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Penghe

    , 6 & 7), nanoparticles were assembled into three different hierachical structures through both template-assisted and template-free approaches. In the template-assisted assembly, gold nanorods were aligned into ordered 1D linear pattern by using soft biological filamentous, namely bacteria flagella, as templates. Two different ways of assembling nanorods onto flagella were investigated. In another study, a highly commercialized polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), was discovered for the first time to be able to self-assemble into branched hollow fibers. Based on this discovery, two approaches (one through direct deposition of silica onto the PVP aggregate and the other through co-assembly of PVP covered gold nanoparticles with free PVP molecules) by which the self-assembly behavior of PVP could be exploited to template the formation of branched hollow inorganic fibers were demonstrated. In the template-free assembly, a general method for assembling nanoparticle into clusters (NPCs) in an oil-in-water emulsion system was investigated. Detailed studies on the mechanism of formation of NPCs structure, optimized conditions, scalable production and surface chemistry manipulation were carried out. Besides, comparison of the properties of individual and clustered iron oxide nanoparticles was conducted. It was discovered that due to their collective properties, NPCs are more responsive to an external magnetic field and can potentially serve as better contrast enhancement agents than individually dispersed magnetic NPs in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

  16. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  17. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature

  18. Self-assembled Targeting of Cancer Cells by Iron(III)-doped, Silica Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, K.K. Pohaku; Sandoval, S.; Cortes-Mateos, M. J.; Alfaro, J.G.; Kummel, A. C.; Trogler, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Iron(III)-doped silica nanoshells are shown to possess an in vitro cell-receptor mediated targeting functionality for endocytosis. Compared to plain silica nanoparticles, iron enriched ones are shown to be target-specific, a property that makes them potentially better vehicles for applications, such as drug delivery and tumor imaging, by making them more selective and thereby reducing the nanoparticle dose. Iron(III) in the nanoshells can interact with endogenous transferrin, a serum protein ...

  19. Self-assembled targeting of cancer cells by iron(iii)-doped, silica nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, KKP; Sandoval, S.; Cortes-Mateos, MJ; Alfaro, JG; Kummel, AC; Trogler, WC

    2014-01-01

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Iron(iii)-doped silica nanoshells are shown to possess an in vitro cell-receptor mediated targeting functionality for endocytosis. Compared to plain silica nanoparticles, iron enriched ones are shown to be target-specific, a property that makes them potentially better vehicles for applications, such as drug delivery and tumor imaging, by making them more selective and thereby reducing the nanoparticle dose. Iron(iii) in the nanoshells can interact with endoge...

  20. Comparative study of antibacterial action of iron and copper nanoparticles on clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. Babushkina; V.B. Borodulin; G.V. Korshunov; D.M. Puchinjan

    2010-01-01

    Research objective is to study antibacterial action of nanoparticles of iron and copper on polyantibiotically resistant clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and methods include antibacterial action of nanoparticles of copper and iron on 10 Staphylococcus au¬reus strains, isolated from patients with purulent complications stayed in the in-patient department of traumatology and orthopedics. Solutions of powders of iron and copper have been prepared directly before the experiment in...

  1. Synthesis of carbon-encapsulated iron carbide/iron nanoparticles from phenolic-formaldehyde resin and ferric nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-encapsulated iron carbide/iron nanoparticles have been synthesized on a large scale by the heat treatment of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate. The effects of heating temperature on the morphologies and structures of carbonized products were investigated using transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements. The products with diameter distribution of 20-100 nm consisted mainly of spheroidal nanoparticles separated by hollow onion-like carbon nanoparticles.

  2. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  3. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters with different structure guide agents were synthesized by a modified solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analyses (TG), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the superparamagnetic nanoparticles guided by NaCit (sodium citrate) have high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (Mr) of 0.8 emu/g. Guiding to form superparamagnetic clusters with size range of 80–110 nm, the adherent small-molecule citrate groups on the surface prevent the prefabricated ferrite crystals growing further. In contrast, the primary small crystal guided and stabilized by the PVP long-chain molecules assemble freely to larger ones and stop growing in size range of 100–150 nm, which has saturation magnetization (Ms) of 97.979 emu/g and retentivity (Mr) of 46.323 emu/g. The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed at the end. The superparamagnetic ferrite clusters guided by sodium citrate are expected to be used for movement controlling of passive interference particles to avoid aggregation and the sample guided by PVP will be a candidate of nanometer wave absorbing material. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of two kinds of monodisperse iron oxide nano-particle clusters was performed via a modified one-step solvothermal method in this work. • The NaCit and PVP as different guiding agents are used to control the formation and aggregation of nano-crystals during reacting and the ripening processes. • The superparamagnetic NaCit–Fe3O4 samples have high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (Mr) of 0.8 emu/g. • The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed

  4. 78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, approve copper-clad iron shot and fluoropolymer coatings for hunting waterfowl and coots. We published a proposed rule for approval of copper-clad iron shot and fluoropolymer coatings in the Federal Register on September 26, 2012 (77 FR 59158). We considered comments on the proposed rule, and we believe that neither the shot nor the coatings will pose......

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically assisted patterned coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodi, Gianina; Hritcu, Doina; Draganescu, Dan; Popa, Marcel I.

    2015-08-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles able to magnetically assemble during the curing stage of a polymeric support to create micro-scale surface protuberances in a controlled manner were prepared and characterized. The bare Fe3O4 particles were obtained by two methods: co-precipitation from an aqueous solution containing Fe3+/Fe2+ ions with a molar ratio of 2:1 and partial oxidation of ferrous ions in alkaline conditions. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurement. They were subsequently functionalized using oleic acid, sodium oleate, or non-ionic surfactant mixtures with various hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Composite nanoparticle-polymer films prepared by spraying were deposited and cured by drying on glass slides under a static magnetic field in the range of 1.5-5.5 mT. Magnetic field generated surface roughness was evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum hierarchical patterning was obtained with the nanoparticles produced by partial oxidation and functionalized with hydrophobic surfactants. Possible applications may include ice-phobic composite coatings.

  6. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  7. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for Waterfowl Hunting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of application for nontoxic shot approval. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce that Environ- Metal, Inc., of Sweet Home, Oregon, has applied for our approval of...

  9. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug delivery system in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work was focused on producing improved iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in breast cancer. Nanometric-sized iron oxide particles were synthesized by laser pyrolysis and were morphologically/structurally characterized. These new nanoparticles were compared with some commercial, chemically prepared iron oxide ones. Cytotoxicity and the anti-proliferation effects of nanoparticles were tested in vitro on the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Nanoparticles were further coated with the antracyclinic antibiotic Violamycine B1 and tested for the anti-tumor effect on MCF-7 cells. The nanoparticles produced by us seem more effective in vitro than the commercial ones, with respect to cellular uptake and VB1 delivery. Violamycine B1 bound on nanoparticles is as efficient as the free form, but is better delivered into tumor cells.

  10. Photosensitizer decorated iron oxide nanoparticles: bimodal agent for combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhimou; Xu, Keming; Zhang, Bei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Xixiang; Chang, Chi K.

    2006-02-01

    As the PDT effect may be enhanced by localized hyperthermia (HT), it would be logical to find a single agent that could bring about these two modalities at precisely the target site for synergism. Since highly localized HT can be induced by magnetic field excitation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, we report here the design and synthesis of photosensitizer-decorated iron oxide nanoparticles and their tumoricidal effect. Thus, a porphyrin is covalently anchored on the iron oxide nanoparticle via dihydroxybenzene which binds tightly on the surface of the nanoparticle by M-O bond. The morphology of the resultant nanoparticle was studied to show that the crystallinality is not changed and the nanoparticle remains superparamagnetic at room temperature. The conjugate is also strongly fluorescent indicating that the iron oxide hardly affects the optical properties of the surface bound porphyrin moieties. The conjugate is readily taken by cancer cell (Hela cell line) and is able to trigger apoptosis after excitation by light.

  11. Magnetic study of iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of 3.8, 5 and 8 nm have been infiltrated into the pores of porous silicon. The aim is to create a superparamagnetic (SPM) nanocomposite system with maximized magnetic moment. Therefore the particle size versus the superparamagnetic behaviour has been figured out. The blocking temperature TB which indicates the transition between SPM behaviour and blocked state is not only dependent on the particle size but also the magnetic interactions between them which can be varied by the distance between the particles. Thus a modification, on the one hand of the pore-loading and on the other hand of the porous silicon morphology results in a composite material with a desired TB. Because both materials, the mesoporous silicon matrices as well as the Fe3O4-NPs offer low toxicity the system is a promising candidate for biomedical applications as e.g. magnetic field guided drug delivery. (author)

  12. Synthesis and heating effect of iron/iron oxide composite and iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q.; Baker, I.; Loudis, J. A.; Liao, Y. F.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    Fe/Fe oxide nanoparticles, in which the core consists of metallic Fe and the shell is composed of Fe oxides, were obtained by reduction of an aqueous solution of FeCl 3 within a NaBH 4 solution, or, using a water-in-oil micro-emulsion with CTAB as the surfactant. The reduction was performed either in an inert atmosphere or in air, and passivation with air was performed to produce the Fe/Fe 3O 4 core/shell composite. Phase identification and particle size were determined by X-ray diffraction and TEM. Thermal analysis was performed using a differential scanning calorimeter. The quasistatic magnetic properties were measured using a VSM, and the specific absorption rates (SARs) of both Fe oxide and Fe/Fe 3O 4 composite nanoparticles either dispersed in methanol or in an epoxy resin were measured by Luxtron fiber temperature sensors in an alternating magnetic field of 150 Oe at 250 kHz. It was found that the preparation conditions, including the concentrations of solutions, the mixing procedure and the heat treatment, influence the particle size, the crystal structure and consequently the magnetic properties of the particles. Compared with Fe oxides, the saturation magnetization (MS) of Fe/Fe 3O 4 particles (100-190 emu/g) can be twice as high, and the coercivity (H C) can be tunable from several Oe to several hundred Oe. Hence, the SAR of Fe/Fe 3O 4 composite nanoparticles can be much higher than that of Fe oxides, with a maximum SAR of 345 W/g. The heating behavior is related to the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles.

  13. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis and surface coating techniques for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most popular magnetic nanoparticles used in biomedical applications due to their low cost, low toxicity, and unique magnetic property. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, including magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), usually exhibit a superparamagnetic property as their size goes smaller than 20 nm, which are often denoted as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and utilized for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapy, and etc. This review article gives a brief introduction on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of their fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug delivery, as well as the synthesis approaches, surface coating, and application examples from recent key literatures. Because the quality and surface chemistry play important roles in biomedical applications, our review focuses on the synthesis approaches and surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We aim to provide a detailed introduction to readers who are new to this field, helping them to choose suitable synthesis methods and to optimize the surface chemistry of iron oxide nanoparticles for their interests. (topical review — magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  14. Synthesis, characterization and mechanistic insights of mycogenic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Arpit; Jain, Navin; Manju Barathi L [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences (India); Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed [Jimma University, Department of Applied Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences (Ethiopia); Yun, Yeoung-Sang [Chonbuk National University, Division of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Panwar, Jitendra, E-mail: drjitendrapanwar@yahoo.co.in [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences (India)

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, extracellular synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) was achieved using Aspergillus japonicus isolate AJP01. The isolate demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze the precursor salt solution, a mixture of iron cyanide complexes, under ambient conditions. Hydrolysis of these complexes released ferric and ferrous ions, which underwent protein-mediated coprecipitation and controlled nucleation resulting in the formation of IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, energy dispersive spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mycosynthesis of IONPs. The synthesized particles were cubic in shape with a size range of 60–70 nm with crystal structure corresponding to magnetite. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the absence of IONPs on fungal biomass surface, indicating the extracellular nature of synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of proteins on as-synthesised IONPs, which may confer their stability. Preliminary investigation indicated the role of proteins in the synthesis and stabilization of IONPs. On the basis of present findings, a probable mechanism for synthesis of IONPs is suggested. The simplicity and versatility of the present approach can be utilized for the synthesis of other nanomaterials.

  15. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Seeded Growth of Nucleotide Coordinated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Liu, Biwu; Yuan, Qipeng; Liu, Juewen

    2016-06-22

    The introduction of functional molecules to the surface of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is of critical importance. Most previously reported methods were focused on surface ligand attachment either by physisorption or covalent conjugation, resulting in limited ligand loading capacity. In this work, we report the seeded growth of a nucleotide coordinated polymer shell, which can be considered as a special form of adsorption by forming a complete shell. Among all of the tested metal ions, Fe(3+) is the most efficient for this seeded growth. A diverse range of guest molecules, including small organic dyes, proteins, DNA, and gold NPs, can be encapsulated in the shell. All of these molecules were loaded at a much higher capacity compared to that on the naked iron oxide NP core, confirming the advantage of the coordination polymer (CP) shell. In addition, the CP shell provides better guest protein stability compared to that of simple physisorption while retaining guest activity as confirmed by the entrapped glucose oxidase assay. Use of this system as a peroxidase nanozyme and glucose biosensor was demonstrated, detecting glucose as low as 1.4 μM with excellent stability. This work describes a new way to functionalize inorganic materials with a biocompatible shell. PMID:27248668

  16. Glycoconjugated chitosan stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles as a multifunctional nanoprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remant Bahadur, K.C.; Lee, So Min; Yoo, Eun Soo; Choi, Jin Hyun [Department of Advanced Organic Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ghim, Han Do, E-mail: hdghim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Organic Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-01

    Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) with functional polymer can be used for the preparation of multifunction nanoprobes. The present study dealt with the preparation of glycoconjugated chitosan (GC) stabilized IOPs (GC-IOPs). GC was prepared by direct coupling of lactobionic acid (LA) on chitosan. GC was subsequently grafted onto the surface of IOPs to enhance colloid stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements were performed to investigate the properties of nanoparticles. FT-IR and XRD analysis of GC-IOPs showed that backbone and side chain functionality of chitosan and phase purity of IOPs remained intact during conjugation. TEM observations revealed that GC-IOPs were spherical (8-10 nm) but the dispersibility and stability in acetated buffer (pH 7.4) linearly increased with degree of substitution (DS) of chitosan. The specific magnetization of GC-IOPs was varied with DS from 19.50 to 41.56 emu/g. This variation in colloid stability and specific magnetization suggests that DS can be varied to tailor the degree of dispersion and magnetic properties of IOPs. The advantage of GC-IOPS is the ability to achieve a homogeneous nanosize particle distribution and specific surface functionality for bioconjugation. These characteristics make the GC-IOPs a potential candidate for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis.

  17. Glycoconjugated chitosan stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles as a multifunctional nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) with functional polymer can be used for the preparation of multifunction nanoprobes. The present study dealt with the preparation of glycoconjugated chitosan (GC) stabilized IOPs (GC-IOPs). GC was prepared by direct coupling of lactobionic acid (LA) on chitosan. GC was subsequently grafted onto the surface of IOPs to enhance colloid stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements were performed to investigate the properties of nanoparticles. FT-IR and XRD analysis of GC-IOPs showed that backbone and side chain functionality of chitosan and phase purity of IOPs remained intact during conjugation. TEM observations revealed that GC-IOPs were spherical (8-10 nm) but the dispersibility and stability in acetated buffer (pH 7.4) linearly increased with degree of substitution (DS) of chitosan. The specific magnetization of GC-IOPs was varied with DS from 19.50 to 41.56 emu/g. This variation in colloid stability and specific magnetization suggests that DS can be varied to tailor the degree of dispersion and magnetic properties of IOPs. The advantage of GC-IOPS is the ability to achieve a homogeneous nanosize particle distribution and specific surface functionality for bioconjugation. These characteristics make the GC-IOPs a potential candidate for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis.

  18. Cell Labeling and Targeting with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Brandon J; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J Jonathan; Klabusay, Martin; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery of cells and therapeutic agents would benefit a wide range of biomedical applications by concentrating the therapeutic effect at the target site while minimizing deleterious effects to off-target sites. Magnetic cell targeting is an efficient, safe, and straightforward delivery technique. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are biodegradable, biocompatible, and can be endocytosed into cells to render them responsive to magnetic fields. The synthesis process involves creating magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles followed by high-speed emulsification to form a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coating. The PLGA-magnetite SPIONs are approximately 120 nm in diameter including the approximately 10 nm diameter magnetite core. When placed in culture medium, SPIONs are naturally endocytosed by cells and stored as small clusters within cytoplasmic endosomes. These particles impart sufficient magnetic mass to the cells to allow for targeting within magnetic fields. Numerous cell sorting and targeting applications are enabled by rendering various cell types responsive to magnetic fields. SPIONs have a variety of other biomedical applications as well including use as a medical imaging contrast agent, targeted drug or gene delivery, diagnostic assays, and generation of local hyperthermia for tumor therapy or tissue soldering. PMID:26554870

  19. Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide (α-phase) nanoparticles with coercivity larger than 300 Oe have been fabricated at a mild temperature by an environmentally benign method. The economic sodium chloride has been found to effectively serve as a solid spacer to disperse the iron precursor and to prevent the nanoparticles from agglomeration. Higher ratios of sodium chloride to iron nitrate result in smaller nanoparticles (19 nm for 20:1 and 14 nm for 50:1). The presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) limits the particle growth (15 nm for 20:1 and 13 nm for 50:1) and favors nanoparticle dispersion in polymer matrices. Obvious physicochemical property changes have been observed with PVA attached to the nanoparticle surface. With PVA attached to the nanoparticle surface, the nanoparticles are found not only to increase the PVA cross-linking with an increase in melting temperature but also to enhance the thermal stability of the PVA. The nanoparticles are observed to be uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure also shows an intermediate phase with a strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrices, arising from the hydrogen bonding between the PVA and hydroxyl groups on the nanoparticle surface. The addition of nanoparticles favors the cross-linkage of the bulk PVA matrices, resulting in a higher melting temperature, and an enhanced thermal stability of the polymer matrix.

  20. Photoinitiated coupling of unmodified monosaccharides to iron oxide nanoparticles for sensing proteins and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li-Hong; Dietsch, Hervé; Schurtenberger, Peter; Yan, Mingdi

    2009-01-01

    We report a versatile approach for the immobilization of unmodified monosaccharides onto iron oxide nanoparticles. Covalent coupling of the carbohydrate onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces was accomplished by the CH insertion reaction of photochemically activated phosphate-functionalized perfluorophenylazides (PFPAs), and the resulting glyconanoparticles were characterized by IR, TGA, and TEM. The surface-bound d-mannose showed the recognition ability towards Concanavalin A and Escherichia ...

  1. Toxicity and Biodistribution of Activated and Non-activated Intravenous Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, JA; Ogden, JA; Strawbridge, RR; Pierce, ZE; Hoopes, PJ

    2009-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for al...

  2. Cellular level loading and heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambur, Venkat S; Longmire, Ellen K; Bischof, John C

    2007-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise for a variety of biomedical applications due to their properties of visualization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), heating with radio frequency (rf), and movement in an external magnetic field. In this study, the cellular loading (uptake) mechanism of dextran- and surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs by malignant prostate tumor cells (LNCaP-Pro5) has been studied, and the feasibility of traditional rf treatment and a new laser heating method was evaluated. The kinetics of cell loading was quantified using magnetophoresis and a colorimetric assay. The results showed that loading of surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs with LNCaP-Pro5 was saturable with time (at 24 h) and extracellular concentration (11 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL), indicating that the particles are taken up by an "adsorptive endocytosis" pathway. Dextran-coated NPs, however, were taken up less efficiently (1 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL). Loading did not saturate with concentration suggesting uptake by fluid-phase endocytosis. Magnetophoresis suggests that NP-loaded cells can be held using external magnetic fields in microcirculatory flow velocities in vivo or in an appropriately designed extracorporeal circuit. Loaded cells were heated using traditional rf (260A, 357 kHz) and a new laser method (532 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 0.03 J/pulse, 20 pulse/s). Iron oxide in water was found to absorb sufficiently strongly at 532 nm such that heating of individual NPs and thus loaded cells (1 pg Fe/cell) was effective (10 pg Fe/cell) and longer duration (30 min) when compared to laser to accomplish cell destruction (50% viability at 10 pg Fe/cell). Scaling calculations show that the pulsed laser method can lead to single-cell (loaded with NPs) treatments (200 degrees C temperature change at the surface of an individual NP) unlike traditional rf heating methods which can be used only for bulk tissue level treatments. In a mixture of normal and NP

  3. Effects of external magnetic field on the pulse electrosynthesis of iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile magnetic field assisted electrochemical method is introduced to synthesize the iron nanoparticles by pulse current electrosynthesis in the presence of magnetic fields of 0.4–1.6 T, superimposed to the surface of cathode. Depending on the magnetic field power and the position of magnets, effective changes have seen in the morphology, particle size and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles, which are studied by XRD, SEM, TEM, DLS, and VSM. Based on the experimental results, the arrangement of magnets around the electrochemical cell is more important than the magnetic power. In the presence of a magnetic field of 0.8 T with local power of 48 mT exact on the electrode surface, iron nanoparticles with narrow range of particle size (10–15 nm) is produced in the cathode. - Highlights: • Pulse current electrosynthesis of iron nanoparticles was studied through external magnetic fields. • Magnetic field strongly affects the size, morphology and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles. • The saturation magnetization of iron nanoparticles increases when the magnetic field power increases

  4. Magnetoacoustic imaging of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in biological tissues with microsecond magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental study on magnetoacoustic imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles embedded in biological tissues. In experiments, a large-current-carrying coil is used to deliver microsecond pulsed magnetic stimulation to samples. The ultrasound signals induced by magnetic forces on SPIO nanoparticles are measured by a rotating transducer. The distribution of nanoparticles is reconstructed by a back-projection imaging algorithm. The results demonstrated the feasibility to obtain cross-sectional image of magnetic nanoparticle targets with faithful dimensional and positional information, which suggests a promising tool for tomographic reconstruction of magnetic nanoparticle-labeled diseased tissues (e.g., cancerous tumor) in molecular or clinic imaging.

  5. Ultrafast electron and energy transfer in dye-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Huse, Nils;

    2013-01-01

    An emerging area in chemical science is the study of solid-phase redox reactions using ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. We have used molecules of the photoactive dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) anchored to the surface of iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles to create iron(ii) surface atoms via...

  6. Surface characterisation of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis and coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmen Bautista, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, Oscar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Puerto Morales, Maria del [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Serna, Carlos J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: sabino@icmm.csic.es

    2005-05-15

    The favoured mechanism of adsorption of dextran on the surface of maghemite nanoparticles (5 nm) prepared by laser pyrolysis seems to be the collective hydrogen bonding between dextran hydroxyl groups and iron oxide particle surface. After heating, the formation of a surface complex between the polysaccharide oxygen atoms and the surface iron atoms gave rise to a stronger bonding.

  7. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Raid A., E-mail: raidismail@yahoo.com [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Sulaiman, Ghassan M. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Abdulrahman, Safa A. [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Marzoog, Thorria R. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, (50–110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV–VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. - Highlights: • Synthesis magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria • Captured magnetic nanoparticles by S. aureus bacteria under effect of magnetic field.

  8. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  9. Potentiometric urea biosensor utilizing nanobiocomposite of chitosan-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, A.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Atif, M.; Ansari, Anees A.; Israr, Muhammad Qadir; Sadaf, J.R.; Ahmed, E; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated through a simple, cheap and reproducible approach. Scanning electron microscope, x-rays powder diffraction of the fabricated nanoparticles. Furthermore, the fabrication of potentiometric urea biosensor is carried out through drop casting the initially prepared isopropanol and chitosan solution, containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles, on the glass fiber filter with a diameter of 2 cm and a copper wire (of thickness −500 μm) has been ut...

  10. Rheological characterization of a magnetorheological ferrofluid using iron nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Ahuré-Powell, Louise A.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetorheology of a magnetorheological ferrofluid (MRFF) was investigated to study the role of a ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) additive in magnetorheological fluids (MRFs). Iron nitride (Fe16N2) NPs, nominally within the diameter range of ˜16-45 nm (spherical NPs) and ˜30-66 nm (cubic NPs), were coated with carboxy-polyethylene glycol (carboxy-PEG) and dispersed in silicone oil in order to produce a magnetic carrier fluid or ferrofluid for two solids loadings: 2 vol. % and 5 vol. %. Conventional spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles, varying in diameter from 6 to 10 μm, were suspended in the ferrofluid at 25 vol. % solids loading. Rheological properties of the MRFF synthesized with the carboxy-PEG-based ferromagnetic carrier fluid were compared to the MRF synthesized with silicone oil to determine how ferrofluid can influence dynamic viscosity and yield stress. Rheological measurements of both MRF and MRFF samples were carried out using a Paar Physica 300 rheometer to estimate the field-off viscosity and to measure flow curves (i.e., shear stress vs. shear rate) as a function of magnetic field. A Bingham-plastic model was used to characterize the flow curves, and results show that there is an increase in the dynamic viscosity of the MRFF over the MRF. The ferromagnetic carrier fluid greatly increases yield stress as only 2 vol. % of added carboxy-PEG NPs improves the yield stress performance by almost 5%. A second MRFF sample synthesized with 5 vol. % of added carboxy-PEG NPs contained in the ferrofluid significantly enhanced the yield stress performance by 13% over the MRF at the same CI solids loading (25 vol. %).

  11. Magnetic field calculations for iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ricardo; Mendez Rojas, Miguel; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The susceptibility effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) functionalized with triethylenglycol (TREG) and Polyethylen Glycol (PEG) has been studied, those nanoparticles have the necessary properties to be used in the clinic as contrast media in imaging by MRI[1-3]. We are considering the behavior of the magnetic field as plane wave to explain the electrical and magnetic field produced by SPIONs. Images were acquired on a 1.5T imager Philips, using mFFE Sequence. Three glass capillary tubes with a) TREG (10nm) concentration of 300 μg/ml, and PEGCOOH 6000(10nm) with 300 μg/ml, and 2% agarosa. Magnetic field simulations were calculated in Matlab. The plane wave that comes in contact with a sphere of radius a, an propagation constant k1, and it is in an homogeneous space k2. We consider that the electric field is linearly polarized on x-direction, with a propagation on z-positive-axis. The secondary induced field can be explained from the interior of the sphere and valid exterior points. The referred waves are transmitted and reflected, this is valid only when the wavelength is smaller than the radius of the sphere. The obtained vibrational mode is an answer of the electrical oscillation and this is projection of the disturbed magnetic field. TREG-SPIONs produce more serious susceptibility artefacts compared to PEG-SPIONs. This study is promissory due to the concordance of the results of the simulations and the inhomogeneities showed in the MR images.

  12. Arc-Discharge Synthesis of Iron Encapsulated in Carbon Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chaitoglou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to improve the protection against the oxidation that usually appears in core@shell nanoparticles. Spherical iron nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell were obtained by a modified arc-discharge reactor, which permits controlling the diameter of the iron core and the carbon shell of the particles. Oxidized iron nanoparticles involve a loss of the magnetic characteristics and also changes in the chemical properties. Our nanoparticles show superparamagnetic behavior and high magnetic saturation owing to the high purity α-Fe of core and to the high core sealing, provided by the carbon shell. A liquid iron precursor was injected in the plasma spot dragged by an inert gas flow. A fixed arc-discharge current of 40 A was used to secure a stable discharge, and several samples were produced at different conditions. Transmission electron microscopy indicated an iron core diameter between 5 and 9 nm. Selected area electron diffraction provided evidences of a highly crystalline and dense iron core. The magnetic properties were studied up to 5 K temperature using a superconducting quantum interference device. The results reveal a superparamagnetic behaviour, a narrow size distribution (σg=1.22, and an average diameter of 6 nm for nanoparticles having a blocking temperature near 40 K.

  13. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debanjan Guin; Sunkara V Manorama; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2006-11-01

    We report here the capping of iron oxide nanoparticles with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to make chloroform soluble iron oxide nanoparticles. Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles are well controlled by simply varying the reaction parameters. The synthesized nanocrystallites were characterized by thermal analysis (TG–DTA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for evaluating phase, structure and morphology. 1H NMR spectra of the synthesized samples confirm DMSO, and the capping of DMSO on the ferrite samples. Shift of the S=O stretching frequency in Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra indicates that the bonding between DMSO and ferrite is through an oxygen moiety. The magnetic measurements of all the synthesized samples were investigated with a SQUID magnetometer which shows that the magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the size as well as shape of the iron oxide.

  14. Fibroporous polytetrafluoroethylene modified with iron nanoparticles: Structure and electronic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'kov, A. Yu.; Suzdalev, I. P.; Maksimov, Yu. V.; Nikitin, L. N.; Naumkin, A. V.; Abramchuk, S. S.; Tolstopyatov, E. M.; Grakovich, P. N.

    2013-06-01

    A method for synthesizing iron-containing nanocomposite based on fibroporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is described. Fibroporous PTFE obtained under the radiation of a CO2 laser on block PTFE is modified in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2) to form micro- and nanoporous structures. Porous fluoropolymer is treated with a solution of bis(toluene)iron(0) obtained by metal-vapor synthesis (MVS). The composition and structure of iron-containing fluoropolymer is studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Fe nanoparticles with an average size of 9 nm, consisting of ˜30% FeO and ˜70% Fe3+, are registered in the sample. Fe0 nanoparticles are stabilized in fluoropolymer pores and are coated with nanoparticles of nonstoichiometric iron oxides that have superparamagnetic properties.

  15. Iron nanoparticles grown in a carbon arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.; du Marchie van Voorthuysen, E.; Szymanski, K.; Boom, G.; Verwerft, M.; Jonkman, H.; Niesen, L. [Kijksuniversitet Groningen (Netherlands). Materials Science Centre

    1996-02-01

    Iron particles, encapsulated by graphite layers, were produced by means of the Kratschmer arc discharge method in an iron pentacarbonyl atmosphere. The Moessbauer effect is dominated by the vibration of the particles as a whole. Superparamagnetism is dominant for iron oxide particles. No endohedral iron fullerenes were observed, contrary to a previous report.

  16. Iron nanoparticles grown in a carbon arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron particles, encapsulated by graphite layers, were produced by means of the Kratschmer arc discharge method in an iron pentacarbonyl atmosphere. The Moessbauer effect is dominated by the vibration of the particles as a whole. Superparamagnetism is dominant for iron oxide particles. No endohedral iron fullerenes were observed, contrary to a previous report

  17. Application of factor analysis to XPS valence band of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-Ray photoelectron spectra of nano-sized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were examined with the aim to discriminate the different degree of iron oxidation. Careful analysis of the valence band regions reveals the presence of both Fe3O4 and Fe2O3. The application of factor analysis enabled us to extract the relative molar concentrations of these oxides in the nanoparticles. This is of particular interest in improving the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles whose superparamagnetic character can be optimized to obtain better contrast in images from nuclear magnetic resonance. As a result, the factor analysis allows tuning the nanoparticle synthesis conditions in order to obtain the optimal magnetic properties for imaging. Results obtained by the XPS valence band analysis were compared to the transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements.

  18. Preparation of polylysine-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gao; Zhang, Baolin, E-mail: baolinzhang@ymail.com; Wang, Jun; Xie, Songbo; Li, Xuan

    2015-01-15

    Polylysine (PLL) coated iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have potential in biomedical application. In the present work PEG coated SPIONs (PEG-SPIONs) with the particle size of 9.4±1.4 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} in PEG, and then coated with PLL (PLL/PEG-SPIONs). The PEG-SPIONs and PLL/PEG-SPIONs were superparamagnetic with the saturation magnetization of 53 and 44 emu/g, respectively. The hydrodynamic diameter of PEG-SPIONs in deionized water was 18.8 nm, which increased to 21.3−28.2 nm after mixing with different amount of PLL. The zeta potentials of PLL/PEG-SPIONs were −8.9 − −3.4 mV which were changing with time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses indicated that PLL was attached to the PEG-SPIONs. - Highlights: ●Hydrophilic PEG-SPIONs were synthesized by a thermal decomposition approach. ●The PEG-SPIONs were successfully coated with PLL. ●PEG-SPIONs and PLL/PEG-SPIONs have small hydrodynamic sizes. ●Both PEG-SPIONs and PLL/PEG-SPIONs showed superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K.

  19. Toxicity assessment of iron oxide nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Zhu

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ≥10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology.

  20. Biocompatibility of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Si-Feng Shi,1 Jing-Fu Jia,2 Xiao-Kui Guo,3 Ya-Ping Zhao,2 De-Sheng Chen,1 Yong-Yuan Guo,1 Tao Cheng,1 Xian-Long Zhang11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Bone disorders (including osteoporosis, loosening of a prosthesis, and bone infections are of great concern to the medical community and are difficult to cure. Therapies are available to treat such diseases, but all have drawbacks and are not specifically targeted to the site of disease. Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical community, including for orthopedic applications. The aim of the present study was to coat chitosan onto iron oxide nanoparticles and to determine its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.Methods: Nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, zeta potential, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Uptake of nanoparticles by osteoblasts was studied by transmission electron microscopy and Prussian blue staining. Viability and proliferation of osteoblasts were measured in the presence of uncoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles or those coated with chitosan. Lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein synthesis, and extracellular calcium deposition was studied in the presence of the nanoparticles.Results: Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles enhanced osteoblast proliferation, decreased cell membrane damage, and promoted cell differentiation, as indicated by an increase in alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposition. Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed good compatibility with osteoblasts.Conclusion: Further research is necessary to optimize magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of bone disease

  1. New findings about iron oxide nanoparticles and their different effects on murine primary brain cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubert J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jenni Neubert,1 Susanne Wagner,2 Jürgen Kiwit,3 Anja U Bräuer,1,* Jana Glumm1,3,* 1Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Center for Anatomy, 2Institute for Radiology, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, 3Clinic for Neurosurgery, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The physicochemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs enable their application in the diagnostics and therapy of central nervous system diseases. However, since crucial information regarding side effects of particle–cell interactions within the central nervous system is still lacking, we investigated the influence of novel very small iron oxide particles or the clinically approved ferucarbotran or ferumoxytol on the vitality and morphology of brain cells. We exposed primary cell cultures of microglia and hippocampal neurons, as well as neuron–glia cocultures to varying concentrations of SPIOs for 6 and/or 24 hours, respectively. Here, we show that SPIO accumulation by microglia and subsequent morphological alterations strongly depend on the respective nanoparticle type. Microglial viability was severely compromised by high SPIO concentrations, except in the case of ferumoxytol. While ferumoxytol did not cause immediate microglial death, it induced severe morphological alterations and increased degeneration of primary neurons. Additionally, primary neurons clearly degenerated after very small iron oxide particle and ferucarbotran exposure. In neuron–glia cocultures, SPIOs rather stimulated the outgrowth of neuronal processes in a concentration- and particle-dependent manner. We conclude that the influence of SPIOs on brain cells not only depends on the particle type but also on the physiological system they are applied to. Keywords: microglia, hippocampal neurons, degeneration, morphology, nanoparticles 

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has accumulated an ultimate interest over the last decade due to their distinctive properties that make them applicable in various fields of science and technology. Metal nanoparticles that are synthesized by using plants have emerged as nontoxic and ecofriendly. In this study a very cheap and simple conventional heating method was used to obtain the iron nanoparticles (FeNPs using the leaves extract of Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides plant. The iron nanoparticles were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The antibacterial activity was studied against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus by using well-diffusion method.

  3. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered iron nanoparticles are being explored for the development of biomedical applications and many other industry purposes. However, to date little is known concerning the precise mechanisms of translocation of iron nanoparticles into targeted tissues and organs from blood circulation, as well as the underlying implications of potential harmful health effects in human. Results The confocal microscopy imaging analysis demonstrates that exposure to engineered iron nanoparticles induces an increase in cell permeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Our studies further reveal iron nanoparticles enhance the permeability through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stabilization of microtubules. We also showed Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways are involved in iron nanoparticle-induced cell permeability. The inhibition of ROS demonstrate ROS play a major role in regulating Akt/GSK-3β – mediated cell permeability upon iron nanoparticle exposure. These results provide new insights into the bioreactivity of engineered iron nanoparticles which can inform potential applications in medical imaging or drug delivery. Conclusion Our results indicate that exposure to iron nanoparticles induces an increase in endothelial cell permeability through ROS oxidative stress-modulated microtubule remodeling. The findings from this study provide new understandings on the effects of nanoparticles on vascular transport of macromolecules and drugs.

  4. Enhanced anion sensing by γ-irradiated polyphenol capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method was designed for the synthesis of polyphenol capped amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) using an agro waste (peanut skin). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, IR, Raman and XRD. An increased rate of formation of the nanoparticles is observed upon low dose gamma irradiation. ION shows specific spectral features with perchlorate anion even in presence of other anions selected for the anion sensing study. The nanoparticles formed in presence of irradiation was found even more sensitive to lower concentration of perchlorate owing to its finely dispersed nature and increased surface area. (author)

  5. Preparation and characterization of thermosensitive PNIPAA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengmao; Zhang, Linna; He, Benfang; Wu, Zhishen

    2008-08-01

    A new and facile approach was established to fabricate thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAA) coated iron oxide nanoparticles in a non-aqueous medium. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticle-doped composite were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The thermosensitivity of the composite was also investigated. Results indicated that the oil-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated with PNIPAA, composed of an inorganic iron oxide core and biocompatible PNIPAA shell, were dispersed well in water and had a sphere-like shape. The PNIPAA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with such a kind of core-shell structure showed excellent thermosensitivity. Namely, the aqueous suspension of PNIPAA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles dramatically changed from transparent to opaque as the temperature increased from room temperature to 38 °C, showing potential as optical transmittance switch materials and their significance in the fields of protein adsorption and purification controlled release, and drug delivery.

  6. Stabilization and cellular delivery of chitosan-polyphosphate nanoparticles by incorporation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giovanna; Hillaireau, Hervé; Capiau, Pauline; Chacun, Hélène; Reynaud, Franceline; Fattal, Elias

    2014-11-28

    Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles are typically obtained by complexation with tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions, or more recently using triphosphate group-containing drugs such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is an active molecule we aim to deliver in order to restore its depletion in macrophages, when associated with their death leading to plaque rupture in atherosclerotic lesions. Despite high interest in CS nanoparticles for drug delivery, due to the biodegradability of CS and to the ease of the preparation process, these systems tend to readily disintegrate when diluted in physiological media. Some stabilization strategies have been proposed so far but they typically involve the addition of a coating agent or chemical cross-linkers. In this study, we propose the complexation of CS with iron ions prior to nanoparticle formation as a strategy to improve the carrier stability. This can be achieved thanks to the ability of iron to strongly bind both chitosan and phosphate groups. Nanoparticles were obtained from either TPP or ATP and chitosan-iron (CS-Fe) complexes containing 3 to 12% w/w iron. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the binding affinity of TPP and ATP to CS-Fe increased with the iron content of CS-Fe complexes. The stability of these nanoparticles in physiological conditions was evaluated by turbidity and by fluorescence fluctuation in real time upon dilution by electrolytes, and revealed an important stabilization effect of CS-Fe compared to CS, increasing with the iron content. Furthermore, in vitro studies on two macrophage cell lines (J774A.1 and THP-1) revealed that ATP uptake is improved consistently with the iron content of CS-Fe/ATP nanoparticles, and correlated to their lower dissociation in biological medium, allowing interesting perspectives for the intracellular delivery of ATP. PMID:25192940

  7. Vapour phase approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis from solid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mandeep; Ulbrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Vadym [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Pavel [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Šantavá, Eva [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Štěpánek, František, E-mail: Frantisek.Stepanek@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-15

    A new non-solution mediated approach to the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles directly from solid FeCl{sub 2} salt precursors has been developed. The method is rapid, simple and scalable. The structural properties and the phase of the resulting iron oxide particles has been determined by a range of methods including XRD, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the phase is shown to be maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The magnetic properties of the iron oxide particles have been measured using SQUID, confirming superparamagnetic behaviour of the powder and a saturation magnetization of 53.0 emu g{sup −1} at 300 K. Aqueous dispersions at increasing concentrations were prepared and their heating rate under a 400 kHz alternating magnetic field measured. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the iron oxide was found to be 84.8 W g{sup −1}, which makes the material suitable for the formulation of ferrofluids or ferrogels with RF heating properties. - Graphical Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by a novel vapour phase approach. Highlights: ► Novel vapour phase (non-solvent) approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis. ► Attractive alternative approach to the present co-precipitation method. ► Better magnetic properties with high coercivity of nanoparticles. ► A high specific absorption rate (SAR) for hyperthermia applications.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-iron oxide core-shell composite nanoparticles for thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wydra, Robert J.; Kruse, Anastasia M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Bae, Younsoo [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Anderson, Kimberly W. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: hilt@engr.uky.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, core-shell nanoparticles were developed to achieve thermal therapy that can ablate cancer cells in a remotely controlled manner. The core-shell nanoparticles were prepared using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to coat iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The iron oxide core allows for the remote heating of the particles in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The coating of iron oxide with PEG was verified through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. A thermoablation (55 °C) study was performed on A549 lung carcinoma cells exposed to nanoparticles and over a 10 min AMF exposure. The successful thermoablation of A549 demonstrates the potential use of polymer coated particles for thermal therapy. - Highlights: • Utilized atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with PEG • Investigated the surface coating by surface characterization methods • Demonstrated the potential use of nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications.

  9. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... approval for copper-clad iron shot in the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36980), and one for the fluoropolymer shot coatings on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39983). Having completed our review of the application..., 1994, ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951),...

  10. Study of iron oxide nanoparticles in soil for remediation of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Heather J., E-mail: heather.shipley@utsa.edu; Engates, Karen E.; Guettner, Allison M. [University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2011-06-15

    There is a growing interest in the use of nanoparticles for environmental applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. One possible application is the removal of contaminants from water. In this study, the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (19.3 nm magnetite and 37.0 nm hematite) were examined to remove arsenate and arsenite through column studies. The columns contained 1.5 or 15 wt% iron oxide nanoparticles and soil. Arsenic experiments were conducted with 1.5 wt% iron oxides at 1.5 and 6 mL/h with initial arsenate and arsenite concentrations of 100 {mu}g/L. Arsenic release occurred after 400 PV, and 100% release was reached. A long-term study was conducted with 15 wt% magnetite nanoparticles in soil at 0.3 mL/h with an initial arsenate concentration of 100 {mu}g/L. A negligible arsenate concentration occurred for 3559.6 pore volumes (PVs) (132.1 d). Eventually, the arsenate concentration reached about 20% after 9884.1 PV (207.9 d). A retardation factor of about 6742 was calculated indicating strong adsorption of arsenic to the magnetite nanoparticles in the column. Also, increased adsorption was observed after flow interruption. Other experiments showed that arsenic and 12 other metals (V, Cr, Co, Mn, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, Sb, Tl, Th, U) could be simultaneously removed by the iron oxide nanoparticles in soil. Effluent concentrations were less than 10% for six out of the 12 metals. Desorption experiment showed partial irreversible sorption of arsenic to the iron oxide nanoparticle surface. Strong adsorption, large retardation factor, and resistant desorption suggest that magnetite and hematite nanoparticles have the potential to be used to remove arsenic in sandy soil possibly through in situ techniques.

  11. Comparative study of antibacterial action of iron and copper nanoparticles on clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Babushkina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to study antibacterial action of nanoparticles of iron and copper on polyantibiotically resistant clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and methods include antibacterial action of nanoparticles of copper and iron on 10 Staphylococcus au¬reus strains, isolated from patients with purulent complications stayed in the in-patient department of traumatology and orthopedics. Solutions of powders of iron and copper have been prepared directly before the experiment in concentra¬tion from 0,001 to 1 mg/ml. it has been revealed that the influence of nanoparticles on growth of clinical strains and the intensity of antibacterial effect depends on the form of nanoparticles, their concentration and action time. concentration of 0,1 mg/ml and 1 mg/ ml of iron nanoparticles has provoked the decrease in quantity of microbe cells from 3 to 34 % (p <0,01. in smaller concentrations the reliable antibacterial effect has not been observed. Antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles has been expressed in a wide range of concentrations from 0,001 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml, even during short-term action (30 minutes it has provoked reduction of quantity of the microbe cells grown on the firm nutrient medium, 97-100 % in comparison with the control (p <0,001. in conclusion it is to point out that copper nanoparticles have more expressed inhibitory effect on growth of clini��cal strains of golden staphylococcus than iron nanoparticle suspension. inhibition degree depends on superdispersed powder dosage and incubation period

  12. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10-20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.

  13. Comparison of iron oxide nanoparticle and waterbath hyperthermia cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, J. A.; Tate, J. A.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Ivkov, R.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The development of medical grade iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) has renewed interest in hyperthermia cancer therapy. Because of their modifiable size and heating capabilities under an AC magnetic field (alternating magnetic field, AMF), IONPs have the potential to damage or kill cells in a manner more therapeutically efficient than previous hyperthermia techniques. The use of IONPs in hyperthermia cancer therapy has prompted numerous questions regarding the cytotoxic mechanism associated with IONP heat therapy and if such mechanism is different (more or less effective) with respect to conventional hyperthermia techniques. In this in vitro study, we determine the immediate and long-term (24 hours) cytotoxic effects of isothermal IONP hyperthermia treatment versus a conventional global heating technique (water bath). Using the same heating time and temperature we showed significantly greater cytotoxicity in IONP-heated cells as opposed to water bath-treated cells. We postulate that the difference in treatment efficacy is due to the spatial relationship of particle-induced thermal damage within cells. Although the exact mechanism is still unclear, it appears likely that intracellular IONPs have to achieve a very high temperature in order to heat the surrounding environment; therefore it is reasonable to assume that particles localized to specific areas of the cell such as the membrane can deliver exacerbated injury to those areas. In this experiment, although detectable global temperature for the particle-heated cells stands comparable to the conventional heat treatment, particle-induced cell death is higher. From the results of this study, we propose that the mechanism of IONP hyperthermia renders enhanced cytotoxicity compared to conventional waterbath hyperthermia at the same measured thermal dose.

  14. Iron nanoparticles grown in a carbon arc discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.L.; du Marchie van Voorthuysen, E.H.; Szymanski, K.; Boom, G; Verwerft, M.G M; Jonkman, H.T.; Niesen, L

    1996-01-01

    Iron particles, encapsulated by graphite layers, were produced by means of the Kratschmer are discharge method in an iron pentacarbonyl atmosphere. The Mossbauer effect is dominated by the vibration of the particles as a whole. Superparamagnetism is dominant for iron oxide particles. No endohedral i

  15. Effect of coating thickness of iron oxide nanoparticles on their relaxivity in the MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajesmaeelzadeh, Farzaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Grüttner, Cordula; Daha, Fariba Johari; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI. Materials and Methods: We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles. Results: The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly. Conclusion: According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:27081461

  16. High-performance iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging - guided hyperthermia (hMPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lisa M.; Situ, Shu F.; Griswold, Mark A.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal through selective doping of magnetite nanoparticles with zinc. Moreover, we demonstrated focused magnetic hyperthermia heating by adapting the field gradient used in MPI. By saturating the iron oxide nanoparticles outside of a field free region (FFR) with an external static field, we can selectively heat a target region in our test sample. By comparing zinc-doped magnetite cubic nanoparticles with undoped spherical nanoparticles, we could show a 5-fold improvement in the specific absorption rate (SAR) in magnetic hyperthermia while providing good MPI signal, thereby demonstrating the potential for high-performance focused hyperthermia therapy through an MPI-guided approach (hMPI).Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal

  17. Nucleation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Mms6 Protein in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Sanjay [Ames Laboratory; Woehl, Taylor J [Ames Laboratory; Liu, Xunpei [Iowa State University; Mallapragada, Surya K [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Tanya [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-23

    Biomineralization proteins are widely used as templating agents in biomimetic synthesis of a variety of organic–inorganic nanostructures. However, the role of the protein in controlling the nucleation and growth of biomimetic particles is not well understood, because the mechanism of the bioinspired reaction is often deduced from ex situ analysis of the resultant nanoscale mineral phase. Here we report the direct visualization of biomimetic iron oxide nanoparticle nucleation mediated by an acidic bacterial recombinant protein, Mms6, during an in situ reaction induced by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide to solution-phase Mms6 protein micelles incubated with ferric chloride. Using in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy we observe the liquid iron prenucleation phase and nascent amorphous nanoparticles forming preferentially on the surface of protein micelles. Our results provide insight into the early steps of protein-mediated biomimetic nucleation of iron oxide and point to the importance of an extended protein surface during nanoparticle formation.

  18. Preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles from FeCl3 solid powder using microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nashaat; Husein, Maen

    2006-05-01

    Nanoparticles of iron oxide were prepared by subjecting iron chloride powder to (w/o) microemulsions consisting of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT), isooctane and water. FeCl3 was first dissolved in the water pools of the microemulsion, and then reacted with NaOH added as an aqueous solution to form iron oxide. The amount of NaOH solution was limited so that single microemulsion phase is obtained. This technique serves as an in-situ nanoparticle preparation technique aimed at minimizing particle aggregation associated with particle transportation to required sites. In this study, the effects of AOT concentration and water to AOT mole ratio on the nanoparticle size were investigated. UV/Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure the particle size distribution.

  19. The convenient preparation of stable aryl-coated zerovalent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guselnikova, Olga A; Galanov, Andrey I; Gutakovskii, Anton K; Postnikov, Pavel S

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach for the in situ synthesis of zerovalent aryl-coated iron nanoparticles (NPs) based on diazonium salt chemistry is proposed. Surface-modified zerovalent iron NPs (ZVI NPs) were prepared by simple chemical reduction of iron(III) chloride aqueous solution followed by in situ modification using water soluble arenediazonium tosylate. The resulting NPs, with average iron core diameter of 21 nm, were coated with a 10 nm thick organic layer to provide long-term protection in air for the highly reactive zerovalent iron core up to 180 °C. The surface-modified iron NPs possess a high grafting density of the aryl group on the NPs surface of 1.23 mmol/g. FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, HRTEM, TGA/DTA, and elemental analysis were performed in order to characterize the resulting material. PMID:26171295

  20. Synthesis and Magneto-Thermal Actuation of Iron Oxide Core-PNIPAM Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhals, Steffen; Zirbs, Ronald; Reimhult, Erik

    2015-09-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been proposed for many applications in biotechnology and medicine. In this paper, it is demonstrated how the excellent colloidal stability and magnetic properties of monodisperse and individually densely grafted iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to manipulate reversibly the solubility of nanoparticles with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)nitrodopamine shell. "Grafting-to" and "grafting-from" methods for synthesis of an irreversibly anchored brush shell to monodisperse, oleic acid coated iron oxide cores are compared. Thereafter, it is shown that local heating by magnetic fields as well as global thermal heating can be used to efficiently and reversibly aggregate, magnetically extract nanoparticles from solution and spontaneously redisperse them. The coupling of magnetic and thermally responsive properties points to novel uses as smart materials, for example, in integrated devices for molecular separation and extraction. PMID:26270412

  1. Colloidal Stability and Monodispersible Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Biotechnology Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamili, K.; Rajesh, E. M.; Rajendran, R.; Madhan Shankar, S. R.; Elango, M.; Abitha Devi, N.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are promising material for various biological applications. In the recent decades, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have great attention in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). This review focuses on the colloidal stability and monodispersity properties of MNPs, which pay more attention toward biomedical applications. The simplest and the most promising method for the synthesis of MNPs is co-precipitation. The biocompatible MNPs are more interested in MRI application. This review also apportions synthesis, characterization and applications of MNP in biological and biomedical as theranostics and imaging.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of transparent yellow iron oxide nanoparticles on human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhu, Mo-Tao; Wang, Bing; Wang, Meng; Wang, Hua-Jian; OuYang, Hong; Feng, Wei-Yue

    2010-12-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology, concerns about the possible adverse health effects on human beings by using nanomaterials have been raised. Transparent yellow iron oxide (alpha-FeOOH) nanoparticles have been widely used in paints, plastic, rubber, building materials, papermaking, food products and pharmaceutical industry, thus the potential health implications by the exposure should be considered. The purpose of this study is to assess the cytotoxicity of transparent yellow iron oxide nanoparticles on U251 human glioma cells. The alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles are in clubbed shapes with 9 nm in diameter and 43 nm long. The specific surface area is 115.3 m2/g. After physicochemical characterization of the nanoparticles, U251 cells were exposed to a-FeOOH at the doses of 0, 3.75, 15, 60 and 120 microg/mL. The results showed that the alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles reduced the cell viability and induced necrosis and apoptosis in U251 cells. In addition, nanoparticle exposure significantly increased the levels of superoxide anion and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent fashion in the cells. Our results suggest that exposure to alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles induce significant free radical formation and cytotoxic effects. The large surface area that induced high surface reactivity may play an important role in the cytotoxic effect of alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles. PMID:21121365

  3. Use of PEI-coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Gene Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦卫中; 徐春芳; 吴华

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (polyMAG-1000) as gene vectors. The surface characteristics of the nanoparticles were observed with scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the nanoparticles to combine with and protect DNA was investigated at different PH values after polyMAG-1000 and DNA were combined in different ratios. The nanoparticles were tested as gene vectors with in vitro transfection models. Under the scanning electron microscope the nanoparticles were about 100 nm in diameter.The nanoparticles could bind and condense DNA under acid, neutral and alkaline conditions, and they could transfer genes into cells and express green fluorescent proteins (GFP). The transfection efficiency was highest (51 %) when the ratio of nanoparticles to DNA was 1:1 (v:w). In that ratio, the difference in transfection efficiency was marked depending on whether a magnetic field was present or not: about 10 % when it was absent but 51 % when it was present. The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PEI may potentially be used as gene vectors.

  4. Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayal, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V., E-mail: ramanujan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-04-06

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  5. Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe3O4), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  6. Tracking Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Loaded Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chenjie; Miranda-Nieves, David; Ankrum, James A.; Matthiesen, Mads Emil; Phillips, Joseph A.; Roes, Isaac; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Juneja, Vikram; Kultima, Jens Roat; Zhao, Weian; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Lin, Charles P.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the location, distribution and long-term engraftment of administered cells is critical for demonstrating the success of a cell therapy. Among available imaging-based cell tracking tools, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is advantageous due to its non-invasiveness, deep penetration, and high spatial resolution. While tracking cells in pre-clinical models via internalized MRI contrast agents (iron oxide nanoparticles, IO-NPs) is a widely used method, IO-NPs suffer from low iron conte...

  7. Biologically Inspired Design of Biocompatible Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Demirer, Gözde S.; Okur, Aysu C; Kızılel, Seda

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of decades considerable research efforts have been directed towards the synthesis and coating of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for biomedical applications. To address the current limitations, recent studies have focused on the design of new generation nanoparticle systems whose internalization and targeting capabilities have been improved through surface modifications. This review covers the most recent challenges and advances in the development of IONPs with enhance...

  8. Numerical prediction of diffusion and electric field-induced iron nanoparticle transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Helena I.; Rodríguez-Maroto, José Miguel; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Pamukcu, Sibel; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) are considered very promising for the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. However, an important issue related to their limited mobility remains unsolved. Direct current can be used to enhance the nanoparticles transport, based on the same principles of electrokinetic remediation. In this work, a generalized physicochemical model was developed and solved numerically to describe the nZVI transport through porous media under electric field, a...

  9. Surfactant free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for stable ferrofluids in physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, K; Straßer, M; Granath, T; Dembski, S; Sextl, G

    2015-02-18

    A process is reported to obtain a nanoparticle sol from co-precipitated iron oxide particles without using any surfactant. The sol - a true ferrofluid - is not only stable over a wide range of pH but also in physiological solutions. This is a decisive step towards biomedical applications where nanoparticle agglomeration could so far only be prevented by using unwanted surfactants. PMID:25580829

  10. Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticle Assisted Electrocoagulation of Arsenic with electromagnetic Separation of Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez P.; Hansen H. K.

    2013-01-01

    A new arsenic removal process was designed combining: 1) iron nanoparticle addition, b) electrocoagulation, and c) electromagnetic separation. Results showed that arsenic could be removed with more than 99 % efficiency from liquid waste samples. Parameters that were found to have importance on the process were: a) nanoparticle dosage, b) electric voltage drop during electrocoagulation, b) pH of the solution, d) arsenic concentration, and e) electromagnetic field distribution during solid sepa...

  11. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Widenkvist; Oscar Alm; Mats Boman; Ulf Jansson; Helena Grennberg

    2011-01-01

    A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  12. Iron overload by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles is a High Risk Factor in Cirrhosis by a Systems Toxicology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yushuang; Zhao, Mengzhu; Yang, Fang; Mao, Yang; Xie, Hang; Zhou, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent have been widely used in magnetic resonance imaging for tumor diagnosis and theranostics. However, there has been safety concern of SPIONs with cirrhosis related to excess iron-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the impact of iron overload by SPIONs was assessed on a mouse cirrhosis model. A single dose of SPION injection at 0.5 or 5 mg Fe/kg in the cirrhosis group induced a septic shock response at 24 h with elevated serum levels of liver and kidney function markers and extended impacts over 14 days including high levels of serum cholesterols and persistent low serum iron level. In contrast, full restoration of liver functions was found in the normal group with the same dosages over time. Analysis with PCR array of the toxicity pathways revealed the high dose of SPIONs induced significant expression changes of a distinct subset of genes in the cirrhosis liver. All these results suggested that excess iron of the high dose of SPIONs might be a risk factor for cirrhosis because of the marked impacts of elevated lipid metabolism, disruption of iron homeostasis and possibly, aggravated loss of liver functions. PMID:27357559

  13. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Distel, Luitpold V.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kryschi, Carola, E-mail: kryschi@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  14. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with γFe2O3 and Fe3O4 structure were prepared. ► SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. ► The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. ► Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber–Weiss reaction. ► X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber–Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  15. Lactoferrin conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting brain glioma cells in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Asahi; Arami, Hamed; Gandhi, Sonu; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new real-time imaging modality, which promises high tracer mass sensitivity and spatial resolution directly generated from iron oxide nanoparticles. In this study, monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles with median core diameters ranging from 14 to 26 nm were synthesized and their surface was conjugated with lactoferrin to convert them into brain glioma targeting agents. The conjugation was confirmed with the increase of the hydrodynamic diameters, change of zeta potential, and Bradford assay. Magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS), performed to evaluate the MPI performance of these nanoparticles, showed no change in signal after lactoferrin conjugation to nanoparticles for all core diameters, suggesting that the MPI signal is dominated by Néel relaxation and thus independent of hydrodynamic size difference or presence of coating molecules before and after conjugations. For this range of core sizes (14-26 nm), both MPS signal intensity and spatial resolution improved with increasing core diameter of nanoparticles. The lactoferrin conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (Lf-IONPs) showed specific cellular internalization into C6 cells with a 5-fold increase in MPS signal compared to IONPs without lactoferrin, both after 24 h incubation. These results suggest that Lf-IONPs can be used as tracers for targeted brain glioma imaging using MPI.

  16. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles

  17. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Azlan, Abdul Aziz [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Lab, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Nano-Biotechnology Research (Malaysia); Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles.

  18. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Azlan, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and potential applications of iron-platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwana, Vikas

    Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles with controlled size and geometry have drawn great attention in the last decade for fundamental scientific studies and for their potential applications in advanced materials and devices such as ultra-high-density magnetic recording media, exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets, biomedicines and nanodevices. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles and their use in potential applications. The FePt nanoparticles of different size (2 to 16 nm) and shape (spherical, cubic, rod) were synthesized by a chemical solution method. The size and shape of these particles were controlled by adjusting reaction parameters. The as-synthesized FePt nanoparticles have chemically disordered fcc structure and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Upon heat treatment the nanoparticles were transformed into ordered L10 structure, and high coercivity up to 27 kOe was achieved. Magnetic properties of annealed FePt nanoparticles including magnetization and coercivity were strongly dependent on particle size, shape, composition and annealing temperature. FePt/Fe3O4 bimagnetic nanoparticles with two different morphologies, core/shell and heterodimer, were prepared by coating or attaching Fe3O4 on surface of FePt nanoparticles. The size of FePt and Fe3O4 was tuned very finely to obtain most effective exchange coupling. The heterodimer nanoparticles resulted in relatively poor magnetic properties compared to the core/shell nanoparticles due to insufficient exchange coupling. By optimizing the dimensions of the FePt and Fe3O 4 in core/shell bimagnetic nanoparticles, energy products up to 17.8 MGOe were achieved. FePt/Fe3O4 core/shell and FePt+Fe3O 4 mixed nanoparticles with similar magnetic properties were compacted under 2.0 GPa at 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. A density up to 84% of the full density was achieved. After annealing at 650°C in forming gas, the FePt/Fe3O4 compacted samples were converted into L10 Fe

  20. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  1. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells

  2. Size-Dependent Accumulation of PEGylated Silane-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Murine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, T.; Wittenborn, T.;

    2009-01-01

    two distinct size subpopulations of 20 and 40 nm mean diameters with increased phagocytic uptake observed for the 40 nm size range in vitro. MRI detection revealed greater iron accumulation in murine tumors for 40 nm nanoparticles after intravenous injection. The enhanced MRI contrast of the larger......Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be used as contrast-enhancing agents to visualize tumors by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we describe an easy synthesis method of magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and demonstrate size-dependent accumulation in murine tumors...

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Banerjee, Indranil [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Das, Manasmita [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Mishra, Debashish; Maiti, Tapas K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Pramanik, Panchanan, E-mail: dipsikha.chem@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T{sub 2} contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T{sub 2} relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T2 contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T2 relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  5. Mössbauer, magnetization and X-ray diffraction characterization methods for iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbasov, Raul, E-mail: gabbasov-raul@yandex.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, Michael; Cherepanov, Valery [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chuev, Michael; Mischenko, Iliya; Lomov, Andrey [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wang, Andrew [Ocean NanoTech. Springdale, AR (United States); Panchenko, Vladislav [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Water soluble magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with oleic polymer coating and average diameters in the range of 5–25 nm, previously determined by TEM, were characterized using Mössbauer, magnetization and X-ray diffraction measurements. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrated a large diversity of magnetic relaxation regimes. Analysis showed the presence of an additional impurity component in the 25 nm nanoparticles, with principally different magnetic nature at the magnetite core. In some cases, X-ray diffraction measurements were unable to estimate the size of the magnetic core and Mössbauer data were necessary for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. - Highlights: • KV parameter, obtained from Mössbauer spectra can be used for nanoparticle size characterization. • Mössbauer spectra of 10–25 nm nanoparticles can be effectively described by ferromagnetic model. • Surface impurities can cause incorrect nanoparticle size determination.

  6. Mössbauer, magnetization and X-ray diffraction characterization methods for iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water soluble magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with oleic polymer coating and average diameters in the range of 5–25 nm, previously determined by TEM, were characterized using Mössbauer, magnetization and X-ray diffraction measurements. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrated a large diversity of magnetic relaxation regimes. Analysis showed the presence of an additional impurity component in the 25 nm nanoparticles, with principally different magnetic nature at the magnetite core. In some cases, X-ray diffraction measurements were unable to estimate the size of the magnetic core and Mössbauer data were necessary for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. - Highlights: • KV parameter, obtained from Mössbauer spectra can be used for nanoparticle size characterization. • Mössbauer spectra of 10–25 nm nanoparticles can be effectively described by ferromagnetic model. • Surface impurities can cause incorrect nanoparticle size determination

  7. Pulsed Plasma Synthesis of Iron and Nickel Nanoparticles Coated by Carbon for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaeva, Zhypargul; Omurzak, Emil; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Ihara, Hirotaka; Subban Ganapathy, Hullathy; Sulaimankulova, Saadat; Koinuma, Michio; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Fe and Ni magnetic nanoparticles coated by carbon were synthesized between the Fe-Fe and Ni-Ni metal electrodes, submerged in ethanol using pulsed plasma in a liquid method. Iron coated carbon (Fe@C) nanoparticles have an average size of 32 nm, and Ni@C nanoparticles are 40 nm. Obtained samples exhibit a well-defined crystalline structure of the inner Fe and Ni cores, encapsulated in the graphitic carbon coatings. Cytotoxicity studies performed on the MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line showed small toxicity about 88-74% at 50 µg/mL of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles, which can be significant criteria for use them in medical cancer treatment. In addition, appropriate sizes, good magnetic properties and well-organized graphitic carbon coatings are highlight merits of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene coated iron oxide nanoparticles and asymmetric assemblies by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2014-09-02

    Films with a gradient concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are reported, based on a phase inversion membrane process. Nanoparticles with ∼13 nm diameter were prepared by coprecipitation in aqueous solution and stabilized by oleic acid. They were further functionalized by ATRP leading to grafted polystyrene brush. The final nanoparticles of 33 nm diameter were characterized by TGA, FTIR spectroscopy, GPC, transmission electron microscopy, and dynanmic light scattering. Asymmetric porous nanoparticle assemblies were then prepared by solution casting and immersion in water. The nanocomposite film production with functionalized nanoparticles is fast and technically scalable. The morphologies of films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, demonstrating the presence of sponge-like structures and finger-like cavities when 50 and 13 wt % casting solutions were, respectively, used. The magnetic properties were evaluated using vibrating sample magnetometer.

  9. Synthesis of porous superparamagnetic iron oxides from colloidal nanoparticles: Effect of calcination temperature and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured iron oxides with superparamagnetism were synthesized from colloidal particles of hydrous iron oxide. The synthesis procedure involved preparation of acetone-nanoparticle composite and calcination of the composite in air or nitrogen. The effects of calcination temperature and atmosphere on the properties of the products were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption, thermal analysis and vibrating-sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the materials. The products calcined in flowing air are composed of nanoparticles, while those calcined in flowing nitrogen contain nanosheets. The former has larger specific surface areas, whereas the latter has stronger saturation magnetization in external magnetic field. Increasing calcination temperature reduced the specific surface area of the product, whereas enhanced its saturation magnetization. Furthermore, the iron oxides with superparamagnetism showed good affinity to arsenite, and therefore they could be potential adsorbents for arsenic remediation in water. - Highlights: • Nanostructured superparamagnetic iron oxides were synthesized from colloidal nanoparticles. • Calcination in air led to formation of nanoparticles. • Calcination in nitrogen led to formation of nanosheets. • The superparamagnetic materials had high adsorption capabilities for arsenite

  10. Antibacterial Efficacy of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles against Biofilms on Different Biomaterial Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Thukkaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm growth on the implant surface is the number one cause of the failure of the implants. Biofilms on implant surfaces are hard to eliminate by antibiotics due to the protection offered by the exopolymeric substances that embed the organisms in a matrix, impenetrable for most antibiotics and immune cells. Application of metals in nanoscale is considered to resolve biofilm formation. Here we studied the effect of iron-oxide nanoparticles over biofilm formation on different biomaterial surfaces and pluronic coated surfaces. Bacterial adhesion for 30 min showed significant reduction in bacterial adhesion on pluronic coated surfaces compared to other surfaces. Subsequently, bacteria were allowed to grow for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of iron-oxide nanoparticles. A significant reduction in biofilm growth was observed in the presence of the highest concentration of iron-oxide nanoparticles on pluronic coated surfaces compared to other surfaces. Therefore, combination of polymer brush coating and iron-oxide nanoparticles could show a significant reduction in biofilm formation.

  11. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  12. Alternating magnetic field energy absorption in the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a viscous medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolkova, I.S.; Kazantseva, N.E.; Babayan, V.; Smolka, P.; Parmar, H.; Vilcakova, J.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Pizúrová, Naděžda

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 374, JAN (2015), s. 508-515. ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Iron oxide nanoparticles * Coprecipitation * Magnetic interactions * Specific loss power * Hyperthermia Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  13. Iron(II,III)-polyphenol complex nanoparticles derived from green tea with remarkable ecotoxicological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several greener methods exist to synthesize zero–valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) using different bio-based reducing agents. Although their useful properties in degradation of organic dyes, chlorinated organics, or arsenic have been described earlier, their characteriza...

  14. Use of iron nanoparticles for post-treatment of metal finishing wastewater

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysíková, J.; Sukopová, M.; Škvoran, O.; Holba, Marek

    Ostrava: Tanger Ltd, 2015, s. 475-480. ISBN 978-80-87294-53-6. [NANOCON 2014. International Conference /6./. Brno (CZ), 05.11.2014-07.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/196 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : zerovalent iron nanoparticles * metal finishing wastewater * copper and nickel removal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. High yield, facile aqueous synthesis and characterization of C18 functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kishore Kumar; Kaur, Ranjeet; Iqbal, Nusrat; Hasan, Abshar; Alam, Samsul; Raza, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    The present study shows the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by co-precipitation method in three steps. The steps involve the precipitation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles followed by layer by layer functionalization with silica and tetraethoxy(octadyl)silane (C18). The prepared magnetite nanoparticles were investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR and VSM. It was suggested that the intermediate iron oxide nanoparticles were formed by the competing processes of oxidation and crystal growth after decomposition of ferrous and ferric salts. The first step synthesized nanoparticles were of around 16 ± 4 nm, second step silica coating of 18 ± 3 nm and the final step C18 were of 56 ± 6 nm. The tetraethylorthosilicate hydrolyzed to form silicic acid which further polymerizes and thereby forms a layer of silica over magnetite nanoparticles. FTIR peaks at 2854 and 2921 cm-1 confirm the layering of C18 on silica encapsulated nanoparticles which corresponds to ˜CH2 and ˜(CH2)17CH3 carbon chain symmetric extension. The thickness of silica coating and C18 are 1.9 ± 0.3 nm and 38.6 ± 2.5 nm as confirmed from TEM size distribution curve. The saturation magnetism of magnetite, silica coated and C18 nanoparticles are 77.46, 74.53 and 68.76 emu g-1 respectively. Thus, Fe3O4, silica and C18 encapsulated magnetite nanoparticles were superparamagnetic.

  16. Use of triethylene glycol monobutyl ether in synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Seda; Ozel, Fatmahan; Kockar, Hakan; Tanrisever, Taner

    2014-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron-oleate complex using triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TREGBE) as solvent for the first time for more mass of the nanoparticles. The effect of TREGBE on the properties of the nanoparticles was compared with that of 1-hexadecene. The impact of oleic acid concentration on the properties of the nanoparticles was also studied. On the use of TREGBE as compared with 1-hexadecene, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm whereas the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g. Moreover, more products can be synthesized using TREGBE. Besides, the interactions between particle surfaces and TREGBE are weaker than that of 1-hexadecene according to gravimetric analysis results. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. The electron microscopy showed that dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing amount of oleic acid molecules using TREGBE. The results disclosed that TREGBE is quite a suitable solvent to synthesize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the desired size and Ms for more mass production at low temperature.

  17. Preparation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a novel solvothermal approach using divalent iron salt as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are obtained via solvothermal approach using Fe2+ salt as iron resource. The magnetic properties can be modified by some additives. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile one-step novel solvothermal method. ► The system is firstly performed in water–glycol mixture solvent with an ordinary air surrounding. ► The ferrous ions are used as iron source without adding oxidant. ► It is firstly found the low-coercivity CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can be obtained with the help of some additives in the synthesis system. -- Abstract: Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile novel solvothermal method. The reactions are firstly performed in water–glycol system and Fe2+ salt is used as iron source without oxidant help. Some factors influenced the reactions, including temperature, reaction time, additives, are investigated. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The magnetic properties of some samples are detected by vibrating sample magnetometry techniques (VSM). It is firstly found that the magnetism of cobalt ferrites nanomaterials can be modified by some additives. The coercivity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles evidently decreases from 600 to 50 Oe in the presence of PEG-4000 in the system.

  18. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  19. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with variably sized polyethylene glycol in murine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found widespread applications in different areas including cell separation, drug delivery and as contrast agents. Due to water insolubility and stability issues, nanoparticles utilized for biological applications require coatings such as the commonly employed...... polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333–20 000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size......, lower surface charge, longer circulation half-life, and lower uptake in macrophage cells when the particles were coated with high molecular weight (Mw) PEG molecules. By use of magnetic resonance imaging, we show coating-dependent in vivo uptake in murine tumors with an optimal coating Mw of 10 000 Da...

  20. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Young, Mark [Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Douglas, Trevor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)], E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu

    2009-02-15

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  1. Fluorophore-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticle labeling and analysis of engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Dustin J; Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A;

    2008-01-01

    The use of nanometer-sized iron oxide particles combined with molecular imaging techniques enables dynamic studies of homing and trafficking of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Identifying clinically applicable strategies for loading nanoparticles into primitive HSC requires strictly defined...... culture conditions to maintain viability without inducing terminal differentiation. In the current study, fluorescent molecules were covalently linked to dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Feridex) to characterize human HSC labeling to monitor the engraftment process. Conjugating fluorophores to the...... vivo. Transplantation of purified primary human cord blood lineage-depleted and CD34(+) cells into immunodeficient mice allowed detection of labeled human HSC in the recipient bones. Flow cytometry was used to precisely quantitate the cell populations that had sequestered the nanoparticles and to...

  2. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles and their conjuntion with water soluble polymers for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with suitable bio-compatible substances have been used in biomedicine, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue engineering, and hyperthermia and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the synthesis of SPION and its surface modification for in-vitro experiments. The particle diameter and structure were estimated by FESEM, TEM, XRD analyses. The saturation magnetization was characterized. SPION with a mean size of 12 nm have been prepared under N2 atmosphere, with support of natural polymeric starch, by controlling chemical coprecipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts ratios of Fe2+ and Fe3+. The surface of SPION-nanoparticles was treated with a coordinatable agent for higher dispersion ability in water and remaining the superparamagnetic behavior. The prepared iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with starch, dextran, PEG or MPEG to extend the application potential in the quite different engineering field of nano biomedicine.

  3. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles and their conjuntion with water soluble polymers for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thanh Huong; Lam Thi Kieu Giang; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Quoc Minh [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: nthuong@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with suitable bio-compatible substances have been used in biomedicine, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue engineering, and hyperthermia and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the synthesis of SPION and its surface modification for in-vitro experiments. The particle diameter and structure were estimated by FESEM, TEM, XRD analyses. The saturation magnetization was characterized. SPION with a mean size of 12 nm have been prepared under N{sub 2} atmosphere, with support of natural polymeric starch, by controlling chemical coprecipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts ratios of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The surface of SPION-nanoparticles was treated with a coordinatable agent for higher dispersion ability in water and remaining the superparamagnetic behavior. The prepared iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with starch, dextran, PEG or MPEG to extend the application potential in the quite different engineering field of nano biomedicine.

  4. Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticle Assisted Electrocoagulation of Arsenic with electromagnetic Separation of Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new arsenic removal process was designed combining: 1 iron nanoparticle addition, b electrocoagulation, and c electromagnetic separation. Results showed that arsenic could be removed with more than 99 % efficiency from liquid waste samples. Parameters that were found to have importance on the process were: a nanoparticle dosage, b electric voltage drop during electrocoagulation, b pH of the solution, d arsenic concentration, and e electromagnetic field distribution during solid separation. Arsenic could efficiently be removed by iron nanoparticles during electrocoagulation. Afterwards the arsenic containing particles were separated from the solution by electromagnetic fields. This new process could be a feasible alternative to conventional arsenic treatment in liquid waste streams.

  5. Toxicity, toxicokinetics and biodistribution of dextran stabilized Iron oxide Nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, N S; Syama, S; Sabareeswaran, A; Mohanan, P V

    2016-09-10

    Advancement in the field of nanoscience and technology has alarmingly raised the call for comprehending the potential health effects caused by deliberate or unintentional exposure to nanoparticles. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have an increasing number of biomedical applications and hence a complete toxicological profile of the nanomaterial is therefore a mandatory requirement prior to its intended usage to ensure safety and to minimize potential health hazards upon its exposure. The present study elucidates the toxicity of in house synthesized Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DINP) in a regulatory perspective through various routes of exposure, its associated molecular, immune, genotoxic, carcinogenic effects and bio distribution profile. Synthesized ferrite nanomaterials were successfully coated with dextran (behavior changes or visible pathological lesions. Furthermore no anticipated health hazards are likely to be associated with the use of DINP and could be concluded that the synthesized DINP is nontoxic/safe to be used for biomedical applications. PMID:27451271

  6. Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, S., E-mail: sdadfarnia@yazd.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haji Shabani, A.M.; Moradi, S.E. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emami, S. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)). • Studying the capability of (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)) for the removal of methyl red. • Studying the adsorption kinetic of MR on (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)). • Studying the adsorption thermodynamic of MR on (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)). • Introduction of a sorbent with high capacity for MR removal. - Abstract: The objective followed by this research is the synthesis of iron based metal organic framework loaded on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)) and the study of its capability for the removal of methyl red. Effective parameters in the selection of a new adsorbent, i.e. adsorption capacity, thermodynamics, and kinetics were investigated. All the studies were carried out in batch experiments. Removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions varied with the amount of adsorbent, methyl red contact time, initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage, and solution pH. The capability of the synthesized adsorbent in the removal of methyl red was compared with the metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The results show that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposite exhibits an enhanced adsorption capacity.

  7. Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)). • Studying the capability of (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)) for the removal of methyl red. • Studying the adsorption kinetic of MR on (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)). • Studying the adsorption thermodynamic of MR on (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)). • Introduction of a sorbent with high capacity for MR removal. - Abstract: The objective followed by this research is the synthesis of iron based metal organic framework loaded on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)) and the study of its capability for the removal of methyl red. Effective parameters in the selection of a new adsorbent, i.e. adsorption capacity, thermodynamics, and kinetics were investigated. All the studies were carried out in batch experiments. Removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions varied with the amount of adsorbent, methyl red contact time, initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage, and solution pH. The capability of the synthesized adsorbent in the removal of methyl red was compared with the metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The results show that Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposite exhibits an enhanced adsorption capacity

  8. Lectin-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for reproductive improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Semen ejaculates contain heterogeneous sperm populations that can jeopardize male fertility. Recent development of nanotechnology in physiological systems may have applications in reproductive biology. Here, we used magnetic nanoparticles as a novel strategy for sperm purification to imp...

  9. Pressure effects in hollow and solid iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, N.J.O., E-mail: nunojoao@ua.pt [Departamento de Física and CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Saisho, S.; Mito, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Millán, A.; Palacio, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cabot, A. [Universitat de Barcelona and Catalonia Energy Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); Iglesias, Ò.; Labarta, A. [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    We report a study on the pressure response of the anisotropy energy of hollow and solid maghemite nanoparticles. The differences between the maghemite samples are understood in terms of size, magnetic anisotropy and shape of the particles. In particular, the differences between hollow and solid samples are due to the different shape of the nanoparticles and by comparing both pressure responses it is possible to conclude that the shell has a larger pressure response when compared to the core. - Highlights: ► Study of the pressure response of core and shell magnetic anisotropy. ► Contrast between hollow and solid maghemite nanoparticles. ► Disentanglement of nanoparticles core and shell magnetic properties.

  10. Purification of Lysosomes Using Supraparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, Adam P; Pryor, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Lysosomes can be rapidly isolated from tissue culture cells using supraparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIONs). In this protocol, colloidal iron dextran (FeDex) particles, a type of SPION, are taken up by cultured mouse macrophage cells via the endocytic pathway. The SPIONs accumulate in lysosomes, the end point of the endocytic pathway, permitting the lysosomes to be isolated magnetically. The purified lysosomes are suitable for in vitro fusion assays or for proteomic analysis. PMID:27037068

  11. PAMAM dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization of different generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodadust, Rouhollah, E-mail: raoul.1357@gmail.com; Unsoy, Gozde [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Yalc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, Serap [Ahi Evran University, Department of Food Engineering (Turkey); Gunduz, Gungor [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey); Gunduz, Ufuk, E-mail: ufukg@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of different generations (G{sub 0}-G{sub 7}) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs). In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for dendrimer coating. Aminosilane-modified MNPs were coated with PAMAM dendrimer. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. TEM images demonstrated that the DcMNPs have monodisperse size distribution with an average particle diameter of 16 {+-} 5 nm. DcMNPs were found to be superparamagnetic through VSM analysis. The synthesis, aminosilane modification, and dendrimer coating of iron oxide nanoparticles were validated by FTIR and XPS analyses. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles was studied by inverted light scattering microscopy, and cytotoxicity was determined by XTT analysis. Results demonstrated that the synthesized DcMNPs, with their functional groups, symmetry perfection, size distribution, improved magnetic properties, and nontoxic characteristics could be suitable nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy upon loading with various anticancer agents.

  12. PAMAM dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization of different generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of different generations (G0–G7) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs). In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for dendrimer coating. Aminosilane-modified MNPs were coated with PAMAM dendrimer. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. TEM images demonstrated that the DcMNPs have monodisperse size distribution with an average particle diameter of 16 ± 5 nm. DcMNPs were found to be superparamagnetic through VSM analysis. The synthesis, aminosilane modification, and dendrimer coating of iron oxide nanoparticles were validated by FTIR and XPS analyses. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles was studied by inverted light scattering microscopy, and cytotoxicity was determined by XTT analysis. Results demonstrated that the synthesized DcMNPs, with their functional groups, symmetry perfection, size distribution, improved magnetic properties, and nontoxic characteristics could be suitable nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy upon loading with various anticancer agents.

  13. Remote magnetic targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles for cardiovascular diagnosis and therapeutic drug delivery: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietenbeck, Michael; Florian, Anca; Faber, Cornelius; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for an accurate assessment of both functional and structural cardiac parameters, and thereby appropriate diagnosis and validation of cardiovascular diseases. The diagnostic yield of cardiovascular MRI examinations is often increased by the use of contrast agents that are almost exclusively based on gadolinium compounds. Another clinically approved contrast medium is composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs). These particles may expand the field of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI as recently shown in clinical studies focusing on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, IONs open up new research opportunities such as remote magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The approach of MDT relies on the coupling of bioactive molecules and magnetic nanoparticles to form an injectable complex. This complex, in turn, can be attracted to and retained at a desired target inside the body with the help of applied magnetic fields. In comparison to common systemic drug applications, MDT techniques promise both higher concentrations at the target site and lower concentrations elsewhere in the body. Moreover, concurrent or subsequent MRI can be used for noninvasive monitoring of drug distribution and successful delivery to the desired organ in vivo. This review does not only illustrate the basic conceptual and biophysical principles of IONs, but also focuses on new research activities and achievements in the cardiovascular field, mainly in the management of AMI. Based on the presentation of successful MDT applications in preclinical models of AMI, novel approaches and the translational potential of MDT are discussed. PMID:27486321

  14. Increased optical contrast in imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor using magnetically actuated hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Jesse S.; Oh, Junghwan; Larson, Timothy A.; Kumar, Sonia; Milner, Thomas E.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a new approach for optical imaging that combines the advantages of molecularly targeted plasmonic nanoparticles and magnetic actuation. This combination is achieved through hybrid nanoparticles with an iron oxide core surrounded by a gold layer. The nanoparticles are targeted in-vitro to epidermal growth factor receptor, a common cancer biomarker. The gold portion resonantly scatters visible light giving a strong optical signal and the superparamagnetic core provides a means to externally modulate the optical signal. The combination of bright plasmon resonance scattering and magnetic actuation produces a dramatic increase in contrast in optical imaging of cells labeled with hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Optimization of processing temperature in the nitridation process for the synthesis of iron nitride nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated an effective strategy on the nitridation process to synthesize ε-Fe3N nanoparticles (NPs) from the zero valent iron NPs as a starting material. The transformation of iron into iron nitride phase was systematically studied by performing the nitridation process at different processing temperatures. The phase, crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. Morphology and size of the ZVINPs and ε-Fe3N NPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Further, their room temperature magnetic properties were studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer and it revealed that the magnetic property of ε-Fe3N is associated with ratio of Fe-N in the iron nitride system

  16. Optimization of processing temperature in the nitridation process for the synthesis of iron nitride nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohith Vinod, K.; Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S., E-mail: balasuga@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Chennai-600025 (India); Saravanan, P. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2015-06-24

    We have demonstrated an effective strategy on the nitridation process to synthesize ε-Fe{sub 3}N nanoparticles (NPs) from the zero valent iron NPs as a starting material. The transformation of iron into iron nitride phase was systematically studied by performing the nitridation process at different processing temperatures. The phase, crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. Morphology and size of the ZVINPs and ε-Fe{sub 3}N NPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Further, their room temperature magnetic properties were studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer and it revealed that the magnetic property of ε-Fe{sub 3}N is associated with ratio of Fe-N in the iron nitride system.

  17. Structural and morphological investigation of magnetic nanoparticles based on iron oxides for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Paula S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: pferreira@lnls.br; Martins, Tatiana M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6165, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); D' Souza-Li, Lilia [Laboratorio de Endocrinologia Pediatrica da Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM), UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Li, Li M. [Departamento de Neurologia da FCM, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Metze, Konradin; Adam, Randall L. [Grupo interdisciplinar ' Patologia Analitica Celular' , Departamento de Anatomia Patologica da FCM, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Knobel, Marcelo [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6165, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Zanchet, Daniela [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis, characterization and properties of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications, correlating the nanoscale tunabilities in terms of size, structure, and magnetism. Magnetic nanoparticles in different conditions were prepared through thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} in the presence of 1,2 hexadecanodiol (reducing agent) and oleic acid and oleylamine (ligands) in a hot organic solvent. The 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was exchanged onto the nanocrystal surface making the particles stable in water. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Preliminary tests of incorporation of these nanoparticles in cells and their magnetic resonance image (MRI) were also carried out. The magnetization characterizations were made by isothermal magnetic measurements.

  18. Single step synthesis, characterization and applications of curcumin functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Rohit; Gupta, Prachi; Dziubla, Thomas; Hilt, J Zach

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been well known for their applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, etc. The surface modification of these magnetic nanoparticles has been explored extensively to achieve functionalized materials with potential application in biomedical, environmental and catalysis field. Herein, we report a novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles without any additional linkers, using a simple coprecipitation technique. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecule. PMID:27287099

  19. MR Relaxivity Measurement of Iron Oxide Nano-Particles for MR Lymphography Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Firouznia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the T1, T2 and T2* relaxivity of Ultrasmall Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO nano-particles in vitro and in vivo in rat models with magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5T. First, relaxation properties of USPIO nano-particles at different doses were measured using related SE and GRE MR imaging protocols. The relation between dose and relaxation were observed which is linear; Higher dose of the nano-particles means higher relaxivity. Based on this relation, an optimum protocol can be proposed for obtaining the best image contrast at each situation. Then detection ability of MRI protocols was studied for USPIO nano-particles with injection of the particles in the rat. The optimum MR protocols were used to observe the signal change of lymph nodes in rat.

  20. In vivo monitoring of rat macrophages labeled with poly(l-lysine)-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babič, Michal; Schmiedtová, Martina; Poledne, Rudolf; Herynek, Vít; Horák, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Coprecipitation of FeCl2 and FeCl3 with aqueous ammonia was used to prepare iron oxide nanoparticles dispersible in aqueous medium. Oxidation of the particles with sodium hypochlorite then yielded maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ) nanoparticles which were coated with two types of coating -d-mannose or poly(l-lysine) (PLL) as confirmed by FTIR analysis. The particles were commercial Resovist® were used to label rat macrophages. The viability and contrast properties of labeled macrophages were compared. PLL-coated γ-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles were found optimal. The labeled macrophages were injected to rats monitored in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging up to 48 h. Transport of macrophages labeled with PLL-γ-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles in rats was confirmed. Tracking of macrophages using the developed particles can be used for monitoring of inflammations and cell migration in cell therapy. PMID:25283523

  1. Cation exchange resin immobilized bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles to facilitate their application in pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Yang, Ning

    2014-04-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) usually suffers from reduction of reactivity by aggregation, difficulty of assembling, environmental release and health concerns. Furthermore, data are lacking on the effect of cheap nickel on debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) by immobilized nZVI in aqueous system. In this study, strong acid polystyrene cation-exchange resins with particle diameter from 0.4 to 0.6 mm were utilized as matrices to immobilize bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles in order to minimize aggregation and environmental leakage risks of nZVI and to enhance their reactivity. Elemental distribution mapping showed that iron particles distributed uniformly on the surface of the resin and nickel particles were dispersed homogeneously into Fe phase. The reaction rate of resin-bound nZVI is about 55% higher than that of dispersed nZVI. The immobilized bimetallic nanoparticles with 9.69% Ni had the highest debromination percent (96%) and reaction rate (0.493 1/h). The existence of Ni significantly improved the debromination rate, due to the surface coverage of catalytic metal on the reductive metal and the formation of a galvanic cell. The environmental dominant congeners, such as BDE 154, 153, 100, 99 and 47, were produced during the process. Outstanding reactive performance, along with magnetic separation assured that resin-bound bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles are promising material that can be utilized to remediate a wide variety of pollutants contaminated sites including polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:24559714

  2. Integrity of 111In-radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Iron-oxide nanoparticles can act as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while radiolabeling the same platform with nuclear medicine isotopes allows imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), modalities that offer better quantification. For successful translation of these multifunctional imaging platforms to clinical use, it is imperative to evaluate the degree to which the association between radioactive label and iron oxide core remains intact in vivo. Methods: We prepared iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by oleic acid and phospholipids which were further radiolabeled with 59Fe, 14C-oleic acid, and 111In. Results: Mouse biodistributions showed 111In preferentially localized in reticuloendothelial organs, liver, spleen and bone. However, there were greater levels of 59Fe than 111In in liver and spleen, but lower levels of 14C. Conclusions: While there is some degree of dissociation between the 111In labeled component of the nanoparticle and the iron oxide core, there is extensive dissociation of the oleic acid component

  3. Adsorbent 2D and 3D carbon matrices with protected magnetic iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, N. L. V.; Escote, M. T.; Valentini, A.; McCafferty, L.; Stolojan, V.; Beliatis, M.; Mills, C. A.; Rhodes, R.; Smith, C. T. G.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the synthesis of two and three dimensional carbonaceous sponges produced directly from graphene oxide (GO) into which functionalized iron nanoparticles can be introduced to render it magnetic. This simple, low cost procedure, wherein an iron polymeric resin precursor is introduced into the carbon framework, results in carbon-based materials with specific surface areas of the order of 93 and 66 m2 g-1, compared to approx. 4 m2 g-1 for graphite, decorated with ferromagnetic iron nanoparticles giving coercivity fields postulated to be 216 and 98 Oe, values typical for ferrite magnets, for 3.2 and 13.5 wt% Fe respectively. The strongly magnetic iron nanoparticles are robustly anchored to the GO sheets by a layer of residual graphite, on the order of 5 nm, formed during the pyrolysis of the precursor material. The applicability of the carbon sponges is demonstrated in their ability to absorb, store and subsequently elute an organic dye, Rhodamine B, from water as required. It is possible to regenerate the carbon-iron hybrid material after adsorption by eluting the dye with a solvent to which it has a high affinity, such as ethanol. The use of a carbon framework opens the hybrid materials to further chemical functionalization, for enhanced chemical uptake of contaminants, or co-decoration with, for example, silver nanoparticles for bactericidal properties. Such analytical properties, combined with the material's magnetic character, offer solutions for environmental decontamination at land and sea, wastewater purification, solvent extraction, and for the concentration of dilute species.

  4. Adsorbent 2D and 3D carbon matrices with protected magnetic iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, N L V; Escote, M T; Valentini, A; McCafferty, L; Stolojan, V; Beliatis, M; Mills, C A; Rhodes, R; Smith, C T G; Silva, S R P

    2015-11-01

    We report on the synthesis of two and three dimensional carbonaceous sponges produced directly from graphene oxide (GO) into which functionalized iron nanoparticles can be introduced to render it magnetic. This simple, low cost procedure, wherein an iron polymeric resin precursor is introduced into the carbon framework, results in carbon-based materials with specific surface areas of the order of 93 and 66 m(2) g(-1), compared to approx. 4 m(2) g(-1) for graphite, decorated with ferromagnetic iron nanoparticles giving coercivity fields postulated to be 216 and 98 Oe, values typical for ferrite magnets, for 3.2 and 13.5 wt% Fe respectively. The strongly magnetic iron nanoparticles are robustly anchored to the GO sheets by a layer of residual graphite, on the order of 5 nm, formed during the pyrolysis of the precursor material. The applicability of the carbon sponges is demonstrated in their ability to absorb, store and subsequently elute an organic dye, Rhodamine B, from water as required. It is possible to regenerate the carbon-iron hybrid material after adsorption by eluting the dye with a solvent to which it has a high affinity, such as ethanol. The use of a carbon framework opens the hybrid materials to further chemical functionalization, for enhanced chemical uptake of contaminants, or co-decoration with, for example, silver nanoparticles for bactericidal properties. Such analytical properties, combined with the material's magnetic character, offer solutions for environmental decontamination at land and sea, wastewater purification, solvent extraction, and for the concentration of dilute species. PMID:26441224

  5. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on iron oxide magnetic nano-particles and their surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide magnetic nano-particles (MNPs) have been prepared in aqueous solution by a modified co-precipitation method. Surface modifications have been carried out using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), triethoxysilane (TES) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). The uncoated and coated particle products have been characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle sizes were determined from TEM images and found to have mean diameters of 13, 16 and 14 nm for Fe3O4, TES/Fe3O4 and APTMS/Fe3O4, respectively. IR and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to study the effect of thermal annealing on the uncoated and coated particles. The results have shown that magnetite nano-particles are converted to maghemite at 109 °C and then to hematite by 500 °C. In contrast, the study of the effect of thermal annealing of micro-crystalline magnetite by IR spectroscopy revealed that the conversion to hematite began by 300 °C and that no maghemite could be identified as an intermediate phase. IR spectra and TGA measurements revealed that the Si–H and 3-aminopropyl functional groups in TES and APTMS coated magnetite nano-particles decomposed below 500 °C while the silica layer around the iron oxide core remained unchanged. The molecular ratio of APTMS coating to iron oxide core was determined to be 1:7 from the TGA data. Raman scattering signals have indicated that MNPs could be converted to maghemite and then to hematite using increasing power of laser irradiation in a manner similar to that observed for thermal annealing. - Highlights: ► A modified co-precipitation method to prepare dispersive iron oxide magnetic nano-particles. ► Coating the nano-particle with different silicas. ► Estimating the numbers of iron oxide and 3-aminopropylsilica in the coated particles. ► Silica coating may help to protect iron oxide nano-particles from

  6. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  7. The formation of magnetic carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles using precipitation from an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of spinel iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions from an aqueous solution in the presence of carboxymethyldextrane (CMD) was studied. To follow the formation of the nanoparticles, a mixture of the Fe ions, CMD and ammonia was heated to different temperatures, while the samples were taken, quenched in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and magnetometry. The CMD plays a role in the reactions of the Fe ions' precipitation by partially immobilizing the Fe3+ ions into a complex. At room temperature, the amorphous material is precipitated. Then, above approximately 30 °C, the spinel nanoparticles form inside the amorphous matrix, and at approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The CMD bonded to the nanoparticles' surfaces hinders the mass transport and thus prevents their growth. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-dextrane coated iron-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • The carboxymethyl-dextrane significantly modifies formation of the spinel nanoparticles. • The spinel nanoparticles are formed inside the amorphous matrix. • At approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles

  8. The formation of magnetic carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles using precipitation from an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo, E-mail: saso.gyergyek@ijs.si [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Primc, Darinka [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plantan, Ivan [Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Mengeš (Slovenia)

    2015-03-01

    The formation of spinel iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions from an aqueous solution in the presence of carboxymethyldextrane (CMD) was studied. To follow the formation of the nanoparticles, a mixture of the Fe ions, CMD and ammonia was heated to different temperatures, while the samples were taken, quenched in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and magnetometry. The CMD plays a role in the reactions of the Fe ions' precipitation by partially immobilizing the Fe{sup 3+} ions into a complex. At room temperature, the amorphous material is precipitated. Then, above approximately 30 °C, the spinel nanoparticles form inside the amorphous matrix, and at approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The CMD bonded to the nanoparticles' surfaces hinders the mass transport and thus prevents their growth. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-dextrane coated iron-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • The carboxymethyl-dextrane significantly modifies formation of the spinel nanoparticles. • The spinel nanoparticles are formed inside the amorphous matrix. • At approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Self-orderding of iron oxide nanoparticles covered by graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Václav; Vejpravová, Jana; Pacáková, Barbara; Holý, V.; Bernstorff, S.; Kalbáč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2499-2504. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301; GA ČR GAP204/10/1677 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : GISAXS * graphene * iron oxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  10. Characterization and Functionalization of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles for Use as Potential Agents for Cancer Thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Nora

    This thesis presents experimental studies of iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis, functionalization, and intracellular hyperthermal effects on murine macrophages as a model in vitro system. Colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of particular interest in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH). Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have garnered great interest as economical, biocompatible hyperthermia agents due to their superparamagnetic activity. Here we seek to optimize the synthetic reproducibility and in vitro utilization of IONPs for application in MFH. We compared aqueous synthetic protocols and various protective coating techniques using various analytical techniques and in vitro assays to assess the biocompatibility and feasibility of the various preparations of nanoparticles. Using a co-precipitation of iron salts methodology, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with an average diameter of 6-8nm were synthesized and stabilized with carboxylates. By performing calorimetry measurements in an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) with a frequency of 500 kHz and field strength of 0.008Tesla the superparamagnetic behavior of these particles was confirmed. To further investigate these IONPs in a biological application, citric acid-stabilized particles, in conjunction with heat generated by these IONPs when exposed to an OMF, were assessed to determine their effects on cell viability in a RAW 267.4 murine macrophage model system. Our results show that 91.5-97% of cells that have ingested IONPs die follow exposure to an OMF. Importantly, neither the IONPs (at applicable concentrations) nor the OMF show cytotoxic effects. These particular particles have promising preliminary results as hyperthermic agents in both the current literature and simple, proof-of-concept experiments in our laboratory setting. We present experimental results for the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles in MFH. Our results show that while IONPs have

  11. Use of triethylene glycol monobutyl ether in synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron–oleate complex using triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TREGBE) as solvent for the first time for more mass of the nanoparticles. The effect of TREGBE on the properties of the nanoparticles was compared with that of 1-hexadecene. The impact of oleic acid concentration on the properties of the nanoparticles was also studied. On the use of TREGBE as compared with 1-hexadecene, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm whereas the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g. Moreover, more products can be synthesized using TREGBE. Besides, the interactions between particle surfaces and TREGBE are weaker than that of 1-hexadecene according to gravimetric analysis results. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. The electron microscopy showed that dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing amount of oleic acid molecules using TREGBE. The results disclosed that TREGBE is quite a suitable solvent to synthesize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the desired size and Ms for more mass production at low temperature. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron–oleate complex. • On the use of TREGBE, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm. • The crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. • The saturation magnetization Ms increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g with the use of TREGBE. • The dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing oleic acid molecules using TREGBE

  12. Use of triethylene glycol monobutyl ether in synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyaz, Seda [Department of Chemistry, Balikesir University, Balikesir 10145 (Turkey); Ozel, Fatmahan [Department of Physics, Balikesir University, Balıkesir 10145 (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan, E-mail: hkockar@balikesir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Balikesir University, Balıkesir 10145 (Turkey); Tanrisever, Taner [Department of Chemistry, Balikesir University, Balikesir 10145 (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron–oleate complex using triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TREGBE) as solvent for the first time for more mass of the nanoparticles. The effect of TREGBE on the properties of the nanoparticles was compared with that of 1-hexadecene. The impact of oleic acid concentration on the properties of the nanoparticles was also studied. On the use of TREGBE as compared with 1-hexadecene, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm whereas the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g. Moreover, more products can be synthesized using TREGBE. Besides, the interactions between particle surfaces and TREGBE are weaker than that of 1-hexadecene according to gravimetric analysis results. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. The electron microscopy showed that dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing amount of oleic acid molecules using TREGBE. The results disclosed that TREGBE is quite a suitable solvent to synthesize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the desired size and M{sub s} for more mass production at low temperature. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron–oleate complex. • On the use of TREGBE, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm. • The crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. • The saturation magnetization M{sub s} increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g with the use of TREGBE. • The dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing oleic acid molecules using TREGBE.

  13. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Mark; Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Thiel, Karsten; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Grunwald, Ingo; Rezwan, Kurosch; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 µM iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg - 1 protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 °C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 °C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 °C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 °C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  14. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, Mark; Hohnholt, Michaela C; Dringen, Ralf [Center for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Thiel, Karsten; Grunwald, Ingo [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials, Wiener Strasse 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Nuernberger, Sylvia [Department of Traumatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Rezwan, Kurosch, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [Advanced Ceramics, University of Bremen, Am Biologischen Garten 2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-04-08

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 {mu}M iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg{sup -1} protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 deg. C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 deg. C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 deg. C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 deg. C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  15. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 μM iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg-1 protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 deg. C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 deg. C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 deg. C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 deg. C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  16. Influence of rare earth nanoparticles and inoculants on performance and microstructure of high chromium cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yuncheng; WANG You; PAN Zhaoyi; YU Lili

    2012-01-01

    The high chromium cast irons (HCCIs) with rare earth (RE) nanoparticles or inoculants were fabricated in the casting process.The phase compositions and microstructure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM),respectively.The hardness and impact toughness were tested by Rockwel-hardmeter and impacting test enginery.And then,the morphology of fracture was researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results demonstrated that the phase compositions of HCCIs with addition of RE nanoparticles or inoculants which were M7C3 carbides + α -Fe did not change obviously.However,the prime M7C3 carbides morphology had great changes with the increase of RE nanoparticles,which changed from long lath to granular or island shape.When the content of RE nanoparticles was 0.4 wt.%,the microstructure of high chromium cast iron was refined greatly.The microstructure of carbides was coarser when the addition of RE nanoparticles was higher than 0.4 wt.%.The hardness and impact toughness of HCCIs were improved by addition of RE nanoparticles or inoculants.The impact toughness of HCCIs was increased 36.4% with RE nanoparticles of 0.4 wt.%,but the hardness changed slightly.In addition,the adding of RE nanoparticles or inoculants could reduce the degree of the brittle fracture.Fracture never seemed regular,instead,containing lots of laminates and dimples with the increase of the RE nanoparticles.The results also indicated that the optimal addition amonnt of the RE nanoparticles was 0.4%,under this composition,the microstructure and mechanical property achieved the best cooperation.In addition,through the study of erosion wear rate,when adding 0.4% RE nanoparticles into the HCCIs,the erosion wear rate got the minimum 0.32×10-3 g/mm2,which could increase 51.5% compared with that without any RE nanoparticles.

  17. A novel approach to oral iron delivery using ferrous sulphate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Elsaid, Naba; Jackson, Timothy L; Corral López, Francisco; Farnaud, Sebastien; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-11-18

    Iron (Fe) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN's) were formulated using stearic acid and iron absorption was evaluated in vitro using the cell line Caco-2 with intracellular ferritin formation as a marker of iron absorption. Iron loading was optimised at 1% Fe (w/w) lipid since an inverse relation was observed between initial iron concentration and SLN iron incorporation efficiency. Chitosan (Chi) was included to prepare chitosan coated SLN's. Particle size analysis revealed a sub-micron size range (300.3±31.75 nm to 495.1±80.42 nm), with chitosan containing particles having the largest dimensions. As expected, chitosan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% w/v) conferred a net positive charge on the particle surface in a concentration dependent manner. For iron absorption experiments equal doses of Fe (20 μM) from selected formulations (SLN-FeA and SLN-Fe-ChiB) were added to Caco-2 cells and intracellular ferritin protein concentrations determined. Caco-2 iron absorption from SLN-FeA (583.98±40.83 ng/mg cell protein) and chitosan containing SLN-Fe-ChiB (642.77±29.37 ng/mg cell protein) were 13.42% and 24.9% greater than that from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) reference (514.66±20.43 ng/mg cell protein) (p≤0.05). We demonstrate for the first time preparation, characterisation and superior iron absorption in vitro from SLN's, suggesting the potential of these formulations as a novel system for oral iron delivery. PMID:24012860

  18. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications

  19. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  20. Mössbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Watanabe, Yuka, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Akiyama, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P. O. Box 180, Zagreb 10002 (Croatia); Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}⋅3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 °C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (δ) of 0.33{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup −1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub ±0.5} T, and linewidth (Γ) of 0.62{sub ±0.04} mm s{sup −1}. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having δ, Δ, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup −1} 0.45{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup −1}, and 22.8{sub ±0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB} = 6.5×10{sup −3}h{sup −1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and γ‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  1. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Anisotropic Superstructures by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Leung, Chi Wah; Pong, Philip W. T.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle superstructures with controlled magnetic alignment and desired structural anisotropy hold promise for applications in data storage and energy storage. Assembly of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles under a magnetic field could lead to highly ordered superstructures, providing distinctive magnetic properties. In this work, a low-cost fabrication technique was demonstrated to assemble sub-20-nm iron oxide nanoparticles into crystalline superstructures under an in-plane magnetic field. The gradient of the applied magnetic field contributes to the anisotropic formation of micron-sized superstructures. The magnitude of the applied magnetic field promotes the alignment of magnetic moments of the nanoparticles. The strong dipole-dipole interactions between the neighboring nanoparticles lead to a close-packed pattern as an energetically favorable configuration. Rod-shaped and spindle-shaped superstructures with uniform size and controlled spacing were obtained using spherical and polyhedral nanoparticles, respectively. The arrangement and alignment of the superstructures can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions. The two types of superstructures both show enhancement of coercivity and saturation magnetization along the applied field direction, which is presumably associated with the magnetic anisotropy and magnetic dipole interactions of the constituent nanoparticles and the increased shape anisotropy of the superstructures. Our results show that the magnetic-field-assisted assembly technique could be used for fabricating nanomaterial-based structures with controlled geometric dimensions and enhanced magnetic properties for magnetic and energy storage applications.

  2. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Anisotropic Superstructures by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Leung, Chi Wah; Pong, Philip W T

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle superstructures with controlled magnetic alignment and desired structural anisotropy hold promise for applications in data storage and energy storage. Assembly of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles under a magnetic field could lead to highly ordered superstructures, providing distinctive magnetic properties. In this work, a low-cost fabrication technique was demonstrated to assemble sub-20-nm iron oxide nanoparticles into crystalline superstructures under an in-plane magnetic field. The gradient of the applied magnetic field contributes to the anisotropic formation of micron-sized superstructures. The magnitude of the applied magnetic field promotes the alignment of magnetic moments of the nanoparticles. The strong dipole-dipole interactions between the neighboring nanoparticles lead to a close-packed pattern as an energetically favorable configuration. Rod-shaped and spindle-shaped superstructures with uniform size and controlled spacing were obtained using spherical and polyhedral nanoparticles, respectively. The arrangement and alignment of the superstructures can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions. The two types of superstructures both show enhancement of coercivity and saturation magnetization along the applied field direction, which is presumably associated with the magnetic anisotropy and magnetic dipole interactions of the constituent nanoparticles and the increased shape anisotropy of the superstructures. Our results show that the magnetic-field-assisted assembly technique could be used for fabricating nanomaterial-based structures with controlled geometric dimensions and enhanced magnetic properties for magnetic and energy storage applications. PMID:27067737

  3. The influence of magnetic and physiological behaviour on the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles are being developed for a wide range of biomedical applications. In particular, hyperthermia involves heating the magnetic nanoparticles through exposure to an alternating magnetic field. These materials offer the potential to selectively treat cancer by heating cancer tissue locally and at the cellular level. This may be a successful method if there are enough particles in a tumor possessing a sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR) to deposit heat quickly while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. High SAR magnetic nanoparticles have been developed and used in mouse models of cancer. The magnetic nanoparticles comprise iron oxide magnetic cores (mean core diameter of 50 nm) surrounded by a dextran layer shell for colloidal stability. In comparing two similar systems, the saturation magnetization is found to play a crucial role in determining the SAR, but is not the only factor of importance. (A difference in saturation magnetization of a factor of 1.5 yields a difference in SAR of a factor of 2.5 at 1080 Oe and 150 kHz.) Variations in the interactions due to differences in the dextran layer, as determined through neutron scattering, also play a role in the SAR. Once these nanoparticles are introduced into the tumor, their efficacy, with respect to tumor growth, is determined by the location of the nanoparticles within or near the tumor cells and the association of the nanoparticles with the delivered alternating magnetic field (AMF). This association (nanoparticle SAR and AMF) determines the amount of heat generated. In our setting, the heat generated and the time of heating (thermal dose) provides a tumor gross treatment response which correlates closely with that of conventional (non-nanoparticle) hyperthermia. This being said, it appears specific aspects of the nanoparticle hyperthermia cytopathology mechanism may be very different from that observed in conventional cancer treatment hyperthermia

  4. Gold-coated iron nanoparticles in transparent Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (Spain); Cespedes, E. [Keele University, Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Guy Hilton Research Centre (United Kingdom); Jimenez-Villacorta, F. [Northeastern University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Munoz-Martin, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (Spain); Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    A new method to prepare thin films containing gold-coated iron nanoparticles is presented. The ternary Fe-Au-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} system prepared by sequential sputtering has revealed a progressive variation of microstructures from Au/Fe/Au/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} multilayers to iron nanoparticles. Microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, analysis of the magnetic properties and probing of the iron short-range order by X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the existence of a gold-coated iron nanoparticles of 1-2 nm typical size for a specific range of iron and gold contents per layer in the transparent silicon nitride ceramic matrix.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (∼2 nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications such as magnetic resonance contrast agents and biosensors, and in DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization

  6. Assessment of Morphological and Functional Changes in Organs of Rats after Intramuscular Introduction of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Agglomerates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The research was performed on male Wistar rats based on assumptions that new microelement preparations containing metal nanoparticles and their agglomerates had potential. Morphological and functional changes in tissues in the injection site and dynamics of chemical element metabolism (25 indicators) in body were assessed after repeated intramuscular injections (total, 7) with preparation containing agglomerate of iron nanoparticles. As a result, iron depot was formed in myosymplasts of injec...

  7. Morphology-controlled growth of magnetic iron oxide components on gold nanoparticles as bi-functional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Leung, CW; Ruotolo, A.; Jiang, C; Pong, PWT

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Hybrid nanostructure can inherit the physiochemical properties of its individual components to realize its multi-functionality. The coupling of plasmonic effect of gold nanoparticles with magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles has shown great promise as bi-functional agents allowing simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic/photonic thermal therapy. However, since gold and iron oxide are two dissimilar materia...

  8. The efficiency of magnetic carbon activated by iron oxide nanoparticles in removing of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Salehe Salehnia; Behnam Barikbin; Hadighe Dorri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Copper ions, due to forming complexes with organic and mineral compounds, can have worrying effects on health and environment. In the present study, the effect of powdered magnetic carbon activated by iron-oxide nanoparticles in removing of CU (V; II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. Materials and Methods: This experimental study aimed at determining the effect of powdered magnetic carbon activated  by iron-oxide nanoparticles  parameters including PH, co...

  9. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  10. Toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Research strategies and implications for nanomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are one of the most versatile and safe nanoparticles in a wide variety of biomedical applications. In the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the potential adverse biological effects and safety issues associated with SPIONs, which is essential for the development of next-generation SPIONs and for continued progress in translational research. In this mini review, we summarize recent developments in toxicity studies on SPIONs, focusing on the relationship between the physicochemical properties of SPIONs and their induced toxic biological responses for a better toxicological understanding of SPIONs. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  11. Magnetic behavior of iron (III) oxyhydroxy nanoparticles in organic-inorganic hybrid matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties of iron(III) oxyhydroxy nanoparticles stabilized within a sol-gel derived organic-inorganic matrix are investigated. Depending on the size of the polymer chain and on the sol-gel route, ferrihydrite or Fe(III) oxyhydroxynitrate can be formed. Comparing different sets of samples we can address the observed magnetic features to the different oxyhydroxy phases. The ferrihydrite particles exhibit thermal and field irreversibility below 30 K, with coercive and exchange fields characteristic of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles uncompensated/canted spins. The existence of antiferromagnetic interactions in the Fe(III) oxyhydroxynitrate phase can be inferred

  12. Scalable fractionation of iron oxide nanoparticles using a CO{sub 2} gas-expanded liquid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Xu, Rui; Roberts, Christopher B., E-mail: croberts@eng.auburn.edu [Auburn University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit highly size-dependent physicochemical properties that are important in applications such as catalysis and environmental remediation. In order for these size-dependent properties to be effectively harnessed for industrial applications scalable and cost-effective techniques for size-controlled synthesis or size separation must be developed. The synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles can be a prohibitively expensive process on a large scale. An alternative involves the use of inexpensive synthesis procedures followed by a size-selective processing technique. While there are many techniques available to fractionate nanoparticles, many of the techniques are unable to efficiently fractionate iron oxide nanoparticles in a scalable and inexpensive manner. A scalable apparatus capable of fractionating large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles into distinct fractions of different sizes and size distributions has been developed. Polydisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (2–20 nm) coated with oleic acid used in this study were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive version of the popular coprecipitation technique. This apparatus uses hexane as a CO{sub 2} gas-expanded liquid to controllably precipitate nanoparticles inside a 1L high-pressure reactor. This paper demonstrates the operation of this new apparatus and for the first time shows the successful fractionation results on a system of metal oxide nanoparticles, with initial nanoparticle concentrations in the gram-scale. The analysis of the obtained fractions was performed using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The use of this simple apparatus provides a pathway to separate large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles based upon their size for use in various industrial applications.

  13. Enhancing magnetoresistance in tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate modified iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhong-Peng; Luan, Zhong-Zhi; Cai, Pei-Yu; Wang, Tao; Li, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Di; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-06-01

    We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO-) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications.We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO-) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; supplementary figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03311c

  14. Engineering of radiolabeled iron oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Fanrong; Ferreira, Carolina A; Chen, Feng; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, radiolabeled iron oxide nanoparticles have been developed as promising contrast agents for dual-modality positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) or single-photon emission computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (SPECT/MRI). The combination of PET (or SPECT) with MRI can offer synergistic advantages for noninvasive, sensitive, high-resolution, and quantitative imaging, which is suitable for early detection of various diseases such as cancer. Here, we summarize the recent advances on radiolabeled iron oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality imaging, through the use of a variety of PET (and SPECT) isotopes by using both chelator-based and chelator-free radiolabeling techniques. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:619-630. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1386. PMID:26692551

  15. LHRH-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer targeting and contrast enhancement in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (LHRH-SPIONs), can be used to target breast cancer cells. They also act as contrast enhancement agents during the magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer xenografts. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometric analysis was used in our experiments, to investigate the specific accumulation of the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in cancer cells. The contrast enhancement of conventional T2 images obtained from the tumor tissue and of breast cancer xenograft bearing mice is shown to be much greater than that in saline controls, when the tissues were injected with LHRH-SPIONs. Magnetic anisotropy multi-CRAZED images of tissues extracted from mice injected with SPIONs were also found to have enhanced MRI contrast in breast cancer xenografts and metastases in the lungs.

  16. Dispersion of Iron Nanoparticles by Polymer-Based Hybrid Material for Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wasim Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gel type acrylic acid resin, based on ethyl acrylate-co-1,7-octadiene, has been synthesized by suspension polymerization at 20% cross-linking and subsequent hydrolysis by H2SO4. Capacity of the resin was observed to be 8.90 meq/g or 3.28 meq/mL. The iron nanoparticles used in this study were synthesized by ferrous sulphate method by using LiBH4 as a reductant and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, surface area, and electrical properties. Later, the resin was applied for the dispersion of iron nanoparticles over its surface for the reduction of Cr(VI and subsequent adsorption of Fe(III and Cr(III as byproducts. In the column studies the reduction of Cr(VI and the adsorption of Cr(III and Fe(III have been observed up to 240 μmole/L.

  17. T1-MRI Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Microwave Assisted Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riju Bhavesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles have long been studied as a T2 contrast agent in MRI due to their superparamagnetic behavior. T1-based positive contrast, being much more favorable for clinical application due to brighter and more accurate signaling is, however, still limited to gadolinium- or manganese-based imaging tools. Though being the only available commercial positive-contrast agents, they lack an efficient argument when it comes to biological toxicity and their circulatory half-life in blood. The need arises to design a biocompatible contrast agent with a scope for easy surface functionalization for long circulation in blood and/or targeted imaging. We hereby propose an extremely fast microwave synthesis for fluorescein-labeled extremely-small iron oxide nanoparticles (fdIONP, in a single step, as a viable tool for cell labeling and T1-MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of such an approach through high-quality magnetic resonance angiographic images of mice.

  18. LHRH-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer targeting and contrast enhancement in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Fan, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Galiana, G. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Branca, R.T. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Clasen, P.L.; Ma, S. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Zhou, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leuschner, C. [Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Kumar, C.S.S.R.; Hormes, J. [Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Otiti, T. [Department of Physics, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Beye, A.C. [Department of Physics, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar (Senegal); Harmer, M.P.; Kiely, C.J. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Warren, W. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Haataja, M.P. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-05-05

    This paper shows that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (LHRH-SPIONs), can be used to target breast cancer cells. They also act as contrast enhancement agents during the magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer xenografts. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometric analysis was used in our experiments, to investigate the specific accumulation of the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in cancer cells. The contrast enhancement of conventional T2 images obtained from the tumor tissue and of breast cancer xenograft bearing mice is shown to be much greater than that in saline controls, when the tissues were injected with LHRH-SPIONs. Magnetic anisotropy multi-CRAZED images of tissues extracted from mice injected with SPIONs were also found to have enhanced MRI contrast in breast cancer xenografts and metastases in the lungs.

  19. Design of iron oxide-based nanoparticles for MRI and magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; Walter, Aurelie; Cotin, Geoffrey; Bordeianu, Catalina; Mertz, Damien; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Begin-Colin, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used for biological applications thanks to their outstanding balance between magnetic properties, surface-to-volume ratio suitable for efficient functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Their development for MRI or magnetic particle hyperthermia concentrates much of the attention as these nanomaterials are already used within the health system as contrast agents and heating mediators. As such, the constant improvement and development for better and more reliable materials is of key importance. On this basis, this review aims to cover the rational design of iron oxide nanoparticles to be used as MRI contrast agents or heating mediators in magnetic hyperthermia, and reviews the state of the art of their use as nanomedicine tools. PMID:27389703

  20. Enhancing magnetoresistance in tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate modified iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhong-Peng; Luan, Zhong-Zhi; Cai, Pei-Yu; Wang, Tao; Li, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Di; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-06-16

    We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO(-)) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications. PMID:27271347

  1. Nanoparticles of iron(II) spin-crossover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Thibaut; Mornet, Stéphane; Daro, Nathalie; Nishihara, Taishi; Mouri, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Koichiro; Fouché, Olivier; Freysz, Eric; Létard, Jean-François

    2008-09-28

    We report the synthesis of spin crossover 69 nm spherical nanoparticles of [Fe(NH2-trz)3](Br)2.3H2O.0.03(surfactant) (NH2trz = 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole, surfactant = Lauropal), prepared by the reverse micelle technique, which exhibit at room temperature a thermal hysteresis characterized by magnetic, diffuse reflectivity and Raman studies. PMID:18802559

  2. Magnetic Particle Imaging with Tailored Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Khandhar, Amit P.; Kemp, Scott J.; Arami, Hamed; Saritas, Emine U.; Croft, Laura R.; Konkle, Justin; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Halkola, Aleksi; Rahmer, Jürgen; Borgert, Jörn; Steven M. Conolly; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) shows promise for medical imaging, particularly in angiography of patients with chronic kidney disease. As the first biomedical imaging technique that truly depends on nanoscale materials properties, MPI requires highly optimized magnetic nanoparticle tracers to generate quality images. Until now, researchers have relied on tracers optimized for MRI T2*-weighted imaging that are suboptimal for MPI. Here, we describe new tracers tailored to MPI's unique physics,...

  3. Visualization of custom-tailored iron oxide nanoparticles chemistry, uptake, and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kai; Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Ahlinder, Linnea; Guldevall, Karolin; Pazik, Robert; Kępiński, Leszek; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Butorin, Sergei M.; Brismar, Hjalmar; Önfelt, Björn; Österlund, Lars; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles of iron oxide generated by wearing of vehicles have been modelled with a tailored solution of size-uniform engineered magnetite particles produced by the Bradley reaction, a solvothermal metal-organic approach rendering hydrophilic particles. The latter does not bear any pronounced surface charge in analogy with that originating from anthropogenic sources in the environment. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by a wide range of methods, including XPD, TEM, SEM, DLS and spectroscopic techniques. The magnetite nanoparticles were found to be sensitive for transformation into maghemite under ambient conditions. This process was clearly revealed by Raman spectroscopy for high surface energy magnetite particles containing minor impurities of the hydromaghemite phase and was followed by quantitative measurements with EXAFS spectroscopy. In order to assess the toxicological effects of the produced nanoparticles in humans, with and without surface modification with ATP (a model of bio-corona formed in alveolar liquid), a pathway of potential uptake and clearance was modelled with a sequence of in vitro studies using A549 lung epithelial cells, lymphocyte 221-B cells, and 293T embryonal kidney cells, respectively. Raman microscopy unambiguously showed that magnetite nanoparticles are internalized within the A549 cells after 24 h co-incubation, and that the ATP ligand is retained on the nanoparticles throughout the uptake process. The toxicity of the nanoparticles was estimated using confocal fluorescence microscopy and indicated no principal difference for unmodified and modified particles, but revealed considerably different biochemical responses. The IL-8 cytokine response was found to be significantly lower for the magnetite nanoparticles compared to TiO2, while an enhancement of ROS was observed, which was further increased for the ATP-modified nanoparticles, implicating involvement of the ATP signalling pathway in

  4. Sulfentrazone dechlorination by iron-nickel bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Mayra A; Lopes, Renata P; Cruz, Jean C; Silva, Antônio A; Lima, Claudio F

    2016-04-01

    The sulfentrazone dechlorination using bimetallic nanoparticles of Fe/Ni was studied. Different variables that could influence the sulfentrazone conversion were investigated, such as nitrogen atmosphere, pH and dosage of the nanoparticles and initial concentration of sulfentrazone. The best results were obtained using controlled pH (pH 4.0) and 1.0 g L(-1) of nanomaterials, resulting in 100 % conversion in only 30 min. Kinetic studies were also conducted, evaluating the influence of different nanoparticle dosages (1.0 to 4.0 g L(-1)), system temperatures (20 to 35 °C) and nickel levels in the composition of the nanomaterials (0.025 to 0.10 gNi/gFe). The mechanism of sulfentrazone conversion has changed due a direct reduction on the catalytic activity sites and indirect reduction by atomic hydrogen. Both mechanisms have followed pseudo-first order models. The conversion rate improved when the dosage of the nanomaterials, system temperature and nickel content in the composition of the nanocomposites were increased. Finally, the conversion products were elucidated by mass spectrometry and toxicity assays were performed using Daphnia Similis. The results showed that the dechlorination product is less toxic than sulfentrazone. PMID:26802513

  5. Size-dependant heating rates of iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales-Weimuller, Marcela; Zeisberger, Matthias; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2009-01-01

    Using the thermal decomposition of organometallics method we have synthesized high-quality, iron oxide nanoparticles of tailorable size up to ~15nm and transferred them to a water phase by coating with a biocompatible polymer. The magnetic behavior of these particles was measured and fit to a log-normal distribution using the Chantrell method and their polydispersity was confirmed to be very narrow. By performing calorimetry measurements with these monodisperse particles we have unambiguously...

  6. T1-MRI Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Microwave Assisted Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Riju Bhavesh; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana V; Jesús Ruiz-Cabello; Fernando Herranz

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have long been studied as a T2 contrast agent in MRI due to their superparamagnetic behavior. T1-based positive contrast, being much more favorable for clinical application due to brighter and more accurate signaling is, however, still limited to gadolinium- or manganese-based imaging tools. Though being the only available commercial positive-contrast agents, they lack an efficient argument when it comes to biological toxicity and their circulatory half-life in blood....

  7. Improved functionalization of oleic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Maarten; Brullot, Ward; Luong, Thien Tai; Geukens, Nick; Gils, Ann; Verbiest, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can provide multiple benefits for biomedical applications in aqueous environments such as magnetic separation or magnetic resonance imaging. To increase the colloidal stability and allow subsequent reactions, the introduction of hydrophilic functional groups onto the particles’ surface is essential. During this process, the original coating is exchanged by preferably covalently bonded ligands such as trialkoxysilanes. The duration of the silane excha...

  8. A study of formation of iron nanoparticles in aluminium matrix with helium pores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kichanov, S.E.; Kozlenko, D. P.; Belushkin, A.V.; Reutov, V.F.; Samoilenko, S.O.; Jirák, Zdeněk; Savenko, B. N.; Bulavin, L. A.; Zubavichus, Y.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 351, č. 1 (2012), "012013-1"-"012013-5". ISSN 1742-6588. [International Workshop on SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor - Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's Birth /2./. Dubna, 27.05.2011-30.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : iron nanoparticles * aluminium matrix * helium pores Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinying Wu1, Yanbin Tan1, Hui Mao2, Minming Zhang11Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 2Department of Radiology, Center for Systems Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USAAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs have been employed for hyperthermia treatments, stem cell therapies, cell labeling, and imaging modalities. The biocompatibility and cytotoxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles when used in biomedical applications, however, are an ongoing concern. Endothelial cells have a critical role in this research dealing with tumors, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. However, there is little information dealing with the biologic effects of IONPs on the endothelial cell. This paper deals with the influence of dextran and citric acid coated IONPs on the behavior and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. After exposing endothelial cells to IONPs, dose-dependent effects on HUVECs viability, cytoskeleton and function were determined. Both citric acid and dextran coated particles appeared to be largely internalized by HUVECs through endocytosis and contribute to eventual cell death possibly by apoptosis. Cytoskeletal structures were greatly disrupted, as evidenced by diminished vinculin spots, and disorganized actin fiber and tubulin networks. The capacity of HUVECs to form a vascular network on Matrigel™ diminished after exposure to IONPs. Cell migration/invasion were inhibited significantly even at very low iron concentrations (0.1 mM. The results of this study indicate the great importance of thoroughly understanding nanoparticle-cell interactions, and the potential to exploit this understanding in tumor therapy applications involving IONPs as thermo/chemoembolization agents.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, in vitro test, cytoskeleton, human umbilical vein endothelial cell

  10. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as long wavelength photoinitiators for free radical polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Yar, Yasemin; Acar, Funda Havva Yağcı; Dadashi-Silab, Sajjad; Yagci, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) capped with lauric acid agents were synthesized and their photocatalytic activity was investigated in free radical photopolymerization of vinyl monomers. These NPs were able to release charge carriers (electron-hole pairs) upon photoexcitation through which the capping agents or an additional amine co-initiator acting as the hole acceptor underwent oxidation to eventually form the initiating radicals. In lauric acid coated Fe3O4 NPs, electron transfer foll...

  11. Challenges in the Theoretical Description of Nanoparticle Reactivity: Nano Zero-Valent Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Karlický, František; Otyepka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The reactivity of iron atoms, clusters and nanoparticles (nZVI) is of increasing interest owing to their important practical applications, ranging from the steel industry to water remediation technologies. Here, we provide an overview of computational methods and models that can be applied to study nZVI reactions and discuss their benefits and limitations. We also report current progress in calculations through recent examples treating the reactivity of nZVI particles. Finally, we consider th...

  12. Influence of iron and copper nanoparticle powder on the production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the fungus Trametes versicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, V.; Dobiášová, Petra; Baldrian, Petr; Nerud, František; Kumar, A.; Seal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 178, 1-3 (2010), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Iron nanoparticles * Copper nanoparticles * Lignocellulose enzymes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  13. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated Gene Therapy for Cancer An In Vitro Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using TRAIL gene to treat breast cancer mediated with a novel carrier - magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (polyMAG-1000) coated with PEI. The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were used as gene carrier to transfect TRAIL gene into MCF-7 cells. The polyMAG-1000 without TRAIL gene was transfected into the tumor cells as negative control. TRAIL gene transfection with liposome as carrier served as positive control. The apoptosis of cells was detected with TUNEL method. The apoptosis ratio of tumor cells was measured with flow cytometry (FCM). It was found that the apoptosis occurred in the tumor cells after transfection of TRAIL gene mediated by both polyMAG-1000 and liposome. The apoptosis ratio in the group with polyMAG-1000 as gene carrier was (25.11±2.85) %, whereas it was (5.06±1.05) % in the control group with polyMAG-1000 (P<0.01). The apoptosis ratio was as low as (18.31±2.44) % in the group with liposome as gene carrier (P<0.05, as compared with the group with polyMAG-1000 as gene carrier). It is suggested that TRAIL gene may induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PEI may be a potential gene carrier with high transfection efficacy for cancer gene therapy.

  14. TREG coated iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI in-vivo use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Garcia, Eric; Hidalgo-Tobon, Silvia; Lopez, Ciro; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery; De Celis Alonso, Benito; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Obregon, Manuel; Perez-Pena, Mario; Platas-Neri, Diana; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of interest due to their great potential applications in diverse fields such as biomedicine. In this work we have prepared SPION nanoparticles using the polyol technique and characterized the magnetic properties of them for MRI in-vivo use. Nanoparticle preparation: All reagents were purchased from commercial sources (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, USA) Iron (III) acetylacetonate, [Fe(acac)3], was used as the iron oxide precursor and thermally decomposed at high temperatures in triethyleneglycol (TREG). Nano-sized magnetite particles were prepared by an adaptation of the method proposed by Wei Cai et al[1-3]. A healthy rabbit was scanned on a clinical 1.5 T Philips MR scanner. Images were taken in 2D mode with a mFFE sequence. Relaxation time T2 was obtained from the MR images using a Matlab algorithm where the signal intensity decay was calculated at each image and then adjusted to a mono-exponential curve. Images were obtained before contrast injection, 24 hours and 36 hours following SPIONs administration. Signal decay at different Echo times for the prepared magnetic SPIONs, before and after contrast injection was measured. It was visualized a concentration of the agent contrast in brain and liver and the results were compared with images obtained from histopathology.

  15. The effect of coating on heat generation properties of Iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their potential application as heating agents in cancer hyperthermia. The effectiveness of cancer hyperthermia can be increased by using particles that have a higher heat generation rate, quantified by specific absorption rate (SAR), at a smaller applied field. In order to optimize the functionality of nanoparticles as heating agents, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of factors that may influence SAR including coating and aggregation. In all biomedical applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration and add functionality. Coatings may profoundly influence particles' clustering behavior and magnetic properties. Yet its effect on the heat generation rate of the nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this context, a systematic investigation was carried out in this dissertation in order to understand the impact of the surface coating of magnetic nanoparticles on their heat generation rate. The study also includes investigation of normal nerve cell viability in presence of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles with and without exposure to magnetic heating. Commercially available suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and different coatings relevant to biomedical applications such as aminosilane, carboxymethyl-dextran, protein A, biotin were extensively characterized. First of all, magnetic phase reduction of magnetite nanoparticles was examined by studying the discrepancy between the volume fraction of magnetic phase calculated from magnetization curve and the magnetic core concentration obtained from Tiron chelation test. The findings indicated that coatings might interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase. Secondly, the impact of coating and aggregation

  16. Characterization & Modification of Copper and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Application as Absorber Material in Silicon based Thin Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nuys, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the characterization and modification of semiconducting copper oxide (CuO, Cu2O) and iron oxide (gamma-Fe2O3, alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles, which provide a basis for an innovative solar cell concept involving nanoparticles composed of almost unlimitedly available elements as absorber material in thin film solar cells. This approach is promising to meet the requirements of increasing the production capacity and lowering the production costs if the nanoparticles exhi...

  17. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Reyes, A.; Colina-Márquez, J.

    2016-02-01

    Photocatalytic activity of iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles functionalized with TiO2 was evaluated through photodegradation of phenol under UV irradiation. For this, magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method obtaining aggregates with a size of 46nm. The IO nanoparticles were encapsulated in a polysiloxane matrix and then functionalized with TiO2 at 25°C (sample A: 0.1g TiO2 and B: 0.3g TiO2). Photodegradation experiments were carried out for six hours at pH 3.0 using concentrations of IO-TiO2 nanoparticles of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0g/L. A maximum amount of 89% of phenol photodegradation was achieved by using 0.2g/L of the IO-TiO2-B sample. In addition, it was evaluated the possibility to re-using the nanomaterial after magnetic separation. For this, 0.2g/L of B sample were submitted for five cycles of photodegradation. A stable photocatalytic activity was observed as well as the nanoparticles were regenerated by calcination among cycles, which suggests the versatility of these nanoparticles for the photodegradation of organic pollutants.

  18. Potentiometric urea biosensor utilizing nanobiocomposite of chitosan-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated through a simple, cheap and reproducible approach. Scanning electron microscope, x-rays powder diffraction of the fabricated nanoparticles. Furthermore, the fabrication of potentiometric urea biosensor is carried out through drop casting the initially prepared isopropanol and chitosan solution, containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles, on the glass fiber filter with a diameter of 2 cm and a copper wire (of thickness −500 μm) has been utilized to extract the voltage signal from the functionalized nanoparticles. The functionalization of surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles is obtained by the electrostatically immobilization of urease onto the nanobiocomposite of the chitosan- Fe3O4 in order to enhance the sensitivity, specificity, stability and reusability of urea biosensor. Electrochemical detection procedure has been adopted to measure the potentiometric response over the wide logarithmic concentration range of the 0.1 mM to 80 mM. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles based urea biosensor depicts good sensitivity with ∼42 mV per decade at room temperature. Durability of the biosensor could be considerably enhanced by applying a thin layer of the nafion. In addition, the reasonably stable output response of the biosensor has been found to be around 12 sec.

  19. Polymer/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Composites--A Straight Forward and Scalable Synthesis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommertune, Jens; Sugunan, Abhilash; Ahniyaz, Anwar; Bejhed, Rebecca Stjernberg; Sarwe, Anna; Johansson, Christer; Balceris, Christoph; Ludwig, Frank; Posth, Oliver; Fornara, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle systems can be divided into single-core nanoparticles (with only one magnetic core per particle) and magnetic multi-core nanoparticles (with several magnetic cores per particle). Here, we report multi-core nanoparticle synthesis based on a controlled precipitation process within a well-defined oil in water emulsion to trap the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in a range of polymer matrices of choice, such as poly(styrene), poly(lactid acid), poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(caprolactone). Multi-core particles were obtained within the Z-average size range of 130 to 340 nm. With the aim to combine the fast room temperature magnetic relaxation of small individual cores with high magnetization of the ensemble of SPIONs, we used small (<10 nm) core nanoparticles. The performed synthesis is highly flexible with respect to the choice of polymer and SPION loading and gives rise to multi-core particles with interesting magnetic properties and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast efficacy. PMID:26307966

  20. Polymer/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Composites—A Straight Forward and Scalable Synthesis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Sommertune

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticle systems can be divided into single-core nanoparticles (with only one magnetic core per particle and magnetic multi-core nanoparticles (with several magnetic cores per particle. Here, we report multi-core nanoparticle synthesis based on a controlled precipitation process within a well-defined oil in water emulsion to trap the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION in a range of polymer matrices of choice, such as poly(styrene, poly(lactid acid, poly(methyl methacrylate, and poly(caprolactone. Multi-core particles were obtained within the Z-average size range of 130 to 340 nm. With the aim to combine the fast room temperature magnetic relaxation of small individual cores with high magnetization of the ensemble of SPIONs, we used small (<10 nm core nanoparticles. The performed synthesis is highly flexible with respect to the choice of polymer and SPION loading and gives rise to multi-core particles with interesting magnetic properties and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast efficacy.

  1. The Effect of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles on Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Chen, Xiangjian; Gu, Chunrong; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jindan; Bian, Zhiping; Yang, Di; Gu, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3) have shown an increasing number of applications in the field of biomedicine, but some questions have been raised about the potential impact of these nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this work, the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution was designed, prepared, and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. Then, we have investigated the effect of the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cellular uptake of nanoparticles by SMC displays the dose, the incubation time and surface property dependent patterns. Through the thin section TEM images, we observe that DMSA-Fe2O3 is incorporated into the lysosome of SMCs. The magnetic nanoparticles have no inflammation impact, but decrease the viability of SMCs. The other questions about metabolism and other impacts will be the next subject of further studies.

  2. A biocompatible approach to surface modification: Biodegradable polymer functionalized super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a size range of 10-20 nm were firstly prepared by the modified controlled chemical coprecipitation method from the solution of ferrous/ferric mixed salt-solution in alkaline medium. Then, the super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were covalently modified by biodegradable polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(d,l-lactide) (PELA). The size and its distribution of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS). The magnetic nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV). Magnetic properties were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. And the 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles. The results showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized by PEG and PELA possessed a mean size of 43.2 and 79.3 nm, respectively, and exhibited an excellent biocompatibility.

  3. Caveolin-1 and CDC42 mediated endocytosis of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bohmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is a rapidly growing field in nanotechnology, which has great potential in the development of new therapies for numerous diseases. For example iron oxide nanoparticles are in clinical use already in the thermotherapy of brain cancer. Although it has been shown, that tumor cells take up these particles in vitro, little is known about the internalization routes. Understanding of the underlying uptake mechanisms would be very useful for faster and precise development of nanoparticles for clinical applications. This study aims at the identification of key proteins, which are crucial for the active uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by HeLa cells (human cervical cancer as a model cell line. Cells were transfected with specific siRNAs against Caveolin-1, Dynamin 2, Flotillin-1, Clathrin, PIP5Kα and CDC42. Knockdown of Caveolin-1 reduces endocytosis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (SCIONs between 23 and 41%, depending on the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles and the experimental design. Knockdown of CDC42 showed a 46% decrease of the internalization of PEGylated SPIONs within 24 h incubation time. Knockdown of Dynamin 2, Flotillin-1, Clathrin and PIP5Kα caused no or only minor effects. Hence endocytosis in HeLa cells of iron oxide nanoparticles, used in this study, is mainly mediated by Caveolin-1 and CDC42. It is shown here for the first time, which proteins of the endocytotic pathway mediate the endocytosis of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in HeLa cells in vitro. In future studies more experiments should be carried out with different cell lines and other well-defined nanoparticle species to elucidate possible general principles.

  4. Effect of coating on the environmental applications of zero valent iron nanoparticles: the lindane case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, I; Galdames, A; Alonso, M L; Bartolomé, L; Vilas, J L; Alonso, R M

    2016-09-15

    Commercial stabilized slurry of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) as well as laboratory-synthesized polymer-stabilized NZVI nanoparticles were used for lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) degradation studies in aqueous solution. In the present study, polymer-stabilized iron nanoparticles were stabilized using polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mn ~400 and ~950-1050) and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF, Mn ~650). To study the effectiveness of the different nanoparticles, a quantitative monitorization of lindane degradation by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a qualitative measurement of generated volatile by-products by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC/MS were carried out. The obtained data were compared and contrasted with the results obtained in previous work. Results showed that the nanoparticles studied in this work possess superior dechlorination performance compared with previous observations. The freshly prepared Fe(0)-PEG400, Fe(0)-PEG1050 and Fe(0)-PTHF exhibited high reactivity during the dechlorination process of lindane in a very short time. The results obtained with the synthesized nanoparticles were similar to those obtained with commercial nanoparticles. However, in all cases reactivity decreased at reaction's late stage. Degradation of lindane by the studied nanoparticles removed 99.9% of the lindane initial concentration after 72h, except for Fe(0)-PTHF nanoparticles, for which the reaction stopped after 5min. In all cases, the reaction followed a second order kinetics. Finally, comparing the results from this study with our previous work, where different nature polymers were considered (Fe(0)-CMC, Fe(0)-PAA and Fe(0)-PAP), more gradual degradation profile of lindane was observed for Fe(0)-PAA and Fe(0)-CMC. It should be noted that in the present case, the reaction of lindane was speeded up with commercial and Fe(0)-PEG nanoparticles. Nevertheless, in the later case, the composition of by-products was affected by the presence

  5. Iron nanoparticles from blood coated with collagen as a matrix for synthesis of nanohydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Chamundeeswari; B Santhosh Kumar; T Muthukumar; L Muthuraman; K Purna Sai; T P Sastry

    2013-12-01

    A simple wet precipitation technique was used to prepare nanobiocomposite containing iron nanoparticles coated with collagen. This nanobiocomposite was used as matrix for the synthesis of nanohydroxyapatite. The physicochemical characteristic studies of the nanohydroxyapatite thus formed were carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction technique to confirm the formation of hydroxyapatite on iron nanoparticle–collagen complex. The results of the above studies supported the formation of iron nanoparticle–collagen–hydroxyapatite composite. The biological studies such as biocompatibility and hemocompatibility were carried out for nanohydroxyapatite using different cell lines and blood sample. The results of biocompatibility and hemolytic assay revealed that the prepared nanobiocomposite was 100 % biocompatible and hemocompatible. This nanobiocomposite may be used for biomedical application such as injectables for targeted delivery and as scaffold for tissue engineering.

  6. Toxicokinetics and biodistribution of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easo, S. L.; Neelima, R.; Mohanan, P. V.

    2015-07-01

    Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) synthesized and characterized for hyperthermia application were tested for toxicokinetics and biodistribution in order to analyze the prospect of safety and biocompatibility of these particles for advanced use. Rats were administered a single dose of DIONPs at a concentration of 10 mg kg-1 by intravenous injection with a post-exposure period of 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Liver, spleen, kidney, blood, urine and feces were examined for iron content by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. At 24 h, greater amounts of nanoparticles were deposited in liver and spleen. Maximum absorption of iron in blood occurred at day 7 and excess iron appeared to be eliminated by liver, seemingly via biliary excretion. Serum hematology and biochemistry analysis revealed an overall lack of systemic toxicity due to metabolism of DIONPs. Additionally, pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to DIONPs with a post exposure period of 28 days were also assessed. Although no significant pathological alterations were seen in spleen or kidney, slight morphological deviations from normal were observed in liver. Further progression in the analysis of biological response towards DIONPs will be determined in long-term studies in the presence of an alternating magnetic field in the context of hyperthermia application.

  7. Toxicity and biodistribution of activated and non-activated intravenous iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, J. A.; Ogden, J. A.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Pierce, Z. E.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for all three concentrations used (.6 mg Fe/mouse, 1.8 mg Fe/mouse, and 5.6 mg Fe/mouse). Blood urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total serum protein, and creatinine were also assessed at 4 hours, 7 days, and 14 days post-injection. Histological analysis of lung, spleen, heart, liver, and kidney tissue was conducted at 7 and 14 days post-injection. Prussian blue and H&E stains were used to histomorphometrically assess iron content in the tissues studied. Preliminary results demonstrate small temporary elevation in liver enzymes and hepatocyte vacuolization at all iron concentrations studied. Liver and spleen were the primary sites of IONP deposition. None of the animals demonstrated systemic or local toxicity or illness, with or without AMF activation.

  8. Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts Based on Coupled Iron Nitride Nanoparticles with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at developing a highly active and stable non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR, a novel FexNy/NC nanocomposite—that is composed of highly dispersed iron nitride nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon (NC—was prepared by pyrolyzing carbon black with an iron-containing precursor in an NH3 atmosphere. The influence of the various synthetic parameters such as the Fe precursor, Fe content, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time on ORR performance of the prepared iron nitride nanoparticles was investigated. The formed phases were determined by experimental and simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD of numerous iron nitride species. We found that Fe3N phase creates superactive non-metallic catalytic sites for ORR that are more active than those of the constituents. The optimized Fe3N/NC nanocomposite exhibited excellent ORR activity and a direct four-electron pathway in alkaline solution. Furthermore, the hybrid material showed outstanding catalytic durability in alkaline electrolyte, even after 4,000 potential cycles.

  9. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity. PMID:25089685

  10. Association of Arsenic and Phosphorus with Iron Nanoparticles in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Denis; Hartland, Adam; Larsen, Joshua; Andersen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The role of colloids and nanoparticles in hyporheic zone reactive transport is currently poorly understood, and may play an important role in contaminant mobility. The microbial oxidation of organic matter coupled to reductive iron oxide dissolution is widely recognized as the dominant mechanism driving elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in aquifers. This paper considers the potential of nanoparticles to increase the mobility of As in aquifers, thereby accounting for discrepancies between predicted and observed As transport reported elsewhere. Arsenic, phosphorus, and iron size distributions and natural organic matter association were examined along a flow path from surface water via the hyporheic zone to shallow groundwater. Our analysis demonstrates that the colloidal Fe concentration (>1 kDa) correlates with both colloidal P and colloidal As concentrations. Importantly, increases in the concentration of colloidal P (>1 kDa) were positively correlated with increases in the concentration of nominally dissolved As (nominally dissolved P. This suggests that P actively competes for adsorption sites on Fe nanoparticles, displacing adsorbed As, thus mirroring their interaction with Fe oxides in the aquifer matrix. Dynamic redox fronts at the interface between streams and aquifers may therefore provide globally widespread conditions for the generation of Fe nanoparticles, a mobile phase for As adsorption currently not a part of reactive transport models.

  11. Functionalized magnetic iron oxide/alginate core-shell nanoparticles for targeting hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shih-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Hung; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Suzuki, Norihiro; Chang, Yung; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is one of the promising treatments for cancer therapy. However, the development of a magnetic fluid agent that can selectively target a tumor and efficiently elevate temperature while exhibiting excellent biocompatibility still remains challenging. Here a new core-shell nanostructure consisting of inorganic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as the core, organic alginate as the shell, and cell-targeting ligands (ie, D-galactosamine) decorated on the outer surface (denoted as Fe3O4@Alg-GA nanoparticles) was prepared using a combination of a pre-gel method and coprecipitation in aqueous solution. After treatment with an AC magnetic field, the results indicate that Fe3O4@Alg-GA nanoparticles had excellent hyperthermic efficacy in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) owing to enhanced cellular uptake, and show great potential as therapeutic agents for future in vivo drug delivery systems. PMID:26005343

  12. Room-temperature synthesis and electrocatalysis of carbon nanotubes supported palladium–iron alloy nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported palladium–iron bimetallic nanoparticles (Pd–Fe/CNTs) catalyst is synthesized using palladium hexacyanoferrate (PdHCF) as reaction precursor. In this method, the negatively charged PdHCF nanoparticles self-assemble on the positively charged polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) functionalized CNTs through electrostatic interaction, and then are reduced to Pd–Fe alloy nanoparticles by sodium borohydride. The physicochemical properties of Pd–Fe/CNTs are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These structural analyses reveal that the Pd–Fe/CNTs catalyst possesses the high alloying degree and the small particle size. Electrochemical measurements show that the eletrocatalytic activity of the Pd–Fe/MWCNTs catalyst for the methanol oxidation is better than that of the Pd/CNTs catalyst, which originates from the synergistic effect between Pd atom and Fe atom

  13. Development of iron-based nanoparticles for Cr(VI removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vourlias G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of research over recent decades has been motivated by the requirement to lower the concentration of chromium in drinking water. This study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of iron-based nanoparticles for chromium removal from contaminated water. Single Fe, Fe3O4 and binary Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were grown at the 45-80 nm size range using the solar physical vapor deposition technique and tested as potential hexavalent chromium removing agents from aqueous solutions. Due to their higher electron donation ability compared to the Fe3O4 ones, single Fe nanoparticles exhibited the highest Cr(VI removal capacity of more than 3 µg/mg while maintaining a residual concentration 50 µg/L, equal to the regulation limit for drinking water. In combination to their facile and fast magnetic separation, the applicability of the studied particles in water treatment facilities should be considered.

  14. The effect of initial iron concentration and pH on the radiolytic formation of γ-FeOOH nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles under gamma irradiation is a process in the infancy of its understanding. Herein we present work to describe how initial iron concentration and pH impact the growth of radiolytically formed nanoparticles. These results can be used to better understand the activity transport processes occurring within a reactor environment which may pose both environmental and safety concerns. Preliminary results suggest that the final particle size is proportional to the initial dissolved iron concentration, while experiments probing the effect of solution pH are ongoing. (author)

  15. Biomolecular crystals for material applications and a mechanistic study of an iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Joshua Charles

    The three projects within this work address the difficulties of controlling biomolecular crystal formats (i.e. size and shape), producing 3-D ordered composite materials from biomolecular crystal templates, and understanding the mechanism of a practical iron oxide synthesis. The unifying thread consistent throughout these three topics is the development of methods to manipulate nanomaterials using a bottom-up approach. Biomolecular crystals are nanometer to millimeter sized crystals that have well ordered mesoporous solvent channels. The overall physical dimensions of these crystals are highly dependent on crystallization conditions. The controlled growth of micro- and nanoprotein crystals was studied to provide new pathways for creating smaller crystalline protein materials. This method produced tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals (250--100,000 nm) with near monodisperse size distributions (membranes or templates. In this work, the porous structure of larger cowpea mosaic virus crystals was used to template metal nanoparticle growth within the body centered cubic crystalline network. The final composite material was found to have long range ordering of palladium and platinum nonocrystal aggregates (10nm) with symmetry consistent to the virus template. Nanoparticle synthesis itself is an immense field of study with an array of diverse applications. The final piece of this work investigates the mechanism behind a previously developed iron oxide synthesis to gain more understanding and direction to future synthesis strategies. The particle growth mechanism was found to proceed by the formation of a solvated iron(III)oleate complex followed by a reduction of iron (III) to iron (II). This unstable iron(II) nucleates to form a wustite (FeO) core which serves as an epitaxial surface for the magnetite (Fe3O4) shell growth. This method produces spherical particles (6-60nm) with relative size distributions of less than 15%.

  16. In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of silica-coated super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) as biomedical photoacoustic contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwi, Rudolf; Telenkov, Sergey A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Leshuk, Timothy; Gu, Frank; Oladepo, Sulayman; Michaelian, Kirk; Dickie, Kristopher

    2013-03-01

    The employment of contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging has gained significant attention within the past few years for their biomedical applications. In this study, the use of silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPION) was investigated as a contrast agent in biomedical photoacoustic imaging. SPIONs have been widely used as Food-and-Drug-Administration (FDA)-approved contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are known to have an excellent safety profile. Using our frequency-domain photoacoustic correlation technique ("the photoacoustic radar") with modulated laser excitation, we examined the effects of nanoparticle size, concentration and biological medium (e.g. serum, sheep blood) on its photoacoustic response in turbid media (intralipid solution). Maximum detection depth and minimum measurable SPION concentration were determined experimentally. The detection was performed using a single element transducer. The nanoparticle-induced optical contrast ex vivo in dense muscular tissues (avian pectus) was evaluated using a phased array photoacoustic probe and the strong potential of silicacoated SPION as a possible photoacoustic contrast agent was demonstrated. This study opens the way for future clinical applications of nanoparticle-enhanced photoacoustic imaging in cancer therapy.

  17. Synthesis, Surface Modification and Characterisation of Biocompatible Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaki Ab Rahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs with appropriate surface chemistry exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation. These applications required that the MNPs such as iron oxide Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs having high magnetization values and particle size smaller than 100 nm. This paper reports the experimental detail for preparation of monodisperse oleic acid (OA-coated Fe3O4 MNPs by chemical co-precipitation method to determine the optimum pH, initial temperature and stirring speed in order to obtain the MNPs with small particle size and size distribution that is needed for biomedical applications. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The results show that the particle size as well as the magnetization of the MNPs was very much dependent on pH, initial temperature of Fe2+ and Fe3+ solutions and steering speed. The monodisperse Fe3O4 MNPs coated with oleic acid with size of 7.8 ± 1.9 nm were successfully prepared at optimum pH 11, initial temperature of 45 °C and at stirring rate of 800 rpm. FTIR and XRD data reveal that the oleic acid molecules were adsorbed on the magnetic nanoparticles by chemisorption. Analyses of TEM show the oleic acid provided the Fe3O4 particles with better dispersibility. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles increased with the particle size.

  18. Refinement of adsorptive coatings for fluorescent riboflavin-receptor-targeted iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Yoanna; Beztsinna, Nataliia; Jayapaul, Jabadurai; Weiler, Marek; Arns, Susanne; Shi, Yang; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is a riboflavin derivative that can be exploited to target the riboflavin transporters (RFTs) and the riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in cells with high metabolic activity. In this study we present the synthesis of different FMN-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) and their efficiency as targeting contrast agents. Since FMN alone cannot stabilize the nanoparticles, we used adenosine phosphates - AMP, ADP and ATP - as spacers to obtain colloidally stable nanoparticles. Nucleotides with di- and triphosphate groups were intended to increase the USPIO charge and thus improve zeta potential and stability. However, all nanoparticles formed negatively charged clusters with similar properties in terms of zeta potential (-28 ± 2 mV), relaxivity (228-259 mM(-1)  s(-1) at 3 T) and hydrodynamic radius (53-85 nm). Molecules with a higher number of phosphate groups, such as ADP and ATP, have a higher adsorption affinity towards iron oxide, which, instead of providing more charge, led to partial desorption and replacement of FMN. Hence, we obtained USPIOs carrying different amounts of targeting agent, which significantly influenced the nanoparticles' uptake. The nanoparticles' uptake by different cancer cells and HUVECs was evaluated photometrically and with MR relaxometry, showing that the cellular uptake of the USPIOs increases with the FMN amount on their surface. Thus, for USPIOs targeted with riboflavin derivatives the use of spacers with increasing numbers of phosphate groups does not improve either zeta potential or the particles' stability, but rather detaches the targeting moieties from their surface, leading to lower cellular uptake. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26265388

  19. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  20. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  1. A detailed study on the transition from the blocked to the superparamagnetic state of reduction-precipitated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Mix, T.; Schell, N.; Fulda, G.; Woodcock, T. G.; Burkel, E.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by salt-assisted solid-state chemical precipitation method with alternating fractions of the ferric iron content. The physical properties of the precipitated nanoparticles mainly consisting of magnetite were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, high energy X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. With particle sizes ranging from 16.3 nm to 2.1 nm, a gradual transition from the blocked state to the superparamagnetic state was observed. The transition was described as a dependence of the ferric iron content used during the precipitation. Composition, mean particle size, coercivity, saturation polarisation, as well as hyperfine interaction parameters and their evolution were studied systematically over the whole series of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  3. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe3O4 (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. → FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. → Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. → The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was ∼11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the product at

  4. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Sozeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, S.U. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Department of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology, SE16440 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. > FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. > Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. > The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was {approx}11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the

  5. Magnetorheology of iron associated magnetic metal-organic framework nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xue Mei; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2015-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with zeolite-like structured materials have interesting characteristics because of their high surface areas and pore volumes. Among the various MOFs reported thus far, Fe-BTC was chosen as an additive to improve the dispersion stability of soft-magnetic carbonyl iron particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluids. The morphology of the Fe-BTC additive was examined by TEM, and the behavior of the MR particles dispersed in silicone oil was examined using a rotational rheometer. With a typical magnetic property, the Fe-BTC additive added MR fluid showed similar MR behavior with that of the CI based MR fluid while its improved dispersion stability was observed.

  6. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered mesoporous silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhaumik; S Samanta; N K Mal

    2005-11-01

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by powder XRD, TEM, SEM/EDS, N2 adsorption, FT-IR and UV–visible spectroscopies. Characterization data indicated well-dispersed isolated nanoclusters of (Fe2O3),` within the internal surface of 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica structure. No occluded Fe/Fe2O3 crystallites were observed at the external surface of the mesoporous silica nanocomposites. Inorganic mesoporous host, such as hydrophilic silica in the pore walls, directs a physical constraint necessary to prevent the creation of large Fe2O3 agglomerates and enables the formation of nanosized Fe2O3 particles inside the mesopore.

  7. Colloidal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles with multivalent polymer surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Wook; Lee, Hoik; Song, Youngjun; Sohn, Daewon

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for preparing magnetic colloidal suspensions with electrostatic repulsion between particles and polyelectrolyte surfactants. The surface charge of the iron oxide particles was positive in acidic aqueous conditions; however the surface charge of the colloid was negative in basic aqueous conditions due to the amphoteric property of Fe2O3. The long-term colloidal stability and particle distribution of the multivalent charged polymers, Poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonate sodium salt) (PSS), Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were compared with the monovalent surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Both mono- and multivalent surfactant molecules showed good colloidal stability for extended periods of time. However, the particle distribution was dependent on the hydrophobicity of the surfactants' functional groups. Polyelectrolytes with a negatively charged functional group showed good long-term stability of particles and a narrow particle distribution regardless of the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the polymer. PMID:25526296

  8. Design of near-infrared fluorescent bioactive conjugated functional iron oxide nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corem-Salkmon E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enav Corem-Salkmon, Benny Perlstein, Shlomo MargelThe Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, IsraelBackground: Colon cancer is one of the major causes of death in the Western world. Early detection significantly improves long-term survival for patients with the disease. Near-infrared (NIR fluorescent nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor detection. NIR offers several advantages for bioimaging compared with fluorescence in the visible spectrum, ie, lower autofluorescence of biological tissues, lower absorbance, and consequently deeper penetration into biomatrices.Methods and results: NIR fluorescent iron oxide nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared by nucleation, followed by controlled growth of thin iron oxide films onto cyanine NIR dye conjugated gelatin-iron oxide nuclei. For functionalization, and in order to increase the NIR fluorescence intensity, the NIR fluorescent iron oxide nanoparticles obtained were coated with human serum albumin containing cyanine NIR dye. Leakage of the NIR dye from these nanoparticles into phosphate-buffered saline solution containing 4% albumin was not detected. The work presented here is a feasibility study to test the suitability of iron oxide-human serum albumin NIR fluorescent nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer. It demonstrates that encapsulation of NIR fluorescent dye within these nanoparticles significantly reduces photobleaching of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands, peanut agglutinin and anticarcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (αCEA, were covalently conjugated with the NIR fluorescent iron oxide-human serum albumin nanoparticles via a poly(ethylene glycol spacer. Specific colon tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken embryo and mouse models for both nonconjugated and the peanut agglutinin-conjugated or αCEA-conjugated NIR fluorescent iron oxide-human serum albumin

  9. A predictive model of iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation tuning Z-potential in aqueous environment for biological application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldassarre, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.baldassarre@unisalento.it [University of Salento, Department of Cultural Heritage (Italy); Cacciola, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.cacciola@unirc.it [University “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria, DICEAM (Italy); Ciccarella, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.ciccarella@unisalento.it [University of Salento, Department of Innovation Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most used magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical and biotechnological field because of their nontoxicity respect to the other metals. The investigation of iron oxide nanoparticles behaviour in aqueous environment is important for the biological applications in terms of polydispersity, mobility, cellular uptake and response to the external magnetic field. Iron oxide nanoparticles tend to agglomerate in aqueous solutions; thus, the stabilisation and aggregation could be modified tuning the colloids physical proprieties. Surfactants or polymers are often used to avoid agglomeration and increase nanoparticles stability. We have modelled and synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles through a co-precipitation method, in order to study the influence of surfactants and coatings on the aggregation state. Thus, we compared experimental results to simulation model data. The change of Z-potential and the clusters size were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering. We developed a suitable numerical model to predict the flocculation. The effects of Volume Mean Diameter and fractal dimension were explored in the model. We obtained the trend of these parameters tuning the Z-potential. These curves matched with the experimental results and confirmed the goodness of the model. Subsequently, we exploited the model to study the influence of nanoparticles aggregation and stability by Z-potential and external magnetic field. The highest Z-potential is reached up with a small external magnetic influence, a small aggregation and then a high suspension stability. Thus, we obtained a predictive model of Iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation that will be exploited for the nanoparticles engineering and experimental setup of bioassays.

  10. A predictive model of iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation tuning Z-potential in aqueous environment for biological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most used magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical and biotechnological field because of their nontoxicity respect to the other metals. The investigation of iron oxide nanoparticles behaviour in aqueous environment is important for the biological applications in terms of polydispersity, mobility, cellular uptake and response to the external magnetic field. Iron oxide nanoparticles tend to agglomerate in aqueous solutions; thus, the stabilisation and aggregation could be modified tuning the colloids physical proprieties. Surfactants or polymers are often used to avoid agglomeration and increase nanoparticles stability. We have modelled and synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles through a co-precipitation method, in order to study the influence of surfactants and coatings on the aggregation state. Thus, we compared experimental results to simulation model data. The change of Z-potential and the clusters size were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering. We developed a suitable numerical model to predict the flocculation. The effects of Volume Mean Diameter and fractal dimension were explored in the model. We obtained the trend of these parameters tuning the Z-potential. These curves matched with the experimental results and confirmed the goodness of the model. Subsequently, we exploited the model to study the influence of nanoparticles aggregation and stability by Z-potential and external magnetic field. The highest Z-potential is reached up with a small external magnetic influence, a small aggregation and then a high suspension stability. Thus, we obtained a predictive model of Iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation that will be exploited for the nanoparticles engineering and experimental setup of bioassays

  11. Synthesis optimization and characterization of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles produced for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) were in situ synthesized by cross-linking method. In this method; during the adsorption of cationic chitosan molecules onto the surface of anionic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with electrostatic interactions, tripolyphosphate (TPP) is added for ionic cross-linking of the chitosan molecules with each other. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. The XRD and XPS analyses proved that the synthesized iron oxide was magnetite (Fe3O4). The layer of chitosan on the magnetite surface was confirmed by FTIR. TEM results demonstrated a spherical morphology. In the synthesis, at higher NH4OH concentrations, smaller sized nanoparticles were obtained. The average diameters were generally between 2 and 8 nm for CS MNPs in TEM and between 58 and 103 nm in DLS. The average diameters of bare MNPs were found as around 18 nm both in TEM and DLS. TGA results indicated that the chitosan content of CS MNPs were between 15 and 23 % by weight. Bare and CS MNPs were superparamagnetic. These nanoparticles were found non-cytotoxic on cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa). The synthesized MNPs have many potential applications in biomedicine including targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic hyperthermia.

  12. Synthesis of bombesin-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and their specific uptake in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging of molecular markers associated with disease offers the possibility for earlier detection and improved treatment monitoring. Receptors for gastrin-releasing peptide are overexpressed on prostate cancer cells offering a promising imaging target, and analogs of bombesin, an amphibian tetradecapeptide have been previously demonstrated to target these receptors. Therefore, the pan-bombesin analog [β-Ala11, Phe13, Nle14]bombesin-(7-14) was conjugated through a linker to dye-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of a new potential magnetic resonance imaging probe. The peptide was conjugated via click chemistry, demonstrating a complementary alternative methodology to conventional peptide-nanoparticle conjugation strategies. The peptide-functionalized nanoparticles were then demonstrated to be selectively taken up by PC-3 prostate cancer cells relative to unfunctionalized nanoparticles and this uptake was inhibited by the presence of free peptide, confirming the specificity of the interaction. This study suggests that these nanoparticles have the potential to serve as magnetic resonance imaging probes for the detection of prostate cancer.

  13. Synthesis of bombesin-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and their specific uptake in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Amanda L.; Hickey, Jennifer L. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Ablack, Amber L.; Lewis, John D. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Oncology (Canada); Luyt, Leonard G.; Gillies, Elizabeth R., E-mail: egillie@uwo.c [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemistry (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    The imaging of molecular markers associated with disease offers the possibility for earlier detection and improved treatment monitoring. Receptors for gastrin-releasing peptide are overexpressed on prostate cancer cells offering a promising imaging target, and analogs of bombesin, an amphibian tetradecapeptide have been previously demonstrated to target these receptors. Therefore, the pan-bombesin analog [{beta}-Ala11, Phe13, Nle14]bombesin-(7-14) was conjugated through a linker to dye-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of a new potential magnetic resonance imaging probe. The peptide was conjugated via click chemistry, demonstrating a complementary alternative methodology to conventional peptide-nanoparticle conjugation strategies. The peptide-functionalized nanoparticles were then demonstrated to be selectively taken up by PC-3 prostate cancer cells relative to unfunctionalized nanoparticles and this uptake was inhibited by the presence of free peptide, confirming the specificity of the interaction. This study suggests that these nanoparticles have the potential to serve as magnetic resonance imaging probes for the detection of prostate cancer.

  14. Synthesis optimization and characterization of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles produced for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsoy, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeunsoy@hotmail.com [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Yalcin, Serap [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biological Sciences (Turkey); Khodadust, Rouhollah [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Gunduz, Gungor [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey); Gunduz, Ufuk, E-mail: ufukg@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biological Sciences (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) were in situ synthesized by cross-linking method. In this method; during the adsorption of cationic chitosan molecules onto the surface of anionic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with electrostatic interactions, tripolyphosphate (TPP) is added for ionic cross-linking of the chitosan molecules with each other. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. The XRD and XPS analyses proved that the synthesized iron oxide was magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The layer of chitosan on the magnetite surface was confirmed by FTIR. TEM results demonstrated a spherical morphology. In the synthesis, at higher NH{sub 4}OH concentrations, smaller sized nanoparticles were obtained. The average diameters were generally between 2 and 8 nm for CS MNPs in TEM and between 58 and 103 nm in DLS. The average diameters of bare MNPs were found as around 18 nm both in TEM and DLS. TGA results indicated that the chitosan content of CS MNPs were between 15 and 23 % by weight. Bare and CS MNPs were superparamagnetic. These nanoparticles were found non-cytotoxic on cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa). The synthesized MNPs have many potential applications in biomedicine including targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic hyperthermia.

  15. Removal of hexavalent chromium from contaminated ground water using zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ritu; Misra, Virendra; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2012-06-01

    Batch experiments were conducted on ground water samples collected from a site contaminated with Cr(VI) to evaluate the redox potential of zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) nanoparticles for remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated ground water. For this, various samples of contaminated ground water were allowed to react with various loadings of Fe(0) nanoparticles for a reaction period of 60 min. Data showed 100% reduction of Cr(VI) in all the contaminated ground water samples after treatment with 0.20 gL(-1) of Fe(0) nanoparticles. An increase in the reduction of Cr(VI) from 45% to 100% was noticed with the increase in the loading of Fe(0) nanoparticles from 0.05 to 0.20 gL(-1). Reaction kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction showed pseudo first-order kinetics with rate constant in the range of 1.1 × 10(-3) to 3.9 × 10(-3) min(-1). This work demonstrates the potential utility of Fe(0) nanoparticles in treatment and remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated water source. PMID:21769560

  16. Influence of the aggregation, concentration, and viscosity on the nanomagnetism of iron oxide nanoparticle colloids for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, David; Camarero, Julio; Ortega, Daniel; Teran, Francisco J., E-mail: francisco.teran@imdea.org [Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, IMDEA Nanociencia (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have become ubiquitous in many biomedical applications, acting as core elements in an increasing number of therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. These applications mainly rely on their static and dynamic magnetic properties, through which they can be remotely actuated. However, little attention has been paid to understand the variation of the magnetic response of nanoparticles inside cells or tissues, despite of the remarkable changes reported to date. In this article, we provide some hints to analyze the influence of the biological matrix on the magnetism of iron oxide nanoparticles. To this aim, we propose the assessment of the heating efficiency of magnetic colloids against nanoparticle aggregation, concentration, and viscosity in order to mimic the fate of nanoparticles upon cell internalization.

  17. Influence of the aggregation, concentration, and viscosity on the nanomagnetism of iron oxide nanoparticle colloids for magnetic hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have become ubiquitous in many biomedical applications, acting as core elements in an increasing number of therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. These applications mainly rely on their static and dynamic magnetic properties, through which they can be remotely actuated. However, little attention has been paid to understand the variation of the magnetic response of nanoparticles inside cells or tissues, despite of the remarkable changes reported to date. In this article, we provide some hints to analyze the influence of the biological matrix on the magnetism of iron oxide nanoparticles. To this aim, we propose the assessment of the heating efficiency of magnetic colloids against nanoparticle aggregation, concentration, and viscosity in order to mimic the fate of nanoparticles upon cell internalization

  18. Nitric oxide releasing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: cell viability, apoptosis and cell death evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as control of vascular tone and immune responses against microbes. Thus, there is great interest in the development of NO-releasing materials to carry and deliver NO for biomedical applications. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been used in important pharmacological applications, including drug-delivery. In this work, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with thiol-containing hydrophilic ligands: mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Free thiol groups on the surface of MSA- or DMSA- coated nanoparticles were nitrosated, leading to the formation of NO-releasing iron oxide nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of MSA- or DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) (thiolated nanoparticles) and nitrosated MSA- or nitrosated DMSA- coated MNPs (NO-releasing nanoparticles) were evaluated towards human lymphocytes. The results showed that MNP-MSA and MNP-DMSA have low cytotoxicity effects. On the other hand, NO-releasing MNPs were found to increase apoptosis and cell death compared to free NO-nanoparticles. Therefore, the cytotoxicity effects observed for NO-releasing MNPs may result in important biomedical applications, such as the treatment of tumors cells.

  19. Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

  20. Optimized labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and in vivo visualization by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spray David C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising addition to traditional treatments for a number of diseases. However, harnessing the therapeutic potential of stem cells requires an understanding of their fate in vivo. Non-invasive cell tracking can provide knowledge about mechanisms responsible for functional improvement of host tissue. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been used to label and visualize various cell types with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this study we performed experiments designed to investigate the biological properties, including proliferation, viability and differentiation capacity of mesenchymal cells (MSCs labeled with clinically approved SPIONs. Results Rat and mouse MSCs were isolated, cultured, and incubated with dextran-covered SPIONs (ferumoxide alone or with poly-L-lysine (PLL or protamine chlorhydrate for 4 or 24 hrs. Labeling efficiency was evaluated by dextran immunocytochemistry and MRI. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated in vitro with Ki67 immunocytochemistry and live/dead assays. Ferumoxide-labeled MSCs could be induced to differentiate to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. We analyzed ferumoxide retention in MSCs with or without mitomycin C pretreatment. Approximately 95% MSCs were labeled when incubated with ferumoxide for 4 or 24 hrs in the presence of PLL or protamine, whereas labeling of MSCs incubated with ferumoxide alone was poor. Proliferative capacity was maintained in MSCs incubated with ferumoxide and PLL for 4 hrs, however, after 24 hrs it was reduced. MSCs incubated with ferumoxide and protamine were efficiently visualized by MRI; they maintained proliferation and viability for up to 7 days and remained competent to differentiate. After 21 days MSCs pretreated with mitomycin C still showed a large number of ferumoxide-labeled cells. Conclusions The efficient and long lasting uptake and retention of SPIONs by MSCs using a protocol

  1. Viscosity of magnetorheological fluids using Iron-silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hee; Kim, CheolGi; Lee, Seung Goo; Hong, Tae Min; Choi, Joon Hong

    2013-09-01

    Fe-6.5Si fine particles were mechanically fabricated by a milling method for use in magnetorheological fluids. Oleic acid was used as a surfactant for the dispersed substance for preparing the hydrophobic fluid with silicon oil as a dispersing medium. Further, oleic acid and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate were used as surfactants, forming a bilayer structure, for preparing the hydrophilic fluid with polyethylene glycol as a dispersing medium. The adsorption of oleic acid onto the Fe-Si particles was achieved by oxidizing the particle surface with trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate. In order to make a comparative examination of the fluid properties, ferromagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation and the subsequent process was accompanied under the same conditions as applied for the magnetorheological fluid. The fluid particles were characterized by magnetization measurements. The viscosity of the fluids was obtained at various concentrations under an external field. The viscosity values of the magnetorheological fluid were higher than those of the ferromagnetic fluid. Moreover, they increased considerably by using silicon oil as the dispersing medium as well as under an applied magnetic field and at higher fluid concentrations. The magnetorheological fluids may be effectively resistant to a strong impact from outside when the appropriate fluid concentration is used and a magnetic field is applied for increasing the shear strength of the fluids. PMID:24205598

  2. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  3. Boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a novel tool for adsorption of sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has been reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by simple co-precipitation from Fe2+ and Fe3+ solution. m-Aminophenyl boronic acid was attached to iron oxide particles through 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde through C=N bond. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction have shown the formation of inverse spinel phase magnetite of both as prepared and functionalized magnetite particles. FTIR shows attachment of boronic acid-imine onto iron oxide surface through enediol group. Transmission electron microscopy shows well dispersion of boronic acid functionalized particles of size 8 ± 2 nm. Vibration sample magnetometry shows both the particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature having saturation magnetization (Ms) 52 emu/g. In this work the affinity of these boronic acid functionalized particles towards sugar binding was studied taking dextrose sugar as a model. The influence of pH and sugar concentration has been extensively investigated. The results show that such boronic acid modified superparamagnetic particles are efficient support for sugar separation having maximum sugar loading capacity (60 μg/50 μl) at pH 8.

  4. Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neha; Anwar, Mohammed; Asfer, Mohammed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, Mohammed Moshahid Alam; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-10-20

    Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively). PMID:27474599

  5. Boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a novel tool for adsorption of sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, S., E-mail: sasmita05@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008 (India); Panda, N. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008 (India); Pramanik, P. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2009-08-31

    Synthesis of boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has been reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by simple co-precipitation from Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} solution. m-Aminophenyl boronic acid was attached to iron oxide particles through 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde through C=N bond. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction have shown the formation of inverse spinel phase magnetite of both as prepared and functionalized magnetite particles. FTIR shows attachment of boronic acid-imine onto iron oxide surface through enediol group. Transmission electron microscopy shows well dispersion of boronic acid functionalized particles of size 8 {+-} 2 nm. Vibration sample magnetometry shows both the particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature having saturation magnetization (Ms) 52 emu/g. In this work the affinity of these boronic acid functionalized particles towards sugar binding was studied taking dextrose sugar as a model. The influence of pH and sugar concentration has been extensively investigated. The results show that such boronic acid modified superparamagnetic particles are efficient support for sugar separation having maximum sugar loading capacity (60 {mu}g/50 {mu}l) at pH 8.

  6. Size dependence of the magnetic relaxation and specific power absorption in iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, E. [CONICET and Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia and Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Torres, T. E. [University of Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA) and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA) (Spain); Rossi, L. M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rechenberg, H. R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Berquo, T. S. [Institute of Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota (United States); Ibarra, A. [University of Zaragoza, INA and LMA (Spain); Marquina, C. [CSIC, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA) (Spain); Ibarra, M. R. [University of Zaragoza, INA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and LMA (Spain); Goya, G. F., E-mail: goya@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, INA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, magnetic and power absorption properties of a series of iron oxide nanoparticles with average sizes Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket d Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket ranging from 3 to 23 nm were reported. The nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Iron(III) acetylacetonate in organic media. From the careful characterization of the magnetic and physicochemical properties of these samples, the specific power absorption (SPA) values experimentally found were numerically reproduced, as well as their dependence with particle size, using a simple model of Brownian and Neel relaxation at room temperature. SPA experiments in ac magnetic fields (H{sub 0} = 13 kA/m and f = 250 kHz) indicated that the magnetic and rheological properties played a crucial role determining the heating efficiency at different conditions. A maximum SPA value of 344 W/g was obtained for a sample containing nanoparticles with Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket d Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 12 nm and dispersion {sigma} = 0.25. The observed SPA dependence with particle diameter and their magnetic parameters indicated that, for the size range and experimental conditions of f and H studied in this study, both Neel and Brown relaxation mechanisms are important to the heat generation observed.

  7. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieres, Jerome, E-mail: Jerome.vernieres@oist.jp; Benelmekki, Maria; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Diaz, Rosa E. [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Bobo, Jean-François [Centre d’Elaboration de Materiaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sowwan, Mukhles, E-mail: Mukhles@oist.jp [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 51000, East Jerusalem, Palestine (Country Unknown)

    2014-11-01

    Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO{sub 3} phase) and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g) and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe) at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  8. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO3 phase) and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g) and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe) at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments

  9. Effective delivery of immunosuppressive drug molecules by silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Lee, Eunwon; Kim, Jieun; Seo, Youngmin; Lee, Kwan Hong; Hong, Jong Wook; Gilad, Assaf A; Park, Hansoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-06-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications, including drug delivery, molecular imaging, and cellular imaging. Various surface modifications have been applied to the particles to stabilize their surface and to give them a moiety for anchoring tags and/or drug molecules. Conventional methods of delivering immunosuppressant drugs often require a high dose of drugs to ensure therapeutic effects, but this can lead to toxic side effects. In this study, we used silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IOSs) for a drug delivery application in which the nanoparticles carry the minimum amount of drug required to be effective to the target cells. IOSs could be loaded with water-insoluble immunosuppressive drug molecules (MPA: mycophenolic acid) and be used as a contrast agent for MRI. We characterized the IOSs for their physicochemical properties and found their average hydrodynamic diameter and core size to be 40.5nm and 5nm, respectively. Following the introduction of MPA-loaded IOSs (IOS/M), we evaluated the secretion dynamics of cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The results showed that IOS/M effectively inhibited the secretion of the cytokines interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor α, with a minimal concentration of MPA. In conclusion, IOS/M may have potential applications in both efficient drug delivery and MRI. PMID:26966999

  10. The effect of nanocrystalline silicon host on magnetic properties of encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitzer, P; Rumpf, K; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R; Coffer, J L; Reissner, M

    2015-12-21

    The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature. PMID:26575478

  11. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easo, Sheeja Liza; Mohanan, P V

    2016-07-25

    Cellular and organ responses to nanoparticles are relevant in the context of use of nanoparticles for biomedical applications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) to influence hepatic uptake and consequently induce hepatotoxic response in rats following intravenous administration. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis revealed that DIONPs are rapidly taken up into the liver, progressively broken down to iron constituents and exported into blood, with a part of it being retained in the liver. The potential of DIONPs to induce oxidative stress response was determined by evaluating the time-dependent redox defense status. Maximum alterations in antioxidant activities were observed to occur within a period of 7days. However, this effect was not followed by significant increase in lipid peroxidation or modulation of hepatic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Overall, these data imply that the liver retains functional integrity with a dose of 10mg/kg DIONPs, although with brief activation of redox defenses. PMID:27188646

  12. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-02-14

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g(-1)). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM(-1) s(-1) and 185.58 mM(-1) s(-1) respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed. PMID:26460932

  13. Optimization of synthesis and peptization steps to obtain iron oxide nanoparticles with high energy dissipation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mérida, Fernando [Deparment of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9046, Mayagüez, PR 00680 (United States); Chiu-Lam, Andreina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 (United States); Bohórquez, Ana C. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States); Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 (United States); Pérez, María-Eglée; Pericchi, Luis [Department of Mathematics, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Deparment of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9046, Mayagüez, PR 00680 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) uses heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles exposed to alternating magnetic fields to cause a temperature increase in tumors to the hyperthermia range (43–47 °C), inducing apoptotic cancer cell death. As with all cancer nanomedicines, one of the most significant challenges with MFH is achieving high nanoparticle accumulation at the tumor site. This motivates development of synthesis strategies that maximize the rate of energy dissipation of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, preferable due to their intrinsic biocompatibility. This has led to development of synthesis strategies that, although attractive from the point of view of chemical elegance, may not be suitable for scale-up to quantities necessary for clinical use. On the other hand, to date the aqueous co-precipitation synthesis, which readily yields gram quantities of nanoparticles, has only been reported to yield sufficiently high specific absorption rates after laborious size selective fractionation. This work focuses on improvements to the aqueous co-precipitation of iron oxide nanoparticles to increase the specific absorption rate (SAR), by optimizing synthesis conditions and the subsequent peptization step. Heating efficiencies up to 1048 W/g{sub Fe} (36.5 kA/m, 341 kHz; ILP=2.3 nH m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}) were obtained, which represent one of the highest values reported for iron oxide particles synthesized by co-precipitation without size-selective fractionation. Furthermore, particles reached SAR values of up to 719 W/g{sub Fe} (36.5 kA/m, 341 kHz; ILP=1.6 nH m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}) when in a solid matrix, demonstrating they were capable of significant rates of energy dissipation even when restricted from physical rotation. Reduction in energy dissipation rate due to immobilization has been identified as an obstacle to clinical translation of MFH. Hence, particles obtained with the conditions reported here have great potential for application in nanoscale thermal

  14. Optimization of synthesis and peptization steps to obtain iron oxide nanoparticles with high energy dissipation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) uses heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles exposed to alternating magnetic fields to cause a temperature increase in tumors to the hyperthermia range (43–47 °C), inducing apoptotic cancer cell death. As with all cancer nanomedicines, one of the most significant challenges with MFH is achieving high nanoparticle accumulation at the tumor site. This motivates development of synthesis strategies that maximize the rate of energy dissipation of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, preferable due to their intrinsic biocompatibility. This has led to development of synthesis strategies that, although attractive from the point of view of chemical elegance, may not be suitable for scale-up to quantities necessary for clinical use. On the other hand, to date the aqueous co-precipitation synthesis, which readily yields gram quantities of nanoparticles, has only been reported to yield sufficiently high specific absorption rates after laborious size selective fractionation. This work focuses on improvements to the aqueous co-precipitation of iron oxide nanoparticles to increase the specific absorption rate (SAR), by optimizing synthesis conditions and the subsequent peptization step. Heating efficiencies up to 1048 W/gFe (36.5 kA/m, 341 kHz; ILP=2.3 nH m2 kg−1) were obtained, which represent one of the highest values reported for iron oxide particles synthesized by co-precipitation without size-selective fractionation. Furthermore, particles reached SAR values of up to 719 W/gFe (36.5 kA/m, 341 kHz; ILP=1.6 nH m2 kg−1) when in a solid matrix, demonstrating they were capable of significant rates of energy dissipation even when restricted from physical rotation. Reduction in energy dissipation rate due to immobilization has been identified as an obstacle to clinical translation of MFH. Hence, particles obtained with the conditions reported here have great potential for application in nanoscale thermal cancer therapy. - Highlights:

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of polymer coated iron based nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Srinivasan

    Magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention for potential biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and hyperthermia treatment of cancerous cells. Future research on biomedical applications also includes use of magnetic nanoparticles for cell and DNA separation. By functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles with cells or DNA selective biomolecules, the particles attach to the target and are removed from the sample upon passing through magnetic field gradients. The field gradients apply a force that attracts the particles given by the equation F = ∇(m · B), where m is the magnetization of the MNP, and B is the applied magnetic field. This type of magnetic manipulation is potential for in vivo applications such as targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. The magnitude of the field gradients of magnetic nanoparticles are significantly reduced due to the inverse square law dependence of magnetic field strength and subsequently the forces set up are reduced. Although the research in this field has focused primarily on iron oxide nanoparticles, these oxide nanoparticles have a low magnetization that renders them ineffective, at the distances required for in vivo applications, due to the reduced forces felt by the nanoparticles. Successful implementation of such magnetic nanoparticles based system in vivo may require higher magnetization. The aim of this proposal is to synthesize high magnetization Fe-based MNPs functionalized with artificial proteins. The research described in this dissertation focuses on synthesis, size control, structural and magnetic characterization and associated experimental studies to characterize their properties for application in magnetic fluid hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging applications. The method used for the synthesis of the Fe-based nanoparticles is the conventional borohydride

  16. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  17. Iron oxide nanoparticles suppressed T helper 1 cell-mediated immunity in a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen CC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Chang Shen,1,* Hong-Jen Liang,2,* Chia-Chi Wang,3 Mei-Hsiu Liao,4 Tong-Rong Jan11Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 2Innovation and Incubation Center, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, 3School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 4Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: It was recently reported that iron oxide nanoparticles attenuated antigen-specific humoral responses and T cell cytokine expression in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. It is presently unclear whether iron oxide nanoparticles influence T helper 1 cell-mediated immunity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, whose pathophysiology requires the participation of T helper 1 cells and macrophages.Methods: DTH was elicited by a subcutaneous challenge with ovalbumin to the footpads of mice sensitized with ovalbumin. Iron oxide nanoparticles (0.2–10 mg iron/kg were administered intravenously 1 hour prior to ovalbumin sensitization. Local inflammatory responses were examined by footpad swelling and histological analysis. The expression of cytokines by splenocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Administration of iron oxide nanoparticles, in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly attenuated inflammatory reactions associated with DTH, including the footpad swelling, the infiltration of T cells and macrophages, and the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the inflammatory site. Iron oxide nanoparticles also demonstrated a suppressive effect on ovalbumin-stimulated production of interferon-γ by splenocytes and the phagocytic activity of splenic CD11b+ cells.Conclusion: These results demonstrated that a single dose of iron oxide nanoparticles attenuated

  18. Comparison study of ferrofluid and powder iron oxide nanoparticle permeability across the blood–brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoff D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dan Hoff,1 Lubna Sheikh,2 Soumya Bhattacharya,2 Suprabha Nayar,2 Thomas J Webster11School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Biomaterials Group, Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Burmamines, Jamshedpur, IndiaAbstract: In the present study, the permeability of 11 different iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP samples (eight fluids and three powders was determined using an in vitro blood–brain barrier model. Importantly, the results showed that the ferrofluid formulations were statistically more permeable than the IONP powder formulations at the blood–brain barrier, suggesting a role for the presently studied in situ synthesized ferrofluid formulations using poly(vinyl alcohol, bovine serum albumin, collagen, glutamic acid, graphene, and their combinations as materials which can cross the blood–brain barrier to deliver drugs or have other neurological therapeutic efficacy. Conversely, the results showed the least permeability across the blood–brain barrier for the IONP with collagen formulation, suggesting a role as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent but limiting IONP passage across the blood–brain barrier. Further analysis of the data yielded several trends of note, with little correlation between permeability and fluid zeta potential, but a larger correlation between permeability and fluid particle size (with the smaller particle sizes having larger permeability. Such results lay the foundation for simple modification of iron oxide nanoparticle formulations to either promote or inhibit passage across the blood–brain barrier, and deserve further investigation for a wide range of applications.Keywords: ferrofluids, iron oxide nanoparticles, permeability, blood–brain barrier

  19. The Reaction Specificity of Nanoparticles in Solution: Application to the Reaction of Nanoparticulate Iron and Iron-Bimetallic Compounds with Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Oxyanions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospect for better remediation technologies using nanoparticles of iron, iron oxides, and iron with catalytic metals (i.e., bimetallics) has potentially transformative implications for environmental management of DOE sites across the country. Of particular interest is the potential to avoid undesirable products from the degradation of chlorinated solvents by taking advantage of the potential selectivity of nanoparticles to produce environmentally benign products from CCl4. Chlorinated solvents are the most frequently reported subsurface contaminants across the whole DOE complex, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the chlorinated solvent that is of greatest concern at Hanford (U. S. Department Energy 2001). In evaluating technologies that might be used at the site, a critical concern will be that CCl4 reduction usually occurs predominantly by hydrogenolysis to chloroform (CHCl3) and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2), both of which are nearly as problematic as CCl4 (National Research Council, 1978). Competing reaction pathways produce the more desirable products carbon monoxide (CO) and/or formate (HCOO-), and possibly CO2, but the proportion of reaction that occurs by these pathways is highly variable. Iron-based metallic and oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have enhanced reactivity towards a variety of chemical species, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and reducible oxyanions. Possibly of greater importance is the ability of nanoparticles to select for specific reaction products, potentially facilitating the formation of more environmentally acceptable products. The purpose of this study is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism responsible for the overall particle reactivity and reaction selectivity of reactive metal and oxide nanoparticles. To achieve this objective the project involves the synthesis (using solution and vacuum synthesis methods) and characterization of well-defined nanoparticles, measurements of particle reactivity in

  20. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2015-01-01

    valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron......Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as...

  1. Magnetically triggered release of molecular cargo from iron oxide nanoparticle loaded microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Guardia, Pablo; Yu, Xiang; Hartmann, Raimo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-12-01

    Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat-mediators for local heating, which can be triggered by applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). AMFs are much less absorbed by tissue than light and thus can penetrate deeper overcoming the above mentioned limitations. Here we present iron oxide nanocube-modified microcapsules as a platform for magnetically triggered molecular release. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules with 4.6 μm diameter, which had 18 nm diameter iron oxide nanocubes integrated in their walls, were synthesized. The microcapsules were further loaded with an organic fluorescent polymer (Cascade Blue-labelled dextran), which was used as a model of molecular cargo. Through an AMF the magnetic nanoparticles were able to heat their surroundings and destroy the microcapsule walls, leading to a final release of the embedded cargo to the surrounding solution. The cargo release was monitored in solution by measuring the increase in both absorbance and fluorescence signal after the exposure to an AMF. Our results demonstrate that magnetothermal release of the encapsulated material is possible using magnetic nanoparticles with a high heating performance.Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat

  2. Magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by seeded-growth route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, A., E-mail: anaespinosamr@gmail.com [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM) (Spain); Munoz-Noval, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV) (Spain); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM) (Spain); Serrano, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV) (Spain); Jimenez de la Morena, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM) (Spain); Figuerola, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica Inorganica i Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (Spain); Quarta, A.; Pellegrino, T. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO (Italy); Wilhelm, C. [CNRS and Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes (MSC), UMR 7057 (France); Garcia, M. A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV) (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    In this work we investigate the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by two-step synthesis (seeded-growth route) with sizes that range from 6 to 18 nm. The initial seeds result monocrystalline and exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with low saturation field. The subsequent growth of a shell enhances the anisotropy inducing magnetic frustration, and, consequently, reducing its magnetization. This increase in anisotropy occurs suddenly at a certain size ({approx}10 nm). Electronic and structural analysis with X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a step reduction in the oxidation state as the particle reaches 10 nm size while keeping its overall structure in spite of the magnetic polydispersity. The formation of antiphase magnetic boundaries due to island percolation in the growing shells is hypothesized to be the mechanism responsible of the magnetic behavior, as a direct consequence of the two-step synthesis route of the nanoparticles.

  3. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Changming [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kou Geng [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Xiaoliang [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Shuhui [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gu Hongchen [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: hcgu@sjtu.edu.cn; Guo Yajun [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yjguo@smmu.edu.cn

    2009-09-15

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  4. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  5. Hollow Spheres of Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encased in Graphitic Layers as Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    Nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction are the ultimate materials and the foremost subject for low‐temperature fuel cells. A novel type of catalysts prepared by high‐pressure pyrolysis is reported. The catalyst is featured by hollow spherical morphologies consisting of...... uniform iron carbide (Fe3C) nanoparticles encased by graphitic layers, with little surface nitrogen or metallic functionalities. In acidic media the outer graphitic layers stabilize the carbide nanoparticles without depriving them of their catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). As...... a result the catalyst is highly active and stable in both acid and alkaline electrolytes. The synthetic approach, the carbide‐based catalyst, the structure of the catalysts, and the proposed mechanism open new avenues for the development of ORR catalysts....

  6. The synthesis of iron-nickel alloy nanoparticles using a reverse micelle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized Fe0.2Ni0.8 particles were prepared by reducing their salts with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in cationic water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions of water/cetyl-trimethyl-amonium bromide (CTAB) and n-butanol/isooctane at 25 oC. According to the TEM and X-ray diffraction analyses, the synthesized particles were around 4-12 nm in size. Due to their nanodimensions, the particles had a primitive cubic (pc) structure rather than the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the bulk material. An examination of the synthesis from the reverse micelle reveals that the morphology of the iron-nickel alloy nanoparticles depends mainly on the microemulsion's composition. The magnetization of the nanoparticles was much lower than that of the bulk material, reflecting the influence of the nanodimensions on the particles' magnetizations

  7. Magnetization and Specific Absorption Rate Studies of Ball-Milled Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Burnham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies are presented of iron oxide nanoparticles in the 7–15 nm average diameter range ball milled in hexane in the presence of oleic acid. Transmission electron microscopy identified spherical particles of decreasing size as milling time and/or surfactant concentration increased. Micromagnetic characterization via Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature yielded broadened magnetic spectroscopic signatures, while macromagnetic characterization via vibrating sample magnetometry of 7-8 nm diameter particles showed largely superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and hysteretic at 2 K. Zero-field and field-cooled magnetization curves exhibited a broad maximum at ~215 K indicating the presence of strong interparticle magnetic interactions. The specific absorption rates of ferrofluids based on these nanoparticle preparations were measured in order to test their efficacies as hyperthermia agents.

  8. Improved functionalization of oleic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can provide multiple benefits for biomedical applications in aqueous environments such as magnetic separation or magnetic resonance imaging. To increase the colloidal stability and allow subsequent reactions, the introduction of hydrophilic functional groups onto the particles’ surface is essential. During this process, the original coating is exchanged by preferably covalently bonded ligands such as trialkoxysilanes. The duration of the silane exchange reaction, which commonly takes more than 24 h, is an important drawback for this approach. In this paper, we present a novel method, which introduces ultrasonication as an energy source to dramatically accelerate this process, resulting in high-quality water-dispersible nanoparticles around 10 nm in size. To prove the generic character, different functional groups were introduced on the surface including polyethylene glycol chains, carboxylic acid, amine, and thiol groups. Their colloidal stability in various aqueous buffer solutions as well as human plasma and serum was investigated to allow implementation in biomedical and sensing applications.

  9. Long circulating reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient tumor targeting and multimodality imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Shi, Sixiang; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A; Ehlerding, Emily B; Goel, Shreya; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G; Nickles, Robert J; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Taihong; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification is one of the most widely used approaches to improve the solubility of inorganic nanoparticles, prevent their aggregation and prolong their in vivo blood circulation half-life. Herein, we developed double-PEGylated biocompatible reduced graphene oxide nanosheets anchored with iron oxide nanoparticles (RGO-IONP-(1st)PEG-(2nd)PEG). The nanoconjugates exhibited a prolonged blood circulation half-life (∼27.7 h) and remarkable tumor accumulation (>11 %ID g(-1)) via an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Due to the strong near-infrared absorbance and superparamagnetism of RGO-IONP-(1st)PEG-(2nd)PEG, multimodality imaging combining positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging was successfully achieved. The promising results suggest the great potential of these nanoconjugates for multi-dimensional and more accurate tumor diagnosis and therapy in the future. PMID:27109431

  10. Shellac-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jilai; Chen, Long; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Deng, Jiuhua; Niu, Qiuya; He, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a new effective adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution synthesized by coating a shellac layer, a natural biodegradable and renewable resin with abundant hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, on the surface of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging showed shellac-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SCMN) adsorbents had a core-shell structure with a core of 20 nm and shell of 5 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic analysis suggested the occurrence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the SCMN adsorbent surface and cadmium ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic data were well described by pseudo second-order model and adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with maximum adsorption capacity of 18.80 mg/g. SCMN adsorbents provided a favorable adsorption capacity under high salinity conditions, and cadmium could easily be desorbed using mild organic acid solutions at low concentration. PMID:23513435

  11. The synthesis of iron nickel alloy nanoparticles using a reverse micelle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Irena; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2006-12-01

    Nanosized Fe 0.2Ni 0.8 particles were prepared by reducing their salts with sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) in cationic water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions of water/cetyl-trimethyl-amonium bromide (CTAB) and n-butanol/isooctane at 25 °C. According to the TEM and X-ray diffraction analyses, the synthesized particles were around 4-12 nm in size. Due to their nanodimensions, the particles had a primitive cubic (pc) structure rather than the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the bulk material. An examination of the synthesis from the reverse micelle reveals that the morphology of the iron-nickel alloy nanoparticles depends mainly on the microemulsion's composition. The magnetization of the nanoparticles was much lower than that of the bulk material, reflecting the influence of the nanodimensions on the particles' magnetizations.

  12. Silica-coated iron nanoparticles: Shape-controlled synthesis, magnetism and microwave absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body-centered cubic (bcc) phase iron nanocrystals with granular, rod-like and flaky shapes were prepared through a simple surfactant-controlled chemical reduction route. In view of extra stability and enhanced manipulative ability, thus-prepared iron nanoparticles were morphology-retained modified with a thin silica shell through a Stoeber process. A serial of techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), thermogravimetry (TG), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scalar network analyzer (SNA) were used to characterize the iron particles before and after silica coating. Results showed that the surface silica coating could effectively improve the oxidation resistance and microwave absorption performance of iron particles, while slightly influenced their magnetic properties. Furthermore, the flaky Fe-SiO2 nanocapsules particles exhibited better microwave absorption performance than that of the granular and rod-like counterparts, which could be ascribed to the shape effect.

  13. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on polysaccharide templates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Nidhin; R Indumathy; K J Sreeram; Balachandran Unni Nair

    2008-02-01

    We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharide templates. Interaction between iron (II) sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution of particle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solvent media, size, size distribution and crystallinity and found that when the negative value of the zeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with 100 = 275 nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particle size measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra values show that the template is completely removed from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks of the diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations of our study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index, bandgap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. A large negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, owing to the particles remaining discrete without agglomeration.

  14. Dense medium plasma synthesis of carbon/iron-based magnetic nanoparticle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using dense medium plasma technology, hybrid iron and iron oxide/carbon-based nanoparticle composites were synthesized under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. Based on results from electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we conclude that the material is composed of spherical particles, 40-60 nm in diameter, which are a graphitic carbon host structure embedded with iron and iron oxide. Thermal gravimetry/differential thermal gravimetry analysis indicates that these composites are stable up to temperatures as high as 600 deg. C. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy (FMR) and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy suggest that the bulk of the FMR signal in question is due to metallic Fe. Magnetite or maghemite is present, and the metallic content of the metal particles is 58(8)% and the remainder is oxidized with a sixfold oxygen coordination shell similar to that of γ-Fe2O3

  15. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating: New modification of organic polymer monolithic column for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2011. P2-G-467-WE. ISBN 978-963-89335-0-8. [International Symposium on High-Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques /36./. 19.06.2011-23.06.2011, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06023; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P004 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating of organic polymer-based monolithic columns for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, 16-17 (2011), s. 2106-2112. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P004 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2011

  17. Photo-fluorescent and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Donglu; Sadat, M. E.; Dunn, Andrew W.; Mast, David B.

    2015-04-01

    Iron oxide exhibits fascinating physical properties especially in the nanometer range, not only from the standpoint of basic science, but also for a variety of engineering, particularly biomedical applications. For instance, Fe3O4 behaves as superparamagnetic as the particle size is reduced to a few nanometers in the single-domain region depending on the type of the material. The superparamagnetism is an important property for biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia therapy of cancer. In this review article, we report on some of the most recent experimental and theoretical studies on magnetic heating mechanisms under an alternating (AC) magnetic field. The heating mechanisms are interpreted based on Néel and Brownian relaxations, and hysteresis loss. We also report on the recently discovered photoluminescence of Fe3O4 and explain the emission mechanisms in terms of the electronic band structures. Both optical and magnetic properties are correlated to the materials parameters of particle size, distribution, and physical confinement. By adjusting these parameters, both optical and magnetic properties are optimized. An important motivation to study iron oxide is due to its high potential in biomedical applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be used for MRI/optical multimodal imaging as well as the therapeutic mediator in cancer treatment. Both magnetic hyperthermia and photothermal effect has been utilized to kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Once the iron oxide nanoparticles are up taken by the tumor with sufficient concentration, greater localization provides enhanced effects over disseminated delivery while simultaneously requiring less therapeutic mass to elicit an equal response. Multi-modality provides highly beneficial co-localization. For magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles the co-localization of diagnostics and therapeutics is achieved through magnetic based imaging and local hyperthermia generation through magnetic field or photon

  18. GHz properties of magnetophoretically aligned iron-oxide nanoparticle doped polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Ferruccio; De Paolis, Rosa; Lorenzo, Daniela; Guardia, Pablo; Nitti, Simone; Monti, Giuseppina; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Tarricone, Luciano; Manna, Liberato; De Vittorio, Massimo; Martiradonna, Luigi

    2013-04-24

    We show that assembled domains of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are effective at increasing the dielectric permittivity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposites in the GHz frequency range. The assembly has been achieved by means of magnetophoretic transport and its efficacy, as well as the electromagnetic properties of the nanocomposite, has been found to depend on IONPs diameter. Remarkably, the dielectric permittivity increase has been obtained by keeping dielectric and magnetic losses very low, making us envision the suitability of nanocomposites based on aligned IONPs as substrates for radiofrequency applications. PMID:23537058

  19. Perovskite chromates cathode with exsolved iron nanoparticles for direct high-temperature steam electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanxin; Wang, Yan; Doherty, Winston; Xie, Kui; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-09-11

    Recently, composite cathodes based on doped lanthanum chromates have been widely employed for direct steam electrolysis. However, this approach limits the electrode performances and Faraday efficiency due to insufficient electrocatalytic activity. This study addresses the drawbacks and reports an improved electrocatalytic activity and Faraday efficiency of composite cathode with a reversibly exsolved iron nanoparticles anchored on the surface of doped lanthanum chromates. A-site deficient and B-site excess (La0.75Sr0.25)0.85(Cr0.5Fe0.5)0.85Fe0.15O3-δ (LSCrFF) was designed as the parent material to anchor the exsolved iron nanoparticles on the surface of perovskite chromate (La0.75Sr0.25)(Cr0.5Fe0.5)O3-δ (LSCrF) via high-temperature reduction. The electrical properties of LSCrF and Fe/LSCrF were systematically investigated and correlated with electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes in symmetrical cells and electrolysis cells. The iron nanoparticles significantly improve the electrical conductivity of LSCrF from 1.80 to 6.35 S cm(-1) for Fe/LSCrF at 800 °C and Po2 of 10(-15) atm. The polarization resistance, Rp, of the symmetrical cells was accordingly enhanced from 4.26 Ω cm2 with LSCrF to 2.58 Ω cm2 with Fe/LSCrF in hydrogen atmosphere at 800 °C. The Faraday efficiency for the direct steam electrolysis showed a marked increase of 89.3% with LSCrFF cathode at 800 °C and 1.8 V as opposed to 76.7% with the cathodes based on LSCrF. The synergetic effect of catalytic-active iron nanoparticles and redox-stable LSCrF substrate produced improved performances and excellent stability for the direct steam electrolysis without a flow of reducing gas over the composite cathodes. PMID:23931726

  20. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, G. V.; Andriyaka, V. I.; Palyvoda, O. M.; Chernishov, V. I.; Chekhun, V. F.; Todor, I. N.; Kuzmenko, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, 15 April (2015), s. 125-131. ISSN 0304-8853. [International Conference on the Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /10./. Dresden, 10.06.2014-14.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12054; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticle * poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) * protein oxidation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  1. Nanoencapsulation of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide into human serum albumin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias G. Wacker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin nanoparticles have been utilized as drug delivery systems for a variety of medical applications. Since ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO are used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, their encapsulation into the protein matrix enables the synthesis of diagnostic and theranostic agents by surface modification and co-encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The present investigation deals with the surface modification and nanoencapsulation of USPIO into an albumin matrix by using ethanolic desolvation. Particles of narrow size distribution and with a defined particle structure have been achieved.

  2. New surface radiolabeling schemes of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biodistribution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Palko, Heather A.; Malfatti, Mike; Smith, Catherine; Sonnett, James; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Gu, Baohua; Roeder, Ryan K.; Wang, Wei; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the surface chemical and physical properties that affect their biodistribution in vivo and the therapeutic payloads that they are intended to deliver. Additionally, the added therapeutic and diagnostic value of their inherent material properties often provides extra functionality. Iron based nanomaterials with their magnetic properties and easily tailorable surface chemistry are of particular interest as model systems. In this study the core radius of the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was 14.08 +/- 3.92 nm while the hydrodynamic radius of the NPs, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was between 90-110 nm. In this study, different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable in solution. The NPs were functionalized with polycarboxylate or polyamine surface functional groups. Polycarboxylate functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of -35 mV and polyamine functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of +40 mV. The polycarboxylate functionalized NPs were chosen for in vivo biodistribution studies and hence were radiolabeled with 14C, with a final activity of 0.097 nCi mg-1 of NPs. In chronic studies, the biodistribution profile is tracked using low level radiolabeled proxies of the nanoparticles of interest. Conventionally, these radiolabeled proxies are chemically similar but not chemically identical to the non-radiolabeled NPs of interest. This study is novel as different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable, possess a hydrodynamic radius of applicable to the synthesis of a large class of nanomaterials with multiple core and surface functionalities. This work combined with the biodistribution data suggests that the radiolabeling schemes carried out in this study have broad implications for use in pharmacokinetic studies for a variety of nanomaterials.Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the

  3. Poly(L-lysine)-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for stem cell labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Trchová, Miroslava; Jendelová, Pavla; Glogarová, Kateřina; Lesný, Petr; Herynek, V.; Hájek, M.; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2008), s. 740-750. ISSN 1043-1802 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA AV ČR KAN201110651; GA ČR GA203/05/2256; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1594; GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : iron oxide * magnetic * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.584, year: 2008

  4. Highly efficient antibacterial iron oxide@carbon nanochains from wüstite precursor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Shu F; Samia, Anna Cristina S

    2014-11-26

    A new hydrothermal synthesis approach involving the carbonization of glucose in the presence of wüstite (FeO) nanoparticles is presented, which leads to the fabrication of rapidly acting and potent antibacterial agents based on iron oxide@carbon (IO@C) nanochains. By using nonmagnetic FeO precursor nanoparticles that slowly oxidize into the magnetic Fe3O4 crystal structure under hydrothermal conditions, we were able to prepare well-defined and short-length IO@C nanochains that are highly dispersed in aqueous media and readily interact with bacterial cells, leading to a complete loss in bacterial cell viability within short incubation times at minimal dosage. The smaller IO@C nanochains synthesized using the FeO precursor nanoparticles can reach above 2-fold enhancement in microbe-killing activity when compared to the larger nanochains fabricated directly from Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the synthesized IO@C nanochains can be easily isolated using an external magnet and be subsequently recycled to effectively eradicate Escherichia coli cells even after five separate treatment cycles. PMID:25347201

  5. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe3O4), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe2O3), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe3O4 and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe2O3 was synthesized by sintering Fe3O4 nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe3O4, red pigment Fe3O4 and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe2O3 nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated

  6. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudeep Shukla,1 Vikas Arora,2 Alka Jadaun,3 Jitender Kumar,1 Nishant Singh,1 Vinod Kumar Jain1 1School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 2Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 3School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Amebiasis, a major health problem in developing countries, is the second most common cause of death due to parasitic infection. Amebiasis is usually transmitted by the ingestion of Entamoeba histolytica cysts through oral–fecal route. Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field. These nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical synthesis process. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. The particles were found to be well dispersed and uniform in size. The capture and removal of pathogenic cysts were demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Three-dimensional modeling of various biochemical components of cyst walls, and thereafter, flexible docking studies demonstrate the probable interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with various components of E. histolytica cyst walls. Results of the present study suggest that E. histolytica cysts can be efficiently captured and removed from contaminated aqueous systems through the application of synthesized nanoparticles. Keywords: amebiasis, water treatment, nanotechnology

  7. In vivo delivery, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, Hamed; Khandhar, Amit; Liggitt, Denny; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been extensively used during the last two decades, either as effective bio-imaging contrast agents or as carriers of biomolecules such as drugs, nucleic acids and peptides for controlled delivery to specific organs and tissues. Most of these novel applications require elaborate tuning of the physiochemical and surface properties of the IONPs. As new IONPs designs are envisioned, synergistic consideration of the body's innate biological barriers against the administered nanoparticles and the short and long-term side effects of the IONPs become even more essential. There are several important criteria (e.g. size and size-distribution, charge, coating molecules, and plasma protein adsorption) that can be effectively tuned to control the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the IONPs. This paper reviews these crucial parameters, in light of biological barriers in the body, and the latest IONPs design strategies used to overcome them. A careful review of the long-term biodistribution and side effects of the IONPs in relation to nanoparticle design is also given. While the discussions presented in this review are specific to IONPs, some of the information can be readily applied to other nanoparticle systems, such as gold, silver, silica, calcium phosphates and various polymers. PMID:26390044

  8. Effect of surface modification on magnetization of iron oxide nanoparticle colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Rende, Deniz; Altan, Cem Levent; Bucak, Seyda; Ozisik, Rahmi; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2012-09-11

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have numerous applications in the biomedical field, some more mature, such as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and some emerging, such as heating agents in hyperthermia for cancer therapy. In all of these applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration, and add functionality. However, the coatings may interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer, reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase, which is the key parameter in many applications. In the current study, amine and carboxyl functionalized and bare iron oxide nanoparticles, all suspended in water, were purchased and characterized. The presence of the coatings in commercial samples was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The class of iron oxide (magnetite) was verified via Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition to these, in-house prepared iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and suspended in heptane and hexane were also investigated. The saturation magnetization obtained from vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements was used to determine the effective concentration of magnetic phase in all samples. The Tiron chelation test was then utilized to check the real concentration of the iron oxide in the suspension. The difference between the concentration results from VSM and the Tiron test confirmed the reduction of magnetic phase of magnetic core in the presence of coatings and different suspension media. For the biocompatible coatings, the largest reduction was experienced by amine particles, where the ratio of the effective weight of magnetic phase reported to the real weight was 0.5. Carboxyl-coated samples experienced smaller reduction with a ratio of 0.64. Uncoated sample also exhibits a reduction with a ratio of 0.6. Oleic acid covered samples show a solvent

  9. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron. PMID:27305821

  10. Enhanced bio-compatibility of ferrofluids of self-assembled superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, T N; Mary, A P Reena; Swalih, P K Anas; Kumar, D Sakthi; Makarov, D; Albrecht, M; Puthumana, Jayesh; Anas, Abdulaziz; Anantharaman, M R

    2011-03-01

    Self-assembled magnetic colloidal suspensions are sought after by material scientists owing to its huge application potential. The biomedical applications of colloidal nanoparticles necessitate that they are biocompatible, non-interacting, monodispersed and hence the synthesis of such nanostructures has great relevance in the realm of nanoscience. Silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles based ferrofluids were prepared using polyethylene glycol as carrier fluid by employing a controlled co-precipitation technique followed by a modified sol-gel synthesis. A plausible mechanism for the formation of stable suspension of SiO2-coated Iron Oxide nanoparticles with a size of about 9 nm dispersed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is proposed. Core-shell nature of the resultant SiO2-Iron Oxide nanocomposite was verified using transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies were carried out to understand the structure and nature of chemical bonds. The result suggests that Iron Oxide exist in an isolated state inside silica matrix. Moreover, the presence of silanol bonds establishes the hydrophilic nature of silica shell confirming the formation of stable ferrofluid with PEG as carrier fluid. The magnetic characterization reveals the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles with a rather narrow distribution of blocking temperatures. These properties are not seen in ferrofluids prepared from Iron Oxide nanoparticles without SiO2 coating. The latter suggests the successful tuning of the inter-particle interactions preventing agglomeration of nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies on citric acid coated water based ferrofluid and silica-coated PEG-based ferrofluid were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium chloride assay and it shows an enhanced compatibility for silica modified nanoparticles. PMID:21449334

  11. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS) of Lipids with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Coated Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, Maiko; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Tamura, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Daigou; Murouchi, Masato; Kawasaki, Hideya; ARAKAWA, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-coated target plates were employed for the direct detection and analysis of low molecular weight lipids by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). We have demonstrated that the use of the iron oxide NP-coated target provides a simple, direct, and rapid detection method for lipid standards and epidermal surface lipids without any cumbersome sample pretreatment as well as mass spectra that are free of background matrix peaks. Lipid standards (1-ste...

  12. Phosphocholine-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: defining the structure and probing in vivo applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Alessandra; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Montesarchio, Daniela; Heenan, Richard K.; Szekely, Noemi; Flori, Alessandra; Menichetti, Luca; Paduano, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are performing contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A functionalization strategy for SPIONs based on hydrophobic interactions is a versatile approach easily extendable to several kinds of inorganic nanoparticles and suitable for obtaining stable and biocompatible systems. Here we report on the original preparation of functionalized SPIONs with an 8 nm radius exploiting the hydrophobic interaction between a phosphocholine and an inner amphiphilic. With respect to other similarly functionalized SPIONs, characterized by the typical nanoparticle clustering that leads to large aggregates, our phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs are demonstrated to be monodisperse. We report the in vitro and in vivo study that proves the effective applicability of phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs as MRI contrast agents. The versatility of this functionalization approach is highlighted by introducing on the SPION surface a ruthenium-based potential antitumoral drug, named ToThyCholRu. Even if in this case we observed the formation of SPION clusters, ascribable to the presence of the amphiphilic ruthenium complex, interesting and promising antiproliferative activity points at the ToThyCholRu-decorated SPIONs as potential theranostic agents.Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are performing contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A functionalization strategy for SPIONs based on hydrophobic interactions is a versatile approach easily extendable to several kinds of inorganic nanoparticles and suitable for obtaining stable and biocompatible systems. Here we report on the original preparation of functionalized SPIONs with an 8 nm radius exploiting the hydrophobic interaction between a phosphocholine and an inner amphiphilic. With respect to other similarly functionalized SPIONs, characterized by the typical nanoparticle clustering that leads to large aggregates, our phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs are

  13. Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziv-Polat O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ofra Ziv-Polat1, Hadas Skaat1, Abraham Shahar2, Shlomo Margel11Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel; 2NVR Research Ltd, Nes-Ziona 74031, IsraelAbstract: Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.Keywords: thrombin, fibroblast growth factor, fibrin scaffold, iron oxide nanoparticles, tissue engineering, magnetism, bioactive nanoparticle

  14. Enhanced magnetic resonance contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in a porous silicon nanoparticle host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Joseph; Ananda, Shalini; Andrew, Jennifer; Grondek, Joel; Chien, Miao-Ping; Scandeng, Miriam; Gianneschi, Nathan; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sailor, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we prepared a porous Si nanoparticle with a pore morphology that facilitates the proximal loading and alignment of magnetite nanoparticles. We characterized the composite materials using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and MRI. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite materials was tested using cell viability assays on human liver cancer cells and rat hepatocytes. An in vivo analysis using a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Sprague Dawley rat model was used to determine the biodistribution properties of the material, while naïve Sprague Dawley rats were used to determine the pharmocokinetic properties of the nanomaterials. The composite material reported here demonstrates an injectable nanomaterial that exploits the dipolar coupling of superparamagnetic nanoparticles trapped within a secondary inorganic matrix to yield significantly enhanced MRI contrast. This preparation successfully avoids agglomeration issues that plague larger ferromagnetic systems. A Fe3O4:pSi composite formulation consisting of 25% by mass Fe3O4 yields an maximal T2* value of 556 mM Fe-1 s-1. No cellular (HepG2 or rat hepatocyte cells) or in vivo (rat) toxicity was observed with the formulation, which degrades and is eliminated after 4-8 h in vivo. The ability to tailor the magnetic properties of such materials may be useful for in vivo imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, or drug-delivery applications.

  15. Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Skaat, Hadas; Shahar, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22419873

  16. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DH-89

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhrubajyoti Nath; Ajay Kumar Manhar; Kuldeep Gupta; Devabrata Saikia; Shymal Kumar Das; Manabendra Mandal

    2015-10-01

    In recent years the application of metal nanoparticles is gaining attention in various fields. The present study focuses on the additive effect of `green’ synthesized iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) on dark fermentative hydrogen (H2) production by a mesophilic soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The FeNPs were synthesized by a rapid green method from FeSO4 using aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini. The synthesized FeNPs showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 267 nm. The transmission electron microscopy images confirm that the formation of FeNPs was mainly porous and irregular in shape, with an average particle size of 20–25 nm. The presence of iron (Fe) in the synthesized FeNPs was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The comparative effect of FeSO4 and FeNPs on batch fermentative H2 production from glucose was investigated. The fermentation experiments reveal that the percentage and yield of H2 in FeNPs supplementation were increased significantly than the control (no supplementation) and FeSO4 containing media. The maximum H2 yield of 1.9 mol mol−1 glucose utilized was observed in 100 mg l−1 FeNPs supplementation, with two-fold increase in glucose conversion efficiency. Thus, the result suggests that FeNPs supplementation in place of FeSO4 could improve the bioactivity of H2 producing microbes for enhanced H2 yield and glucose consumption.

  17. Hybrid gold-iron oxide nanoparticles as a multifunctional platform for biomedical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Clare

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs have increasing applications in biomedicine, however fears over long term stability of polymer coated particles have arisen. Gold coating IONPs results in particles of increased stability and robustness. The unique properties of both the iron oxide (magnetic and gold (surface plasmon resonance result in a multimodal platform for use as MRI contrast agents and as a nano-heater. Results Here we synthesize IONPs of core diameter 30 nm and gold coat using the seeding method with a poly(ethylenimine intermediate layer. The final particles were coated in poly(ethylene glycol to ensure biocompatibility and increase retention times in vivo. The particle coating was monitored using FTIR, PCS, UV–vis absorption, TEM, and EDX. The particles appeared to have little cytotoxic effect when incubated with A375M cells. The resultant hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs possessed a maximal absorbance at 600 nm. After laser irradiation in agar phantom a ΔT of 32°C was achieved after only 90 s exposure (50 μgmL-1. The HNPs appeared to decrease T2 values in line with previously clinically used MRI contrast agent Feridex®. Conclusions The data highlights the potential of these HNPs as dual function MRI contrast agents and nano-heaters for therapies such as cellular hyperthermia or thermo-responsive drug delivery.

  18. Influence of electrolyte and voltage on the direct current enhanced transport of iron nanoparticles in clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Pamukcu, Sibel

    2014-03-01

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) transport for soil and groundwater remediation is slowed down or halted by aggregation or fast depletion in the soil pores. Direct electric current can enhance the transport of nZVI in low permeability soils. However operational factors, including pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), voltage and ionic strength of the electrolyte can play an important role in the treatment effectiveness. Experiments were conducted to enhance polymer coated nZVI mobility in a model low permeability soil medium (kaolin clay) using low direct current. Different electrolytes of varying ionic strengths and initial pH and high nZVI concentrations were applied. Results showed that the nZVI transport is enhanced by direct current, even considering concentrations typical of field application that favor nanoparticle aggregation. However, the factors considered (pH, ORP, voltage and electrolyte) failed to explain the iron concentration variation. The electrolyte and its ionic strength proved to be significant for pH and ORP measured during the experiments, and therefore will affect aggregation and fast oxidation of the particles. PMID:24252496

  19. Comparison study of ferrofluid and powder iron oxide nanoparticle permeability across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dan; Sheikh, Lubna; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the permeability of 11 different iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) samples (eight fluids and three powders) was determined using an in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Importantly, the results showed that the ferrofluid formulations were statistically more permeable than the IONP powder formulations at the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a role for the presently studied in situ synthesized ferrofluid formulations using poly(vinyl) alcohol, bovine serum albumin, collagen, glutamic acid, graphene, and their combinations as materials which can cross the blood-brain barrier to deliver drugs or have other neurological therapeutic efficacy. Conversely, the results showed the least permeability across the blood-brain barrier for the IONP with collagen formulation, suggesting a role as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent but limiting IONP passage across the blood-brain barrier. Further analysis of the data yielded several trends of note, with little correlation between permeability and fluid zeta potential, but a larger correlation between permeability and fluid particle size (with the smaller particle sizes having larger permeability). Such results lay the foundation for simple modification of iron oxide nanoparticle formulations to either promote or inhibit passage across the blood-brain barrier, and deserve further investigation for a wide range of applications. PMID:23426527

  20. Effect of solvent and silicon substrate surface on the size of iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Phillip; Milev, Adriyan, E-mail: A.Milev@uws.edu.au; Kannangara, Kamali [University of Western Sydney, School of Science and Health (Australia); Martin, Philip [CSIRO Lindfield, Materials Science and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    The diameter of carbon nanotubes is strongly related the geometric sizes of the metal particles upon which they are nucleated. To improve the control over the nanoparticle sizes derived from iron acetate and deposited on Si substrates, two different approaches were employed; manipulation of the solvent chemistry and manipulation of the Si substrate surface. The iron acetate was dissolved separately in pure water and ethanol and in binary ethanol/water mixtures. Silicon substrates, with either smooth surface or nano-porous surface, were dip coated using these solutions. The dip-coated substrates were first thermally oxidised at 400 °C in air followed by reduction at 800 °C in an Ar/H{sub 2} gas mixture. As derived particles were measured by scanning electron microscopy, and the average size and size distribution were determined by statistical analysis. Electron microscopy and statistical analyses demonstrated that metal particles deposited onto the smooth Si wafer have sizes ranging from 18 to 160 nm based on the solvent used, where the pure solvents resulted in a narrower size distribution when compared to the water/ethanol mixtures. When nano-porous Si wafer is used as a substrate, the metal particle diameter distributions are reduced to a range from 11 to 17 nm contingent upon the solvent used. The role of the ethanol/water interactions investigated by vibrational (IR and Raman) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on nanoparticle sizes and size distributions is discussed.

  1. Specific loading of porous silicon with iron oxide nanoparticles to achieve different blocking temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of 8 nm have been infiltrated into the pores of porous silicon. The aim is to create a superparamagnetic (SPM) nanocomposite system with maximized magnetic moment. Therefore the particle–particle distance versus the superparamagnetic behavior has been figured out. The blocking temperature TB which indicates the transition between SPM behavior and blocked state is not only dependent on the particle size but also on the magnetic interactions between them which can be varied by the distance between the particles. Thus a modification, on the one hand of the pore-loading and on the other hand of the porous silicon morphology results in a composite material with a desired TB. Because both materials, the mesoporous silicon matrices as well as the Fe3O4-NPs offer low toxicity the system is a promising candidate for biomedical applications as e.g. magnetic field guided drug delivery. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles within porous silicon. • Different concentrations of the particle solution have been used. • Investigation of the blocking temperature of the nanocomposite. • Influence of the particle–particle interaction by different fabrication parameters

  2. Effect of isochronal annealing on phase transformation studies of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anjali J Deotale; R V Nandedkar; A K Sinha; Anuj Upadhyay; Puspen Mondal; A K Srivastava; S K Deb

    2015-06-01

    The effect of isochronal annealing on the phase transformation in iron oxide nanoparticles is reported in this work. Iron oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using an ash supported technique followed by annealing for 2 h at various temperatures between 300 and 700° C. It was observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that as-grown samples have mixed phases of crystalline haematite (α-Fe2O3) and a minor phase of either maghemite (-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4). On annealing, the minor phase transforms gradually to haematite. The phase transformation is complete at annealing temperature of 442° C as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. The unresolved phases in XRD were further analysed and confirmed to be maghemite from the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) studies. The magnetic measurements showed that at room temperature nano--Fe2O3 is weak ferromagnetic, and its magnetization is larger than the bulk value. The mixed phase sample shows higher value of magnetization because of the presence of ferromagnetic -Fe2O3 phase.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Nitric Oxide-Iron Oxide magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, P. S.; Britos, T. N.; Santos, M. C.; Seabra, A. B.; Palladino, M. V.; Justo, G. Z.

    2015-05-01

    The present work is focused on the synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs have been proposed for an increasing number of biomedical applications, such as drug-delivery. To this end, toxicological studies of their potential effects in biological systems must be better evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of thiolated (SH) and S-nitrosated (S-NO) SPIONs in cancer cell lines. SPIONs were prepared by the coprecipitation method using ferrous and ferric chlorides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were coated with thiol containing molecule cysteine (Cys) (molar ratio SPIONs:ligand = 1:20), leading to the formation of an aqueous dispersion of thiolated nanoparticles (SH- SPIONs). These particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results obtained showed that Cys-SPIONs have a mean diameter of 14 nm at solid state and present super paramagnetic behavior at room temperature. Thiol groups on the surface of the nanoparticles were nitrosated through the addition of sodium nitrite leading to the formation of S-NOCys-SPIONs (S-nitrosated-Cys-SPIONs), which act as spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) donor). The cytotoxicity of thiolated and S-nitrosated nanoparticles was evaluated in acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat cell line) and Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells. The results showed that at low concentrations thiolated (Cys) and S- nitrosated (S-NOCyst) SPIONs display low cytotoxicity in both cell types. However, at higher concentrations, Cys-SPIONs exhibited cytotoxic effects, whereas S-NOCys-SPIONs protected them, and also promoted cell proliferation.

  4. Development of a lauric acid/albumin hybrid iron oxide nanoparticle system with improved biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaloga J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jan Zaloga,1 Christina Janko,1 Johannes Nowak,2 Jasmin Matuszak,1 Sabine Knaup,1 Dietmar Eberbeck,3 Rainer Tietze,1 Harald Unterweger,1 Ralf P Friedrich,1 Stephan Duerr,1 Ralph Heimke-Brinck,4 Eva Baum,4 Iwona Cicha,1 Frank Dörje,4 Stefan Odenbach,2 Stefan Lyer,1 Geoffrey Lee,5 Christoph Alexiou1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON, Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung-Professorship, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; 2Measuring and Automation Technology, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 3Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany; 4Pharmacy Department, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; 5Division of Pharmaceutics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The promising potential of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs in various nanomedical applications has been frequently reported. However, although many different synthesis methods, coatings, and functionalization techniques have been described, not many core-shell SPION drug delivery systems are available for clinicians at the moment. Here, bovine serum albumin was adsorbed onto lauric acid-stabilized SPIONs. The agglomeration behavior, zeta potential, and their dependence on the synthesis conditions were characterized with dynamic light scattering. The existence and composition of the core-shell-matrix structure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. We showed that the iron oxide cores form agglomerates in the range of 80 nm. Moreover, despite their remarkably low tendency to aggregate even in a complex media like whole blood, the SPIONs still maintained their magnetic properties and were well attractable with a magnet. The magnetic properties were quantified by vibrating sample magnetometry and a superconducting quantum

  5. The Effect of Vacuum Annealing of Magnetite and Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles on the Removal of Aqueous Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Crane; Scott, T B

    2013-01-01

    As-formed and vacuum annealed zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nano-Fe0) and magnetite nanoparticles (nano-Fe3O4) were tested for the removal of uranium from carbonate-rich mine water. Nanoparticles were introduced to batch systems containing the mine water under oxygen conditions representative of near-surface waters, with a uranyl solution studied as a simple comparator system. Despite the vacuum annealed nano-Fe0 having a 64.6% lower surface area than the standard nano-Fe0, similar U remova...

  6. Direct synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles from iron(II) carboxymethylcellulose and their performance as NMR contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Delmarcio Gomes; Hiroshi Toma, Sergio; de Melo, Fernando Menegatti; Carvalho, Larissa Vieira C.; Magalhães, Alvicler; Sabadini, Edvaldo; dos Santos, Antônio Domingues; Araki, Koiti; Toma, e. Henrique E.

    2016-01-01

    Iron(II) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been successfully employed in the synthesis of hydrophylic magnetite nanoparticles stabilized with a biopolymer coating, aiming applications in NMR imaging. The new method encompasses a convenient one-step synthetic procedure, allowing a good size control and yielding particles of about 10 nm (core size). In addition to the biocompatibility, the nanoparticles have promoted a drastic reduction in the transverse relaxation time (T2) of the water protons. The relaxivity rates have been investigated as a function of the nanoparticles concentration, showing a better performance in relation to the common NMR contrast agents available in the market.

  7. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. PMID:25841071

  8. Fabrication of a Functionalized Magnetic Bacterial Nanocellulose with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Sandra L; Shetty, Akshath R; Senpan, Angana; Echeverry-Rendón, Mónica; Reece, Lisa M; Allain, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) produced by the bacteria Gluconacetobacter xylinus is synthesized and impregnated in situ with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) (Fe3O4) to yield a magnetic bacterial nanocellulose (MBNC). The synthesis of MBNC is a precise and specifically designed multi-step process. Briefly, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) pellicles are formed from preserved G. xylinus strain according to our experimental requirements of size and morphology. A solution of iron(III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3·6H2O) and iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl2·4H2O) with a 2:1 molar ratio is prepared and diluted in deoxygenated high purity water. A BNC pellicle is then introduced in the vessel with the reactants. This mixture is stirred and heated at 80 °C in a silicon oil bath and ammonium hydroxide (14%) is then added by dropping to precipitate the ferrous ions into the BNC mesh. This last step allows forming in situ magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) inside the bacterial nanocellulose mesh to confer magnetic properties to BNC pellicle. A toxicological assay was used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the BNC-IONP pellicle. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to cover the IONPs in order to improve their biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the IONP were located preferentially in the fibril interlacing spaces of the BNC matrix, but some of them were also found along the BNC ribbons. Magnetic force microscope measurements performed on the MBNC detected the presence magnetic domains with high and weak intensity magnetic field, confirming the magnetic nature of the MBNC pellicle. Young's modulus values obtained in this work are also in a reasonable agreement with those reported for several blood vessels in previous studies. PMID:27285589

  9. Functionalized magnetic iron oxide/alginate core-shell nanoparticles for targeting hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao SH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Hsiang Liao,1 Chia-Hung Liu,2 Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti,3 Norihiro Suzuki,7 Yung Chang,4 Yusuke Yamauchi,3 Feng-Huei Lin,5,6 Kevin C-W Wu1,6 1Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University No 1, Taipei, 2Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 3National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 4R&D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyua, 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University No 1, Taipei City, 6Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan, 7International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Abstract: Hyperthermia is one of the promising treatments for cancer therapy. However, the development of a magnetic fluid agent that can selectively target a tumor and efficiently elevate temperature while exhibiting excellent biocompatibility still remains challenging. Here a new core-shell nanostructure consisting of inorganic iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core, organic alginate as the shell, and cell-targeting ligands (ie, D-galactosamine decorated on the outer surface (denoted as Fe3O4@Alg-GA nanoparticles was prepared using a combination of a pre-gel method and coprecipitation in aqueous solution. After treatment with an AC magnetic field, the results indicate that Fe3O4@Alg-GA nanoparticles had excellent hyperthermic efficacy in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 owing to enhanced cellular uptake, and show great potential as therapeutic agents for future in vivo drug delivery systems. Keywords: hyperthermia, iron oxide, alginate, pre-gel, targeting 

  10. Development of a lauric acid/albumin hybrid iron oxide nanoparticle system with improved biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Nowak, Johannes; Matuszak, Jasmin; Knaup, Sabine; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Tietze, Rainer; Unterweger, Harald; Friedrich, Ralf P; Duerr, Stephan; Heimke-Brinck, Ralph; Baum, Eva; Cicha, Iwona; Dörje, Frank; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Alexiou, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The promising potential of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in various nanomedical applications has been frequently reported. However, although many different synthesis methods, coatings, and functionalization techniques have been described, not many core-shell SPION drug delivery systems are available for clinicians at the moment. Here, bovine serum albumin was adsorbed onto lauric acid-stabilized SPIONs. The agglomeration behavior, zeta potential, and their dependence on the synthesis conditions were characterized with dynamic light scattering. The existence and composition of the core-shell-matrix structure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. We showed that the iron oxide cores form agglomerates in the range of 80 nm. Moreover, despite their remarkably low tendency to aggregate even in a complex media like whole blood, the SPIONs still maintained their magnetic properties and were well attractable with a magnet. The magnetic properties were quantified by vibrating sample magnetometry and a superconducting quantum interference device. Using flow cytometry, we further investigated the effects of the different types of nanoparticle coating on morphology, viability, and DNA integrity of Jurkat cells. We showed that by addition of bovine serum albumin, the toxicity of nanoparticles is greatly reduced. We also investigated the effect of the particles on the growth of primary human endothelial cells to further demonstrate the biocompatibility of the particles. As proof of principle, we showed that the hybrid-coated particles are able to carry payloads of up to 800 μg/mL of the cytostatic drug mitoxantrone while still staying colloidally stable. The drug-loaded system exhibited excellent therapeutic potential in vitro, exceeding that of free mitoxantrone. In conclusion, we have synthesized a biocompatible ferrofluid that shows great potential for clinical

  11. Magnetically stimulated ciprofloxacin release from polymeric microspheres entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirivisoot S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirinrath Sirivisoot,1 Benjamin S Harrison2 1Biological Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: To extend the external control capability of drug release, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs encapsulated into polymeric microspheres were used as magnetic media to stimulate drug release using an alternating magnetic field. Chemically synthesized iron oxide NPs, maghemite or hematite, and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin were encapsulated together within polycaprolactone microspheres. The polycaprolactone microspheres entrapping ciprofloxacin and magnetic NPs could be triggered for immediate drug release by magnetic stimulation at a maximum value of 40%. Moreover, the microspheres were cytocompatible with fibroblasts in vitro with a cell viability percentage of more than 100% relative to a nontreated control after 24 hours of culture. Macrophage cell cultures showed no signs of increased inflammatory responses after in vitro incubation for 56 hours. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus with the magnetic microspheres under an alternating (isolating magnetic field increased bacterial inhibition further after 2 days and 5 days in a broth inhibition assay. The findings of the present study indicate that iron oxide NPs, maghemite and hematite, can be used as media for stimulation by an external magnetic energy to activate immediate drug release. Keywords: antibacterial, maghemite, hematite, Staphylococcus aureus

  12. Iron Nanoparticles Fabricated by High-Energy Ball Milling for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, D. K.; Manh, D. H.; Phong, L. T. H.; Nam, P. H.; Nam, D. N. H.; Anh, N. T. N.; Nong, H. T. T.; Phan, M. H.; Phuc, N. X.

    2016-05-01

    Iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) have been successfully prepared by high-energy ball milling in air for various milling times from 1 h to 32 h. Their structure, particle size, elemental composition, magnetic, and inductive heating properties were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometry, and magnetic induction heating, respectively. XRD analysis showed that the average crystallite size decreased to 11 nm after 10 h of milling, then remained almost unchanged for longer milling times. Coexistence of iron (Fe) and iron oxide (FeO) phases was detected after 12 h of milling. EDX analysis also confirmed the occurrence of oxidation, which can be reconciled with the corresponding decrease and increase in saturation magnetization ( M s) with milling time when exposed to oxygen and when annealed under H2 ambient due to oxygen reduction. The time-dependent magnetic and inductive heating responses of the FeNPs were investigated for prospective application in magnetic hyperthermia. The effect of varying the alternating-current (AC) magnetic field strength on the saturation heating temperature and specific loss power of FeNP-containing ferrofluid with concentration of 4 mg/mL was also studied and is discussed.

  13. Biodistribution and imaging of fluorescently-tagged iron oxide nanoparticles in a breast cancer mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer A.; Savellano, Mark D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia is an emerging treatment that shows great potential as a cancer therapy both alone and in synergy with conventional modalities. Pre-clinical studies are attempting to elucidate the mechanisms of action and distributions of IONP in various in vitro and in vivo models, however these studies would greatly benefit from real-time imaging of IONP locations both in cellular and in mammalian systems. To this end, fluorescently-tagged IONP (fIONP) have been employed for real time tracking and co-registration of IONP with iron content. Starch-coated IONP were fluorescently-tagged, purified and analyzed for fluorescent signal at various concentrations. fIONP were incubated with MTGB cells for varying times and cellular uptake analyzed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). fIONP were also injected into a bilateral mouse tumor model for radiation modification of tumor tissue and enhanced fIONP deposition assessed using a Xenogen IVIS fluorescent imager. Results demonstrated that fIONP concentrations in vitro correlated with ICPMS iron readings. fIONP could be tracked in vitro as well as in tissue samples from an in vivo model. Future work will employ whole animal fluorescent imaging to track the biodistribution of fIONP over time.

  14. Synthesis, modeling and optimization of iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Weyhmiller, Marcela

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is the controlled heating of tissue to febrile temperature ranges to promote cellular damage/death as an alternative cancer therapy. The heat generated in MFH is the result of magnetic nanoparticles responding to an ac-magnetic field. The advantage of this treatment is the possibility of a targeted and triggered treatment which can reduce damage to healthy tissue. Another great potential of the technique is the possibility of combined diagnostics and treatment within a single platform by combing MFH with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The fundamental challenges lie in the formulation of the magnetic nanoparticles, specifically increasing and predicting heating rates. While many groups have used nanoparticles made from known toxic materials, this work focuses solely on iron oxide because of its tolerability in vivo. Heating rates were increased by improving the material properties of the nanoparticles. Theory indicates that heat generation with superparamagnetic particles is intimately linked to particle, size, shape and surface modification. A synthesis method not commonly used for biomedical applications was used to produce monodisperse, highly crystalline, phase pure magnetite nanoparticles with size control from 2--11 nm. However, the as-synthesized particles were not dispersible in aqueous solutions, therefore a coating method was developed to phase transfer the particles. Cytotoxicity studies were performed to optimize the coating method to ensure that the final formulation was not toxic to cells when measured up to concentrations of 1.2 mg Fe/mL. This work, for the first time, includes the affects of polydispersity and interparticle interactions on heating rates. Models indicate that 10-11 nm particles will result in the highest heat within biologically-compatible limitations. Calorimetry results indicate that heating rates up to 450 W/g Fe3O4 are achievable and that polydispersity decreases the nanoparticle's ability to

  15. Arsenate removal with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, D; Uheida, A; Pérez, G; Muhammed, M; Valiente, M

    2015-01-15

    In the present work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) surface-coated with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (3-MPA) were prepared and their feasibility for the removal of arsenate from dilute aqueous solutions was demonstrated. The synthesized 3-MPA-coated SPION was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). Separation efficiency of the coated nanoparticles and the equilibrium isotherm of arsenate adsorption were investigated. The obtained results reveal the arsenate adsorption to be highly pH-dependent, and the maximum adsorption was attained in less than 60 min. The resulting increase of 3-MPA-coated SPION adsorption capacity to twice the adsorption capacity of SPION alone under the same conditions is attributed to the increase of active adsorption sites. An adsorption reaction is proposed. On the other hand, efficient recovery of arsenate from the loaded nanoparticles was achieved using nitric acid (HNO3) solution, which also provides a concentration over the original arsenate solution. PMID:25454446

  16. Physical stability, biocompatibility and potential use of hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticles as drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) such as iron oxide-gold nanoparticles are currently being exploited for their potential application in image-guided therapies. However, little investigation has been carried out into their physical or chemical stability and potential cytotoxicity in biological systems. Here, we determine the HNPs physical stability over 6 months and chemical stability in physiological conditions, and estimate the biological activity of uncoated and poly(ethylene glycol) coated nanoparticles on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BxPC-3) and differentiated human monocyte cells (U937). The potential of these HNPs to act as drug carrier vehicles was determined using the model drug 6-Thioguanine (6-TG). The data showed that the HNPs maintained their structural integrity both physically and chemically throughout the duration of the studies. In addition, negligible cytotoxicity or free radical production was observed in the cell lines tested. The 6-TG was successfully conjugated; with a ratio of 3:1:10 Fe:Au:6-TG (wt:wt:wt). After incubation with BxPC-3 cells, enhanced cellular uptake was reported with the 6-TG-conjugated HNPs compared with free drug along with a 10-fold decrease in IC50. This exciting data highlights the potential of HNPs for use in image-guided drug delivery.

  17. Phosphocholine-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: defining the structure and probing in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Alessandra; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Montesarchio, Daniela; Heenan, Richard K; Szekely, Noemi; Flori, Alessandra; Menichetti, Luca; Paduano, Luigi

    2016-05-21

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are performing contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A functionalization strategy for SPIONs based on hydrophobic interactions is a versatile approach easily extendable to several kinds of inorganic nanoparticles and suitable for obtaining stable and biocompatible systems. Here we report on the original preparation of functionalized SPIONs with an 8 nm radius exploiting the hydrophobic interaction between a phosphocholine and an inner amphiphilic. With respect to other similarly functionalized SPIONs, characterized by the typical nanoparticle clustering that leads to large aggregates, our phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs are demonstrated to be monodisperse. We report the in vitro and in vivo study that proves the effective applicability of phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs as MRI contrast agents. The versatility of this functionalization approach is highlighted by introducing on the SPION surface a ruthenium-based potential antitumoral drug, named ToThyCholRu. Even if in this case we observed the formation of SPION clusters, ascribable to the presence of the amphiphilic ruthenium complex, interesting and promising antiproliferative activity points at the ToThyCholRu-decorated SPIONs as potential theranostic agents. PMID:26751053

  18. Stable aqueous dispersion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles protected by charged chitosan derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpak, Agnieszka; Kania, Gabriela [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Skorka, Tomasz [Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Tokarz, Waldemar [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics (Poland); Zapotoczny, Szczepan, E-mail: zapotocz@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Nowakowska, Maria, E-mail: nowakows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the synthesis and characterization of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with ultrathin layer of anionic derivative of chitosan. The water-based fabrication involved a two-step procedure. In the first step, the nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric aqueous salt solutions with ammonia in the presence of cationic derivative of chitosan. In the second step, such prepared materials were subjected to adsorption of oppositely charged chitosan derivative which resulted in the preparation of negatively charged SPIONs. They were found to develop highly stable dispersion in water. The core size of the nanocoated SPIONs, determined using transmission electron microscopy, was measured to be slightly above 10 nm. The coated nanoparticles form aggregates with majority of them having hydrodynamic diameter below 100 nm, as measured by dynamic light scattering. Their composition and properties were studied using FTIR and thermogravimetric analyses. They exhibit magnetic properties typical for superparamagnetic material with a high saturation magnetization value of 123 {+-} 12 emu g{sup -1} Fe. Very high value of the measured r{sub 2} relaxivity, 369 {+-} 3 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, is conducive for the potential application of the obtained SPIONs as promising contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Role of coating agent in iron oxide nanoparticle formation in an aqueous dispersion: Experiments and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhar, Nirmalya; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle was synthesized by coprecipitation and was modeled and solved using a hybrid (discrete-continuous) model, based on a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation scheme. The latter was combined with the constant number MC method, to improve both speed and accuracy of the simulation. Complete particle size distribution (PSD) from simulation matches very well with PSD of both uncoated and coated (with either polyacrylic acid or dextran) Fe3O4 nanoparticles, obtained from our experiments. The model is general, as the time scales of various processes (nucleation, diffusion-growth and coagulation-growth) are incorporated in rate equations, while, input simulation parameters are experimentally measured quantities. With the help of the validated model, effect of coating agent on coagulation-growth was estimated by a single, fitted, coagulation-efficiency parameter. Our simulation shows that, logarithm of coagulation-efficiency scales linearly with logarithm of inverse of the molecular weight of the coating agent. With this scaling law, our model is able to a priori predict the experimental PSD of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, synthesized with an even higher molecular weight of dextran. PMID:26624531

  20. Multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery to CD44-positive cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Antonio; Ocampo, Sandra M; Simões, Bruno M; Josefa Rodríguez, María; Cadenas, Jael F; Couleaud, Pierre; Spence, Katherine; Latorre, Alfonso; Miranda, Rodolfo; Somoza, Álvaro; Clarke, Robert B; Carrascosa, José L; Cortajarena, Aitziber L

    2016-02-12

    Nanomedicine nowadays offers novel solutions in cancer therapy and diagnosis by introducing multimodal treatments and imaging tools in one single formulation. Nanoparticles acting as nanocarriers change the solubility, biodistribution and efficiency of therapeutic molecules, reducing their side effects. In order to successfully  apply these novel therapeutic approaches, efforts are focused on the biological functionalization of the nanoparticles to improve the selectivity towards cancer cells. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of novel multifunctionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with antiCD44 antibody and gemcitabine derivatives, and their application for the selective treatment of CD44-positive cancer cells. The lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 is overexpressed in a large variety of cancer cells, but also in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Therefore, targeting CD44-overexpressing cells is a challenging and promising anticancer strategy. Firstly, we demonstrate the targeting of antiCD44 functionalized MNPs to different CD44-positive cancer cell lines using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control, and verify the specificity by ultrastructural characterization and downregulation of CD44 expression. Finally, we show the selective drug delivery potential of the MNPs by the killing of CD44-positive cancer cells using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control. In conclusion, the proposed multifunctionalized MNPs represent an excellent biocompatible nanoplatform for selective CD44-positive cancer therapy in vitro. PMID:26754042

  1. Controlled aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for synthesizing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) multi-nanoparticle aggregates as molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is described. The approach utilizes organic acid/base interactions in the colloid to induce highly controllable nanoparticle aggregation. Monodisperse aggregates with diameters as large as 100 nm are synthesized by manipulating the interfacial surface chemistry of the SPIO nanoparticles in tetrahydrofuran solvent. Subsequent phospholipid micelle encapsulation yields micellar multi-SPIO (mmSPIO) aggregates with enhanced T2 relaxivity (368.0 s-1 mmol-1 Fe) as compared to micellar single particle SPIO (302.0 s-1 mmol-1 Fe). mmSPIO conjugated to anti-CA125 monoclonal antibodies were incubated with ovarian carcinoma cell lines to demonstrate targeted in vitro molecular MRI, resulting in a 66% shortening in T2 time for CA125 positive NIH:OVCAR-3 cells and a less than 3% change in T2 time for CA125 negative SK-OV-3 cells. The controllable aggregation of mmSPIO shows potential for the development of molecular MRI contrast agents with optimal sizes for specific diagnostic imaging applications

  2. Controlled aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, B A; Haag, M A; Stoldt, C R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0427 (United States); Serkova, N J [Department of Anesthesiology, Biomedical MRI/MRS Cancer Center Core, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Shroyer, K R [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)], E-mail: conrad.stoldt@colorado.edu

    2008-07-02

    A method for synthesizing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) multi-nanoparticle aggregates as molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is described. The approach utilizes organic acid/base interactions in the colloid to induce highly controllable nanoparticle aggregation. Monodisperse aggregates with diameters as large as 100 nm are synthesized by manipulating the interfacial surface chemistry of the SPIO nanoparticles in tetrahydrofuran solvent. Subsequent phospholipid micelle encapsulation yields micellar multi-SPIO (mmSPIO) aggregates with enhanced T{sub 2} relaxivity (368.0 s{sup -1} mmol{sup -1} Fe) as compared to micellar single particle SPIO (302.0 s{sup -1} mmol{sup -1} Fe). mmSPIO conjugated to anti-CA125 monoclonal antibodies were incubated with ovarian carcinoma cell lines to demonstrate targeted in vitro molecular MRI, resulting in a 66% shortening in T{sub 2} time for CA125 positive NIH:OVCAR-3 cells and a less than 3% change in T{sub 2} time for CA125 negative SK-OV-3 cells. The controllable aggregation of mmSPIO shows potential for the development of molecular MRI contrast agents with optimal sizes for specific diagnostic imaging applications.

  3. Associations between iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticle growth and metal adsorption/structural incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.S.; Lentini, C.J.; Waychunas, G.A.

    2008-09-15

    The interaction of metal ions and oxyanions with nanoscale mineral phases has not yet been extensively studied despite the increased recognition of their prevalence in natural systems as a significant component of geomedia. A combination of macroscopic uptake studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of As(V), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) onto nanoparticulate goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) as a function of aging time at elevated temperature (75 C) and synchrotron-based X-ray studies to track changes in both the sorption mode and the rate of nanoparticle growth reveal the effects that uptake has on particle growth. Metal(loid) species which sorb quickly to the iron oxyhydroxide particles (As(V), Cu(II)) appear to passivate the particle surface, impeding the growth of the nanoparticles with progressive aging; in contrast, species that sorb more slowly (Hg(II), Zn(II)) have considerably less impact on particle growth. Progressive changes in the speciation of these particular metals with time suggest shifts in the mode of metal uptake with time, possibly indicating structural incorporation of the metal(loid) into the nanoparticle; this is supported by the continued increase in uptake concomitant with particle growth, implying that metal species may transform from surface-sorbed species to more structurally incorporated forms. This type of incorporation would have implications for the long-term fate and mobility of metals in contaminated regions, and affect the strategy for potential remediation/modeling efforts.

  4. Viability preserved capture of microorganism by plasma functionalized carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Anchu; Sugiura, Kuniaki; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C NPs) were synthesized by DC arc discharge method. Carbon encapsulation makes the particles hydrophobic, however for most of the biomedical applications they need to be hydrophilic. To attain this, the particles were amino functionalized by RF plasma. Effect of gas mixture ratio (Ar/NH3), pretreatment, post-treatment times and RF power were optimized. By varying the RF plasma conditions, the amino group population on the surface of Fe@C NPs were increased. With conventional chemical method the amino group population on particles, synthesized in different conditions was found to be ranging from 3-7 × 104 per particle. Bioconjugation efficiency of the nanoparticles was examined by biotin-avidin system, which can be simulated for antigen-antibody reactions. Results from the UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy shows increment in bioconjugation efficiency, with the increase of amino group population on the nanoparticles. After confirming the bioconjugation efficiency, the amino functionalized Fe@C NPs were modified with antibodies for targeting specific microorganisms. Our aim is to capture the microbes in viable and concentrated form even from less populated samples, with lesser time compared to the presently available methods. This work has been supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 21110010 and 25246029) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  5. Multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery to CD44-positive cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Antonio; Ocampo, Sandra M.; Simões, Bruno M.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; Cadenas, Jael F.; Couleaud, Pierre; Spence, Katherine; Latorre, Alfonso; Miranda, Rodolfo; Somoza, Álvaro; Clarke, Robert B.; Carrascosa, José L.; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanomedicine nowadays offers novel solutions in cancer therapy and diagnosis by introducing multimodal treatments and imaging tools in one single formulation. Nanoparticles acting as nanocarriers change the solubility, biodistribution and efficiency of therapeutic molecules, reducing their side effects. In order to successfully apply these novel therapeutic approaches, efforts are focused on the biological functionalization of the nanoparticles to improve the selectivity towards cancer cells. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of novel multifunctionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with antiCD44 antibody and gemcitabine derivatives, and their application for the selective treatment of CD44-positive cancer cells. The lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 is overexpressed in a large variety of cancer cells, but also in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Therefore, targeting CD44-overexpressing cells is a challenging and promising anticancer strategy. Firstly, we demonstrate the targeting of antiCD44 functionalized MNPs to different CD44-positive cancer cell lines using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control, and verify the specificity by ultrastructural characterization and downregulation of CD44 expression. Finally, we show the selective drug delivery potential of the MNPs by the killing of CD44-positive cancer cells using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control. In conclusion, the proposed multifunctionalized MNPs represent an excellent biocompatible nanoplatform for selective CD44-positive cancer therapy in vitro.

  6. Control of the interparticle spacing in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters by surface ligand engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Wang; Bingbing, Lin; Taipeng, Shen; Jun, Wu; Fuhua, Hao; Chunchao, Xia; Qiyong, Gong; Huiru, Tang; Bin, Song; Hua, Ai

    2016-07-01

    Polymer-mediated self-assembly of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles allows modulation of the structure of SPIO nanocrystal cluster and their magnetic properties. In this study, dopamine-functionalized polyesters (DA-polyester) were used to directly control the magnetic nanoparticle spacing and its effect on magnetic resonance relaxation properties of these clusters was investigated. Monodisperse SPIO nanocrystals with different surface coating materials (poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(lactic acid)) of different molecular weights containing dopamine (DA) structure (DA-PCL2k, DA-PCL1k, DA-PLA1k)) were prepared via ligand exchange reaction, and these nanocrystals were encapsulated inside amphiphilic polymer micelles to modulate the SPIO nanocrystal interparticle spacing. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to quantify the interparticle spacing of SPIO clusters. The results demonstrated that the tailored magnetic nanoparticle clusters featured controllable interparticle spacing providing directly by the different surface coating of SPIO nanocrystals. Systematic modulation of SPIO nanocrystal interparticle spacing can regulate the saturation magnetization (M s) and T 2 relaxation of the aggregation, and lead to increased magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation properties with decreased interparticle spacing. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB933903), the National Key Technology R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2012BAI23B08), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20974065, 51173117, and 50830107).

  7. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al2O3 and Fe2O3. • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe2O3, 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm2 with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe2O3 presented the MgFe2O4 spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm2, there were the formations of MgAl2O4 spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed

  8. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seafood, and foods that contain vitamin C , like citrus fruits, strawberries, sweet peppers, tomatoes, and broccoli. What ... diets. What are some effects of iron on health? Scientists are studying iron to understand how it ...

  9. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to...... present and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation...

  10. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent chemi

  11. Influence of different synthesis approach on doping behavior of silver nanoparticles onto the iron oxide-silica coreshell surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmed, N.; Jiang, H.; Heczko, Oleg; Söderberg, O.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2012), s. 1-15. ISSN 1388-0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : stroble method * silver nanoparticles * iron oxide * amourphous silica Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2012

  12. Methodology description for detection of cellular uptake of PVA coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synovial cells of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synoviocytes is reported. Synoviocytes were incubated for 2, 12, 24 and 48 h with 1.5 mg/ml of PVA coated SPION under the influence of magnets (12 h). Particles were well tolerated by the synoviocytes, were easily detected using the Turnbulls and Prussian blue reactions between 12 and 24 h

  13. Magnetic properties of iron/graphite core-shell nanoparticles prepared by annealing of Fe-C-N-based nanocomposite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Bohumil; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Bezdička, Petr; Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Cruneteanu, A.; Voicu, I.

    290-291, - (2005), s. 179-182. ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0221; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : magnetism * iron * nanoparticle Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.985, year: 2005

  14. Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated iron oxide nanoparticles with two different surface modifications, dextran coating and cross-linked dextran coating, showing that their different internalization affects their capability to enhance radiation damage to cancer cells. The internalization was monitored with an ultrahigh resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), indicating that the differences in the particle surface charge play an essential role and dominate the particle-cell interaction. We found that dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles cannot be internalized by HeLa and EMT-6 cells without being functionalized with amino groups (the cross-linked dextran coating) that modify the surface potential from -18 mV to 13.4 mV. The amount of cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles uptaken by cancer cells reached its maximum, 1.33 x 109 per HeLa cell, when the co-culture concentration was 40 μg Fe mL-1 or more. Standard tests indicated that these internalized nanoparticles increased the damaging effects of x-ray irradiation, whereas they are by themselves biocompatible. These results could lead to interesting therapy applications; furthermore, iron oxide also produces high contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and therapy stages.

  15. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for controlling the movement of immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ethan E.; Pai, Alex; Weng, Yiming; Suresh, Anil K.; van Haute, Desiree; Pailevanian, Torkom; Alizadeh, Darya; Hajimiri, Ali; Badie, Behnam; Berlin, Jacob M.

    2015-04-01

    Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were generated by loading the cells with iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with CpG oligonucleotides, serving as a proof of principle that nanoparticles can be used to both deliver an immunostimulatory cargo to cells and to control the movement of the cells. The nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates are efficiently internalized, non-toxic, and immunostimulatory. We demonstrate that the in vitro migration of the adherent, loaded microglia can be controlled by an external magnetic field and that magnetically-induced migration is non-cytotoxic. In order to capture video of this magnetically-induced migration of loaded cells, a novel 3D-printed ``cell box'' was designed to facilitate our imaging application. Analysis of cell movement velocities clearly demonstrate increased cell velocities toward the magnet. These studies represent the initial step towards our final goal of using nanoparticles to both activate immune cells and to control their trafficking within the diseased brain.Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were

  16. Adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on silica and calcium carbonate sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjee C; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Nap, Rikkert J; Whitaker, Ragnhild D; Mathiyazhagan, Vidhya; Song, Yi-Qiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Szleifer, Igal; Wong, Joyce Y

    2014-01-28

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have the potential to be used in the characterization of porous rock formations in oil fields as a contrast agent for NMR logging because they are small enough to traverse through nanopores and enhance contrast by shortening NMR T2 relaxation time. However, successful development and application require detailed knowledge of particle stability and mobility in reservoir rocks. Because nanoparticle adsorption to sand (SiO2) and rock (often CaCO3) affects their mobility, we investigated the thermodynamic equilibrium adsorption behavior of citric acid-coated SPIO nanoparticles (CA SPIO NPs) and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted SPIO nanoparticles (PEG SPIO NPs) on SiO2 (silica) and CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). Adsorption behavior was determined at various pH and salt conditions via chemical analysis and NMR, and the results were compared with molecular theory predictions. Most of the NPs were recovered from silica, whereas far fewer NPs were recovered from calcium carbonate because of differences in the mineral surface properties. NP adsorption increased with increasing salt concentration: this trend was qualitatively explained by molecular theory, as was the role of the PEG grafting in preventing NPs adsorption. Quantitative disagreement between the theoretical predictions and the data was due to NP aggregation, especially at high salt concentration and in the presence of calcium carbonate. Upon aggregation, NP concentrations as determined by NMR T2 were initially overestimated and subsequently corrected using the relaxation rate 1/T2, which is a function of aggregate size and fractal dimension of the aggregate. Our experimental validation of the theoretical predictions of NP adsorption to minerals in the absence of aggregation at various pH and salt conditions demonstrates that molecular theory can be used to determine interactions between NPs and relevant reservoir surfaces. Importantly, this integrated experimental and

  17. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mufti, Nandang, E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com; Atma, T., E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com; Fuad, A., E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malang, Jl Semarang-65145, Malang (Indonesia); Sutadji, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malang, Jl Semarang-65145, Malang (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  18. Dextran and Polymer Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Coating Reduce Both 5 and 30 nm Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity in 2D and 3D Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Morss Clyne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical applications, yet questions remain regarding the effect of nanoparticle size and coating on nanoparticle cytotoxicity. In this study, porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to 5 and 30 nm diameter iron oxide nanoparticles coated with either the polysaccharide, dextran, or the polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG. Nanoparticle uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, and cell morphology changes were measured. Endothelial cells took up nanoparticles of all sizes and coatings in a dose dependent manner, and intracellular nanoparticles remained clustered in cytoplasmic vacuoles. Bare nanoparticles in both sizes induced a more than 6 fold increase in cell death at the highest concentration (0.5 mg/mL and led to significant cell elongation, whereas cell viability and morphology remained constant with coated nanoparticles. While bare 30 nm nanoparticles induced significant ROS formation, neither 5 nm nanoparticles (bare or coated nor 30 nm coated nanoparticles changed ROS levels. Furthermore, nanoparticles were more toxic at lower concentrations when cells were cultured within 3D gels. These results indicate that both dextran and PEG coatings reduce nanoparticle cytotoxicity, however different mechanisms may be important for different size nanoparticles.

  19. Preparation of composite with silica-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide spinels for applications based on magnetically induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Angela L.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.; Domingues, Rosana Z.; Ardisson, José D.

    2013-04-01

    It is reported a novel method to prepare magnetic core (iron oxide spinels)-shell (silica) composites containing well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The synthetic process consists of two steps. In a first step, iron oxide nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation are dispersed in an aqueous solution containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide; in a second step, particles of this sample are coated with silica, through hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The intrinsic atomic structure and essential properties of the core-shell system were assessed with powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The heat released by this ferrofluid under an AC-generated magnetic field was evaluated by following the temperature evolution under increasing magnetic field strengths. Results strongly indicate that this ferrofluid based on silica-coated iron oxide spinels is technologically a very promising material to be used in medical practices, in oncology.

  20. Preparation of composite with silica-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide spinels for applications based on magnetically induced hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Angela L. [Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Fabris, Jose D., E-mail: jdfabris@ufmg.br [Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM) (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio C. [Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), Institute of Science, Engineering and Technology (Brazil); Domingues, Rosana Z. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Development Center of Nuclear Technology (CNEN/CDTN), Laboratory of Applied Physics (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    It is reported a novel method to prepare magnetic core (iron oxide spinels)-shell (silica) composites containing well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The synthetic process consists of two steps. In a first step, iron oxide nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation are dispersed in an aqueous solution containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide; in a second step, particles of this sample are coated with silica, through hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The intrinsic atomic structure and essential properties of the core-shell system were assessed with powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The heat released by this ferrofluid under an AC-generated magnetic field was evaluated by following the temperature evolution under increasing magnetic field strengths. Results strongly indicate that this ferrofluid based on silica-coated iron oxide spinels is technologically a very promising material to be used in medical practices, in oncology.

  1. Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Desheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage.

  2. Iron oxide nanoparticle layer templated by polydopamine spheres: a novel scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic nanoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Ao, Lijiao; Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Foda, Mohamed F; Su, Wu

    2015-01-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle layers with high packing density and controlled thickness were in situ deposited on metal-affinity organic templates (polydopamine spheres), via one-pot thermal decomposition. The as synthesized hybrid structure served as a facile nano-scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic carriers, through surfactant-assisted silica encapsulation and its subsequent calcination. Confined but accessible gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into these carriers to form a recyclable catalyst, showing quick magnetic response and a large surface area (642.5 m(2) g(-1)). Current nano-reactors exhibit excellent catalytic performance and high stability in reduction of 4-nitrophenol, together with convenient magnetic separability and good reusability. The integration of compact iron oxide nanoparticle layers with programmable polydopamine templates paves the way to fabricate magnetic-response hollow structures, with high permeability and multi-functionality. PMID:25437262

  3. Bi-Functional Silica Nanoparticles Doped with Iron Oxide and CdTe Prepared by a Facile Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cadmium telluride (CdTe and iron oxide nanoparticles doped silica nanospheres were prepared by a multistep method. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with silica and then modified with amino group. Thereafter, CdTe nanoparticles were assembled on the particle surfaces by their strong interaction with amino group. Finally, an outer silica shell was deposited. The final products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibration sample magnetometer, photoluminescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR, and fluorescent microscopy. The characterization results showed that the final nanomaterial possessed a saturation magnetization of about 5.8 emu g−1and an emission peak at 588 nm when the excitation wavelength fixed at 380 nm.

  4. A single exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles attenuates antigen-specific antibody production and T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen CC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Chang Shen1, Chia-Chi Wang1, Mei-Hsiu Liao2, Tong-Rong Jan11Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Energy Research, Taoyuan, TaiwanBackground: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been used in clinical applications as a diagnostic contrasting agent. Previous studies showed that iron oxide nanoparticles deposited in the liver and spleen after systemic administration. The present study investigated the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on antigen-specific immune responses in mice sensitized with the T cell-dependent antigen ovalbumin (OVA.Methods: BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with a single dose of iron oxide nanoparticles (10-60 mg Fe/kg 1 hour prior to OVA sensitization, and the serum antibody production and splenocyte reactivity were examined 7 days later.Results: The serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly attenuated by treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles. The production of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 by splenocytes re-stimulated with OVA in culture was robustly suppressed in mice administered with iron oxide nanoparticles. The viability of OVA-stimulated splenocytes was also attenuated. In contrast, treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles did not affect the viability of splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, a T-cell mitogen.Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that systemic exposure to a single dose of iron oxide nanoparticles compromises subsequent antigen-specific immune reactions, including the serum production of antigen-specific antibodies, and the functionality of T cells.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticle, antigen-specific, immune, ovalbumin

  5. Synthesis and characterization of conditioned carbon with iron nanoparticles for the arsenic removal in aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pineapple husks conditioned with carboxymethylcellulose, hexamine and ferric nitrate, a carbonaceous material was obtained with nanoparticles of Fe (C Fe), which was characterized and tested for arsenic removal in the aqueous phase. The microscopic study showed spheres 4 microns and filaments 100 nm wide, so as iron particles whose diameter decreases to an average of 38.81 nm, when pyrolysis time was increased to 180 min. their distribution in the carbonaceous matrix is homogeneous. According to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, C Fe contains C (82.29%), O (7.23%), K (0.68%), Ca (3.77%) and Fe (6.25%) and its diffraction pattern shows the characteristic peak of Fe (0), which is not observed in the coal without iron. By neutron activation analysis were quantified Al, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn, they can be involved in the process of sorption of As (v) forming surface active sites. For C Fe and C B characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, groups C-H, C=O, C=C, -Nh, NH2, isocyanate and isonitrile were found, the last two were formed by the present hexamine. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed energy states of C 1 and O 1 in pineapple shell washed, shell conditioned with iron, C Fe at different times and the pyrolysis coal without iron (C B). The material C Fe 180 presented a specific area of 167 m2/g and 7.12 ± 1 sites/nm2 isoelectric point while pHi = 11.1 C B is 98.80 m2/g specific area and 1.5 ± 1 sites/nm2 and pHi = 10.6, being favorable to the sorption process. The highest removal of As(v) for both materials was at ph = 2, fitting the kinetic data to pseudo-second order model. The isotherms as a function of concentration were adjusted to Freundlich model indicating multilayer chemisorption at specific sites of a heterogeneous medium. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy after the sample sorption Fe nanoparticles remain in the carbonaceous matrix being not affected by the agitation of

  6. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Ralf P; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.Particularly important for the production of adsorptive and covalent bound drugs to nanoparticles is the pureness of the involved formulation. Especially the covalent binding strategy demands defined chemistry of the drug, which is stabilized by excess free amino acids which could reduce reaction efficiency. In this study, we therefore used tangential flow filtration (TFF) method to purify the drugs before the reaction and used the frequently applied and clinically available recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA; Actilyse(®)) as a proof of concept. We then coupled the tPA preparation to polyacrylic acid-co-maleic acid (PAM)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using an amino-reactive activated ester reaction and compared these particles to PAM-coated SPIONs with electrostatically adsorbed tPA.Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and pH-dependent electrokinetic mobility measurements, we showed that surface properties of the SPIONs were significantly greater affected after activation of the particles compared to the adsorption controls. Different in vitro assays were used to investigate the activity of tPA after coupling to the particles and purification of the ferrofluid. Covalent linkage significantly improves the reactivity and long-term stability of the conjugated SPION-tPA system compared to simple adsorption. In conclusion, we have shown an effective way to produce SPIONs with covalent and non-covalent ultra-filtrated drugs. We showed

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of solid state recrystallization I: Observation of grain growth in annealed iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations of solid state recrystallization and grain growth in iron nanoparticles containing 1436 atoms were carried out. During the period of relaxation of supercooled liquid drops and during thermal annealing of the solids they froze to, changes in disorder were followed by monitoring changes in energy and the migration of grain boundaries. All 27 polycrystalline nanoparticles, which were generated with different grain boundaries, were observed to recystallize into single crystals during annealing. Larger grains consumed the smaller ones. In particular, two sets of solid particles, designated as A and B, each with two grains, were treated to generate 18 members of each set with different thermal histories. This provided small ensembles (of 18 members each) from which rates at which the larger grain engulfed the smaller one, could be determined. The rate was higher, the smaller the degree of misorientation between the grains, a result contrary to the general rule based on published experiments, but the reason was clear. Crystal A, which happened to have a somewhat lower angle of misorientation, also had a higher population of defects, as confirmed by its higher energy. Accordingly, its driving force to recrystallize was greater. Although the mechanism of recrystallization is commonly called nucleation, our results, which probe the system on an atomic scale, were not able to identify nuclei unequivocally. By contrast, our technique can and does reveal nuclei in the freezing of liquids and in transformations from one solid phase to another. An alternative rationale for a nucleation-like process in our results is proposed. - Graphical Abstract: Time dependence of energy per atom in the quenching of liquid nanoparticles A–C of iron. Nanoparticle C freezes directly into a single crystal but A and B freeze to solids with two grains. A and B eventually recrystallize into single crystals. Highlights: ► Solid state material synthesis.

  8. The effect of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] molar ratio and iron salts concentration on the properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the water/ethanol/toluene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a convenient one-pot method with sodium oleate as both the surfactant and precipitant to synthesize pure magnetite nanoparticles in the water/ethanol/toluene system. The initial molar ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] and the concentration of iron salts were changed in order to systematically investigate their influences on the chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles, such as the crystal structure, morphology, particle sizes, dispersion and magnetism. Samples were determined by XRD, XPS, FTIR, DLS, and VSM. The oleate coating steadily existed on the surface of the nanoparticles to profit them of excellent monodispersibility and stability in non-polar solvents with very narrow size distribution and extremely approximate mean diameters of ∼7 nm. Particles consisted mainly of magnetite with a little or no maghemite phase with the molar ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] decreasing from 2:1 to 1:1, but they all exhibited superparamagnetism at room temperature. After the optimization, pure magnetite nanoparticles could be prepared with the saturation magnetization successfully increasing to 75 emu/g(Fe), when the molar ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] was 1.5:1 and the concentration of iron precursors was 95 mM.

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on neuronal and glial cells. Evaluation of nanoparticle interference with viability tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; Brandão, Fátima; Bessa, Maria João; Costa, Solange; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Kiliç, Gözde; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Quaresma, Pedro; Pereira, Eulália; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted great interest for use in several biomedical fields. In general, they are considered biocompatible, but little is known of their effects on the human nervous system. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two ION (magnetite), coated with silica and oleic acid, previously determining the possible interference of the ION with the methodological procedures to assure the reliability of the results obtained. Human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y and glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to different concentrations of ION (5-300 µg ml(-1) ), prepared in complete and serum-free cell culture medium for three exposure times (3, 6 and 24 h). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by means of the MTT, neutral red uptake and alamar blue assays. Characterization of the main physical-chemical properties of the ION tested was also performed. Results demonstrated that both ION could significantly alter absorbance readings. To reduce these interferences, protocols were modified by introducing additional washing steps and cell-free systems. Significant decreases in cell viability were observed for both cell lines in specific conditions by all assays. In general, oleic acid-coated ION were less cytotoxic than silica-coated ION; besides, a serum-protective effect was observed for both ION studied and cell lines. These results contribute to increase the knowledge of the potential harmful effects of ION on the human nervous system. Understanding these effects is essential to establish satisfactory regulatory policies on the safe use of magnetite nanoparticles in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26212026

  10. Effect of surface charge on the colloidal stability and in vitro uptake of carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticle physicochemical properties such as surface charge are considered to play an important role in cellular uptake and particle–cell interactions. In order to systematically evaluate the role of surface charge on the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles, we prepared carboxymethyl-substituted dextrans with different degrees of substitution, ranging from 38 to 5 groups per chain, and reacted them using carbodiimide chemistry with amine–silane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with narrow size distributions in the range of 33–45 nm. Surface charge of carboxymethyl-substituted dextran-coated nanoparticles ranged from −50 to 5 mV as determined by zeta potential measurements, and was dependent on the number of carboxymethyl groups incorporated in the dextran chains. Nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 human colon cancer cells. Nanoparticle–cell interactions were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and uptake was quantified by elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Mechanisms of internalization were inferred using pharmacological inhibitors for fluid-phase, clathrin-mediated, and caveola-mediated endocytosis. Results showed increased uptake for nanoparticles with greater negative charge. Internalization patterns suggest that uptake of the most negatively charged particles occurs via non-specific interactions

  11. Challenges in the Theoretical Description of Nanoparticle Reactivity: Nano Zero-Valent Iron

    CERN Document Server

    Karlický, František

    2014-01-01

    The reactivity of iron atoms, clusters and nanoparticles (nZVI) is of increasing interest owing to their important practical applications, ranging from the steel industry to water remediation technologies. Here, we provide an overview of computational methods and models that can be applied to study nZVI reactions and discuss their benefits and limitations. We also report current progress in calculations through recent examples treating the reactivity of nZVI particles. Finally, we consider the potential use of highly accurate methods with favorable scaling (such as quantum Monte Carlo or random phase approximation), which are currently considered too computationally expensive but are expected to become more amenable in the future as computer power increases.

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron...... nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...... desorption and removal from a soil sampled at a polluted site, in a two-compartment cell where the soil was stirred in a slurry with 1% surfactant, 10mL of nZVI commercial suspension, and a voltage gradient of 1Vcm(-1). The highest PCB removal was obtained with saponin. Higher chlorinated PCB congeners...

  13. Application of iron oxide nanoparticles in glioma imaging and therapy: from bench to bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xiao; Du, Xue-Song; Zhang, Jin-Long; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and have a very dismal prognosis. However, recent advancements in nanomedicine and nanotechnology provide opportunities for personalized treatment regimens to improve the poor prognosis of patients suffering from glioma. This comprehensive review starts with an outline of the current status facing glioma. It then provides an overview of the state-of-the-art applications of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to glioma diagnostics and therapeutics, including MR contrast enhancement, drug delivery, cell labeling and tracking, magnetic hyperthermia treatment and magnetic particle imaging. It also addresses current challenges associated with the biological barriers and IONP design with an emphasis on recent advances and innovative approaches for glioma targeting strategies. Opportunities for future development are highlighted.

  14. Remediation of hexavalent chromium contaminated soil by biochar-supported zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huijie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zheng, Liuchun; Cheng, Wen; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-11-15

    In this study, a kind of high-efficiency and low-cost biochar-supported zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI@BC) was synthesised and used in the remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. The remediation tests indicated that the immobilisation efficiency of Cr(VI) and Crtotal was 100% and 91.94%, respectively, by 8g nZVI@BC per kg soil for 15 d of remediation. Further investigations showed that exchangeable Cr was almost completely converted to Fe-Mn oxides and organic matter. Moreover, nZVI@BC could effectively improve soil fertility and reduce the leachability of Fe caused by nZVI. At the same time, the cabbage mustard growth experiments indicated that the phytotoxicity of Cr(VI) and Fe in the seedlings was effectively decreased by nZVI@BC treatment, and that the cabbage mustard growth was enhanced. PMID:27469041

  15. CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles supported on oxygen-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ly May Chew; Holger Ruland; Hendrik J Schulte; Wei Xia; Martin Muhler

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogenation of CO2 to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles supported on oxygenfunctionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes was studied in a fixed-bed U-tube reactor at 25 bar with a H2:CO2 ratio of 3. Conversion of CO2 was approximately 35% yielding C1-C5 products at 360°C with methane and CO as major products. The CO2 equilibrium conversion for temperatures in the range of 320° to 420°C was analysed by using CHEMCAD simulation software. Comparison between experimental and simulated degrees of CO2 conversion shows that reverse water gas shift equilibrium had been achieved in the investigated temperature range and that less than 47% of CO2 can be converted to CO at 420°C.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticle modified monolithic pipette tips for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 349-351 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolith * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215394

  17. Conjugation of paclitaxel to iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Wu, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wen, Song; Zhang, Xizhi; Ding, Qi; Teng, Gaojun; Gu, Ning

    2012-03-01

    A strategy for conjugating an antitumor agent to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) via a biocleavable ester binding is reported. Paclitaxel (PTX) was selected as a model drug. Both the in vitro and in vivo performance of the conjugates of SPION-PTX was investigated respectively. PTX can be released slowly through the hydrolysis of the ester bond in a pH-dependent manner and the SPION-PTX has near equal cytotoxity to the clinical PTX injection (Taxol) at the equivalent dose of PTX. Furthermore, the SPION-PTX can accumulate in tumor tissues as demonstrated by MRI and exhibit better tumor suppression effect than Taxol in vivo. The above good performance of the SPION-PTX together with the good biocompatibility of the SPIONs would promote greatly the application of the SPIONs in the biomedicine field.

  18. Enhancing the lipid productivity of yeasts with trace concentrations of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádrová, Karolína; Čejková, Alena; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kolouchová, Irena; Vítová, Milada; Sigler, Karel; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress induced by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs) was used to improve lipid accumulation in various oleaginous and non-oleginous yeasts-Candida sp., Kluyveromyces polysporus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Yarrowia lipolytica. The highest lipid yields occurred at 9-13 mg/L nZVIs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the fatty acids. It showed an increasing abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially essential linoleic acid, in the presence of nZVIs. Our results suggest that nZVIs can be used to improve not only lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms but also the nutritional value of biosynthesized unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26683688

  19. Microstructural study and size control of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by microemulsion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Paneva, D.; Nedkov, I.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we study the possibility to control the size of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles by the microemulsion technique. We used a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion system with n-hexadecil trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, n-butanol as a co-surfactant, n-hexanol as a continuous oil phase, and aqueous phase. The magnetite nanopowders were synthesized by a single microemulsion technique in which the aqueous phase contains only metal ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+). The particle size of the powders varied in the range of 14-36 nm depending on the preparation conditions. We studied the influence of changing the water/surfactant ratio (W 0 = 5, 10, 15, 20) and the metallic ion (Fe2+ and Fe3+) concentration on the particle size distribution and crystallinity of Fe3O4.

  20. Synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using oolong tea extract for the degradation of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles (OT-FeNP) were synthesized using oolong tea extracts. Their morphology, structure and size were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Formation of FeNP results in mostly spherical particles with diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. Degradation of malachite green (MG) using OT-FeNP demonstrated that kinetics fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction by removing 75.5% of MG (50 mg/L). This indicated that OT-FeNP has the potential to serve as a green nanomaterial for environmental remediation.

  1. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exert different cytotoxic effects on cells grown in monolayer cell culture versus as multicellular spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumer, Anja; Gräfe, Christine; Bähring, Franziska [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Bergemann, Christian [Chemicell GmbH, Eresburgstrasse 22–23, 12103 Berlin (Germany); Hochhaus, Andreas [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Clement, Joachim H., E-mail: joachim.clement@med.uni-jena.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human blood–brain barrier-forming endothelial cells (HBMEC) in two-dimensional cell monolayers as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. The precise nanoparticle localisation and the influence of the NP on the cellular viability and the intracellular Akt signalling were studied in detail. Long-term effects of different polymer-coated nanoparticles (neutral fluidMAG-D, anionic fluidMAG-CMX and cationic fluidMAG-PEI) and the corresponding free polymers on cellular viability of HBMEC were investigated by real time cell analysis studies. Nanoparticles exert distinct effects on HBMEC depending on the nanoparticles' surface charge and concentration, duration of incubation and cellular context. The most severe effects were caused by PEI-coated nanoparticles. Concentrations above 25 µg/ml led to increased amounts of dead cells in monolayer culture as well as in multicellular spheroids. On the level of intracellular signalling, context-dependent differences were observed. Monolayer cultures responded on nanoparticle incubation with an increase in Akt phosphorylation whereas spheroids on the whole show a decreased Akt activity. This might be due to the differential penetration and distribution of PEI-coated nanoparticles.

  2. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exert different cytotoxic effects on cells grown in monolayer cell culture versus as multicellular spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human blood–brain barrier-forming endothelial cells (HBMEC) in two-dimensional cell monolayers as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. The precise nanoparticle localisation and the influence of the NP on the cellular viability and the intracellular Akt signalling were studied in detail. Long-term effects of different polymer-coated nanoparticles (neutral fluidMAG-D, anionic fluidMAG-CMX and cationic fluidMAG-PEI) and the corresponding free polymers on cellular viability of HBMEC were investigated by real time cell analysis studies. Nanoparticles exert distinct effects on HBMEC depending on the nanoparticles' surface charge and concentration, duration of incubation and cellular context. The most severe effects were caused by PEI-coated nanoparticles. Concentrations above 25 µg/ml led to increased amounts of dead cells in monolayer culture as well as in multicellular spheroids. On the level of intracellular signalling, context-dependent differences were observed. Monolayer cultures responded on nanoparticle incubation with an increase in Akt phosphorylation whereas spheroids on the whole show a decreased Akt activity. This might be due to the differential penetration and distribution of PEI-coated nanoparticles

  3. Evaluation of the sonosensitizing properties of nano-graphene oxide in comparison with iron oxide and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Shiran, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-07-01

    In cancer hyperthermia, ultrasound is considered as an appropriate source of energy to achieve desired therapeutic levels of heating. It is assumed that such a heating is targeted to cancer cells by using nanoparticles as sonosensitization agents. Here, we report the sonosensitizing effects of Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) and compare them with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), Iron Oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Experiments were conducted to explore the effects of nanoparticle type and concentration, as well as ultrasound power, on transient heating up of the solutions exposed by 1 MHz ultrasound. Nanoparticles concentration was selected from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml and the solutions were exposed by ultrasound powers from 1 to 8 W. Real time temperature monitoring was done by a thermocouple and obtained data was analyzed. Temperature profiles of various nanoparticle solutions showed the higher heating rates, in comparison to water. Heating rise was strongly depended on nanoparticles concentration and ultrasound power. AuNPs showed a superior efficiency in heat generation enhancement in comparison to IONPs and NGO. Our result supports the idea of sonosensitizing capabilities of AuNPs, IONPs, and NGO. Targeted hyperthermia may be achievable by preferential loading of tumor with nanoparticles and subsequent ultrasound irradiation.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaliyamoorthy Venkatesan,1 Dhanakotti Rajan Babu,1 Mane Prabhu Kavya Bai,2 Ravi Supriya,2 Radhakrishnan Vidya,2 Saminathan Madeswaran,1 Pandurangan Anandan,3 Mukannan Arivanandhan,3 Yasuhiro Hayakawa3 1School of Advanced Sciences, 2School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan Abstract: Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311 of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. Keywords: cytotoxicity, HR-TEM, magnetic nanoparticles, VSM 

  5. Intrinsically green iron oxide nanoparticles? From synthesis via (eco-)toxicology to scenario modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Juliane; Arndt, Darius; Baumann, Jonas; Geppert, Mark; Hackmann, Stephan; Luther, Eva M.; Pade, Christian; Prenzel, Katrin; Wigger, Henning; Arning, Jürgen; Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Köser, Jan; Kück, Andrea; Lesnikov, Elena; Neumann, Jennifer; Schütrumpf, Simon; Warrelmann, Jürgen; Bäumer, Marcus; Dringen, Ralf; von Gleich, Arnim; Swiderek, Petra; Thöming, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are currently being studied as green magnet resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. They are also used in huge quantities for environmental remediation and water treatment purposes, although very little is known on the consequences of such applications for organisms and ecosystems. In order to address these questions, we synthesised polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated IONP, characterised the particle dispersion in various media and investigated the consequences of an IONP exposure using an array of biochemical and biological assays. Several theoretical approaches complemented the measurements. In aqueous dispersion IONP had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 25 nm and were stable over six days in most test media, which could also be predicted by stability modelling. The particles were tested in concentrations of up to 100 mg Fe per L. The activity of the enzymes glutathione reductase and acetylcholine esterase was not affected, nor were proliferation, morphology or vitality of mammalian OLN-93 cells although exposure of the cells to 100 mg Fe per L increased the cellular iron content substantially. Only at this concentration, acute toxicity tests with the freshwater flea Daphnia magna revealed slightly, yet insignificantly increased mortality. Two fundamentally different bacterial assays, anaerobic activated sludge bacteria inhibition and a modified sediment contact test with Arthrobacter globiformis, both rendered results contrary to the other assays: at the lowest test concentration (1 mg Fe per L), IONP caused a pronounced inhibition whereas higher concentrations were not effective or even stimulating. Preliminary and prospective risk assessment was exemplified by comparing the application of IONP with gadolinium-based nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents. Predicted environmental concentrations were modelled in two different scenarios, showing that IONP could reduce the environmental exposure of toxic Gd-based particles by more than 50

  6. Determining iron oxide nanoparticle heating efficiency and elucidating local nanoparticle temperature for application in agarose gel-based tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rhythm R; Dombrowsky, Alexander R; Paulson, Abigail L; Johnson, Margaret P; Nikles, David E; Brazel, Christopher S

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have been developed for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy, where cancer cells are treated through the heat generated by application of a high frequency magnetic field. This heat has also been proposed as a mechanism to trigger release of chemotherapy agents. In each of these cases, MNPs with optimal heating performance can be used to maximize therapeutic effect while minimizing the required dosage of MNPs. In this study, the heating efficiencies (or specific absorption rate, SAR) of two types of MNPs were evaluated experimentally and then predicted from their magnetic properties. MNPs were also incorporated in the core of poly(ethylene glycol-b-caprolactone) micelles, co-localized with rhodamine B fluorescent dye attached to polycaprolactone to monitor local, nanoscale temperatures during magnetic heating. Despite a relatively high SAR produced by these MNPs, no significant temperature rise beyond that observed in the bulk solution was measured by fluorescence in the core of the magnetic micelles. MNPs were also incorporated into a macro-scale agarose gel system that mimicked a tumor targeted by MNPs and surrounded by healthy tissues. The agarose-based tumor models showed that targeted MNPs can reach hyperthermia temperatures inside a tumor with a sufficient MNP concentration, while causing minimal temperature rise in the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. PMID:27523991

  7. Nanobarcoded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine: Quantitative studies of cell-nanoparticle interactions by scanning image cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F

    2016-02-01

    Oligonucleotide-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are promising agents for nanomedicine, but the potential in vitro nanotoxicity that may arise from such conjugates has yet to be evaluated in a dose response manner. Since nanomedicine functions on the single-cell level, measurements of nanotoxicity should also be performed as such. In vitro single-cell nanotoxicity assays based on scanning image cytometry are used to study a specific type of oligo-functionalized NP, "nanobarcoded" superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (NB-SPIONs). The selected panel of single-cell assays measures well-known modes of nanotoxicity-apoptosis, necrosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell number. Using these assays, the cytotoxicity of two sizes of NB-SPIONs (10 nm and 30 nm core size) was compared to the parent NP, carboxylated SPIONs (COOH-SPIONs). The results suggest that the conjugated NB confers a biocompatible coating that protects against cytotoxicity at very high SPION doses, but both NB- and COOH-SPIONs of either size generally have low in vitro cytotoxicity at physiologically relevant doses. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:26013098

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF for targeting brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsov MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxim A Shevtsov,1,2 Boris P Nikolaev,3 Ludmila Y Yakovleva,3 Yaroslav Y Marchenko,3 Anatolii V Dobrodumov,4 Anastasiya L Mikhrina,5 Marina G Martynova,1 Olga A Bystrova,1 Igor V Yakovenko,2 Alexander M Ischenko31Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, 2AL Polenov Russian Scientific Research Institute of Neurosurgery, 3Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, 4Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, 5IM Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, St Petersburg, RussiaAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs conjugated with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF were studied as a potential agent for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement of malignant brain tumors. Synthesized conjugates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry. The interaction of SPION–EGF conjugates with cells was analyzed in a C6 glioma cell culture. The distribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in an orthotopic model of C6 gliomas. SPION–EGF nanosuspensions had the properties of a negative contrast agent with high coefficients of relaxation efficiency. In vitro studies of SPION–EGF nanoparticles showed high intracellular incorporation and the absence of a toxic influence on C6 cell viability and proliferation. Intravenous administration of SPION–EGF conjugates in animals provided receptor-mediated targeted delivery across the blood–brain barrier and tumor retention of the nanoparticles; this was more efficient than with unconjugated SPIONs. The accumulation of conjugates in the glioma was revealed as hypotensive zones on T2-weighted images with a twofold reduction in T2 relaxation time in comparison to unconjugated SPIONs (P<0.001. SPION

  9. Use of silicate shells to prevent sintering during thermally induced chemical ordering of iron platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dwayne Fitzgerald

    Its very high value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy makes the L1 0 phase of FePt a leading candidate for future high density magnetic recording systems. FePt nanoparticles can be prepared by a number of chemical methods. However, these particles have a face-centered cubic structure, with low anisotropy and are superparamagnetic. They must be heated to temperatures above 500 °C to obtain the chemically ordered L10 phase. However, during heating the particles coalesce to give twinned grains with large sizes (10-30 nm). Here we provide a solution to the sintering problem by developing a sol-gel procedure for coating the FePt particles with an amorphous silica shell. The silica shell prevents the FePt particles from agglomerating when heated to 700 °C to effect chemical ordering. FePt nanoparticles were prepared by the super-hydride reduction of platinum(II) acetylacetonate and iron(II) chloride in hot diphenyl ether in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid capping ligands. The particles had an average diameter of 5-6 nm, a face-centered cubic structure and were superparamagnetic. The particles were coated using a microemulsion process producing a 6 nm silicon oxide shell with a single nanoparticle core-shell structure. The nanoparticles were heated to 700 °C for times of 30 min and 1hr to achieve L10 phase transformation. These samples were annealed in a tube furnace under 95% Ar/5% H2. Many procedures were found to be ineffective. They mostly consisted of biphasic reaction systems and several trials where reaction variables were altered in search of the appropriate conditions. This work has impacted the search for a higher density magnetic recording medium by allowing the study of FePt under a protected environment while achieving chemical ordering. If the L10 FePt nanoparticles will be used in magnetic recording, the particles will require a hard coating to prevent wear. In the course of the present work, it has been shown that the silicate shells

  10. The distribution and degradation of radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bargheer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 51Cr-labeled, superparamagnetic, iron oxide nanoparticles (51Cr-SPIOs and 65Zn-labeled CdSe/CdS/ZnS-quantum dots (65Zn-Qdots were prepared using an easy, on demand, exchange-labeling technique and their particokinetic parameters were studied in mice after intravenous injection. The results indicate that the application of these heterologous isotopes can be used to successfully mark the nanoparticles during initial distribution and organ uptake, although the 65Zn-label appeared not to be fully stable. As the degradation of the nanoparticles takes place, the individual transport mechanisms for the different isotopes must be carefully taken into account. Although this variation in transport paths can bring new insights with regard to the respective trace element homeostasis, it can also limit the relevance of such trace material-based approaches in nanobioscience. By monitoring 51Cr-SPIOs after oral gavage, the gastrointestinal non-absorption of intact SPIOs in a hydrophilic or lipophilic surrounding was measured in mice with such high sensitivity for the first time. After intravenous injection, polymer-coated, 65Zn-Qdots were mainly taken up by the liver and spleen, which was different from that of ionic 65ZnCl2. Following the label for 4 weeks, an indication of substantial degradation of the nanoparticles and the release of the label into the Zn pool was observed. Confocal microscopy of rat liver cryosections (prepared 2 h after intravenous injection of polymer-coated Qdots revealed a colocalization with markers for Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC, but not with hepatocytes. In J774 macrophages, fluorescent Qdots were found colocalized with lysosomal markers. After 24 h, no signs of degradation could be detected. However, after 12 weeks, no fluorescent nanoparticles could be detected in the liver cryosections, which would confirm our 65Zn data showing a substantial degradation of the polymer-coated CdSe/CdS/ZnS-Qdots in

  11. Discrepancy between different estimates of the hydrodynamic diameter of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a monolayer of dextran, with molecular weights of the polymer between 5 and 670 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm that the hard core has a crystalline diameter of approximately 12 nm. The hydrodynamic diameters of these coated nanoparticles in solution measured using dynamical light scattering and estimated from magnetic susceptibility studies vary from near 90 nm for the lightest polymer to 140 nm for the heaviest polymer. Conversely, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements yield a diameter of approximately 55 nm for the 15–20 kDa dextran coated nanoparticles, which is consistent with the expected value estimated from the sum of the hard-core diameter and monolayer dextran coating. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy for applications involving polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  12. Effects of inter- and intra-aggregate magnetic dipolar interactions on the magnetic heating efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, J G; Cabrera, D; Carrey, J; Valdivielso, T; Salas, G; Teran, F J

    2016-04-28

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found an increasing number of biomedical applications as sensing or trapping platforms and therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. Most of these applications are based on their magnetic properties, which may vary depending on the nanoparticle aggregation state and/or concentration. In this work, we assess the effect of the inter- and intra-aggregate magnetic dipolar interactions on the heat dissipation power and AC hysteresis loops upon increasing the nanoparticle concentration and the hydrodynamic aggregate size. We observe different effects produced by inter- (long distance) and intra-aggregate (short distance) interactions, resulting in magnetizing and demagnetizing effects, respectively. Consequently, the heat dissipation power under alternating magnetic fields strongly reflects such different interacting phenomena. The intra-aggregate interaction results were successfully modeled by numerical simulations. A better understanding of magnetic dipolar interactions is mandatory for achieving a reliable magnetic hyperthermia response when nanoparticles are located into biological matrices. PMID:27041536

  13. Magnetically triggered clustering of biotinylated iron oxide nanoparticles in the presence of streptavidinylated enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodenius, Michael; Hieronymus, Thomas; Zenke, Martin; Becker, Christiane; Elling, Lothar; Bornemann, Jörg; Wong, John E.; Richtering, Walter; Himmelreich, Uwe; De Cuyper, Marcel

    2012-09-01

    This work deals with the production and characterization of water-compatible, iron oxide based nanoparticles covered with functional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-biotin surface groups (SPIO-PEG-biotin). Synthesis of the functionalized colloids occurred by incubating the oleate coated particles used as precursor magnetic fluid with anionic liposomes containing 14 mol% of a phospholipid-PEG-biotin conjugate. The latter was prepared by coupling dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DC14:0PE) to activated α-biotinylamido-ω -N-hydroxy-succinimidcarbonyl-PEG (NHS-PEG-biotin). Physical characterization of the oleate and PEG-biotin iron oxide nanocolloids revealed that they appear as colloidal stable clusters with a hydrodynamic diameter of 160 nm and zeta potentials of - 39 mV (oleate coated particles) and - 14 mV (PEG-biotin covered particles), respectively, as measured by light scattering techniques. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed specific saturation magnetizations of 62-73 emu g-1 Fe3O4 and no hysteresis was observed at 300 K. MR relaxometry at 3 T revealed very high r2 relaxivities and moderately high r1 values. Thus, both nanocolloids can be classified as small, superparamagnetic, negative MR contrast agents. The capacity to functionalize the particles was illustrated by binding streptavidin alkaline phosphatase (SAP). It was found, however, that these complexes become highly aggregated after capturing them on the magnetic filter device during high-gradient magnetophoresis, thereby reducing the accessibility of the SAP.

  14. Cytotoxicity evaluation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in melanoma cells and dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudzinski, Ireneusz P., E-mail: ireneusz.grudzinski@wum.edu.pl [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Bystrzejewski, Michal [Warsaw University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Cywinska, Monika A.; Kosmider, Anita [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Poplawska, Magdalena [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Cieszanowski, Andrzej [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Poland); Ostrowska, Agnieszka [Analytic Centre, University of Life Sciences SGGW (Poland)

    2013-08-15

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) are emerging as promising biomedical tools due to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of CEINs (the mean diameter distribution ranges 46-56 nm) has been explored by MTT, LDH leakage, Calcein-AM/propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays in human melanoma (HTB-140), mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The results demonstrated that CEINs produce mitochondrial and cell membrane cytotoxicities in a dose (0.0001-100 {mu}g/ml)-dependent manner. Moreover, the studies elucidated some differences in cytotoxic effects between CEINs used as raw and purified materials composing of the carbon surface with acidic groups. Experiments showed that HTB-140 cells are more sensitive to prone early apoptotic events due to raw CEINs as compared to B16-F10 or HDF cells, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that the amount of CEINs administered to cells and the composition of CEINs containing different amounts of iron as well as the carbon surface modification type is critical determinant of cytotoxic responses in both normal and cancer (melanoma) cells.

  15. Magnetic tumor targeting of β-glucosidase immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (DEPT) has promising application for cancer therapy. However, most current DEPT strategies face shortcomings such as the loss of enzyme activity during preparation, low delivery and transduction efficiency in vivo and difficultly of monitoring. In this study, a novel magnetic directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (MDEPT) was set up by conjugating β-glucosidase (β-Glu) to aminated, starch-coated, iron oxide magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), abbreviated as β-Glu–MNP, using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. This β-Glu–MNP was then characterized in detail by size distribution, zeta potential, FTIR spectra, TEM, SQUID and magnetophoretic mobility analysis. Compared to free enzyme, the conjugated β-Glu on MNPs retained 85.54% ± 6.9% relative activity and showed much better temperature stability. The animal study results showed that β-Glu–MNP displays preferable pharmacokinetics characteristics in relation to MNPs. With an adscititious magnetic field on the surface of a tumor, a significant quantity of β-Glu–MNP was selectively delivered into a subcutaneous tumor of a glioma-bearing mouse. Remarkably, the enzyme activity of the delivered β-Glu in tumor lesions showed as high as 20.123±5.022 mU g−1 tissue with 2.14 of tumor/non-tumor β-Glu activity. (paper)

  16. Positron annihilation study of iron oxide nanoparticles in mesoporous silica MCM-41 template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of investigation were the samples obtained by impregnation of MCM-41 template with an aqueous solution prepared from Fe(NO3)3·9H2O. As a result of such a procedure, iron oxides deposits on MCM-41 were formed. The Moessbauer studies revealed an occurrence of Fe3O4 nanocrystallites in the both ferri- and superparamagnetic states. Almost 80% small particles exist in a paramagnetic state. The positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) spectra were measured in air or in vacuum. The long-lived ortho-positronium (o-Ps) components and their intensities are time dependent due to air molecules interaction with iron oxide nanocrystallites and silica walls surfaces. The adsorption of air on the nanocrystallites surface causes a total screening of their surface and a raise of the o-Ps lifetime values. Observed anti-quenching effect is a result of competition of two phenomena: practically switching off a pick-off mechanism related to interaction of o-Ps with magnetite nanoparticles and considerably weaker usual quenching by paramagnetic oxygen molecules. (authors)

  17. Polyelectrolyte multilayer film-assisted formation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles onto polymer nanofibrous mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile approach that combines the electrospinning technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method has been developed to synthesize and immobilize zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) onto the surface of nanofibers for potential environmental applications. In this approach, negatively charged cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning CA solution were modified with bilayers composed of positively charged poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride) (PDADMAC) and negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) through electrostatic LbL assembly approach to form composite nanofibrous mats. The composite nanofibrous mats were immersed into the ferrous iron solution to allow Fe(II) ions to complex with the free carboxyl groups of PAA, and then ZVI NPs were immobilized onto the composite nanofibrous mats instantly by reducing the ferrous cations. Combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrated that the ZVI NPs are successfully synthesized and uniformly distributed into the polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer films assembled onto the CA nanofibers. The present approach to synthesis ZVI NPs opens a new avenue to fabricating various materials with high surface area for environmental, catalytic, and sensing applications.

  18. Magnetically triggered clustering of biotinylated iron oxide nanoparticles in the presence of streptavidinylated enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the production and characterization of water-compatible, iron oxide based nanoparticles covered with functional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–biotin surface groups (SPIO–PEG–biotin). Synthesis of the functionalized colloids occurred by incubating the oleate coated particles used as precursor magnetic fluid with anionic liposomes containing 14 mol% of a phospholipid–PEG–biotin conjugate. The latter was prepared by coupling dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DC14:0PE) to activated α-biotinylamido-ω –N-hydroxy-succinimidcarbonyl–PEG (NHS–PEG–biotin). Physical characterization of the oleate and PEG–biotin iron oxide nanocolloids revealed that they appear as colloidal stable clusters with a hydrodynamic diameter of 160 nm and zeta potentials of − 39 mV (oleate coated particles) and − 14 mV (PEG–biotin covered particles), respectively, as measured by light scattering techniques. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed specific saturation magnetizations of 62–73 emu g−1 Fe3O4 and no hysteresis was observed at 300 K. MR relaxometry at 3 T revealed very high r2 relaxivities and moderately high r1 values. Thus, both nanocolloids can be classified as small, superparamagnetic, negative MR contrast agents. The capacity to functionalize the particles was illustrated by binding streptavidin alkaline phosphatase (SAP). It was found, however, that these complexes become highly aggregated after capturing them on the magnetic filter device during high-gradient magnetophoresis, thereby reducing the accessibility of the SAP. (paper)

  19. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Gallios, George P; Kastrinaki, Georgia; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels' hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity. PMID:26751245

  20. Cytotoxicity evaluation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in melanoma cells and dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) are emerging as promising biomedical tools due to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of CEINs (the mean diameter distribution ranges 46–56 nm) has been explored by MTT, LDH leakage, Calcein-AM/propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays in human melanoma (HTB-140), mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The results demonstrated that CEINs produce mitochondrial and cell membrane cytotoxicities in a dose (0.0001–100 μg/ml)-dependent manner. Moreover, the studies elucidated some differences in cytotoxic effects between CEINs used as raw and purified materials composing of the carbon surface with acidic groups. Experiments showed that HTB-140 cells are more sensitive to prone early apoptotic events due to raw CEINs as compared to B16-F10 or HDF cells, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that the amount of CEINs administered to cells and the composition of CEINs containing different amounts of iron as well as the carbon surface modification type is critical determinant of cytotoxic responses in both normal and cancer (melanoma) cells

  1. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  2. Sensitivity Improvement of an Impedimetric Immunosensor Using Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hafaid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has explored the development of impedimetric immunosensors based on magnetic iron nanoparticles (IrNP functionalized with streptavidin to which a biotinylated FAB part of the antibody has been bound using a biotin-streptavidin interaction. SPR analysis shows a deviation on the measured (angle during antigen-antibody recognition whereas label free detection using by EIS allows us to monitor variation of polarization resistance. Before detection, layers were analyzed by FTIR and AFM. Compared to immobilization of antibody on bare gold surface using aminodecanethiol SAM, antibody immobilization on nanoparticles permitted to reach lower detection limit: 500 pg/ml instead of 1 ng/ml to in the case of EIS and 300 ng/ml instead of 4.5 μg/ml in the case of SPR. Thus, it permitted to improve the sensitivity: from 257.3  Ω⋅cm2⋅μg−1⋅ml to 1871 Ω⋅cm2⋅μg−1⋅ml in the case of EIS and from 0.003°μg−1⋅ml to 0.094°μg−1⋅ml in the case of SPR.

  3. Reduction of polyethylenimine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles induced autophagy and cytotoxicity by lactosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiuju; Zhu, Wencheng; Yang, Li; Wu, Changqiang; Lin, Bingbing; Wu, Jun; Jin, Rongrong; Shen, Taipeng; Ai, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are excellent magnetic resonance contrast agents and surface engineering can expand their applications. When covered with amphiphilic alkyl-polyethyleneimine (PEI), the modified SPIO nanoparticles can be used as MRI visible gene/drug delivery carriers and cell tracking probes. However, the positively charged amines of PEI can also cause cytotoxicity and restricts their further applications. In this study, we used lactose to modify amphiphilic low molecular weight polyethylenimine (C12-PEI2K) at different lactosylation degree. It was found that the N-alkyl-PEI-lactobionic acid wrapped SPIO nanocomposites show better cell viability without compromising their labelling efficacy as well as MR imaging capability in RAW 264.7 cells, comparing to the unsubstituted ones. Besides, we found the PEI induced cell autophagy can be reduced via lactose modification, indicating the increased cell viability might rely on down-regulating autophagy. Thus, our findings provide a new approach to overcome the toxicity of PEI wrapped SPIO nanocomposites by lactose modification. PMID:27482464

  4. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Igor M; Pavičić, Ivan; Milić, Mirta; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs – uncoated, coated with d-mannose, or coated with poly-l-lysine – affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs) as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions presented in this work highlights the need for further safety evaluations. This investigation helps to fill the knowledge gaps on the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the biocompatibility and safety of novel nanoparticles.

  5. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the preparation and physical-chemical characterization of new ultrasmall iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (USPIONs) functionalized with titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato. The preparation was performed starting with monodispersed USPIONs covered with oleic acid, synthesized by thermal-decomposition, and subsequently functionalized with metal-carbamato by a ligand-exchange reaction. The surface and coating structure was characterized by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy on the solid powders and thermogravimetry (TG) coupled with an FT-IR detector in order to better investigate the self-assembling properties of the coating. A detailed dimensional and morphological study was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetic susceptibility curves as well as the magnetization behavior as a function of temperature were investigated on both the starting oleic-USPIONs and those covered by titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato. These results confirmed the superparamagnetic properties of the new nanoparticles (NPs), highlighting the quite high saturation value of the magnetization. Based on the results obtained by combining different experimental techniques, a model of the coating structure and ligand organization around the magnetic core is proposed for both NPs, i.e. the starting USPIONs covered by oleic acid and the new USPIONs functionalized by titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato. (paper)

  6. Application of phytogenic zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the adsorption of hexavalent chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavi, Vemula; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Reddy, Ambavaram Vijaya Bhaskar; Ravindra Reddy, B.; Madhavi, Gajulapalle

    2013-12-01

    Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (ZVNI) were synthesized using a rapid, single step and completely green synthetic method from the leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globules and were characterized using the techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential measurement. The FT-IR analysis reveals that the polyphenolic compounds present in the leaf extract may be responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the ZVNI. These nanoparticles were utilized for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and the concentration of Cr (VI) was determined using UV-Vis spectrometer after treating with ZVNI. Response and surface contour plots were drawn with the help of Mini-tab software to explain the adsorption of Cr (VI). The adsorption efficiency of Cr (VI) reaches to the highest value (98.1%) when the reaction time was about 30 min. and the ZVNI dosage was 0.8 g/L. The effective parameters such as adsorbent (ZVNI) dosage, initial Cr (VI) concentration and the kinetics were also examined.

  7. The Role of Interactions in Systems of Single Domain Ferrimagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Dutz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are interesting materials for a lot of medical and technical applications. A less experimentally investigated question is the influence of particle packing density on magnetic properties due to magnetic interactions between single particles. For this, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides prepared as fine dry powder by laser deposition are investigated with respect to their structural and magnetic properties as function of packing density. The particles are nearly spherically shaped single crystals in the magnetic single domain size range with a mean diameter of 21 nm occasionally exhibiting spinel growth facets. Powders of these particles are diluted by nonmagnetic silicon oxide particles in a range of volume concentrations from 0.2 % up to 68 % of the bulk density of magnetite. The concentration dependence of remanence, coercivity and hysteresis losses is determined by measurements of minor loops in a vibrating sample magnetometer. Results which are discussed in the frame of present theoretical models may be understood in terms of the cubic anisotropy of magnetite distorted by a small uniaxial shape contribution.

  8. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Igor M; Pavičić, Ivan; Milić, Mirta; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs - uncoated, coated with d-mannose, or coated with poly-l-lysine - affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs) as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions presented in this work highlights the need for further safety evaluations. This investigation helps to fill the knowledge gaps on the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the biocompatibility and safety of novel nanoparticles. PMID:27217748

  9. Tailored functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI, drug delivery, magnetic separation and immobilization of biosubstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Katerina; Markova, Zdenka; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2015-11-01

    In this critical review, we outline various covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Tuning the surface chemistry and design of magnetic nanoparticles are described in relation to their applicability in advanced medical technologies and biotechnologies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, targeted drug delivery, magnetic separations and immobilizations of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, targeting agents and other biosubstances. We review synthetic strategies for the controlled preparation of IONPs modified with frequently used functional groups including amine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups as well as the preparation of IONPs functionalized with other species, e.g., epoxy, thiol, alkane, azide, and alkyne groups. Three main coupling strategies for linking IONPs with active agents are presented: (i) chemical modification of amine groups on the surface of IONPs, (ii) chemical modification of bioactive substances (e.g. with fluorescent dyes), and (iii) the activation of carboxyl groups mainly for enzyme immobilization. Applications for drug delivery using click chemistry linking or biodegradable bonds are compared to non-covalent methods based on polymer modified condensed magnetic nanoclusters. Among many challenges, we highlight the specific surface engineering allowing both therapeutic and diagnostic applications (theranostics) of IONPs and magnetic/metallic hybrid nanostructures possessing a huge potential in biocatalysis, green chemistry, magnetic bioseparations and bioimaging. PMID:25689073

  10. PSMA targeted docetaxel-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesh, Prashanth K B; Johnson, Nia R; Boya, Vijaya K N; Chowdhury, Pallabita; Othman, Shadi F; Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Hafeez, Bilal B; Ganju, Aditya; Khan, Sheema; Behrman, Stephen W; Zafar, Nadeem; Chauhan, Subhash C; Jaggi, Meena; Yallapu, Murali M

    2016-08-01

    Docetaxel (Dtxl) is currently the most common therapeutic option for prostate cancer (PC). However, adverse side effects and problems associated with chemo-resistance limit its therapeutic outcome in clinical settings. A targeted nanoparticle system to improve its delivery to and activity at the tumor site could be an attractive strategy for PC therapy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and determine the anti-cancer efficacy of a novel docetaxel loaded, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) (J591-SPION-Dtxl) formulation for PC therapy. Our results showed the SPION-Dtxl formulation exhibits an optimal particle size and zeta potential, which can efficiently be internalized in PC cells. SPION-Dtxl exhibited potent anti-cancer efficacy via induction of the expression of apoptosis associated proteins, downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, and inhibition of chemo-resistance associated protein in PC cell lines. J591-SPION-Dtxl exhibited a profound uptake in C4-2 (PSMA(+)) cells compared to PC-3 (PSMA(-)) cells. A similar targeting potential was observed in ex-vivo studies in C4-2 tumors but not in PC-3 tumors, suggesting its tumor specific targeting. Overall, this study suggests that a PSMA antibody functionalized SPION-Dtxl formulation can be highly useful for targeted PC therapy. PMID:27058278

  11. Photoemission study of metallic iron nanoparticles surface aging in biological fluids. Influence on biomolecules adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canivet, L.; Denayer, F.O. [Université de Lille 2, Droit et Santé, 42 rue P. Duez, 59000 Lille (France); Champion, Y.; Cenedese, P. [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Dubot, P., E-mail: pdubot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-07-01

    Iron nanoparticles (nFe) prepared by vaporization and cryogenic condensation process (10–100 nm) has been exposed to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and the B-Ali cell growth fluids. These media can be used for cellular growth to study nFe penetration through cell membrane and its induced cytotoxicity. Surface chemistry of nFe exposed to such complex fluids has been characterized as the nanoparticles surface can be strongly changed by adsorption or corrosion processes before reaching intracellular medium. Particle size and surface chemistry have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). Exposition of nFe particles to growth and differentiation media leads to the formation of an oxy-hydroxide layer containing chlorinated species. We found that the passivated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer of the bare nFe particles is rapidly transformed into a thicker oxy-hydroxide layer that has a greater ability to adsorb molecular ions or ionic biomolecules like proteins or DNA.

  12. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T2 Contrast Agents for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T2 relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r2, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. PMID:27472319

  13. One-step synthesis of iron oxide polypyrrole nanoparticles encapsulating ketoprofen as model of hydrophobic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mohamed F; Anton, Nicolas; Khan, Ikram Ullah; Serra, Christophe A; Messaddeq, Nadia; Jakhmola, Anshuman; Vecchione, Raffaele; Vandamme, Thierry

    2016-07-11

    This study reports a novel one-step synthesis of hybrid iron oxide/polypyrrole multifunctional nanoparticles encapsulating hydrophobic drug and decorated with polyethylene glycol. The overall process is based on the in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole along with the reduction of ferric chloride (FeCl3) in the presence of ketoprofen as model drug and PEGylated surfactants. The final product is a nanocomposite composed of polypyrrole and a mixture of FeO/Fe2O3. Different concentrations of ketoprofen were encapsulated in the nanocomposite, and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Encapsulation efficiency of the final product was measured by absorption, which can reach up to 98%. The release experiments confirmed complete drug release after about 3h in PBS solution. Morphological characterization of the nanocomposites was performed by electron microscopy (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) which confirmed the spherical geometry and opaque nature of nanoparticles with average particle size well below 50 nm. The final product is multifunctional system, which could act both as a nanocarrier for drug molecules as well as a contrasting agent. Magnetic relaxometry studies confirmed their possible applications as potential contrast agent in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:27163525

  14. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and 1H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Maria R.; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15–20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications.

  15. Electrocatalytic and photocatalytic hydrogen production from acidic and neutral-pH aqueous solutions using iron phosphide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Juan F; McEnaney, Joshua M; Read, Carlos G; Crompton, J Chance; Biacchi, Adam J; Popczun, Eric J; Gordon, Thomas R; Lewis, Nathan S; Schaak, Raymond E

    2014-11-25

    Nanostructured transition-metal phosphides have recently emerged as Earth-abundant alternatives to platinum for catalyzing the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER), which is central to several clean energy technologies because it produces molecular hydrogen through the electrochemical reduction of water. Iron-based catalysts are very attractive targets because iron is the most abundant and least expensive transition metal. We report herein that iron phosphide (FeP), synthesized as nanoparticles having a uniform, hollow morphology, exhibits among the highest HER activities reported to date in both acidic and neutral-pH aqueous solutions. As an electrocatalyst operating at a current density of -10 mA cm(-2), FeP nanoparticles deposited at a mass loading of ∼1 mg cm(-2) on Ti substrates exhibited overpotentials of -50 mV in 0.50 M H2SO4 and -102 mV in 1.0 M phosphate buffered saline. The FeP nanoparticles supported sustained hydrogen production with essentially quantitative faradaic yields for extended time periods under galvanostatic control. Under UV illumination in both acidic and neutral-pH solutions, FeP nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 produced H2 at rates and amounts that begin to approach those of Pt/TiO2. FeP therefore is a highly Earth-abundant material for efficiently facilitating the HER both electrocatalytically and photocatalytically. PMID:25250976

  16. Doxorubicin delivered to MCF-7 cancer cells by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: effects on subcellular distribution and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical use of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by strong side effects and phenomena of cell resistance. Drug targeting by binding DOX to nanoparticles could overcome these limitations. We recently described a method to associate DOX to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in view of magnetic drug targeting (Munnier et al. in Int J Pharm 363:170–176, 2008). DOX is bound to the nanoparticle surface through a pre-formed DOX–Fe2+ complex. The DOX-loaded SPION present interesting properties in terms of drug loading and biological activity in vitro. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible mechanisms of the in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded SPION. The uptake of SPION was followed qualitatively by conventional optical microscopy after Prussian blue staining and quantitatively by iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The subcellular distribution of intrinsically fluorescent DOX was followed by confocal spectral imaging (CSI) and the subsequent cytotoxicity by the MTT method. We reveal modifications of DOX intracellular interactions for SPION-delivered drug and increased cytotoxicity. These results are discussed in terms of internalization route of the drug and of a potential role of iron oxide nanoparticles in the observed cytotoxicity.

  17. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and (1)H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Maria R; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15-20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications. PMID:27265726

  18. Synthesis and characterization of β-phase iron silicide nano-particles by chemical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • β-FeSi2 nano-particle was synthesized by reducing with Mg and by diluting with MgO. • XRD profile shows the iron di-silicide phase to be semiconducting β-FeSi2. • HRTEM and FESEM images indicate the β-FeSi2average particle size to be 60–70 nm. • Absorption, reflectance and PL spectroscopy show band gap to be direct 0.87 eV. • Nano-β-FeSi2is p-type with hole density of 4.38 × 1018 cm−3 and mobility 8.9 cm2/V s. - Abstract: Nano-particles of β-FeSi2 have been synthesized by chemical reduction of a glassy phase of [Fe2O3, 4SiO2] by Mg-metal where MgO is used as diluent to prevent the agglomeration of nano crystallites into micro-particles and also act as a negative catalyst for the formation of other phases. The sample is characterized by XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, EDX, ultra-violet-visible-infrared and PL spectroscopy and electronic properties have been investigated by Hall measurement. XRD profile shows that the synthesized powder consists of purely β-FeSi2 semiconducting phase. The average crystallite size of β-FeSi2 is determined to be around 65.4 nm from XRD peaks as well as from FESEM also. The optical absorption and PL spectroscopy shows that synthesized β-FeSi2 phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a value of 0.87 eV. Hall measurements show that β-FeSi2 nano-particles is p-type with hole concentration of 4.38 × 1018 cm−3 and average hole mobility of 8.9 cm2/V s at 300 K

  19. Theranostic Application of Mixed Gold and Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Micelles in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lova; Joh, Daniel Y; Al-Zaki, Ajlan; Stangl, Melissa; Murty, Surya; Davis, James J; Baumann, Brian C; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Kaol, Gary D; Tsourkas, Andrew; Dorsey, Jay F

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most prevalent and lethal form of brain cancer in humans, has been limited in part by poor delivery of drugs through the blood-brain barrier and by unclear delineation of the extent of infiltrating tumor margins. Nanoparticles, which selectively accumulate in tumor tissue due to their leaky vasculature and the enhanced permeability and retention effect, have shown promise as both therapeutic and diagnostic agents for brain tumors. In particular, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been leveraged as T2-weighted MRI contrast agents for tumor detection and imaging; and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been demonstrated as radiosensitizers capable of propagating electron and free radical-induced radiation damage to tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the potential applications of novel gold and SPION-loaded micelles (GSMs) coated by polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) polymer. By quantifying gh2ax DNA damage foci in glioblastoma cell lines, we tested the radiosensitizing efficacy of these GSMs, and found that GSM administration in conjunction with radiation therapy (RT) led to ~2-fold increase in density of double-stranded DNA breaks. For imaging, we used GSMs as a contrast agent for both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of stereotactically implanted GBM tumors in a mouse model, and found that MRI but not CT was sufficiently sensitive to detect and delineate tumor borders after administration and accumulation of GSMs. These results suggest that with further development and testing, GSMs may potentially be integrated into both imaging and treatment of brain tumors, serving a theranostic purpose as both an MRI-based contrast agent and a radiosensitizer. PMID:27305768

  20. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2} with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} presented the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2}, there were the formations of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed.

  1. Dual-responsive polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery and imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Varsha; Menon, Jyothi U; Rahimi, Maham; Nguyen, Kytai T; Wadajkar, Aniket S

    2014-05-15

    We reported the synthesis and characterization of dual-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-chitosan) (PAC)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for controlled and targeted drug delivery and imaging applications. The PAC-MNPs size was about 150nm with 70% iron mass content and excellent superparamagnetic properties. PAC-MNPs loaded with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin showed dual-responsive drug release characteristics with the maximum release of drugs at 40°C (∼78%) than at 37°C (∼33%) and at pH of 6 (∼55%) than at pH of 7.4 (∼28%) after 21 days. Further, the conjugation of prostate cancer-specific R11 peptides increased the uptake of PAC-MNPs by prostate cancer PC3 cells. The dose-dependent cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was also significantly increased with the presence of 1.3T magnetic field. The nanoparticles demonstrated cytocompatibility up to concentrations of 500μg/ml when incubated over a period of 24h with human dermal fibroblasts and normal prostate epithelial cells. Finally, pharmacokinetic studies indicated that doxorubicin-loaded PAC-MNPs caused significant prostate cancer cell death at 40°C than at 37°C, thereby confirming the temperature-dependent drug release kinetics and in vitro therapeutic efficacy. Future evaluation of in vivo therapeutic efficacy of targeted image-guided cancer therapy using R11-PAC-MNPs will reinforce a significant impact of the multifunctional PAC-MNPs on the future drug delivery systems. PMID:24607216

  2. Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Cheol Hong1,*, Jong Ho Lee1,*, Jaewook Lee1, Hyeon Yong Kim1, Jung Youn Park2, Johann Cho3, Jaebeom Lee1, Dong-Wook Han11Department of Nanomedical Engineering, BK21 Nano Fusion Technology Division, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, 2Department of Biotechnology Research, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan, 3Electronic Materials Lab, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co, Ltd, Gumi City, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been widely utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and drug-delivery carriers, due to their easy transportation to targeted areas by an external magnetic field. For such biomedical applications, SPIONs must have multifunctional characteristics, including optimized size and modified surface. However, the biofunctionality and biocompatibility of SPIONs with various surface functional groups of different sizes have yet to be elucidated clearly. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SPIONs that are surfaced-modified with various functional groups of different sizes. In this study, we evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100~150 nm, containing different surface functional groups. SPIONs were covered with –O-groups, so-called bare SPIONs. Following this, they were modified with three different functional groups – hydroxyl (–OH, carboxylic (–COOH, and amine (–NH2 groups – by coating their surfaces with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS, TEOS-APTMS, or citrate, which imparted different surface charges and sizes to the particles. The effects of SPIONs coated with these functional groups on mitochondrial activity, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity

  3. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongrac IM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Igor M Pongrac,1 Ivan Pavičić,2 Mirta Milić,2 Lada Brkič Ahmed,1 Michal Babič,3 Daniel Horák,3 Ivana Vinković Vrček,2 Srećko Gajović1 1School of Medicine, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb, 2Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia; 3Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs – uncoated, coated with D-mannose, or coated with poly-L-lysine – affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions

  4. The fate of iron nanoparticles in environmental waters treated with nanoscale zero-valent iron, FeONPs and Fe3O4NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Kelly; Lespes, Gaëtane; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-05-01

    Among the different nanoparticles (NPs) that are used in the remediation of contaminated environmental waters, iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) are the most frequently applied. However, if these FeNPs remain in the waters after the treatment, they can cause a hazard to the environment. In this work the time dependent size distribution of iron particles was investigated in Milli-Q water, forest spring water and landfill leachate after a variety of FeNP treatments. The efficiency of the metal removal by the FeNPs was also examined. The concentrations of the metals in the aqueous samples were determined before and after the nano-remediation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data revealed that the settling and removal of the FeNPs after the treatment of the waters was related to the sample characteristics and the ways of dispersing the NPs. When mixing was used for the dispersion, the nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), FeONPs and Fe3O4NPs settled quickly in the Milli-Q water, the forest spring water and the landfill leachate. Dispersion with tertramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) resulted in a slower settling of the iron aggregates. In the Milli-Q and forest spring waters treated with FeONPs and dispersed by TMAH, the nanosized iron remained in solution as long as 24 h after the treatment and could represent a potential threat in environmental waters with a low ionic strength. The removal of the metals strongly depended on the type of FeNPs, the chemical speciation of the elements and the sample matrix. If the FeNPs are contaminated by a particular metal, this contaminant could be, during the NPs treatment, released into the water that is being remediated. PMID:26971807

  5. Short time synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes with high rates by CVD of methane on continuously emerged iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the variation of yield and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron oxide-MgO at 900-1000 deg. C for 1-60 min. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of MgO powder with iron nitrate, dried, and calcined at 300 deg. C. As calcined and unreduced catalyst in quartz reactor was brought to the synthesis temperature in helium flow in a few minutes, and then the flow was switched to methane. The iron oxide was reduced to iron nanoparticles in methane, while the CNTs were growing. TEM micrographs, in accordance with Raman RBM peaks, indicate the formation of mostly single wall carbon nanotubes of about 1.0 nm size. High quality CNTs with IG/ID Raman peak ratio of 14.5 are formed in the first minute of CNTs synthesis with the highest rate. Both the rate and quality of CNTs degrades with increasing CNTs synthesis time. Also CNTs quality sharply declines with temperature in the range of 900-1000 deg. C, while the CNTs yield passes through a maximum at 950 deg. C. About the same CNTs lengths are formed for the whole range of the synthesis times. A model of continuous emergence of iron nanoparticle seeds for CNTs synthesis may explain the data. The data can also provide information for continuous production of CNTs in a fluidized bed reactor.

  6. Anti-cancer drug loaded iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles (Fe@Au) for magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Sibnath; Ramanujan, Raju Vijayaraghavan

    2010-09-01

    Magnetic drug targeting, using core-shell magnetic carrier particles loaded with anti-cancer drugs, is an emerging and significant method of cancer treatment. Gold shell-iron core nanoparticles (Fe@Au) were synthesized by the reverse micelle method with aqueous reactants, surfactant, co-surfactant and oil phase. XRD, XPS, TEM and magnetic property measurements were utilized to characterize these core-shell nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed that the particles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and that the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing gold concentration. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto these Fe@Au nanoparticle carriers and the drug release profiles showed that upto 25% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h. It was found that the amine (-NH2) group of DOX binds to the gold shell. An in vitro apparatus simulating the human circulatory system was used to determine the retention of these nanoparticle carriers when exposed to an external magnetic field. A high percentage of magnetic carriers could be retained for physiologically relevant flow speeds of fluid. The present findings show that DOX loaded gold coated iron nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery. PMID:21133071

  7. Core–shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core–shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core–shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body. - Highlights: • Core−shell composites with biodegradability and magnetism are prepared. • O/W emulsion stabilized by iron oxide nanoparticles is utilized for the preparation. • The nanoparticle's dispersibility is crucial for controlling the composite structure. • Composites loading a model drug are also prepared. • The model drug is released with decomposition of the composites

  8. Core–shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Horiishi, Nanao [Bengala Techno Laboratory, 9-5-1006, 1-1 Kodai, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-0007 (Japan); Tsuge, Takeharu [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kitamoto.y.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Core–shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core–shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body. - Highlights: • Core−shell composites with biodegradability and magnetism are prepared. • O/W emulsion stabilized by iron oxide nanoparticles is utilized for the preparation. • The nanoparticle's dispersibility is crucial for controlling the composite structure. • Composites loading a model drug are also prepared. • The model drug is released with decomposition of the composites.

  9. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anti-cancer studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilaveez Rehana; Azees Khan Haleel; Aziz Kalilur Rahiman

    2015-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD, VSM, SEM, TEM and thermal analysis. Both bare and coated magnetites were of cubic spinel structure and spherical in shape. All the magnetite nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behaviour with high saturated magnetization. In vitro cytotoxicity test of bare and coated nanoparticles was performed using adenocarcinoma cells, A549. Cell viability of bare and L-arginine coated magnetite nanoparticles showed IC50 value of 31.2 g/mL proving the compatibility of nanocarriers when compared to others. Hence, L-arginine coated nanoparticles were used for loading the drug paclitaxel and the observed IC50 value (7.8 g/mL) shows its potent anti-proliferative effect against A549 lung cancer cell lines. Thus, it can be speculated that the drug paclitaxel loaded L-arginine coated nanoparticles could be used as an effective drug carrier for the destruction of cancer cells.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. PMID:26491320

  11. Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Christoph; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Wiekhorst, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Lindquist, Randall; Schellenberger, Eyk; Mueller, Susanne; Schütz, Gunnar; Roohi, Farnoosh; Ide, Andreas; Füchtemeier, Martina; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous administration of iron oxide nanoparticles during the acute stage of experimental stroke can produce signal intensity changes in the ischemic region. This has been attributed, albeit controversially, to the infiltration of iron-laden blood-borne macrophages. The properties of nanoparticles that render them most suitable for phagocytosis is a matter of debate, as is the most relevant timepoint for administration. Both of these questions are examined in the present study. Imaging ex...

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesized by high temperature plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron-oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by high temperature arc plasma route with different plasma currents and characterized for their structure, morphology and local atomic order. Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra reveal distinct local structure of the samples grown with different plasma currents. We have shown that the local disorder is higher for the higher plasma current grown samples that also have a larger average particle-size. The results provide useful information to control structural and morphological properties of nanoparticles grown by high temperature plasma synthesis process

  13. Doxorubicin loaded PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena; Bednarowicz, Magdalena; Dobosz, Bernadeta; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Zalewski, Tomasz; Wereszczyńska, Beata; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jarek, Marcin; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles with chemiotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer. The aim of this work is to characterize physical and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparicles. Characterization was carried out using EPR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID and NMR methods. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

  14. Glioma-targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug-carrying vehicles for theranostic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He-Lin; Mao, Kai-Li; Huang, Yin-Ping; Yang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Jie; Chen, Pian-Pian; Fan, Zi-Liang; Zou, Shuang; Gao, Zheng-Zheng; Yin, Jia-Yu; Xiao, Jian; Lu, Cui-Tao; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Zhao, Ying-Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles capable of the specific delivery of therapeutics to diseased cells and the real-time imaging of these sites have the potential to improve cancer treatment through personalized therapy. In this study, we have proposed a multifunctional nanoparticle that integrate magnetic targeting, drug-carrier functionality and real-time MRI imaging capabilities in one platform for the theranostic treatment of tumors. The multifunctional nanoparticle was designed with a superparamagnetic iron oxide core and a multifunctional shell composed of PEG/PEI/polysorbate 80 (Ps 80) and was used to encapsulate DOX. DOX-loaded multifunctional nanoparticles (DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs) with a Dh of 58.0 nm, a zeta potential of 28.0 mV, and a drug loading content of 29.3% presented superior superparamagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 24.1 emu g-1. The cellular uptake of DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs by C6 cells under a magnetic field was significantly enhanced over that of free DOX in solution, resulting in stronger in vitro cytotoxicity. The real-time therapeutic outcome of DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs was easily monitored by MRI. Furthermore, the negative contrast enhancement effect of the nanoparticles was confirmed in glioma-bearing rats. Prussian blue staining and ex vivo DOX fluorescence assays showed that the magnetic Ps 80-SPIONs and encapsulated DOX were delivered to gliomas by imposing external magnetic fields, indicating effective magnetic targeting. Due to magnetic targeting and Ps 80-mediated endocytosis, DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs in the presence of a magnetic field led to the complete suppression of glioma growth in vivo at 28 days after treatment. The therapeutic mechanism of DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs acted by inducing apoptosis through the caspase-3 pathway. Finally, DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs' safety at therapeutic dosage was verified using pathological HE assays of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Multifunctional SPIONs could be used as potential carriers for the

  15. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  16. Preparation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in high yield by DC arc discharge and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cui, Lan; Lin, Kui [Center of Analysis, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jin, Feng-min; Wang, Bin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Shi, Shu-xiu [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, De-an [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Hui [Center of Analysis, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); He, Fei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Xiao-ping [Center of Analysis, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cui, Shen, E-mail: cuishen@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► CEINPs with core–shell structure and high Fe content were prepared in high yield by DC arc discharge. ► The anode II with a mass ratio of total iron to carbon 8:1 was used in DC arc discharge. ► The possible process of formation of CEINPs is briefly discussed. ► The uniformity of composition of anode is very important for the formation of CEINPs. ► The MEF and MMF of iron element may also play an important role in the formation of CEINPs. -- Abstract: Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINPs) were prepared by DC arc discharge under nitrogen atmosphere of high temperature. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and their magnetic properties were measured by physical property measurement system (PPMS). The product B{sub I}, obtained from the anode I, contains the nanoparticles of iron and iron carbide, and carbon coating with imperfect and disordered layer structure. The product B{sub II}, obtained from the anode II, mainly consists of CEINPs, whose cores mainly consist of iron and iron carbide and shells contain about 3–7 graphitic layers. The iron contents in the products B{sub I} and B{sub II} are 44.8 and 82.6 wt.%, respectively. The products B{sub I} and B{sub II} have similar phase composition which includes carbon, iron, iron carbide, ferrous and ferric oxide, iron nitride, and carbon nitride. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of the products B{sub I} and B{sub II} are 29.35 and 88.66 emu/g and their coercivity (Hc) are 220 and 240 Oe, respectively. The total yields of all the products formed in the arc discharge chamber from anodes I and II, except for the cylinder-shaped deposits formed on the top of the cathode, are 25.8 and 22.3 wt.%, respectively. The possible process of formation of CEINPs is briefly discussed on

  17. Paramagnetic iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with improved metal sorption properties. A bioorganic substrates-mediated synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, D Fabio; Magnacca, Giuliana; Malandrino, Mery; Rubert, Aldo; Montoneri, Enzo; Celi, Luisella; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Gonzalez, Mónica C

    2014-03-26

    This paper describes the synthesis of paramegnetic iron-containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their increased Cu(2+) sorbent capacity when using Ca(2+) complexes of soluble bioorganic substrates from urban wastes as synthesis precursors. A thorough characterization of the particles by TEM, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, specific surface area, TGA, XPS, and DLS indicates that loss of crystallinity, a higher specific area, an increased surface oxygen content, and formation of surface iron phases strongly enhance Cu(2+) adsorption capacity of hydroxyapatite-based materials. However, the major effect of the surface and morphologycal modifications is the size diminution of the aggregates formed in aqueous solutions leading to an increased effective surface available for Cu(2+) adsorption. Maximum sorption values of 550-850 mg Cu(2+) per gram of particles suspended in an aqueous solution at pH 7 were determined, almost 10 times the maximum values observed for hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspensions under the same conditions. PMID:24588498

  18. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-01-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction o...

  19. New findings about iron oxide nanoparticles and their different effects on murine primary brain cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert J; Wagner S; Kiwit J; Bräuer AU; Glumm J

    2015-01-01

    Jenni Neubert,1 Susanne Wagner,2 Jürgen Kiwit,3 Anja U Bräuer,1,* Jana Glumm1,3,* 1Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Center for Anatomy, 2Institute for Radiology, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, 3Clinic for Neurosurgery, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The physicochemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) enable their application in the diagnostics and ...

  20. Impact of magnetic field parameters and iron oxide nanoparticle properties on heat generation for use in magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Rhythm R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Davis, Todd P.; Glover, Amanda L.; Nikles, David E. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Brazel, Christopher S., E-mail: cbrazel@eng.ua.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Heating of nanoparticles (NPs) using an AC magnetic field depends on several factors, and optimization of these parameters can improve the efficiency of heat generation for effective cancer therapy while administering a low NP treatment dose. This study investigated magnetic field strength and frequency, NP size, NP concentration, and solution viscosity as important parameters that impact the heating efficiency of iron oxide NPs with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) crystal structures. Heating efficiencies were determined for each experimental setting, with specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 3.7 to 325.9 W/g Fe. Magnetic heating was conducted on iron oxide NPs synthesized in our laboratories (with average core sizes of 8, 11, 13, and 18 nm), as well as commercially-available iron oxides (with average core sizes of 8, 9, and 16 nm). The experimental magnetic coil system made it possible to isolate the effect of magnetic field parameters and independently study the effect on heat generation. The highest SAR values were found for the 18 nm synthesized particles and the maghemite nanopowder. Magnetic field strengths were applied in the range of 15.1–47.7 kA/m, with field frequencies ranging from 123 to 430 kHz. The best heating was observed for the highest field strengths and frequencies tested, with results following trends predicted by the Rosensweig equation. An increase in solution viscosity led to lower heating rates in nanoparticle solutions, which can have significant implications for the application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia in vivo. - Highlights: • Heating was tested in seven iron oxide nanoparticles for different magnetic fields. • Confirms an optimal nanoparticle size for heating that agrees with the literature. • Verifies Rosenweig's equation to predict the effect of field frequency on heating. • Reports reduced heating in high viscosity environments.

  1. Controlling RNA Expression in Cancer Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Detectable by MRI and In Vivo Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarova, Zdravka; Balcioglu, Mustafa; Yigit, Mehmet V

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe a protocol for the preparation of iron oxide nanoparticle-based contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles for noninvasive cancer imaging and therapy. In the first part of the chapter we describe the details of the contrast agent synthesis, functionalization, and characterization. In the second part we describe the methods for tumor imaging using the synthesized particles with noninvasive T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and in vivo near infrared optical imaging. PMID:26530923

  2. Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ziv-Polat O; Skaat H; Shahar A; Margel S

    2012-01-01

    Ofra Ziv-Polat1, Hadas Skaat1, Abraham Shahar2, Shlomo Margel11Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel; 2NVR Research Ltd, Nes-Ziona 74031, IsraelAbstract: Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and phys...

  3. Impact of magnetic field parameters and iron oxide nanoparticle properties on heat generation for use in magnetic hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating of nanoparticles (NPs) using an AC magnetic field depends on several factors, and optimization of these parameters can improve the efficiency of heat generation for effective cancer therapy while administering a low NP treatment dose. This study investigated magnetic field strength and frequency, NP size, NP concentration, and solution viscosity as important parameters that impact the heating efficiency of iron oxide NPs with magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) crystal structures. Heating efficiencies were determined for each experimental setting, with specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 3.7 to 325.9 W/g Fe. Magnetic heating was conducted on iron oxide NPs synthesized in our laboratories (with average core sizes of 8, 11, 13, and 18 nm), as well as commercially-available iron oxides (with average core sizes of 8, 9, and 16 nm). The experimental magnetic coil system made it possible to isolate the effect of magnetic field parameters and independently study the effect on heat generation. The highest SAR values were found for the 18 nm synthesized particles and the maghemite nanopowder. Magnetic field strengths were applied in the range of 15.1–47.7 kA/m, with field frequencies ranging from 123 to 430 kHz. The best heating was observed for the highest field strengths and frequencies tested, with results following trends predicted by the Rosensweig equation. An increase in solution viscosity led to lower heating rates in nanoparticle solutions, which can have significant implications for the application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia in vivo. - Highlights: • Heating was tested in seven iron oxide nanoparticles for different magnetic fields. • Confirms an optimal nanoparticle size for heating that agrees with the literature. • Verifies Rosenweig's equation to predict the effect of field frequency on heating. • Reports reduced heating in high viscosity environments

  4. Grafting of diazonium salts on oxides surface: formation of aryl-O bonds on iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining ab initio modeling and 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, we characterized the nature of the chemical linkage of aminoalkyl arenediazonium salt on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles. We established that it is built through a metal–oxygen–carbon bonding and not a metal–carbon one, as usually suggested and commonly observed in previously studied metal- or carbon-based surfaces

  5. Learning form Nature to improve the heat generation of iron-oxide nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Boubeta, Carlos; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Makridis, Antonios; Angelakeris, Makis; Iglesias, Òscar; Guardia, Pablo; Cabot i Codina, Andreu; Yedra Cardona, Lluís; Estradé Albiol, Sònia; Peiró Martínez, Francisca; Saghi, Zineb; Paul A. Midgley; Conde-Leborán, Iván; Serantes, David; Baldomir, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The performance of magnetic nanoparticles is intimately entwined with their structure, mean size and magnetic anisotropy. Besides, ensembles offer a unique way of engineering the magnetic response by modifying the strength of the dipolar interactions between particles. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical analysis of magnetic hyperthermia, a rapidly developing technique in medical research and oncology. Experimentally, we demonstrate that single-domain cubic iron oxide particles ...

  6. A Mössbauer study of the chemical stability of iron oxide nanoparticles in PMMA and PVB beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wei; Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt;

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared magnetic beads consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles in a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) matrix. High-field Mossbauer studies show that the particles have an almost perfect collinear spin structure and magnetization measurements show that they are s...... transformed to maghemite. The PVB beads are hydrophilic and biocompatible and are therefore well suited for applications in medicine and biology....

  7. Grafting of diazonium salts on oxides surface: formation of aryl-O bonds on iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brymora, Katarzyna [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France); Fouineau, Jonathan; Eddarir, Asma; Chau, François [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS CNRS UMR 7086 (France); Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France); Pinson, Jean; Ammar, Souad [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS CNRS UMR 7086 (France); Calvayrac, Florent, E-mail: florent.calvayrac@univ-lemans.fr [LUNAM Université