WorldWideScience

Sample records for approved food additive

  1. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other nutrients. Examples of commonly fortified foods are flour, cereal, margarine, and milk. This helps make up ... and nitrites in hot dogs and other processed meat products Sulfites in beer, wine, and packaged vegetables ...

  2. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  6. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  7. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  8. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...... where the additive is aggravating an existing disease. The prevalence of food additive intolerance in children age 5-16 is 1-2%....

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  10. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  11. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  13. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food......

  14. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Huxsahl, M.D. Food additives include artificial colors, artificial sweeteners and preservatives. There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ... reactions to artificial food colors in children. Nutrition Reviews. 2013;71: ...

  15. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  16. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive...

  17. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Lloyd

    2012-06-01

    This reflects manufactured foods in NZ and it is likely that these results could be generalized to countries with similar food patterns and supplies. Quantitative data in manufactured foods is unlikely to be available to guide patient choice so qualitative information of where to find P additives can be helpful.

  18. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  19. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  20. Phage approved in food, why not as a therapeutic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is not only restricted to human infections but is also a major problem in food. With the marked decrease in produced antimicrobials, the world is now reassessing bacteriophages. In 2006, ListShield™ received the US FDA approval for using phage in food. Nevertheless, regulatory approval of phage-based therapeutics is still facing many challenges. This review highlights the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents in the food industry. It also focuses on the challenges still facing the regulatory approval of phage-based therapeutics and the proposed approaches to overcome such challenges.

  1. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of requests...

  2. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  4. ADME-Tox profiles of some food additives and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Dana; Modra, Dorina; Isvoran, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    Within this study we compute the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles of several commonly used food additives and some pesticides. As expected, all the food additives considered in this study provided to be safe, their ADME-Tox profiles indicating that they have a good oral bioavailability and they do not produce phosphoslipidosis. The ADME-Tox profiles of the pesticides indicate that, with a few exceptions, they are highly toxic (some of them being not approved in the EU, but still used in other countries) and may cause many diseases. Our results are in good agreement with published data concerning the considered food additives and pesticides revealing that the ADME-Tox profiling method may be successfully used to test other chemicals than drug candidates.

  5. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  6. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  7. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  8. Interactions between Food Additive Silica Nanoparticles and Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ran Go

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials. There have been a number of studies carried out to investigate possible adverse effects of NPs on the gastrointestinal tract. The interactions between NPs and surrounding food matrices should be also taken into account since the interactions can affect their bioavailability, efficacy, and toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between food additive silica NPs and food matrices, such as saccharides, proteins, lipids, and minerals. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine food component-NP corona using HPLC, fluorescence quenching, GC-MS, and ICP-AES. The results demonstrate that zeta potential and hydrodynamic radius of silica NPs changed in the presence of all food matrices, but their solubility was not affected. However, quantitative analysis on the interactions revealed that a small portion of food matrices interacted with silica NPs and the interactions were highly dependent on the type of food component. Moreover, minor nutrients could also affect the interactions, as evidenced by higher NP interaction with honey rather than with a simple sugar mixture containing an equivalent amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. These findings provide fundamental information to extend our understanding about the interactions between silica NPs and food components and to predict the interaction effect on the safety aspects of food

  9. An analysis of the possibility for health implications of joint actions and interactions between food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Butler, W.; Feron, V.J.; Kozianowski, G.; Renwick, A.G.; Walker, R.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility that structurally unrelated food additives could show either joint actions or interactions has been assessed based on their potential to share common sites and mechanisms of action or common pathways of elimination. All food additives approved in the European Union and allocated nume

  10. An analysis of the possibility for health implications of joint actions and interactions between food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Butler, W.; Feron, V.J.; Kozianowski, G.; Renwick, A.G.; Walker, R.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility that structurally unrelated food additives could show either joint actions or interactions has been assessed based on their potential to share common sites and mechanisms of action or common pathways of elimination. All food additives approved in the European Union and allocated nume

  11. The teratology testing of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  12. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  14. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  15. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  16. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  17. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or...

  18. Additional safety risk to exceptionally approved drugs in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Arna H; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Straus, Sabine M J; Eichler, Hans-Georg; de Graeff, Pieter A; Mol, Peter G M

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory requirements for new drugs have increased. Special approval procedures with priority assessment are possible for drugs with clear 'unmet medical need'. We question whether these Exceptional Circumstances (EC) or Conditional Approval (CA) procedures have led to a higher probability of serious safety issues. A retrospective cohort study was performed of new drugs approved in Europe between 1999 and 2009. The determinant was EC/CA vs. standard procedure approval. Outcome variables were frequency and timing of a first Direct Healthcare Professional Communication (DHPC). An association between approval procedure and the time from market approval to DHPC was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis and Cox-regression to correct for covariates. In total 289 new drugs were approved. Forty-six (16.4%) were approved under EC or CA, of which seven received a DHPC (15%). This was similar to the standard approval drugs (243), of which 33 received one or more DHPC (14%, P= 0.77). The probability of acquiring a DHPC for standard approval drugs vs. EC/CA drugs during 11-year follow-up is 22% (95% CI 14%, 29%) and 26% (95% CI 8%, 44%), respectively (log-rank P= 0.726). This difference remained not significant in the Cox-regression model: hazard ratio 0.94 (95% CI 0.40, 2.20). Only drug type was identified as a confounding covariate. The EC/CA procedure is not associated with a higher probability of DHPCs despite limited clinical development data. These data do not support the view that early drug approval increases the risk of serious safety issues emerging after market approval. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Additional safety risk to exceptionally approved drugs in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnardottir, Arna H.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Straus, Sabine M. J.; Eichler, Hans-Georg; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Regulatory requirements for new drugs have increased. Special approval procedures with priority assessment are possible for drugs with clear 'unmet medical need'. We question whether these Exceptional Circumstances (EC) or Conditional Approval (CA) procedures have led to a higher probability of

  20. Additional safety risk to exceptionally approved drugs in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnardottir, Arna H.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Straus, Sabine M. J.; Eichler, Hans-Georg; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    AIMS Regulatory requirements for new drugs have increased. Special approval procedures with priority assessment are possible for drugs with clear 'unmet medical need'. We question whether these Exceptional Circumstances (EC) or Conditional Approval (CA) procedures have led to a higher probability of

  1. Food additives used in meat processing according to the Polish and European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uradziński, J; Weiner, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In addition, a definition of processing aids in the food industry is included. It shows that Polish legislation includes food additives used to ensure or improve food nutritional value, whereas in the EU legislation, these substances are not included in the list of food additives. Moreover, the Council Directives include food additive specific purity criteria, whereas the Polish regulations do not mention the legal regulations of this issue in practice. The European Union use mechanisms and procedures for the introduction of new food additives into internal markets as well as controlling the circulation of additives. The Polish legislation in practice, however, does not determine approval or methods for the introduction of new food additives to the market. Legal regulations on the monitoring of food additives no exist.

  2. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY: The... filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801, had filed a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775). The...

  3. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum...

  4. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4785) has been filed...

  5. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Nexira has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations... given that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) has been filed by Nexira, c/o Keller and Heckman...

  6. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-275), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College.... Evaluation of Abandonment Under section 409(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21... the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition by appointment with the information contact...

  7. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  8. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additive regulations in part 173, ``Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption... ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 173 continues...

  9. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of vitamin D 3 as a nutrient supplement in food.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive...

  10. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  11. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Improve Taste, Texture and Appearance: Spices, natural and artificial flavors, and sweeteners are added to enhance the taste of food. ... Q What is the difference between natural and artificial ingredients? Is a naturally ... low-calorie sweeteners cause adverse reactions? Q How do they add ...

  12. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... regulations regarding food and color additives to correct minor errors (such as misspelled chemical names) and... archaic or obsolete office names and replace them with the current Office name ``Office of Food...

  13. 42 CFR 403.306 - Additional requirements for State systems-mandatory approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approval. 403.306 Section 403.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Reimbursement Control Systems § 403.306 Additional requirements for State systems—mandatory approval. (a... State system if the system meets all of the requirements of § 403.304 and of paragraph (b) of...

  14. Improvements in China's Food Additive Laws-Fermented Flour Paste Additive in Beijing Roast Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglian; Zhao Xin

    2008-01-01

    About half of the food safety incidents in 2005 and 2006 were related to food additives. Early in 2007,the main problem for administrative enforcement is the issue of food additives.This paper analyzes one such incident:the fermented flour paste incident in Beijing roast duck that occurred in early 2007.We put forward suggested ways to perfect the legal system regarding Chinese food additives by focusing on legal and management mechanisms.This includes optimizing higher-level laws for food additives,improving the standards system,cultivating the appropriate concepts,implementing preventive measures,and facilitating routine law enforcement.

  15. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions; Extension... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on food additive petitions regarding... of information technology. Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions,...

  16. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of......

  17. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  18. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  19. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  20. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  1. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  2. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  3. Food and Drug Administration process for development and approval of drugs and radiopharmaceuticals: treatments in urologic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang-Min; Maher, V Ellen

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory advice and assessment play an important role in the successful development of new drugs and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of urologic malignancies. Cooperation between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the pharmaceutical industry has led to the approval of more than 20 new urologic oncology products in the last 2 decades. Despite these advances, more effective treatments need to be developed and approved for the treatment of urologic malignancies. This review provides general information about the FDA's role in the development of investigational new drugs, with an emphasis on the regulatory process and the requirements for marketing approval. In addition, this review summarizes the products for the treatment of urologic malignancies that were approved by the FDA in the last 30 years and the key issues concerning urologic oncology products that were discussed publicly at Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee meetings in the past 10 years.

  4. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    , rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  5. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government.

  6. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  7. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations.

  8. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... CONTACT: Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug...: Under section 409(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), we are giving... Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  9. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  10. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  11. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... petitions for food additives and color additives that are published in accordance with the Federal...

  12. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  13. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  14. Knowledge of food quality and additives and its impact on food preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Grujić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background.There are not enough published investigations concerning knowledge on food quality and pref- erence of highly educated young consumers from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The present research was aimed at survey of young consumers’ knowledge on food quality and food additives and its impact on food preference. Material and methods. Respondents’answers were analysed grouped regarding: (1 education, on subjects with knowledge on food quality and additives (A-group and average consumer representatives (B-group; (2 female and male gender. The questionnaire consists of (a questions with personal data; questions referred to the importance of individual factors for consumers’ food choice, related to: (b fundamental knowledge on food quality and food additives; (c nutrition and desire to consume food that contains additives; (d knowl- edge on monosodium glutamate and desire to consume food containing monosodium glutamate. Results.Results indicated a statistically significant difference between A-group and B-group, and between female and male subjects, on fundamental knowledge on food quality and additives, but there was no differ- ence in habits regarding nutrition and desire to consume food that contains additives. Respondents in A-group significantly more avoid products containing monosodium glutamate comparing to B-group, but there was no difference between female and male subjects preference. Conclusions.This research has shown that students from A-group had more knowledge and awareness in choices of food they prefer to consume, than students from B-group. It is recommended to take actions on young consumers’ education as contribution to protecting of the health, safety, economic and legal interests of consumers and society.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives: branching glycosyltransferase from Rhodothermus obamensis expressed in Bacillus subtilis, cassia gum, cyclamic acid and its salts (dietary exposure assessment), cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, ferrous ammonium phosphate, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, lycopene from all sources, lycopene extract from tomato, mineral oil (low and medium viscosity) class II and class III, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, sodium hydrogen sulfate and sucrose oligoesters type I and type II. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: diacetyltartaric acid and fatty acid esters of glycerol, ethyl lauroyl arginate, glycerol ester of wood rosin, nisin preparation, nitrous oxide, pectins, starch sodium octenyl succinate, tannic acid, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives considered.

  17. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Erel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects of food additives and preservatives in CIU. As possible prognostic factors we observed sex, age, atopy, intolerance to food additives and preservatives. Allergic reactions were seen to appear in 37% (n=50 cases due to natural foods, in 36% (n=49 cases due to foods containing additives, and in 27% (n=37 cases due to both natural foods and foods containing additives. For patients with CIU, food colors, sweeteners and preservatives that are added into foods are an important etiological factor. Moreover, histamine and histamine-like endogen pharmacological agents can cause allergic reactions. Hence, these foods should be taken into consideration in etiology especially in patients with CIU, and due to potential etiology, elimination of patients from these foods for a while is a significant step in treatment. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 351-356

  18. Mastication and swallowing: influence of fluid addition to foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chewing physiology. Materials and METHODS: Twenty subjects chewed on melba toast, cake, carrot, peanut and Gouda cheese. They also chewed on these foods after addition of different volumes of water or alpha-amylase solution. Jaw muscle activity, number of chewing cycles until swallowing and chewing cycle duration were measured. Repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to test the null hypothesis that there would be no statistically significant difference among the results obtained for the various food types and fluids. Subsequently, contrasts were determined to study the levels of intra-subjects factors (food type and fluid volume. Linear regression was used to determine the changes in muscle activity and cycle duration as a function of the chewing cycles. RESULTS: Fluid addition significantly decreased muscle activity and swallowing threshold for melba, cake and peanut (p0.05. Doubling the volume of tap water had a greater effect. CONCLUSIONS: Fluid addition facilitated chewing of dry foods (melba, cake, but did not influence the chewing of fatty (cheese and wet products (carrot. This study is relevant to improve patients' life quality and the management of chewing and feeding disorders caused by hyposalivation.

  19. Mastication and swallowing: influence of fluid addition to foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciano José; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Engelen, Lina; Van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-02-01

    The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chewing physiology. Twenty subjects chewed on melba toast, cake, carrot, peanut and Gouda cheese. They also chewed on these foods after addition of different volumes of water or alpha-amylase solution. Jaw muscle activity, number of chewing cycles until swallowing and chewing cycle duration were measured. Repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to test the null hypothesis that there would be no statistically significant difference among the results obtained for the various food types and fluids. Subsequently, contrasts were determined to study the levels of intra-subjects factors (food type and fluid volume). Linear regression was used to determine the changes in muscle activity and cycle duration as a function of the chewing cycles. Fluid addition significantly decreased muscle activity and swallowing threshold for melba, cake and peanut (p0.05). Doubling the volume of tap water had a greater effect. Fluid addition facilitated chewing of dry foods (melba, cake), but did not influence the chewing of fatty (cheese) and wet products (carrot). This study is relevant to improve patients' life quality and the management of chewing and feeding disorders caused by hyposalivation.

  20. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  1. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  2. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  3. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  4. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame) as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.   

  5. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  6. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  7. The food additives inulin and stevioside counteract oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Silviya; Geuns, Jan; Hideg, Eva; Van den Ende, Wim

    2011-05-01

    Prebiotics such as inulin (Inu)-type fructans and alternative natural sweeteners such as stevioside (Ste) become more popular as food ingredients. Evidence is accumulating that carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing biomolecules can be considered true antioxidants, capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report on the ROS scavenging abilities of Inu and Ste in comparison with other sugars, sugar derivatives and arbutin. It is found that Inu and Ste are superior scavengers of both hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, more effective than mannitol and sucrose. Other compounds, such as 1-kestotriose, trehalose, raffinose and L-malic acid, also showed good reactivity to at least one of the two oxygen free radicals. The strong antioxidant properties of Inu and Ste are discussed. Within the plant vacuole, these compounds could play a crucial role in antioxidant defense mechanisms to help survive stresses. Addition to food assists in natural sweetening, food stabilization and maximizes health impact.

  8. 75 FR 4523 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Acting Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of..., International Activities Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA, 5100..., Consumer Safety Officer, Division of Food Contact Notifications, Office of Food Additive Safety...

  9. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances; Technical... considerations, food additives, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances to correct minor errors in the... affecting certain regulations regarding environmental impact considerations (part 25), food additives...

  10. 75 FR 30844 - General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ....; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The..., of a food additive petition (FAP 7M4770) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to... food additive petition (FAP 7M4770) had been filed by General Mills, Inc., One General Mills...

  11. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... future filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 3M4744) proposing that the food additive regulations be... the Federal Register of November 30, 2004 (69 FR 69606), FDA announced that a food additive...

  12. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

  13. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  14. [Effective prevention through nutritional and food additives: barriers and resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, R; Walter, U

    2006-06-01

    The population-wide and individual preventive potentials of nutritional and food additives such as vitamins and trace elements are generally accepted in the international literature. Iodisation and fluoridation were and are a main focus of activity. The enrichment of food with folic acid is also partly population-related. Until now, however, the theoretical possibilities of nutritional supplementations have not been fully exploited. Various barriers and resistances arise in programme development and implementation. Interviews with key stakeholders and community groups can clarify decade-long discussions in the literature and the media. The study on hand is based on a structural analysis. It shows the various arguments as well as beneficial and impeding factors for a population-wide prevention programme, for specific target groups and individuals. The findings of this research could also be applied to other Public Health challenges.

  15. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  16. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions...

  17. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

  18. 76 FR 3600 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public....) positions that will be discussed at the 43rd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the..., Senior Science and Policy Staff, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and...

  19. 77 FR 65340 - Ajinomoto Co., Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Ajinomoto Co., Inc.; Filing of Food Additive... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by... 35871), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 9A4778) had been filed by Ajinomoto, Co.,...

  20. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  1. 77 FR 2492 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... for a food additive petition filed by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention requesting that the food additive regulations that incorporate by reference food-grade specifications from prior editions of...

  2. 77 FR 5483 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public....) positions that will be discussed at the 44th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the... CCFA Contact: Dennis M. Keefe, Ph.D., Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food...

  3. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY: Nuclear... the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations to add the Holtec HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the... Holtec HI- STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks''...

  4. Is It Really FDA Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be proven safe and effective to FDA’s satisfaction before companies can market them in interstate commerce. ... product to market. back to top FDA approves food additives in food for people. Although FDA does ...

  5. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted colour additives in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Baron, Carolina I; Richard, Gerald I

    2012-01-01

    Colour additives are dyes, pigments or other substances that can impart colour when added or applied to food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. The substances must be pre-approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and listed in Title 21 of the US Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in products marketed in the United States. Some also are required to be batch certified by the USFDA prior to their use. Both domestic and imported products sold in interstate commerce fall under USFDA jurisdiction, and the USFDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative colour additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 17 certifiable, certification exempt, and non-permitted colour additives in various food products. The method involves extracting the colour additives from a product and isolating them from non-coloured components with a C(18) Sep-Pak cartridge. The colour additives are then separated and identified by liquid chromatography (LC) with photodiode array detection, using an Xterra RP18 column and gradient elution with aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 1.49 mg/l. This qualititative LC method supplements the visible spectrophotometric and thin-layer chromatography methods currently used by the USFDA's district laboratories and is less time-consuming and requires less solvent compared to the other methods. The extraction step in the new LC method is a simple and an efficient process that can be used for most food types.

  6. Critical review of public health regulations of titanium dioxide, a human food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165050000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure.

  7. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Administration Amendments Act of 2007, which was signed into law on September 27, 2007, amended the FD&C Act to... the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food that contains a... containing this additive, if introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, would not...

  8. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  9. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, "This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient." If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine.

  10. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study.

  11. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, L T [pSiNutria Ltd, Malvern Hills Science Park, Geraldine Road, Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-09

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study.

  12. Interfacial behavior of common food contact polymer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiserman, W M; Can, S Z; Walker, R A; Begley, T H; Limm, W

    2007-07-15

    Irganox 1076 (IN1076) and Irganox 1010 (IN1010), phenol containing species often used as antioxidant additives in food packaging polymers have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. Consequently these additives are likely to absorb to surfaces where their free energy is minimized. Experiments described in this work examine the two-dimensional phase behavior and vibrational structure of IN1076 and IN1010 films adsorbed to the air/water interface. Surface pressure isotherms show that repeated compression of these films leads to continued irreversible loss of molecules and that on a per molecule basis, this loss is more pronounced for IN1076 than for IN1010. Differences in the surface properties of these two antioxidant additives are interpreted based on differences in molecular structure. Surface specific vibrational measurements of these organic films show very little conformational order, implying that even when closely packed, both antioxidant species have little affinity for forming highly organized domains. These findings have important ramifications for mechanisms that reduce antioxidant activity in polymers as well as descriptions of antioxidant blooming on polymer surfaces.

  13. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  14. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and... Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to no longer provide for the... the Federal Register of July 17, 2012 (77 FR 41953), we announced that food additive petition...

  15. 75 FR 22411 - Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY... announcing that Fonterra (USA) Inc. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be... U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 0A4781) has been filed...

  16. 75 FR 62545 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of virginiamycin as an... is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2264) has been filed by Ferm Solutions, Inc., PO Box...

  17. 75 FR 17928 - Nisso America, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Nisso America, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY... announcing that Nisso America, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations for... Cosmetic Act (sec. 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition...

  18. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of seed meal from a... is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2267) has been filed by Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.,...

  19. 76 FR 48751 - Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of calcium...)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2261) has been filed by Lanxess Corp. (Lanxess),...

  20. 75 FR 21300 - North American Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration North American Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2263) has been filed...

  1. Biokinetics of food additive silica nanoparticles and their interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Song, Jae Ho; Jo, Mi-Rae; Yu, Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Rok; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely utilized in the food industry in production, packaging, sensors, nutrient delivery systems, and food additives. However, research on the interactions between food-grade nanoparticles and biomolecules as well as their potential toxicity is limited. In the present study, the in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of one of the most extensively used food additives, silica (SiO2) were evaluated with respect to particle size (nano vs bulk) following single-dose oral administration to rats. Intestinal transport mechanism was investigated using a 3D culture system, in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). The effect of the presence of food components, such as sugar and protein, on the oral absorption of nanoparticles was also evaluated with focus on their interactions. The results obtained demonstrated that the oral absorption of nanoparticles (3.94±0.38%) was greater than that of bulk materials (2.95±0.37%), possibly due to intestinal transport by microfold (M) cells. On the other hand, particle size was found to have no significant effect on in vivo dissolution property, biodistribution, or excretion kinetics. Oral absorption profile of silica nanoparticles was highly dependent on the presence of sugar or protein, showing rapid absorption rate in glucose, presumably due to their surface interaction on nanoparticles. These findings will be useful for predicting the potential toxicity of food-grade nanoparticles and for understanding biological interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  3. 78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to remove sodium benzoate, sodium... poultry products. New uses of these substances in meat or poultry products will continue to be approved by...

  4. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of such articles may no longer be in the file of the Food and Drug Administration. In the absence of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6 Section 570.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... regulations to provide for the safe use of vitamin D 2 bakers yeast as a source of vitamin D 2 and as a... vitamin D 2 per 100 grams (g) in the finished food. This action is in response to a petition filed...

  6. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Food Safety in Beijing: A Case Study of Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Yinchu; Yu, Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    Constructing a theoretical framework and using a survey data of 294 customers from 25 supermarkets in Beijing, this paper studies the willingness to pay (WTP) for additive-free Mooncakes in Beijing and finds that age and income are important for WTP for “food safety” in China. Income is positively correlated with the WTP and there is an inverted-U-shaped relationship between age and WTP. This study indicates that consumers in Beijing are willing to pay 5.80 Yuan more for an additive-free Moon...

  7. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma.

  8. 78 FR 43093 - Richard C. Theuer; Filing of Food Additive Petition and Citizen Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Additive Petition and Citizen Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to prohibit the use of... a food additive petition (FAP 3A4798; Docket No. FDA-2013-F-0700). The petition proposes to...

  9. FDA'S food ingredient approval process: Safety assurance based on scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulis, Alan M; Levitt, Joseph A

    2009-02-01

    Fifty years ago, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began implementing new provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act aimed at assuring the safety of new food additives before they enter the marketplace. Today, the agency's procedures for premarket evaluation of food additive safety have evolved into a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system whose objective and independent evaluations by FDA scientists assure that new food additives are safe for their intended uses before they arrive on the consumer's plate. Although controversy often surrounds food additives in the popular media and culture, and science-based challenges to FDA's decisions do arise, the agency's original safety judgments successfully withstand these challenges time and again. This article reviews the basic components of the FDA's decision-making process for evaluating the safety of new food additives, and identifies characteristics of this process that are central to assuring that FDA's decisions are marked by scientific rigor and high integrity, and can continue to be relied on by consumers.

  10. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process: A History and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher Ty

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the processing of investigational and new drug applications is described and the standard and expedited review processes are examined. The efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure greater agency transparency and fiscal responsibility and intensify oversight during the drug development and approval process are reviewed. Often attributed to a decrease in the number of uninsured adults, both the increase in prescription drug sales and the high costs associated with bringing a new drug to market highlight the necessity for a streamlined and cost-effective process to deliver these drugs safely and effectively.

  11. Analysis of Consumers´ Attitudes Towards Food Additives Using Focus Group Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Tarnavölgyi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are getting more and more importance among the consumers´ food safety concerns. In this research attitudes towards food additives were analyzed in three focus groups: common consumers, doctors and food industry experts by qualitative market research methods. It was observed that most consumers knew very little about food additives. While recognizing their technological importance, they are afraid of their health impairing effects. However, this fear is mostly theoretic; other quality characteristics and the price play a much more significant role when choosing foods. Doctors are more familiar with the chemical nature and health effects of food additives, but their shopping habits are mainly the same as the common consumers´. Through their job food industry experts get in closer relationship with food additives, therefore they generally have detailed knowledge of their technological and health functions as well. In their consumer decision process the food additive content of products is a more important factor than in the other groups. It was concluded that, with respect to the consumers´ requirements, food and health authorities should pay much more attention to providing authentic information to the public, because it is the only way to prevent developing the general fear of food additives. This project should include education involving the media and doctors, and additionally, making E-numbers list be available to the customers to help the easy identification of food additives.

  12. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  13. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... food additives beyond chemical food additives, and to cover all food for animals, including pet food... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  14. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... that a food additive petition (FAP 2276) has been filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview...

  15. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use in dry dog... CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use in dry dog food of oil from a variety of bioengineered... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food...

  16. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chew

  17. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; Van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chew

  18. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of ammonium formate as an acidifying agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food...

  19. Centauries as underestimated food additives: antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Branislav; Zivković, Suzana; Banjanac, Tijana; Cvetković, Jelena; Nestorović Živković, Jasmina; Cirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Mišić, Danijela

    2014-03-15

    Methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of five centaury species (Centaurium erythraea, C. tenuiflorum, C. littorale ssp. uliginosum, C. pulchellum, and Schenkia spicata) were analysed for their main secondary metabolites: secoiridoid glycosides, a group of monoterpenoid compounds, and phenolics (xanthones and flavonoids), and further investigated for antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The results of ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays showed that above ground parts generally displayed up to 13 times higher antioxidant activity compared to roots, which should be related to higher phenolics content, especially flavonoids, in green plant organs. Secoiridoid glycosides showed no antioxidant activity. All the tested extracts demonstrated appreciative antibacterial (0.05-0.5 mg ml(-1)) and strong antifungal activity (0.1-0.6 mg ml(-1)). Our results imply that above ground parts of all centaury species studied, could be recommended for human usage as a rich source of natural antioxidants and also in food industry as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  20. A Food and Drug Administration-approved asthma therapeutic agent impacts amyloid β in the brain in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukiko; Takeda, Shuko; Cho, Hansang; Wegmann, Susanne; Shoup, Timothy M; Takahashi, Kazue; Irimia, Daniel; Elmaleh, David R; Hyman, Bradley T; Hudry, Eloise

    2015-01-23

    Interfering with the assembly of Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides from monomer to oligomeric species and fibrils or promoting their clearance from the brain are targets of anti-Aβ-directed therapies in Alzheimer disease. Here we demonstrate that cromolyn sodium (disodium cromoglycate), a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug already in use for the treatment of asthma, efficiently inhibits the aggregation of Aβ monomers into higher-order oligomers and fibrils in vitro without affecting Aβ production. In vivo, the levels of soluble Aβ are decreased by over 50% after only 1 week of daily intraperitoneally administered cromolyn sodium. Additional in vivo microdialysis studies also show that this compound decreases the half-life of soluble Aβ in the brain. These data suggest a clear effect of a peripherally administered, Food and Drug Administration-approved medication on Aβ economy, supporting further investigation of the potential long-term efficacy of cromolyn sodium in Alzheimer disease.

  1. Fruitflow(®): the first European Food Safety Authority-approved natural cardio-protective functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kennedy, Niamh; Raederstorff, Daniel; Duttaroy, Asim K

    2017-03-01

    Hyperactive platelets, in addition to their roles in thrombosis, are also important mediators of atherogenesis. Antiplatelet drugs are not suitable for use where risk of a cardiovascular event is relatively low. It is therefore important to find alternative safe antiplatelet inhibitors for the vulnerable population who has hyperactive platelets in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Potent antiplatelet factors were identified in water-soluble tomato extract (Fruitflow(®)), which significantly inhibited platelet aggregation. Human volunteer studies demonstrated the potency and bioavailability of active compounds in Fruitflow(®). Fruitflow(®) became the first product in Europe to obtain an approved, proprietary health claim under Article 13(5) of the European Health Claims Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Fruitflow(®) is now commercially available in different countries worldwide. In addition to its reduction in platelet reactivity, Fruitflow(®) contains anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme and anti-inflammatory factors, making it an effective and natural cardio-protective functional food.

  2. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of candelilla wax (E 902) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of candelilla wax (E 902). Candelilla wax (E 902) is authorised in the EU as a food additive as a glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The JECFA and the SCF did not establish an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) but considered the use of candelilla wax as a glazing ...

  4. Bipolar disorder: a review of current U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashal B. Shah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a chronic disorder which usually has its onset in early adulthood. At one end of the spectrum is depression and at other is mania. Like many psychiatric illnesses, it is not treatable but its symptoms are completely manageable with medications. Commonly used drugs are mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics along with adjunctive medications such as anxiolytics and antidepressants. In general, a combination of these drugs is used for treatment. These drugs have significant adverse effects which add to the burden of the disease. Presently, there are 11 US Food and Drug Administration - approved drugs for management of acute mania, 3 for bipolar depression and 7 for bipolar maintenance. This review article details the use of these drugs in BD. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 623-631

  5. Polysaccharides from Probiotics: New Developments as Food Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Michaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polysaccharides with nutraceutical potential and bioactive properties have been investigated in detail during the last few decades. There is an increasing demand in food industries for live microbes or polysaccharides produced by them which assert health benefits other than dietetic constituents. Although there are a large number of exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing bacteria, the titers are low for commercialization. This manuscript deals with the polysaccharides produced by probiotic strains, with major emphasis on the EPSs, their properties, applications and some of the strategies adopted which would be helpful in better understanding of the process in the near future. Research on the improved EPS biosynthesis is essential for obtaining high yields. Therefore, to reach commercialization, metabolic engineering must be applied.

  6. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  7. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-Díez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of essential oils (EOs as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, aw and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, aw, presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs.

  8. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty.

  9. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  10. Structural Precaution: The Application of Premarket Approval Schemes in EU Food Legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Poppe, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural precaution refers to legal requirements by which food products (whether as ingredients, additives, genetically modified or innovative in some other form) are only admitted to the market after authorization by public authorities and till then are presumed unsafe. In the EU such authorizati

  11. Brief Introduction to Some of the Newly Approved National Standards on Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ GB 2712-2003 The Hygienic Standard of Fermented Bean Products This standard stipulates the specification, food additives, hygienic requirements of production and processing, packaging, marking, storage and transportation requirements and inspection methods for fermented bean products. It applies to fermented bean products such as fermented bean curd, fermented soya beans and fermented beans made from soya beans and other beans.

  12. Food webs in the litter: effects of food and nest addition on ant communities in coffee agroecosystems and forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnen, Cody J; Gonthier, David J; Philpott, Stacy M

    2013-08-01

    Community assembly is driven by multiple factors, including resource availability and habitat requirements. Litter nesting ants respond to food and nest site availability, and adding food and nests may increase ant species richness and abundance. However, litter decomposers share food resources with ants, and increasing food availability may speed decomposition processes, eliminating twigs and seeds in which litter ants nest. We manipulated ant food and nest resources in three habitat types (forest, high-shade coffee, and low-shade coffee) to determine ant community responses after 1 and 2 mo. We examined changes in numbers of ant species, colonies, workers, brood, colony growth rate, and ant species composition. Habitat type strongly affected ant communities, influencing ant species richness, numbers of colonies and workers, and ant species composition. However, food addition and nest addition did not affect these community characteristics. Colony growth rate did not differ with food addition but was greater in forest and low-shade coffee compared with high-shade coffee. Habitat differences in colony growth may be because of presence of an aggressive species (Wasmannia auropunctata Roger) in high-shade coffee plots or naturally low arthropod densities during a time when ant colonization was low. Thus, in coffee landscapes, habitat type impacts litter nesting ant community structure, composition, and colony growth rate; however, food and nest addition had small impacts.

  13. [Safety of food additives from a German and European point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, R

    2010-06-01

    There are about 300 food additives permitted in the EU for which a re-evaluation program was initiated recently. Occasionally, it is speculated that the use of single food additives might be of safety concern. First results of the re-evaluation could give an impression on how such concerns were taken into account by responsible authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). For some of the food additives, the lowest dose resulting in adverse effects was lower in recent studies compared to previous studies. Thus, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) derived applying the common uncertainty factor was lower than the ADI derived using data from previous studies. Therefore, it has to be considered whether the conditions of use need to be modified for these food additives.

  14. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus.

  15. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu eValdés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  16. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  17. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  18. [Study on Extraction Conditions of Water-Soluble Substances—Purity Test (4) for Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Listed in Japan's Specifications and Standards for Food Additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Tokue; Matsumoto, Makoto; Shimizu, Sachiko; Iwamura, Tetsuro; Ogaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The food additive polyvinylpolypyrrolidone is approved for use as a filter aid. The water-soluble substances test of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone often shows poor reproducibility. The instruction "boil gently while stirring using a stirrer" was considered critical, and so this issue was examined. The results showed that the use of a combination of both an oil bath and a stirrer provided good reproducibility without decomposition or other problems.

  19. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  20. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, A

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.

  1. [FADCC in NIHS for prior consultation system of application of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of inquiries about application of food additives have been made from businesses in and outside Japan. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is requested to expedite the procedure for designation and revision of use standards. In June 2014, the MHLW set up a center for consultation on application concerning food additives (Food Additive Designation Consultation Center, FADCC) in the National Institute of Health Sciences, aiming to smoothly and expeditiously handle clerical work for designation or revision of the use standards. FADCC gives advice on how to prepare documents on the information such as physicochemical characteristics, effectiveness, safety, daily intake and use standards, based on actual cases and experience.

  2. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to...

  3. Possible use of food consumption surveys to estimate exposure to additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several methods can be and are being used to assess individual food consumption. Four types, namely 24-h recall, dietary records, food frequency and dietary history are discussed. For assessing the exposure to additives it is concluded that the dietary history method is probably the best choice sinc

  4. 76 FR 22904 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of erythromycin thiocyanate as an antimicrobial... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  5. Is Patch Testing with Food Additives Useful in Children with Atopic Eczema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Bostanci, Ilknur; Ozmen, Serap; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Duman, Handan; Ertan, Ulker

    2015-01-01

    Atopy patch testing is a useful way to determine delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to foods and aeroallergens. Although food additives have been accused of worsening atopic eczema symptoms, according to recent studies the role of food additives in atopic eczema remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate food additive hypersensitivity in a group of children with atopic eczema by using standardized atopy patch testing and to determine the role of food additive hypersensitivity in atopic eczema. Thirty-four children with atopic eczema and 33 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Children who consumed foods containing additives and did not use either antihistamines or local or systemic corticosteroids for at least 7 days prior to admission were enrolled in the study. All children were subjected to atopy patch testing and after 48 and 72 hours their skin reactions were evaluated by using the guidelines. Positive atopy patch test results were significantly higher in the atopic eczema group. Forty-one percent of the atopic eczema group (n = 14) and 15.2% (n = 5) of the control group had positive atopy patch test results with food additives (p = 0.036) (estimated relative risk 1.68, case odds 0.7, control odds 0.17). Carmine hypersensitivity and the consumption of foods containing carmine, such as gumdrops, salami, and sausage, were significantly higher in the children with atopic eczema. This is the first study investigating hypersensitivity to food additives in children with atopic eczema. Our results indicate that carmine may play a role in atopic eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  7. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  8. Postmarket Safety Events Among Novel Therapeutics Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration Between 2001 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas S; Shah, Nilay D; Aminawung, Jenerius A; Pease, Alison M; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ross, Joseph S

    2017-05-09

    Postmarket safety events of novel pharmaceuticals and biologics occur when new safety risks are identified after initial regulatory approval of these therapeutics. These safety events can change how novel therapeutics are used in clinical practice and inform patient and clinician decision making. To characterize the frequency of postmarket safety events among novel therapeutics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and to examine whether any novel therapeutic characteristics known at the time of FDA approval were associated with increased risk. Cohort study of all novel therapeutics approved by the FDA between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2010, followed up through February 28, 2017. Novel therapeutic characteristics known at the time of FDA approval, including drug class, therapeutic area, priority review, accelerated approval, orphan status, near-regulatory deadline approval, and regulatory review time. A composite of (1) withdrawals due to safety concerns, (2) FDA issuance of incremental boxed warnings added in the postmarket period, and (3) FDA issuance of safety communications. From 2001 through 2010, the FDA approved 222 novel therapeutics (183 pharmaceuticals and 39 biologics). There were 123 new postmarket safety events (3 withdrawals, 61 boxed warnings, and 59 safety communications) during a median follow-up period of 11.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 8.7-13.8 years), affecting 71 (32.0%) of the novel therapeutics. The median time from approval to first postmarket safety event was 4.2 years (IQR, 2.5-6.0 years), and the proportion of novel therapeutics affected by a postmarket safety event at 10 years was 30.8% (95% CI, 25.1%-37.5%). In multivariable analysis, postmarket safety events were statistically significantly more frequent among biologics (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.06-3.52; P = .03), therapeutics indicated for the treatment of psychiatric disease (IRR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.77-8.06; P

  9. 77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... Ingredients AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Sadex Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of butylated hydroxyanisole – BHA (E 320) as a food additive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    ...‐evaluating the safety of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (E 320). BHA is a synthetic antioxidant authorised as a food additive in the EU that was previously evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA...

  11. Dynamics of additional food provided predator-prey system with mutually interfering predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B S R V; Banerjee, Malay; Srinivasu, P D N

    2013-11-01

    Use of additional/alternative food source to predators is one of the widely recognised practices in the field of biological control. Both theoretical and experimental works point out that quality and quantity of additional food play a vital role in the controllability of the pest. Theoretical studies carried out previously in this direction indicate that incorporating mutual interference between predators can stabilise the system. Experimental evidence also point out that mutual interference between predators can affect the outcome of the biological control programs. In this article dynamics of additional food provided predator-prey system in the presence of mutual interference between predators has been studied. The mutual interference between predators is modelled using Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response. The system analysis highlights the role of mutual interference on the success of biological control programs when predators are provided with additional food. The model results indicate the possibility of stable coexistence of predators with low prey population levels. This is in contrast to classical predator-prey models wherein this stable co-existence at low prey population levels is not possible. This study classifies the characteristics of biological control agents and additional food (of suitable quality and quantity), permitting the eco-managers to enhance the success rate of biological control programs.

  12. Importance of perceived naturalness for acceptance of food additives and cultured meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2017-06-01

    Four experiments examined some factors influencing the perceived naturalness of food products and their biasing effect on risk perception. The results of Experiment 1a showed that three food additives displaying their respective E-numbers (i.e., codes for food additives in the European Union and Switzerland) decreased perceived naturalness. Experiment 1b demonstrated that mentioning possible health effects decreased the perceived naturalness of a plant-based food additive. This experiment further showed that it would not matter for perceived naturalness whether the food was synthetic or nature-identical. Moreover, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggested that the same risk associated with meat consumption was much more acceptable for traditionally produced meat compared with in-vitro meat. Experiment 3 further indicated that the perceived naturalness of the meat (i.e., traditional or cultured meat) had a full mediation effect on participants' evaluation of the acceptability of the risk of colon cancer associated with the meat consumption. Even if the new production method (i.e., cultured meat) was more environmentally friendly and less harmful to animals, the perceived lack of naturalness might reduce the acceptability of the risk associated with such a product. The present study provides evidence that consumers rely on symbolic information when evaluating foods, which may lead to biased judgments and decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Fatty acid of Chelidonium majus L. oil and its byologikal active as a food-additive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B; Zurabashvili, D; Wachnadze, N; Zurabashvili, Z; Giorgobiani, I

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study is individual identification of fatty acids in oil of Chelidonium majus L. and prediction of its effects as a food-additive. By high-effective liquid chromatographic methods, fatty acids were fractionated. Identification of the fatty acids constituents was based on comparison of their retentium time. Their relative concentrations are expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The impact of Chelidonium majus L. oil as a food-additive supplement on the contents of fatty acid in liver lipids of mice was determined. Investigations were carried out on 40 imbred mice. The investigation showed that the 5% food-additive of Chelidonium majus L. oil fulfil an important role in physiological processes in imbred mice livers.

  14. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  15. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  16. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of anthocyanins (E 163 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to provide a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of anthocyanins (E 163. The Panel concluded that the currently available toxicological database was inadequate to establish a numerical ADI for anthocyanins. For anthocyanins extracted from edible fruits and vegetables by aqueous processes, changes in composition would not be expected. The Panel concluded that provided exposure from use as a food additive was comparable to that from the diet the underlying conclusion in the 1975 SCF opinion that such food additives derived from natural sources would still apply. The majority of data are on aqueous grape skin extract (GSKE and blackcurrant extracts and the Panel considers that exposures estimated from current uses and use levels these extracts are unlikely to be of safety concern. The Panel recommends that the specifications for E 163 should be modified to reflect this conclusion. For anthocyanins extracted from other sources and/or using non-aqueous extraction methods the absence of characterisation does not allow verification that this conclusion in the 1975 SCF opinion could be applied. The Panel noted that for some extracts it had proven possible to assess a group based on toxicological and compositional data on representative samples across the range of extracts. The Panel concluded that refined exposure estimates of anthocyanins used as a food additive were higher than dietary intakes and that these did not include intakes from colouring foods. Therefore the Panel would recommend that appropriate characterisation and toxicological data should be required to permit a further re-evaluation of anthocyanins including comparative data on anthocyanins (E 163 produced by aqueous extraction.

  18. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliste, A. J. A. J.; Vieira, F. F. F. F.; Del Mastro, N. L. N. L.

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods.

  19. Food additives, essential nutrients and neurodevelopmental behavioural disorders in children: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Clark, Brenda

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, changing lifestyles in Canadian homes has led to demand for foods with long shelf lives that are cosmetically appealing, palatable, easy to prepare and to consume. Food additives, especially preservatives and artificial colours as well as suboptimal intake of essential nutrients, have been linked to hyperactive behaviours and poor attention in a subgroup of children. Although other risk factors (ie, genetic, etc) for these conditions have received more attention in the scientific literature, the authors believe that there is enough evidence to consider dietary influences as a modifiable risk factor. This would involve raising awareness among clinicians and, subsequently, reviewing food regulatory processes to better protect children in Canada - similar to the regulations recently undertaken by the British Food Standards Agency. Conflicts of interest due to food and medication industry support for organizations advocating for children would need to be resolved by open communication between government regulatory agencies, academia and industry. Canadian parents and children need to be advised to limit unnecessary food additives and consume a diet rich in essential nutrients while more complete relationships are being explored further.

  20. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  1. Simultaneous determination of 20 food additives by high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Ma; Ya Nan Yang; Xiao Xiong Jiang; Min Zhao; Ye Qiang Cai

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and accurate analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 synthetic food additives,including three sweeteners,seven food colorants,nine synthetic preservatives and caffeine,by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA).This method permits the detection of food additives at very low concentrations (0.005-0.150 μg/mL).The applicability was verified by the determination of food additives present in various foodstuffs.

  2. Detection of food additives by voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Grégoire; Kam, Victor; Berduque, Alfonso; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2008-06-25

    Electrochemistry at the liquid-liquid interface enables the detection of nonredoxactive species with electroanalytical techniques. In this work, the electrochemical behavior of two food additives, aspartame and acesulfame K, was investigated. Both ions were found to undergo ion-transfer voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the preparation of calibration curves over the concentration range of 30-350 microM with a detection limit of 30 microM. The standard addition method was applied to the determination of their concentrations in food and beverage samples such as sweeteners and sugar-free beverages. Selective electrochemically modulated liquid-liquid extraction of these species in both laboratory solutions and in beverage samples was also demonstrated. These results indicate the suitability of liquid-liquid electrochemistry as an analytical approach in food analysis.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of microcrystalline wax (E 905 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on microcrystalline wax (E 905 when used as a food additive. Microcrystalline wax (E 905 is authorised quantum satis as a surface treatment agent on non-chocolate confectionery, chewing gum and decorations, coatings and fillings, except fruit based fillings. It is also permitted as a surface treatment of melons, papaya, mango and avocado. The substance was evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF in 1990 and 1995 and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, the latest in 1995. The JECFA established a group ADI of 20 mg/kg bw/day for mineral oils, paraffins and microcrystalline waxes. The Panel noted that all mineral oil products accumulated in tissues in a dose- and time-dependent manner with the exception of microcrystalline waxes. The Panel concluded that there is no concern for genotoxicity from microcrystalline wax (E 905. The Panel also considered that the available toxicity studies with mineral hydrocarbons, closely related from a chemical point of view with microcrystalline waxes, consistently reported no effects of concern associated with the intake of microcrystalline wax. The Panel further concluded that since no long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with microcrystalline wax E 905 were available, no ADI could be established. The Panel also concluded that the conservative exposure estimates to microcrystalline wax (E 905 from its use at maximum permitted level (following quantum satis rules, resulted in a sufficient margin of safety compared to the NOAEL established by the Panel for the closely related high viscosity mineral oils, and therefore the use microcrystalline wax (E 905 as a food additive with the currently authorised uses would not be of safety concern.

  4. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  5. A safe strategy for addition of vitamins and minerals to foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Dragsted, L.O.

    2006-01-01

    Addition of vitamins and minerals to foods must be done without health risk to any consumer group. International expert groups have aimed at establishing tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals although lack of solid data on their safety is a major obstacle to this work. In ...

  6. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  7. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  8. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives.

    Reviewed in the report is research on hyperkinesis, specifically B. Feingold's hypotheses on the role of salicylates and food additives. Criticisms of Feingold's studies are seen to include methodological weaknesses (no double blind controlled experiments), nutritional concerns over the adequacy of prescribed diets, and lack of a specifically…

  9. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Final Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In response to the issues raised by B. Feingold regarding the possible role of food additives as a cause of hyperactivity and learing disability, the Nutrition Foundation organized a critical review of Feinfold's claims by a group of behavioral and medical scientists. Among the cliams made by Feingold was that, when treated with the salicylate and…

  10. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  11. food additions that consumers in the professional sector in the city of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Food additions that consumers in the professional sector in the city of Cape Town are likely to con- ..... b Dietary supplement was defined as “a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to ...... added to many recipe formulations for enhanced ..... Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption amongst adults in 16 US states: ...

  12. 75 FR 55798 - North American Bioproducts Corporation; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin G Procaine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... safe use of penicillin G procaine as an antimicrobial processing aid in fuel- ethanol fermentations... safe use of penicillin G procaine as an antimicrobial processing aid in fuel- ethanol...

  13. Recent trends in the use of food additives in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Mike

    2015-03-15

    The E number system for food additives was introduced in the 1960s and the E was intended to reassure consumers that permitted additives were safe. In the 1980s full ingredient declarations had to be provided on food products for the first time and manufacturers were permitted to use either the name or the number of the additive on the ingredient list. This paper outlines some of the trends in the sourcing, use and labelling of additives since the introduction of full ingredient listing. Generally, sourcing has become more global with a large number of suppliers being based in China. From an initial use of E numbers in ingredient lists, manufacturers are increasingly using the names of additives. This trend is being extended to avoid the use of anything the consumer might consider an additive, particularly in connection with colours and preservatives. Specifically, the colours used in the Southampton study on the impact of food colours on hyperactivity in children have largely been replaced by colouring foodstuffs, and the preservative used in the study, sodium benzoate, has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks.

  14. Critical analysis of realibility of the model of investment credit approval in agriculture and food processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investments are funds which are invested in certain manufacturing goods, revenue on investments, the process of investment, subject in which it is invested, and which is obtained as a result of the assessment of investment. Every rational investor entering into an investment expects some benefits. Entry decision into a particular investment project carries a business risk, both for investors and for the bank as co-financier of the project. Accordingly, the subject of this paper-research is a critical analysis of the reliability of the model of investment credit approval in agriculture and food processing industry (MICA used by local banks when considering whether to financially support investment needs of large corporate customers in the segment of secondary agriculture production and food processing industry. Applying the model of the correlation analysis, the degree of interconnectedness of indicators of the quality of assets and business performances of Serbian banking sector are quantified.

  15. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval: vismodegib for recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Michael; Liu, Ke; Jiang, Xiaoping; He, Kun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hong; Kufrin, Dubravka; Palmby, Todd; Dong, Zedong; Russell, Anne Marie; Miksinski, Sarah; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The data and regulatory considerations leading to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) January 30, 2012 approval of Erivedge (vismodegib) capsules for the treatment of patients with recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are described. The FDA's approval decision was based primarily on the results observed in a single-arm, parallel cohort, international trial of vismodegib, administered orally at 150 mg daily until disease progression, in patients with pathologically confirmed, recurrent, locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC). An independent review committee confirmed an overall response rate (ORR) of 30.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6-48.2] in 33 patients with mBCC and an ORR of 42.9% (95% CI: 30.5-56.0) in 63 patients with laBCC; median response durations were 7.6 months and 7.6 months for patients with mBCC and laBCC, respectively. The most common adverse reactions were muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, cough, arthralgias, vomiting, headache, ageusia, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Animal toxicology studies confirmed that vismodegib is a potent teratogenic agent. Approval was based on durable objective tumor responses supported by knowledge of the pathologic role of Hedgehog signaling in BCC and acceptable toxicity in a population without effective alternative therapies.

  16. FOOD ADDITIVE STANDARD CONSTRUCTION AND FOOD SAFEFY%食品添加剂的标准建设与食品安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虹; 闻向梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To further perfect the standards for uses of food additives and promote food safety in China. [Methods] Compared standards for uses of food additives between foreign countries and China, analyzed the importance of food additive standards construction for food safety. [Results] There were some inadequacies in Chinese standards for uses of food additives, which were unfavorable to food safety. [Conclusion] Efforts should be intensified to construct food additives testing laboratory, toxicology research of food additives should be reinforced, food additive standards should be modified to improve food safety.%[目的]进一步完善我国食品添加剂的使用标准,促进食品安全.[方法]分别比较中外食品添加剂使用标准,分析标准建设对食品安全的重要意义.[结果]中国食品添加剂在使用标准建设上存在一定的不足之处,不利于食品安全.[结论]建议加大食品添加剂检测实验室的建设力度,加强食品添加剂毒理学的研究,完善食品添加剂标准,提高食品安全.

  17. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-01-01

    Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nit...

  18. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  19. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  20. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  1. DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandir, Dilek

    2016-08-01

    The use of food additives has increased enormously in modern food technology but they have adverse effects in human healthy. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage of some food additives such as citric acid (CA), benzoic acid (BA), brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY) which were investigated in human male germ cells using comet assay. The sperm cells were incubated with different concentrations of these food additives (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/mL) for 1 h at 32 °C. The results showed for CA, BA, BB and SY a dose dependent increase in tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment in human sperm when compared to control group. When control values were compared in the studied parameters in the treatment concentrations, SY was found to exhibit the highest level of DNA damage followed by BB > BA > CA. However, none of the food additives affected the tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment at 50 and 100 μg/mL. At 200 μg/mL of SY, the tail DNA% and tail length of sperm were 95.80 ± 0.28 and 42.56 ± 4.66, for BB the values were 95.06 ± 2.30 and 39.56 ± 3.78, whereas for BA the values were 89.05 ± 2.78 and 31.50 ± 0.71, for CA the values were 88.59 ± 6.45 and 13.59 ± 2.74, respectively. However, only the highest concentration of the used food additives significantly affected the studied parameters of sperm DNA. The present results indicate that SY and BB are more harmful than BA and CA to human sperm in vitro.

  2. Improving gluten-free bread quality by enrichment with acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Ronda, Felicidad; Pérez, Blanca; Pando, Valentín

    2011-08-01

    An experimental design has been developed to improve gluten-free bread formulation, on the basis of rice flour and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as alternative baking ingredients. In order to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, several levels of acidic food additives (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and monosodium phosphate) have been tested. The influence of these compounds on the dough and on bread properties has been determined, including a hedonic sensory test of appearance, odour, taste and texture of bread. Results suggest that monosodium phosphate yields bread producing better texture scores, associated with the highest volumes of the loaf. Discussions are made on the basis of CO2 transport pathway across the HPMC network and simultaneous interactions with acidic food additives present. Chemical properties of the acids justify the bread's alveolus size and the preservative effects of acetic acid in the dough.

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean and tropical fruits compared with common food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, M A; Jiménez, A M; Martínez-Tomé, M

    2001-12-01

    Several Mediterranean and tropical fruits have been analyzed in order to assess their antioxidant activity compared with that of common food additives (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT] and propyl gallate). Among Mediterranean fruits, red grape and plum were more effective (P plum > apricot > white grape > melon > red grape > mandarin > watermelon > peach > medlar > apple > orange > cherry > strawberry. However, the four varieties of pear were poor scavengers (P lime > passiflora > kumquat > avocado > pineapple > physalis > papaya fruit > carambola > mango > banana. All Mediterranean fruits showed an effect on hydrogen peroxide except peach. Tropical fruits also had a strong effect on hydrogen peroxide except avocado, which had no effect. The effect of Mediterranean and tropical fruits on the protection factor of refined olive oil, analyzed by the Rancimat method and compared with common food additives, was clear. Watermelon conferred a significantly (P < 0.05) greater protection than the other Mediterranean fruits. Among tropical fruits, physalis had the most stabilizing effect.

  4. [Inhibitory effect of essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents on bacterial histidine decarboxylase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Jyunki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether various essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents inhibit bacterial histidine decarboxylase. Crude extract of Morganella morganii NBRC3848 was prepared and incubated with various agents. Histidine decarboxylase activity was significantly inhibited (pperacetic acid caused slight decomposition. Histidine and histamine were stable in the presence of the other 24 agents. These results indicated that 25 of the agents examined were inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase.

  5. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  6. Bromocriptine mesylate: Food and Drug Administration approved new approach in therapy of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Keche

    2010-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved bromocriptine mesylate, a quick release formulation, 0.8 mg tablets, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine products were previously approved by the FDA for the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinson's disease. Bromocriptine is thought to act on circadian neuronal activities within the hypothalamus to reset abnormally elevated hypothalamic drive for increased plasma ...

  7. Formation and reduction of carcinogenic furan in various model systems containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sil; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse and reduce furan in various model systems. Furan model systems consisting of monosaccharides (0.5M glucose and ribose), amino acids (0.5M alanine and serine) and/or 1.0M ascorbic acid were heated at 121°C for 25 min. The effects of food additives (each 0.1M) such as metal ions (iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and calcium sulphate), antioxidants (BHT and BHA), and sodium sulphite on the formation of furan were measured. The level of furan formed in the model systems was 6.8-527.3 ng/ml. The level of furan in the model systems of glucose/serine and glucose/alanine increased 7-674% when food additives were added. In contrast, the level of furan decreased by 18-51% in the Maillard reaction model systems that included ribose and alanine/serine with food additives except zinc sulphate.

  8. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propyl gallate (E 310 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propyl gallate (E 310. Propyl gallate is an antioxidant authorised as a food additive in the EU. In 1976, the SCF established a group ADI of 0-0.2 mg/kg bw for three gallates (propyl, octyl, dodecyl. JECFA in its last evaluation in 1996 allocated an ADI only to propyl gallate of 0-1.4 mg/kg bw and did not establish ADIs for octyl and dodecyl gallate. The Panel considered that no substantial new toxicological data have emerged since this last evaluation. The Panel concluded that the 90-day toxicity study in rats was the key study for the evaluation of propyl gallate considering the uncertainties and lack of a NOAEL in the carcinogenicity database on propyl gallate. Based on the NOAEL of 135 mg propyl gallate/kg bw/day of this study and taking account of the Opinion of the Scientific Committee of EFSA on Default values, the Panel concluded that an uncertainty factor of 300 should be applied for extrapolation from a subchronic to chronic data and due to the limitations in the reproductive toxicity database and derived an ADI of 0.5 mg/kg bw/day for propyl gallate.The Panel also concluded that there was no longer a basis for the present group ADI and that propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates should be evaluated separately and the present group ADI should be withdrawn. The high level of exposure exceeded the ADI in adults and the elderly. However, given the conservatism of the exposure assessment, the Panel concluded that the use of propyl gallate as food additive at the current uses and use levels is not of safety concern.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety of advantame for the proposed uses as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS provides a scientific opinion on the safety of advantame as a sweetener for use in the food categories specified in the dossier. Advantame is stable under normal storage conditions. The Panel noted that there is an indication of advantame instability in acidic beverages and thermally treated foods. Metabolism and toxicokinetics of advantame and its main metabolite, ANS9801-acid, have been studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs and humans. Advantame is rapidly but poorly absorbed and the main excretion route is via faeces. The Panel concluded that advantame does not raised concern with regards to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The critical effect observed in animal studies was maternal toxicity (gastrointestinal disturbances in the prenatal developmental toxicity study in rabbits. The NOAEL for this effect was 500 mg advantame/kg bw/day. Advantame was well tolerated in single or repeated doses up to 0.5 mg/kg bw/day by normo-glycemic or diabetic subjects. The Panel established an ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day based on the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to the NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/day for maternal toxicity from the prenatal developmental toxicity study in the rabbit. Conservative estimates of advantame exposure for high level adults and children consumers were below the ADI for the proposed use levels.

  11. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage.

  12. Romanian Consumers’ Willingness to Buy Foodstuffs Containing Food Additives: Results of a Conjoint Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szucs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the literature and the authors’ previous studies showed consumers’ high anxiety regarding food additives as well as their high demand for additive-free products in Romania, even at higher prices. Hence, the aim of our work was to analyse the willingness to buy and preference of foodstuffs containing natural and artificial food additives in Romania.A complex conjoint analysis (rating-based and choice-based was performed amongst Romanian consumers. Conjoint cards were created from two groups of food additives (‘preservatives’ and ‘packaging gases’, and consisting of two ‘model foodstuffs’ (pre-packed sliced cheese and chips. For the study, three factors were selected: ‘preservatives’ (artificial/natural, ‘packaging gases’ (contains/does not contain and ‘price’ (average+10%/average+20%. Results were collected via the internet and data were analysed with the help of SPSS Conjoint and XLSTAT softwares. ‘Preservatives’ have a dominant importance and ‘natural preservatives’ have a high utility in shopping decisions. ‘Natural’ compounds have higher importance in the example of foodstuffs thought to contain less food additives (pre-packed sliced cheese, while the presence of ‘packaging gases’ is acceptable to respondents in easy to handle and convenient foodstuffs. With the help of the cluster analysis, the promising target group (‘desire for natural’ characterising additive-free foodstuffs  that contain natural compounds was identified. Restricted comparison of the rating-based and the choice-based analysis showed that the choice-based method was easier to handle and understand for the participants. Regarding the results, a threefold conclusion was established: the ‘prominence effect’ is greater for the choice-based than the rating-based analysis; the effect of ‘level focusing’ is smaller in the rating-based than in the choice-based analysis; the ‘compatibility effect’ the rating

  13. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  14. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hazel A; Becker, Genevieve E

    2016-08-30

    Health organisations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries. Recently, research has suggested that introducing solid food at around four months of age while the baby continues to breastfeed is more protective against developing food allergies compared to exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Other studies have shown that the risks associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding are dependent on the type of additional food or fluid given. Given this background we felt it was important to update the previous version of this review to incorporate the latest findings from studies examining exclusive compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding. To assess the benefits and harms of additional food or fluid for full-term healthy breastfeeding infants and to examine the timing and type of additional food or fluid. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 March 2016) and reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in infants under six months of age comparing exclusive breastfeeding versus breastfeeding with any additional food or fluids. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two review authors assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 11 trials (2542 randomised infants/mothers). Nine trials (2226 analysed) provided data on outcomes of interest to this review. The variation in outcome measures and time points made it difficult to pool results from trials. Data could only be combined in a meta-analysis for one primary (breastfeeding duration) and one secondary (weight change) outcome. None of the trials reported on physiological jaundice. Infant mortality was only reported in one trial.For the majority of older trials, the description of study methods was inadequate to

  15. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  16. Multi-spectroscopic DNA interaction studies of sunset yellow food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Heidary Zeidali, Sahar; Omidfar, Kobra; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2012-12-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial due to their essential role. Synthetic color food additives occupy an important place in the food industry. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered the most vulnerable group. The purpose of this work is to present spectrophotometric methods to analyze the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with sunset yellow (SY) at physiological pH. Considerable hyperchromism and no red shift with an intrinsic binding constant of 7 × 10(4 )M(-1) were observed in UV absorption band of SY. Binding constants of DNA with complex were calculated at different temperatures. Slow increase in specific viscosity of DNA, induced circular dichroism spectral changes, and no significant changes in the fluorescence of neutral red-DNA solutions in the presence of SY suggest that this molecule interacts with CT-DNA via groove binding mode. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between SY and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is exothermic and enthalpy favored (∆H = -58.19 kJ mol(-1); ΔS = -274.36 kJ mol(-1) ) which are other evidences to indicate that van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding are the main running forces in the binding of the mentioned molecule and mode of interaction with DNA.

  17. Effect of lipase addition on hydrolysis and biomethane production of Chinese food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Li, Sang; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    The lipase obtained from Aspergillums niger was applied to promote the hydrolysis of food waste for achieving high biomethane production. Two strategies of lipase additions were investigated. One (Group A) was to pre-treat food waste to pre-decompose lipid to fatty acids before anaerobic digestion, and another one (Group B) was to add lipase to anaerobic digester directly to degrade lipid inside digester. The lipase was used at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% (w/v). The results showed that Group A achieved higher biomethane production, TS and VS reductions than those of Group B. At 0.5% lipase concentration, Group A obtained experimental biomethane yield of 500.1 mL/g VS(added), 4.97-26.50% higher than that of Group B. The maximum Bd of 73.8% was also achieved in Group A. Therefore, lipase pre-treatment strategy is recommended. This might provide one of alternatives for efficient biomethane production from food waste and mitigating environmental impact associated.

  18. Critical review of the safety assessment of nano-structured silica additives in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Suter, Mark; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-06-10

    The development of nano-materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano-sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano-particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano-materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano-structured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. A no observed adverse effect level of 2500 mg SAS particles/kg body weight per day was derived from the only available long-term administration study in rodents. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano-sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano-particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano-particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies.

  19. 76 FR 15986 - Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-255), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch... accordance with section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C....

  20. 77 FR 41953 - Representative Edward J. Markey; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... CONTACT: Vanee Komolprasert, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-275), Food and Drug.... Background Under section 409(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C....

  1. 76 FR 15985 - Hartech Corporation; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    .... Bonnette, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-255), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 348). FDA is therefore denying...

  2. 食品行业要科学规范使用食品添加剂%Food additives standards needs to be strictly followed in Food industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守文

    2012-01-01

    食品添加剂是伴随着食品工业的发展而发展的,食品添加剂可以有效地改善食品的色、香、味、形等感官品质,以及防腐保鲜,延长食品的贮存期.对食品工业的发展发挥着重要作用,没有食品添加剂,就没有现代食品工业.近年来,由于一些企业在食品中违法添加非食用物质,造成消费者对食品添加剂产生很深的误解,同时,也有一些企业违规超范围、超限量使用食品添加剂,给食品安全带来隐患.实际上,近年来发生的一些重大食品安全事件都是由于违法使用非食用物质引起的,没有一起是由于食品添加剂引起的.只要严格按照《食品添加剂使用标准》(GB2760)在食品中使用食品添加剂就是安全的.本文列举并分析了超范围、超量使用食品添加剂的问题和根源,详尽介绍了目前我国对食品添加剂的管理法规和标准要求,对食品行业如何科学规范地使用食品添加剂,确保食品安全提出了指导性意见和建议.%Food additives are developed with the food industry. Food additives can improve food quality on color, flavor, taste and texture. It can also preserve and extend the storage of the food effectively. It plays an important role in the modern food industry. Without food additives, it would be no modern food industry. However, in recent years, some of the food manufactories illegally adds non - edible substance in the foods and cause severe safety problem as well as consumer' s deep misunderstanding of food additives. Meanwhile, some of the companies exceeded use food additives in term of scope and quantities which also caused food safety problems. In fact, none of those severe food safety issues happened recently is caused by food additives, they are all due to illegal use of food additives. As long as the company follows the national standards GB 2760 "Food additives usage standards" , using food additives is safe. The causes of exceeding usage of

  3. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  4. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  5. DNA damage in human lymphocytes exposed to four food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Unal, Fatma; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Celik, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    In vitro genotoxic effects of antioxidant additives, such as citric acid (CA) and phosphoric acid (PA) and their combination, as well as antimicrobial additives, such as benzoic acid (BA) and calcium propionate (CP), on human lymphocytes were determined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase in the DNA damage in human lymphocytes after 1 h of in vitro exposure to CA, PA, BA and CP (200, 25-200, 50-500, 50-1000 μg/mL, respectively). The combination of CA and PA significantly increased the mean tail intensity at all the concentrations used (25-200 μg/mL) and significantly increased the mean tail length mainly after higher concentrations (100 and 200 μg/mL). Data in this study showed that the concentrations of food additives used induce DNA damage and PA was the most genotoxic and CA was less genotoxic additives among them.

  6. 77 FR 9608 - American Chemistry Council; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... CONTACT: Vanee Komolprasert, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-275), Food and Drug.... Background Under section 409(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 348..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  7. 食品安全与食品添加剂的关系探究%Research on the Relationship between Food Safety and Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古若海

    2016-01-01

    Food safety is related to the national economy and people's livelihood, so it has always been the focus of society. At present, people are very scared of food additives, but it is not necessary. This paper introduces the common illegal food additives and several detection methods, and introduces several safety food additives and their application from the perspective of food safety, to give a clear understanding of the use of food additives and the amount of food additives, at the same time it improves the food production and processing industries for food safety vigilance, and strives to provide safe and secure food for the community.%食品安全问题关系国计民生,向来是社会焦点。当下,老百姓对食品添加剂‘谈虎色变’,其实完全没有必要。本文详细介绍了几种常见非法食品添加剂及其检测方法,又从食品安全的角度介绍几种安全的食品添加剂及其使用规定,旨在让社会对食品添加剂的使用方法和用量有一个清晰地认识,同时提高食品生产加工行业对食品安全的警惕性,力求为社会提供安全放心的食品。

  8. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Kramer, E.; Oomen, A.G.; Rivera, Z.E.; Oegema, G.; Tromp, P.C.; Fokkink, R.; Rietveld, A.; Marvin, H.J.; Weigel, S.; Peijnenburg, A.A.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2012-01-01

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products s

  9. Presence of Nano-Sized Silica during In Vitro Digestion of Foods Containing Silica as a Food Additive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Kramer, E.H.M.; Oomen, A.G.; Rivera, Z.H.; Oegema, G.; Tromp, P.C.; Fokkink, R.G.; Rietveld, A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2012-01-01

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products s

  10. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Kramer, E.; Oomen, A.G.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Oegema, G.; Tromp, P.C.; Fokkink, R.; Rietveld, A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2012-01-01

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products s

  11. Characterization and biocompatibility of glucan: a safe food additive from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-03-15

    Exopolysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of an increasing number of studies for their potential applications in the food industry as stabilizing, bio-thickening and immunostimulating agents. In this regard, the authors isolated an exopolysaccharide producing probiotic lactic acid bacterium from fermented beverage Marcha of north eastern Himalayas. The isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 showed extracellular glucansucrase activity of 0.48 U mg⁻¹ by synthesizing natural exopolysaccharide glucan (1.87 mg mL⁻¹) from sucrose. Zymogram analysis of purified enzyme confirms the presence of glucosyltransferase of approximately 148 kDa with optimal activity of 18.7 U mg⁻¹ at 30 °C and pH 5.4. The exopolysaccharide was purified by gel permeation chromatography and had an average molecular weight of 1.11 × 10⁶ Da. Acid hydrolysis and structural characterization of exopolysaccharide revealed that it was composed of d-glucose residues, containing 86.5% of α-(1→6) and 13.5% of α-(1→3) linkages. Rheological study exhibited a shear thinning effect of glucan appropriate for food additives. A cytotoxicity test of glucan on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic biocompatible nature. This is the first report on the structure and biocompatibility of homopolysaccharide α-D-glucan (dextran) from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain and its unique physical and rheological properties that facilitate its application in the food industry as viscosifying and gelling agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (pBlue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  13. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-07-25

    Four types of SiO2, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w(-1)) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w(-1)). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO2-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOOD ADDITIVES FROM PUMPKIN PROCESSING SECONDARY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupin G. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data characterizing the composition of macro and micronutrients from secondary resources of pumpkin processing – pumpkin pomace. We have found that extracts of pumpkin are valuable raw materials for the production of food additives, as they contain proteins, dietary fiber, including pectin and protopectin, minerals, as well as such biologically active substances as vitamin C, β- carotene and P-active substances using nuclear magnetic relaxation, it is shown that pretreatment of pomace pumpkin in the microwave electromagnetic field of certain parameters before IR drying allows to transfer part of the bound moisture free moisture, that allows to intensify the subsequent process IR drying. We have developed an innovative technology of production of food supplements from pumpkin extracts, which is protected by Russian patent for the invention and having the “know-how” status. The article presents data describing the organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of quality nutritional supplements, formulated according to the developed technological regimes

  15. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  16. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowson, Andrew.

    1991-09-01

    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author).

  17. Effects of the food additive, citric acid, on kidney cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xg; Lv, Qx; Liu, Ym; Deng, W

    2015-01-01

    Citric acid is a food additive that is widely used in the food and drink industry. We investigated the effects of citric acid injection on mouse kidney. Forty healthy mice were divided into four groups of 10 including one control group and three citric acid-treated groups. Low dose, middle dose and high dose groups were given doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg of citric acid, respectively. On day 7, kidney tissues were collected for histological, biochemical and molecular biological examination. We observed shrinkage of glomeruli, widened urinary spaces and capillary congestion, narrowing of the tubule lumen, edema and cytoplasmic vacuolated tubule cells, and appearance of pyknotic nuclei. The relation between histopathological changes and citric acid was dose dependent. Compared to the control, T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the treated groups decreased with increasing doses of citric acid, NOS activity tended to increase, and H2O2 and MDA contents gradually decreased, but the differences between any treated group and the control were not statistically significant. The apoptosis assay showed a dose-dependent increase of caspase-3 activity after administering citrate that was statistically significant. DNA ladder formation occurred after treatment with any dose of citric acid. We concluded that administration of citric acid may cause renal toxicity in mice.

  18. Food and Drug Administration Approval for Use of Hiberix as a 3-Dose Primary Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccination Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Elizabeth C

    2016-04-29

    On January 14, 2016, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expand use of Hiberix (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate]) for a 3-dose infant primary vaccination series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. Hiberix was first licensed in the United States in August 2009 for use as a booster dose in children aged 15 months through 4 years under the Accelerated Approval Regulations, in response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage that lasted from December 2007 to July 2009 (1). Expanding the age indication to include infants provides another vaccine option in addition to other currently licensed monovalent or combination Hib vaccines recommended for the primary vaccination series.* Hiberix contains 10 μg purified capsular polyribosyl ribitolphosphate (PRP) conjugated to 25 μg tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) and is supplied as a single-dose vial of lyophilized vaccine to be reconstituted with saline diluent. For the 3-dose primary series, a single (0.5 mL) dose should be given by intramuscular injection at ages 2, 4, and 6 months; the first dose may be given as early as age 6 weeks. The recommended catch-up schedule for PRP-T vaccines (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html) should be followed. As previously recommended, a single booster dose should be administered to children aged 15 months through 18 months; to facilitate timely booster vaccination, Hiberix can be administered as early as age 12 months, in accordance with Hib vaccination schedules for routine and catch-up immunization (1-3).

  19. Review on Polygonum minus. Huds, a commonly used food additive in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parayil Varghese Christapher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae, generally known as ′kesum′ in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.

  20. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ADDITIVES AND INGREDIENTS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Drozdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we focus on the features of the collagen structure. In particular, we report the correlation between the amount of proline and hydroxyproline and the temperature of denaturation, as well as the changes of collagen structure after thermal treatment. After cooling, denaturated collagen forms dense jellies which may absorb a large amount of water. The influence of pH on the denaturalion temperature, solubility andthe strength characteristics of collagen-containing proteins are described. The review also describes the data on the influence of various food additives and chemicals (acids, alkalis, salts i.a. phosphates, hydrocolloids on the collagen protein structure and technological properties. The effect of acids, alkalis, salts on the properties of collagen dependson the nature and strength of the ions and their affinity for the collagen ions. The interactions between the collagen proteins and hydrocolloids result in the synergetic effect. Phosphates and collagen form solid structures.

  1. Structural and biocompatibility properties of dextran from Weissella cibaria JAG8 as food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingirikari, Jagan Mohan Rao; Kothari, Damini; Shukla, Rishikesh; Goyal, Arun

    2014-09-01

    Dextran produced from Weissella cibaria JAG8 was purified and characterized. The molecular mass of dextran as determined by the gel filtration and copper bicinchoninate method was approximately, 800 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that the polysaccharide comprised only glucose units. Dynamic light scattering study confirmed the mono-disperse nature of dextran with hydrodynamic radius of 900 nm. Surface morphology study of dextran by scanning electron microscopy showed the porous web like structure. Cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed non-toxic and biocompatible nature of dextran. The relative browning for dextran from W. cibaria JAG8 was similar to commercial prebiotic Nutraflora P-95 and 3-fold lower than Raftilose P-95. Synthesis of dextran by dextransucrase treated, sucrose-supplemented skimmed milk revealed the promising potential of dextran as a food additive.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of hexamethylene tetramine (E 239 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexamethylene tetramine (HMT is a food additive, currently only permitted in EU for use in Provolone cheese. The maximum permitted level is 25 mg/kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde, the break down product of HMT under acidic conditions. HMT has been previously evaluated by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, 1974 who established an ADI of 0.15 mg/kg bw/day based on a reproductive study with a NOEL of 15 mg/kg bw/day. Due to the limitations in the database the Panel could not identify a critical study and therefore to derive an ADI. However, the Panel noted that the exposure to formaldehyde from HMT of high level consumers of Provolone cheese equalled 18 µg formaldehyde/kg bw/day in adults and could be as high as 87 µg formaldehyde/kg bw/day in children according to a theoretical conservative assumption that all ripened cheese consumed was Provolone cheese. Considering the estimated exposure from the very limited permitted use, the toxicological database on HMT, the data from use of HMT therapeutically, the available oral toxicity and toxicokinetic data of formaldehyde and the magnitude of the potential effect on intracellular formaldehyde levels arising from this use of HMT, the Panel concluded that the use of HMT in Provolone cheese at the MPL of 25 mg/kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde, would not be of safety concern. However the Panel considered that any increase in the permitted uses of HMT or increases in the MPL of 25 mg /kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde would need detailed assessment which might require new toxicity data as well as use levels and/or an evaluation of its impact on formaldehyde levels in vivo.

  3. Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2013-03-01

    Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread use by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and "hidden" phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with CKD. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intake of these additives is not safe for public consumption and as such should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny.

  4. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically

  5. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ...‐evaluating the safety of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (E 321). BHT is an authorised synthetic antioxidant that was previously evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA...

  7. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  8. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview Blvd., Parsippany, NJ...

  9. 76 FR 71248 - Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... currently consistent with the provisions of the final rule. An informal survey of pet food products for dogs...) under industry code 311111-- Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing. Census data from 2002 in this category show that 175 companies with 242 establishments make dog and cat foods in the United States (198 companies...

  10. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  11. Some Technological Challenges in the Addition of Probiotic Bacteria to Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.

    In North-America, up to 93% of consumers believe certain foods have health benefits that may reduce the risk of disease (Clydesdale, 2005). Using a strict definition, limited to food and drinks that tend to make specific health claims of some kind on the packaging or in advertising, the functional foods (FF) and drinks market in the five major European markets, the USA, Japan and Australia had a combined value of 16 billion USD in 2005 (Leatherhead Food International, 2006). Dairy products account for nearly 43% of this market, which is almost entirely made up of fermented dairy products (Leatherhead Food International, 2006).

  12. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contado, Catia, E-mail: Catia.Contado@unife.it [University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [University of Ferrara, Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnologies, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Passarella, Martina [University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Four types of SiO{sub 2} particles were characterized by SdFFF, PCS and EM techniques. •Clusters of 10 nm nanoparticles were found in some SiO{sub 2} samples. •A method was set up to extract SiO{sub 2} particles from food matrices. •The effects of the carrier solution composition on SdFFF separations were evaluated. •Particle size distributions were obtained from SiO{sub 2} particles extracted from foodstuffs. -- Abstract: Four types of SiO{sub 2}, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w{sup −1}) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO{sub 2} sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO{sub 2} particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO{sub 2} content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w{sup −1}). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO{sub 2}-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification.

  13. Effects of Food Additives on Drying Rate, Rehydration Ratio and Sense Value of Freeze-dried Dumplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dumpling has always been a traditional and delicious food in China. Nevertheless, the rehydration effects, especially the nip of dumplings, are far from people’s satisfaction. To solve this problem, in this study, aimed at the improving the rehydration properties of freeze-dried dumplings, three kinds of food additives, including compound phosphate, soybean lecithin and guar gum, were added into dumplings wrappers. Results showed that, the drying rate, rehydration ratio and sense value were the highest with respective addition of 0.1% compound phosphate, 0.6% soybean lecithin and 0.35% guar gum. The interactions between freeze-dried dumplings and food additives were discussed, which provided the theory foundation for preparation of freeze-dried food.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame (E 951. Aspartame is a sweetener authorised as a food additive in the EU. In previous evaluations by JECFA and the SCF, an ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day was established based on chronic toxicity in animals. Original reports, previous evaluations, additional literature and data made available following a public call were evaluated. Aspartame is rapidly and completely hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. Chronic and developmental toxicities were relevant endpoints in the animal database. From chronic toxicity studies in animals, a NOAEL of 4000 mg/kg bw/day was identified. The possibility of developmental toxicity occurring at lower doses than 4000 mg/kg in animals could not be excluded. Based on MoA and weight-of-evidence analysis, the Panel concluded that developmental toxicity in animals was attributable to phenylalanine. Phenylalanine at high plasma levels is known to cause developmental toxicity in humans. The Panel concluded that human data on developmental toxicity were more appropriate for the risk assessment. Concentration-response modelling was used to determine the effects of aspartame administration on plasma phenylalanine using human data after phenylalanine administration to normal, PKU heterozygote or PKU homozygote individuals. In normal and PKU heterozygotes, aspartame intakes up to the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day, in addition to dietary phenylalanine, would not lead to peak plasma phenylalanine concentrations above the current clinical guideline for the prevention of adverse effects in fetuses. The Panel concluded that aspartame was not of safety concern at the current aspartame exposure estimates or at the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day. Therefore, there was no reason to revise the ADI of aspartame. Current exposures to aspartame - and its degradation product DKP - were below their respective ADIs. The ADI is not applicable

  15. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of 4-hexylresorcinol (E 586 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS delivers an opinion re-evaluating the safety of an antioxidant 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR (E 586. The SCF in 2003 and the JECFA in 1996 recognised that available database was not sufficient to establish an ADI but considered 4-HR toxicologically acceptable for prevention of melanosis in shrimps provided residues in crustacean meat did not exceed 2 mg/kg (SCF or 1 mg/kg (JECFA. The Panel was not provided with a newly submitted dossier and no new toxicological or biological information was submitted for the present re-evaluation following a public call for data and based its evaluation on previous evaluations and additional literature that became available since then. The Panel agreed with the SCF that the database did not allow the establishment of an ADI. The Panel considered nephropathy in mice as the most sensitive endpoint for 4-HR toxicity. The lowest BMDL10 for nephropathy in carcinogenicity study in mice (4 mg/kg bw/day and the highest exposure estimate (3.3 µg/kg bw/day, adults, 95th percentile of consumers only provided the MoS considered by the Panel as sufficient given the conservative nature of exposure estimates and limited uses. The Panel concluded that 4-HR was toxicologically acceptable for prevention of melanosis in shrimps and related crustaceans provided that residues in crustacean meat do not exceed 2 mg/kg. The Panel concluded that any increase in the permitted use would require additional reproductive toxicity studies. As the information on actual residual levels in crustaceans was limited the Panel recommended monitoring of these levels in the European market.

  16. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  17. Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals.

  18. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  19. 78 FR 71457 - Food Additive Regulations; Incorporation by Reference of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...) Vitamin D2 Meets FCC 7 specifications. 172.380(b) Vitamin D3 Meets FCC 7 specifications. 172.665(d)(2... Sec. 172.379 by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows: Sec. 172.379 Vitamin D 2 . * * * * * (b) Vitamin D 2 meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th ed. (2010), pp. 1080-1081, which...

  20. Characterization of glucansucrase and dextran from Weissella sp. TN610 with potential as safe food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Wacim; Gabriel, Valérie; Amari, Myriam; Morel, Sandrine; Mezghani, Monia; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Pear-derived Weissella sp. TN610 produced extracellular glycosyltransferase activity responsible for the synthesis of soluble exopolysaccharide from sucrose. Acid and dextranase-catalyzed hydrolysis revealed that the synthesized polymer was a glucan. According to (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis, the glucan produced by TN610 was a linear dextran made of 96% α-(1→6) and 4% α-(1→3) linkages. Zymogram analysis confirmed the presence of a unique glucansucrase of approximately 180 kDa in the cell-free supernatant from TN610. The crude enzyme, optimally active at 37°C and pH 5, has promising potential for application as a food additive since it catalyzes dextran synthesis in sucrose-supplemented milk, allowing its solidification. A 4257-bp product corresponding to the mature glucansucrase gene was amplified by PCR from TN610. It encoded a polypeptide of 1418 residues having a calculated molecular mass of 156.089 kDa and exhibiting 96% and 95% identity with glucansucrases from Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and Weissella cibaria CMU, respectively.

  1. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  2. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  3. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  4. FOOD WEB OF A TROPICAL HIGH MOUNTAIN STREAM: EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Castro-Rebolledo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a nutrient enrichment experiment in an Andean mountain stream, we used stable isotope ratios (15N and 13C to analyze different trophic compartments: 1 basal level: CPOM and biofilm; 2 primary consumers – macroinvertebrates: collector-gatherers(Heterelmissp, Thraulodessp andTrichorythodessp, and collector-filterers (Simuliumsp; 3 predators – fish (Oncorhynchusmykiss and Trichomycterusbogotensis.The average fractionation of nitrogen among the primary consumers with respect to CPOM was 4.7‰ and 1.7‰ with respect to biofilm. Predators incrementedtheir15N signalby 5.9% with respect to primary consumers.A depletion of15N was observed in Impact with respect tocontrol reach after fertilization in different compartments (biofilm, Heterelmissp., Simuliumsp. andTricorythodessp., while depletion was not significant for top predators. In most cases, the 13C signal of biofilm overlapped with that of primary consumers, but a clear enrichment was observed with respect to CPOM.The macroinvertebrates referred to were selected to analyze their gut content and the results showed us that fine detritus is the most abundant food in invertebrates, and onlyHeterelmis sp. showed significant differences in fine detritus and vegetal matter between control and impact reaches after the nutrient addition.

  5. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  6. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  7. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  8. 76 FR 82077 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed or Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... and Sources of Radiation Listed or Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products... listed or approved for use in the production of meat and poultry products. DATES: December 30, 2011... Meat and Poultry Products'' (64 FR 72168). Among other things, this final rule consolidated various...

  9. 77 FR 26706 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products... the list of substances that the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. Under this proposal, new uses of these substances in meat or poultry products would continue to be approved by the...

  10. 76 FR 78530 - Applications for Food and Drug Administration Approval To Market a New Drug; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration Approval To Market a New Drug; Revision of Postmarketing Reporting Requirements-- Discontinuance... concern that, although the Orange Book lists all drug products with approved new drug applications (NDA) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDA), it is not possible to determine whether the...

  11. Effects of Food Additives on Food Safety and Its Countermeasures%食品添加剂对食品安全的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强克娟; 张哲

    2015-01-01

    Food additives play a very important role in people's daily life. The use of scientific and reasonable will not only do harm to food safety, but also improve people's living standards, to meet the diverse needs of food consumption, and to promote the food industry forward. This article briefly analyzed the relationship between food additives and food safety, and putted forward some corresponding countermeasures.%食品添加剂在人们的日常生活中起着非常重要的作用。科学合理的使用不仅不会危害食品安全,相反还会提高人们的生活水平,满足人们对食品消费的多样化需求,同时还能促进食品工业向前发展。本文就食品添加剂与食品安全的关系进行简要分析,并提出几点相应的对策。

  12. Stocking characteristics and perceived increases in sales among small food store managers/owners associated with the introduction of new food products approved by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Laska, Melissa N; Zenk, Shannon N; Tester, June; Rose, Donald; Odoms-Young, Angela; McCoy, Tara; Gittelsohn, Joel; Foster, Gary D; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the impact of the 2009 food packages mandated by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on perceived sales, product selection and stocking habits of small, WIC-authorized food stores. A cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews with store managers/owners. Small, WIC-authorized food stores in eight major cities in the USA. Fifty-two store managers/owners who had at least 1 year of experience in the store prior to study participation. The WIC-approved food products (fresh, canned and frozen fruits; fresh, canned and frozen vegetables; wholegrain/whole-wheat bread; white corn/whole-wheat tortillas; brown rice; lower-fat milk (new WIC-approved foods including those considered most profitable (wholegrain/whole-wheat bread (89 %), lower-fat milk (89 %), white corn/whole wheat tortillas (54 %)), but perceived no changes in sales of processed fruits and vegetables. Supply mechanisms and frequency of supply acquisition were only moderately associated with perceived sales increases. Regardless of type or frequency of supply acquisition, perceived increases in sales provided some evidence for the potential sustainability of these WIC policy efforts and translation of this policy-based strategy to other health promotion efforts aimed at improving healthy food access in underserved communities.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Indigo Carmine (E 132 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Indigo Carmine (E132. The Panel observed that Indigo Carmine was poorly absorbed and does not raise concern for genotoxicity. No adverse effects in subacute, chronic, reproduction and developmental toxicity studies, and no modifications of haematological and biological parameters in chronic toxicity studies have been identified at doses less than or equal to 500 mg/kg bw/day. The only report of an adverse effect was in testis with a LOAEL of 17 mg/kg bw/day which would give rise to a safety concern if confirmed. The Panel considered that this study has shortcomings since it is not clear to the Panel whether the adverse effects observed were due to the food additive itself or to impurities and/or contaminants present in the material tested and/or to the conduct of the study. The Panel considered that the current ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day for Indigo Carmine was applicable to a material with the same purity and manufacturing process as material used in studies without adverse effects on testis (93% pure colouring and 7% volatile matter and concluded that any extension of this ADI to Indigo Carmine of lower purity and/or manufactured using a different process would require new data which would need to address the adverse effects on testis. The Panel noted that at the MPL, exposure estimates of Indigo Carmine would exceed the ADI for toddlers and children at the high level. Exposure estimates using the available usage and analytical data did not show an exceedance of the ADI for any population groups.

  14. Determination of 30 synthetic food additives in soft drinks by HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Minli; Wang, Minglin; Zhao, Yansheng; Cao, Ya; Chu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    A method combining SPE with HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS/MS was developed for simultaneous determination of 30 synthetic food additives, including synthetic colorants, preservatives, and sweeteners in soft drinks. All targets were efficiently separated using the optimized chromatographic and MS conditions and parameters in a single run within 18 min. The LOD of the analytes ranged from 0.01 to 20 microg/kg, and the method was validated with recoveries in the 80.8 to 106.4% range. This multisynthetic additive method was found to be accurate and reliable and will be useful to ensure the safety of food products, such as the labeling and proper use of synthetic food additives in soft drinks.

  15. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier.

  16. 我国食品添加剂法规标准现状与应用体会%The codex and standards of food additives in China and application experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志飞; 林海丹; 易蓉; 陈永红; 刘超

    2012-01-01

    介绍了《食品安全法》及各部门规章对食品添加剂新品种审批、食品添加剂生产、使用、进出口等的管理规定,还介绍了食品添加剂的使用、产品规格、生产规范、标签、检测方法等标准体系,并根据使用标准、产品标准和检测方法标准的实际应用情况,对我国食品添加剂标准体系的完善进行了探讨.%The approval of new varieties of food additives, the production, use, import and export of food additives in the Food Safety Law, and departmental rules and regulations were described. The standard system, including the use of food additives, product specifications, manufacturing practice, labeling and testing method, were also introduced. The improvement of the standard system of food additives in China was discussed based on the practical application of standards, product standards and standard of test method.

  17. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cosmetic Act, which reads in part: “A food shall be deemed to be adulterated if it bears or contains any... Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, along with a copy of his letter of inquiry,...

  18. 78 FR 8101 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... nisin (INS 234) in food category 08.0 ``Meat and meat products, including poultry and game'' (replies to..., large print, or audiotape.) should contact USDA's Target Center at 202-720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file...

  19. Frequency and Severity of Neutropenia Associated with Food and Drug Administration Approved and Compounded Formulations of Lomustine in Dogs with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J H; Stanley, S D; Knych, H K; Rodriguez, C O; Skorupski, K A; Rebhun, R B

    2016-01-01

    Compounded lomustine is used commonly in veterinary patients. However, the potential variability in these formulations is unknown and concern exists that compounded formulations of drugs may differ in potency from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved products. The initial objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of neutropenia in dogs treated with compounded or FDA-approved formulations of lomustine. Subsequent analyses aimed to determine the potency of lomustine obtained from several compounding pharmacies. Thirty-seven dogs treated with FDA-approved or compounded lomustine. Dogs that received compounded or FDA-approved lomustine and had pretreatment and nadir CBCs performed were eligible for inclusion. Variables assessed included lomustine dose, neutrophil counts, and severity of neutropenia. Lomustine 5 mg capsules from 5 compounding sources were tested for potency using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. Twenty-one dogs received FDA-approved lomustine and 16 dogs were treated with lomustine prescribed from a single compounding pharmacy. All dogs treated with FDA-approved lomustine were neutropenic after treatment; 15 dogs (71%) developed grade 3 or higher neutropenia. Four dogs (25%) given compounded lomustine became neutropenic, with 2 dogs (12.5%) developing grade 3 neutropenia. The potency of lomustine from 5 compounding pharmacies ranged from 50 to 115% of the labeled concentration, with 1 sample within ±10% of the labeled concentration. These data support broader investigation into the potency and consistency of compounded chemotherapy drugs and highlight the potential need for greater oversight of these products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-07-10

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  1. U.S. Food and drug administration approval: obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyon-Zu; Miller, Barry W; Kwitkowski, Virginia E; Ricci, Stacey; DelValle, Pedro; Saber, Haleh; Grillo, Joseph; Bullock, Julie; Florian, Jeffry; Mehrotra, Nitin; Ko, Chia-Wen; Nie, Lei; Shapiro, Marjorie; Tolnay, Mate; Kane, Robert C; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Justice, Robert; Farrell, Ann T; Pazdur, Richard

    2014-08-01

    On November 1, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved obinutuzumab (GAZYVA; Genentech, Inc.), a CD20-directed cytolytic antibody, for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In stage 1 of the trial supporting approval, patients with previously untreated CD20-positive CLL were randomly allocated (2:2:1) to obinutuzumab + chlorambucil (GClb, n = 238), rituximab + chlorambucil (RClb, n = 233), or chlorambucil alone (Clb, n = 118). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR). Only the comparison of GClb to Clb was relevant to this approval and is described herein. A clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement in PFS with medians of 23.0 and 11.1 months was observed in the GClb and Clb arms, respectively (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.11-0.24; P < 0.0001, log-rank test). The ORRs were 75.9% and 32.1% in the GClb and Clb arms, respectively, and the complete response rates were 27.8% and 0.9% in the GClb and Clb arms, respectively. The most common adverse reactions (≥10%) reported in the GClb arm were infusion reactions, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, pyrexia, cough, and musculoskeletal disorders. Obinutuzumab was the first Breakthrough Therapy-designated drug to receive FDA approval. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. On performance and applications of common food additives%浅谈常用食品添加剂的性能特点及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 乔建芬

    2011-01-01

    The definition and development trend of food additives were introduced.Food preservatives, food emulsifiers, food thickeners, food flavorings and food pigments were mainly introduced. The safe use of food additives was emphasized.%介绍了食品添加剂的定义、发展趋势;重点介绍了食品防腐剂、食品乳化剂、增稠剂、食品调味剂以及食用色素等的性能特点及应用;强调食品添加剂的使用安全。

  3. FDA Approvals - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on new Food and Drug Administration approvals of cancer drugs. All posts include summaries of the evidence to support the new approvals and what they mean for patients.

  4. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and ...

  5. Bromocriptine mesylate: Food and Drug Administration approved new approach in therapy of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keche, Yogendra

    2010-04-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved bromocriptine mesylate, a quick release formulation, 0.8 mg tablets, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine products were previously approved by the FDA for the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinson's disease. Bromocriptine is thought to act on circadian neuronal activities within the hypothalamus to reset abnormally elevated hypothalamic drive for increased plasma glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in fasting and postprandial states in insulin-resistant patients. Adverse events most commonly reported in clinical trials of bromocriptine included nausea, fatigue, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. These events lasted a median of 14 days and were more likely to occur during initial titration of the drug. Due to novel mechanism of action, single daily dose, and lower incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular events, bromocriptine may act as landmark in treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  6. The application of in vitro data in the derivation of the acceptable daily intake of food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, K.; Walker, R.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Castell, J.V.; Knapp, A.G.A.A.; Kozianowski, G.; Roberfroid, M.; Schilter, B.

    1999-01-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for food additives is commonly derived from the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) in long-term animal in vivo studies. To derive an ADI a safety or uncertainty factor (commonly 100) is applied to the NOAEL in the most sensitive test species. The 100-fold

  7. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  8. Interactive effects of prey refuge and additional food for predator in a diffusive predator-prey system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Additional food for predators has been considered as one of the best established techniques in integrated pest management and biological conservation programs. In natural systems, there are several other factors, e.g., prey refuge, affect the success of pest control. In this paper, we analyze a p...

  9. The application of in vitro data in the derivation of the acceptable daily intake of food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, K.; Walker, R.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Castell, J.V.; Knapp, A.G.A.A.; Kozianowski, G.; Roberfroid, M.; Schilter, B.

    1999-01-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for food additives is commonly derived from the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) in long-term animal in vivo studies. To derive an ADI a safety or uncertainty factor (commonly 100) is applied to the NOAEL in the most sensitive test species. The 100-fold safe

  10. 21 CFR 73.1 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (as identified in § 172.868 of this chapter). Ethylene glycol distearate. Japan wax. Limed rosin. Naphtha. Pentaerythritol ester of fumaric acid-rosin adduct. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (as identified in... forth in sec. 173.55 of this chapter In or as food-tablet coatings; limit, not more than 0.1 pct in the...

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  12. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  13. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  14. Prolonged use of the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel intrauterine device: 2 years beyond Food and Drug Administration-approved duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Colleen; Swor, Erin; Wan, Leping; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-06-01

    The subdermal contraceptive implant and the 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine device are currently Food and Drug Administration approved for 3 and 5 years of use, respectively. Limited available data suggested both of these methods are effective beyond that time. Demonstration of prolonged effectiveness will improve the cost-effectiveness of the device, and potentially patient continuation and satisfaction. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the contraceptive implant and the 52-mg hormonal intrauterine device in women using the method for 2 years beyond the current Food and Drug Administration-approved duration. We initiated this ongoing prospective cohort study in January 2012. We are enrolling women using the contraceptive implant or 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine device for a minimum of 3 and 5 years, respectively (started intrauterine device in ≥2007 or implant in ≥2009). Demographic and reproductive health histories, as well as objective body mass index, were collected. Implant users were offered periodic venipuncture for analysis of serum etonogestrel levels. The primary outcome, unintended pregnancy rate, was calculated per 100 woman-years. We analyzed baseline demographic characteristics using χ(2) test and Fisher exact test, and compared serum etonogestrel levels stratified by body mass index using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Implant users (n = 291) have contributed 444.0 woman-years of follow-up. There have been no documented pregnancies in implant users during the 2 years of postexpiration follow-up. Calculated failure rates in the fourth and fifth years for the implant are calculated as 0 (1-sided 97.5% confidence interval, 0-1.48) per 100 woman-years at 4 years and 0 (1-sided 97.5% confidence interval, 0-2.65) per 100 woman-years at 5 years. Among 496 levonorgestrel intrauterine device users, 696.9 woman-years of follow-up have been completed. Two pregnancies have been reported. The failure rate in the sixth year of use of the

  15. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of montan acid esters (E 912 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to deliver a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of montan acid esters (E 912 when used as a food additive. Montan acids are extracted from oxidised montan wax and esterified with ethylene glycol, 1,3-butanediol or triols, to form montan acid esters. Montan acid esters are authorised only for the surface treatment of fresh fruits. No data, specifically for montan acid esters, on toxicokinetics and reproductive and developmental toxicity were available. The available data on short-term and subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity were limited. Important deficiencies in the available studies on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity were noticed. The data requested in the 1990s (i.e. chromosomal aberration in vitro, reproduction and teratogenicity studies, material characteristics, impurities, presence of PAHs were not submitted. Furthermore no data were submitted following an EFSA public call for data in 2012. The Panel identified some summary data in the European Chemicals Agency database (ECHA on registered substances that might have been relevant for the assessment of montan acid esters but the original study reports were not made available to EFSA. Based on these limitations in the toxicological database the Panel concluded that montan acid esters as a food additive could not be evaluated.

  16. The ABCs of the FDA: A Primer on the Role of the United States Food and Drug Administration in Medical Device Approvals and IR Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, Ashley; Park, Susie; Siskin, Gary P; Englander, Meridith J; Mandato, Kenneth D; Herr, Allen; Keating, Lawrence J

    2015-09-01

    The role of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in medical device regulation is important to device-driven specialties such as interventional radiology. Whether it is through industry-sponsored trials during the approval process for new devices or investigator-initiated research prospectively evaluating the role of existing devices for new or established procedures, interaction with the FDA is an integral part of performing significant research in interventional radiology. This article reviews the potential areas of interface between the FDA and interventional radiology, as understanding these areas is necessary to continue the innovation that is the hallmark of this specialty.

  17. Legislation and regulations of food additives in the United States and its inspiration%美国食品添加剂的安全监管及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筠筠; 杨嘉玮

    2014-01-01

    食品添加剂在食品行业中占有重要地位,它的使用直接关系着食品的性能与安全,因而食品添加剂安全监管体制在整个社会法制体系中占有重要的地位。美国联邦食品、药品和化妆品法规定,只有经过美国食品药品监督管理局评价和公布的食品添加剂才能生产和在食品中使用。本文综述了美国食品添加剂的法律法规及监管体系。美国十分重视对食品添加剂的法律法规体系建设,并形成了严格、规范、有效的监管,其中有些经验对我国完善食品添加剂管理法规和监管体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%Safety of food additives is an important issue related to food industry, so the use of the additives in food should be controlled by law. In the United States, the Congress has entrusted the Food and Drug Ad-ministration (FDA) with the responsibility to ensure that additives to be used in food are safe, thus a new food additive must be approved by FDA before it can be used in food. This paper reviewed the legislation and regu-lation system concerning food additives in the United States. The results showed that FDA had developed a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system to assure the safety of food additive. Management of food additives in the United States is also a helpful reference for our country.

  18. Progress in the Fight Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria? A Review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Approved Antibiotics, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Dalia; Outterson, Kevin; Powers, John H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-09-06

    A weak antibiotic pipeline and the increase in drug-resistant pathogens have led to calls for more new antibiotics. Eight new antibiotics were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between January 2010 and December 2015: ceftaroline, fidaxomicin, bedaquiline, dalbavancin, tedizolid, oritavancin, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. This study evaluates the development course and pivotal trials of these antibiotics for their innovativeness, development process, documented patient outcomes, and cost. Data sources were FDA approval packages and databases (January 2010 to December 2015); the Red Book (Truven Health Analytics); Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (FDA); and supplementary information from company filings, press releases, and media reports. Four antibiotics were approved for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection. Seven had similar mechanisms of action to those of previously approved drugs. Six were initially developed by small to midsized companies, and 7 are currently marketed by 1 of 3 large companies. The drugs spent a median of 6.2 years in clinical trials (interquartile range [IQR], 5.4 to 8.8 years) and 8 months in FDA review (IQR, 7.5 to 8 months). The median number of patients enrolled in the pivotal trials was 666 (IQR, 553 to 739 patients; full range, 44 to 1005 patients), and median trial duration was 18 months (IQR, 15 to 22 months). Seven drugs were approved on the basis of pivotal trials evaluating noninferiority. One drug demonstrated superiority on an exploratory secondary end point, 2 showed decreased efficacy in patients with renal insufficiency, and 1 showed increased mortality compared with older drugs. Seven of the drugs are substantially more expensive than their trial comparators. Limitations are that future research may show benefit to patients, new drugs from older classes may show superior effectiveness in specific patient populations, and

  19. Directions on the use of stevia leaves (Stevia Rebauidana) as an additive in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus-Moryson, Małgorzata; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high intake of sugars, especially sucrose, global trends in food processing have encouraged producers to use sweeteners, particularly synthetic ones, to a wide extent. For several years, increasing attention has been paid in the literature to the stevia (Stevia rebauidana), containing glycosidic diterpenes, for which sweetening properties have been identified. Chemical composition, nutritional value and application of stevia leaves are briefl y summarized and presented.

  20. Directions on the use of stevia leaves (Stevia Rebauidana as an additive in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kobus-Moryson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high intake of sugars, especially sucrose, global trends in food processing have encouraged producers to use sweeteners, particularly synthetic ones, to a wide extent. For several years, increasing attention has been paid in the literature to the stevia (Stevia rebauidana, containing glycosidic diterpenes, for which sweetening properties have been identifi ed. Chemical composition, nutritional value and application of stevia leaves are briefl y summarized and presented.

  1. Regulation of Cancer-Causing Food Additives-Time for a Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-11

    A specific level is too confining; a range of risk should be used. Views on labeling A consensus emerged among food safety experts we interviewed...1965 FDA set an action level of 30 parts per billion (ppb) for aflatoxin , a potent carcinogen produced by a fungus found primarily on corn and peanuts... levels , FDA considered the economic and technological feasibility of reducing the contamination. According to FDA, aflatoxin was not banned be- cause

  2. Essential Oil of Common Thyme as a Natural Antimicrobial Food Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Dolenc Koce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of thyme essential oil against selected microorganisms, including Fusarium sp., Armillaria mellea, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Buttiauxella sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli K-12, AmpC-producing E. coli Z, ESBL-producing E. coli strain of KM clonal group ST131, and E. coli 1138 were evaluated. The antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oil was determined using agar well diffusion assays. The growth of all tested bacteria was inhibited at thyme essential oil fractions higher than 1 %, while a fraction of 10 % was needed to inhibit the growth of fungi. We demonstrate that thyme essential oil has a promising activity against food spoilage bacteria, and also against multiresistant AmpC-producing and ESBL-producing bacterial strains isolated from food, which have recently been recognised as public health concerns. On the basis of our data, the thyme essential oil has a potential for use as a growth inhibitor of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and fungi, to replace commonly used semi-synthetic antimicrobial products.

  3. What Are We Putting in Our Food That Is Making Us Fat? Food Additives, Contaminants, and Other Putative Contributors to Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Amber L.; Jennifer J. Schlezinger; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    The “chemical obesogen” hypothesis conjectures that synthetic, environmental contaminants are contributing to the global epidemic of obesity. In fact, intentional food additives (e.g., artificial sweeteners and colors, emulsifiers) and unintentional compounds (e.g., bisphenol A, pesticides) are largely unstudied in regard to their effects on overall metabolic homeostasis. With that said, many of these contaminants have been found to dysregulate endocrine function, insulin signaling, and/or ad...

  4. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE E 920 ADDITIVE (L - CYSTEINE IN RELATION TO SOME PROBLEMS OF MODERN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiana Maria TAMBA BEREHOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the current state of knowledge about the use of L - cysteine in food industry, regarding certain cultural, legal, technological, toxicological, and other aspects that influence the attitude of the consumerstowards food. Use of L - cysteine and its derivatives in bakery allows the optimizing of the technological characteristics of flours and their higher recovery, by using products with high added value. Use the E 920 additivein human food is subject to the cultural and religious controversy, due to the generalized process of obtaining this additive from animal products (keratin. Our study shows that these controversies will be overcome when industrialfermentative technologies of L - cysteine production will be generalized in the market. There exist no data on thepotential toxicity of L - cysteine in the usual doses which are used in the baking industry. The only threat to the status of E 920 as a safe additive is the excitotoxic potential, suggested in several recent studies. Also, there exists a potential for extending the use of L - cysteine in the food industry in order to reduce the contamination degree withcertain chemicals having carcinogen potential, such as acrylamide and mycotoxins.

  7. Increased food intake after the addition of amylase-rich flour to supplementary food for malnourished children in rural communities of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Iqbal; Wahed, M A; Ahmed, Shaheen

    2005-12-01

    In Bangladesh, as in other developing countries, protein-energy malnutrition is mostprevalent among children during weaning. After weaning, children are often fed cereal-based diluted low-calorie porridge, resulting in growth-faltering. To assess the effect on food intake of adding amylase-rich flour (ARF) from germinated wheat to supplementary food among children in nine rural Community Nutrition Centers under the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP). A total of 166 malnourished children of either sex, aged 6 to 24 months, received one of three diets randomly allocated to the Community Nutrition Centers. The composition of the diets was the same; however, the consistency and calorie density were altered by adding either ARF or water. Thirty-five children received the standard supplementary food of the BINP (S-SF), 65 received supplementaryfood with added ARF (ARF-SF), and 66 received supplementary food with added water (W-SF). The children were studied for six weeks. Results. The mean +/- SD intake of supplementaryfood from a single meal by children completing six weeks on the diets was higher for children receiving ARF-SF (33.91 +/- 8.25 g) than for those receiving S-SF (25.66 +/- 6.73 g) or W-SF (30.26 +/- 8.39g) (p food was significantly higher for children receiving W-SF than for children in the other two groups. Weight gain and increments in length and weight-for-height were higher for children who received ARF-SF than for children in the other two groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. The acceptability ofARF-SF was higher than that of the two other diets. The additional cost of adding 2 g of ARF to the diet was about Taka 0.25 (U.S. dollar 1 = Taka 48). Addition of ARF to existing standard supplementary food, as used under the BINP program, is a simple and effective means to increase the intake of food by changing its consistency, thus making it easier for malnourished children to ingest.

  8. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSDadditives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials.

  9. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab administered at approved doses may delay development of trastuzumab resistance by additively enhancing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gábor; Szöőr, Árpád; Simon, László; Yarden, Yosef; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György

    2016-10-01

    Although the recently concluded CLEOPATRA trial showed clinical benefits of combining trastuzumab and pertuzumab for treating HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, trastuzumab monotherapy is still the mainstay in adjuvant settings. Since trastuzumab resistance occurs in over half of these cancers, we examined the mechanisms by which treatment of intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant and -sensitive tumors can benefit from the combination of these antibodies. F(ab')2 of both trastuzumab and pertuzumab were generated and validated in order to separately analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)-based and direct biological effects of the antibodies. Compared to monotherapy, combination of the two antibodies at clinically permitted doses enhanced the recruitment of natural killer cells responsible for ADCC, and significantly delayed the outgrowth of xenografts from intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 cells. Antibody dose-response curves of in vitro ADCC showed that antibody-mediated killing can be saturated, and the two antibodies exert an additive effect at sub-saturation doses. Thus, the additive effect in vivo indicates that therapeutic tissue levels likely do not saturate ADCC. Additionally, isobole studies with the in vitro trastuzumab-sensitive BT-474 cells showed that the direct biological effect of combined treatment is additive, and surpasses the maximum effect of either monotherapy. Our results suggest the combined therapy is expected to give results that are superior to monotherapy, whatever the type of HER2-positive tumor may be. The combination of both antibodies at maximum clinically approved doses should thus be administered to patients to recruit maximum ADCC and cause maximum direct biological growth inhibition.

  10. A comprehensive study of the presence of some food additives in non-alcoholic beverages in Republic of Macedonia from the period 2008- 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or enhance its taste and appearance. The most abundant additives used in production of refreshing-non alcoholic beverages (soft drinks) are: potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate caffeine, some artificial food colourings, artificial sweeteners etc. Different medical studies have shown that the usage of additives have various impact on human’s health. In the current study, the presence of: preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium ...

  11. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the revised exposure assessment of steviol glycosides (E 960 for the proposed uses as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of steviol glycosides (E 960 from its use as a food additive, taking into account the proposed extension of uses. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the safety of steviol glycosides (E 960 and established an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI of 4 mg/kg body weight (bw per day. Conservative estimates of exposure, both in adults and children, suggested that it is likely that the ADI would be exceeded at the maximum proposed use level. In 2011, EFSA carried out a revised exposure assessment for steviol glycosides based on revised proposed uses and concluded that high level dietary exposure in children may still exceed the ADI. The current refined exposure estimates are based on the currently authorised uses, the proposed extension, and the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. The mean dietary exposure to steviol glycosides ranges from 0.1 mg/kg bw/day in adults and the elderly, to 2.4 mg/kg bw/day in toddlers. Estimates at the 95th percentile of exposure range from 0.3 to 4.3 mg/kg bw/day in the elderly and toddlers, respectively. The Panel concluded that dietary exposure to steviol glycosides is considerably lower than that in the previous exposure assessment. Overall, the revised exposure estimates for all age groups remain below the ADI, except for toddlers at the upper range of the high level (95th percentile estimates, in one country. Moreover, the Panel noted that table top sweeteners may represent an important source of exposure and therefore a MPL with a numerical value, rather than quantum satis, would be preferable, to allow for a more precise estimation of the potential maximum level of exposure from table top sweeteners.

  13. The non-cytotoxicity characterization of rebaudioside A as a food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Baogui; Chen, Tingtao; Gan, Min; Chen, Xingxing; Chen, Fei; Wei, Hua; Xu, Feng

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity of high-purity rebaudioside A (reb A, 99.16%) as a food ingredient, a combination of several methods, including tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time PCR (qPCR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) were used to test the cytotoxicity of reb A on the human cells HT-29 and T84, as well as liver and spleen cells from mice. The results indicated that no obvious changes in cellular viability, inflammatory cytokines yield, or protein yield were observed between the test group and the control group when different concentrations of reb A were used, suggesting that reb A is non-cytotoxic in vitro at the concentrations range tested (0.001-0.5%).

  14. l-Theanine as a Functional Food Additive: Its Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is an integral part of people’s daily routine, as an everyday drink and a therapeutic aid for health promotion. Consumption of tea has been linked to a sense of relaxation commonly associated with the content of the non-proteinogenic amino acid theanine, which is found within the tea leaves. The aim of this review article is to outline the current methods for synthesis, extraction and purification of theanine, as well as to examine its potential benefits related to human health. These include improvements in cognitive and immune function, cancer prevention, reduced cardiovascular risk and its potential usefulness as a functional food product.

  15. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food.

  16. Hindbrain leptin and glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor signaling interact to suppress food intake in an additive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Kanoski, S E; Yan, J; Grill, H J; Hayes, M R

    2012-12-01

    The physiological control of feeding behavior involves modulation of the intake inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal satiation signaling via endogenous hindbrain leptin receptor (LepR) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation. Using a variety of dose-combinations of hindbrain delivered (4th intracerebroventricular; i.c.v.) leptin and the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4, experiments demonstrate that hindbrain LepR and GLP-1R signaling interact to control food intake and body weight in an additive manner. In addition, the maximum intake suppressive response that could be achieved by 4th i.c.v. leptin alone in non-obese rats (∼33%) was shown to be further suppressed when exendin-4 was co-administered. Importantly, it was determined that the interaction between hindbrain LepR signaling and GLP-1R signaling is relevant to endogenous food intake control, as hindbrain GLP-1R blockade by the selective antagonist exendin-(9-39) attenuated the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain leptin delivery. Collectively, the findings reported here show that hindbrain LepR and GLP-1R activation interact in at least an additive manner to control food intake and body weight. As evidence is accumulating that combination pharmacotherapies offer greater sustained food intake and body weight suppression in obese individuals when compared with mono-drug therapies or lifestyle modifications alone, these findings highlight the need for further examination of combined central nervous system GLP-1R and LepR signaling as a potential drug target for obesity treatment.

  17. Chlorogenic Acid: Recent Advances on Its Dual Role as a Food Additive and a Nutraceutical against Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Santana-Gálvez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid is a phenolic compound from thehydroxycinnamic acid family. This polyphenol possesses many health-promoting properties, mostof them related to the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activities. The first part of this review will discussthe role of chlorogenic acid as a nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of metabolicsyndrome and associated disorders, including in vivo studies, clinical trials, and mechanisms ofaction. The second part of the review will be dealing with the role of chlorogenic acid as a foodadditive. Chlorogenic acid has shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of organisms,including bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and amoebas. These antimicrobial properties can beuseful for the food industry in its constant search for new and natural molecules for thepreservation of food products. In addition, chlorogenic acid has antioxidant activity, particularlyagainst lipid oxidation; protective properties against degradation of other bioactive compoundspresent in food, and prebiotic activity. The combination of these properties makes chlorogenic acidan excellent candidate for the formulation of dietary supplements and functional foods.

  18. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  19. Thermodynamics of the interaction of the food additive tartrazine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2015-05-15

    The thermodynamics of the interaction of the food colourant tartrazine with two homologous serum proteins, HSA and BSA, were investigated, employing microcalorimetric techniques. At T=298.15K the equilibrium constants for the tartrazine-BSA and HSA complexation process were evaluated to be (1.92 ± 0.05) × 10(5)M(-1) and (1.04 ± 0.05) × 10(5)M(-1), respectively. The binding was driven by a large negative standard molar enthalpic contribution. The binding was dominated essentially by non-polyelectrolytic forces which remained largely invariant at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic contribution was weak at all salt concentrations and accounted for only 6-18% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change in the salt concentration range 10-50mM. The negative standard molar heat capacity values, in conjunction with the enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon observed, established the involvement of dominant hydrophobic forces in the complexation process. Tartrazine enhanced the stability of both serum albumins against thermal denaturation.

  20. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality.

  1. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  2. Effects of nitrate addition and iron speciation on trace element transfer in coastal food webs under phosphate and iron enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Xing; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Zuo, Yue-Gang; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2013-06-01

    Coastal organisms are often exposed to both iron enrichment and eutrophication. Trace elements transfer in coastal food webs are critical for marine life and therefore influence coastal ecosystem function and the global carbon cycle. However, how these exposures affect algal element uptake and the subsequent element transfer to marine copepods (Tigriopus japonicus) is unknown. Here we investigated the effects of nitrate addition and iron speciation (Fe (OH)3 or EDTA-Fe) on the biological uptake of Cu, Zn, and Se under phosphate and iron enrichment, using Thalassiosira weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, and Chlorella vulgaris as model marine algae. Algal element adsorption/absorption generally increased with increasing macronutrient concentrations. Algal element assimilation efficiencies depended on iron speciation and marine algae species. Element assimilation efficiencies of copepods were significantly correlated to the intracellular element concentrations in algal cells. Element uptake and transfer were controlled by eutrophication, iron speciation, and algal species in coastal food webs.

  3. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: A microcalorimetric investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh, E-mail: gskumar@iicb.res.in

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Carmoisine binds to both the serum albumins with affinity of the order of 10{sup 6} M{sup −1}. • The binding was favored by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by hydrophobic forces. • Carmoisine enhanced the thermal stability of both the proteins remarkably. - Abstract: The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10{sup 6} M{sup −1} and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5–8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine.

  4. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  5. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  6. PRODUCTION AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS AND BEE POLLEN AS FOOD ADDITIVES IN BROILERS FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Propolis and bee pollen belong to a group of natural substances of animal and vegetable origin with a particu¬larly expressed antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Recent studies in the world have pointed out to the possi¬ble application of propolis and bee pollen, each supplement separately or in combination in the certain proportion as additives in broilers feeding whereby the expected effects of these additives on the health of the chickens and the quality of their meat is still not fully investigated, nor unam¬biguously defined. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of propolis and bee pollen (each supplement separately or in combination in the certain proportion as additives in broilers feeding on: production indicators in chickens, the values of selected blood (hema-tologic and biochemical parameters in chickens, microbial flora of the intestinal content and the content of the chicken crop and the presence of a selected bacterial pathogens in cloacal swabs of a chickens, the morphology of the liver and intestines of chickens, chicken meat quality, the values of selected indicators in the feces of chickens and behaviour, health status, and mortality of chickens. The study was conducted on 200 Ross 308 chickens of equally distributed sex, divided into five groups (control and four experimental groups of chickens. Fattening was saw dust on the wooden floor and lasted for 42 days. The control group of chickens throughout the whole study was fed feed mixture while the feed mixture that was fed to experimen¬tal groups of chickens contained additives (propolis and/or bee pollen, each supplement separately or in combination in the certain proportion. The study showed that propolis and bee pollen (separately or in combination had a signi¬ficant positive impact on the performance in broilers, the values of selected blood (hematologic and biochemical parameters in chickens, the presence of selected bacterial

  7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval summary: brentuximab vedotin for the treatment of relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma or relapsed systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Claro, R Angelo; McGinn, Karen; Kwitkowski, Virginia; Bullock, Julie; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Habtemariam, Bahru; Ouyang, Yanli; Saber, Haleh; Lee, Kyung; Koti, Kallappa; Rothmann, Mark; Shapiro, Marjorie; Borrego, Francisco; Clouse, Kathleen; Chen, Xiao Hong; Brown, Janice; Akinsanya, Lara; Kane, Robert; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Farrell, Ann; Pazdur, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describes the accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin for patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and relapsed systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL). FDA analyzed the results of two single-arm trials, enrolling 102 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 58 patients with sALCL. Both trials had primary endpoints of objective response rate (ORR) and key secondary endpoints of response duration and complete response (CR) rate. For patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, ORR was 73% (95% CI, 65-83%); median response duration was 6.7 months, and CR was 32% (95% CI, 23-42%). For patients with sALCL, ORR was 86% (95% CI, 77-95%), median response duration was 12.6 months, and CR was 57% (95% CI, 44-70%). The most common adverse reactions were neutropenia, peripheral sensory neuropathy, fatigue, nausea, anemia, upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, pyrexia, rash, thrombocytopenia, cough, and vomiting. FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin for the treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma after failure of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or after failure of at least two prior multiagent chemotherapy regimens in patients who are not ASCT candidates, and for the treatment of patients with sALCL after failure of at least one prior multiagent chemotherapy regimen.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-02

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  9. Peptide YY3-36 and glucagon-like peptide-17-36 inhibit food intake additively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Nicola M; Small, Caroline J; Druce, Maralyn R; Park, Adrian J; Ellis, Sandra M; Semjonous, Nina M; Dakin, Catherine L; Filipsson, Karin; Wang, Fang; Kent, Aysha S; Frost, Gary S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2005-12-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide (GLP)-1 are cosecreted from intestinal L cells, and plasma levels of both hormones rise after a meal. Peripheral administration of PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36) inhibit food intake when administered alone. However, their combined effects on appetite are unknown. We studied the effects of peripheral coadministration of PYY(3-36) with GLP-1(7-36) in rodents and man. Whereas high-dose PYY(3-36) (100 nmol/kg) and high-dose GLP-1(7-36) (100 nmol/kg) inhibited feeding individually, their combination led to significantly greater feeding inhibition. Additive inhibition of feeding was also observed in the genetic obese models, ob/ob and db/db mice. At low doses of PYY(3-36) (1 nmol/kg) and GLP-1(7-36) (10 nmol/kg), which alone had no effect on food intake, coadministration led to significant reduction in food intake. To investigate potential mechanisms, c-fos immunoreactivity was quantified in the hypothalamus and brain stem. In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, no changes were observed after low-dose PYY(3-36) or GLP-1(7-36) individually, but there were significantly more fos-positive neurons after coadministration. In contrast, there was no evidence of additive fos-stimulation in the brain stem. Finally, we coadministered PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36) in man. Ten lean fasted volunteers received 120-min infusions of saline, GLP-1(7-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min), PYY(3-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min), and PYY(3-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min) + GLP-1(7-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min) on four separate days. Energy intake from a buffet meal after combined PYY(3-36) + GLP-1(7-36) treatment was reduced by 27% and was significantly lower than that after either treatment alone. Thus, PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36), cosecreted after a meal, may inhibit food intake additively.

  10. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  11. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p{<=}0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  12. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Sixty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of JECFA, including compounds without an ADI or MRL; recommendations on principles and methods in derivation of MRLs, including a new procedure for estimating chronic dietary intakes; the use of a spreadsheet-based procedure for the statistical evaluation of residue depletion data; a revised approach for the derivation of microbiological ADIs; and the Committee's review of and comments on documents provided by the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: three antimicrobial agents (colistin, erythromycin, flumequine), two production aids (melengestrol acetate, ractopamine hydrochloride), an insecticide (trichlorfon (metrifonate)) and an anthelminthic (triclabendazole). In addition, the attempt by the Committee to use tylosin as an example to investigate if evaluations are possible based on published data in the absence of data submissions from sponsors is described. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes and proposed maximum residue limits.

  13. Intake assessment of the food additives nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong RC; Niekerk EM; Beukers MH; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are authorised as preservatives in certain food products, such as salami, ham (nitrite) and cheese (nitrate). They prevent food spoilage and protect the consumer against food-borne pathogens. Next to that, nitrate and nitrite play a role in food colour retention and contribute to

  14. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  15. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  16. Statement on Allura Red AC and other sulphonated mono azo dyes authorised as food and feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ANS Panel has been asked by EFSA to assess the new scientific information that has become available since the adoption of the opinion on the re-evaluation of the food colouring agent Allura Red AC in 2009, in particular the positive findings from an in vivo comet assay in mice. The findings from this study have been interpreted in conjunction with all the available relevant data from genotoxicity testing, metabolism and carcinogenicity, and in consideration of possible species differences between mouse and rat. These new data have been considered in the context of the overall relevant data available not only for Allura Red AC but also for a number of other structurally related sulphonated mono azo dyes authorised as food additives, namely: Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazine and Azorubine/Carmoisine. The Panel concluded that the new data by themselves were insufficient at this time to change the conclusions of the 2009 opinion on the safety of Allura Red AC and that there is currently no reason to revise the ADI. The read-across exercise has highlighted a shared pattern of effects for this class of substances that would warrant further investigation The Panel therefore recommended a repetition of the in vivo comet assay in mice, to be performed in compliance with the most recent and internationally validated experimental protocol, using whole cells and examining a wide range of tissues. These recommendations apply to all the sulphonated mono azo dyes included in this review.

  17. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  18. Application of Food Additives in Meat Processing%食品添加剂在肉制品加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 李蕊

    2014-01-01

    食品添加剂种类繁多,直接关系着人们的食用安全和身体健康,是现代食品工业的重要组成部分,影响着整个食品工业的发展,食品添加剂在肉制品加工中发挥了重要作用,表现在改善肉制品品质和色、香、味、形、原料及成品的保质保鲜,提高食品的营养价值,新产品的开发及食品加工工艺等方面,通过几种常见的食品添加剂,探讨其在肉制品加工过程中的应用。%Various kinds of food additives were directly related to the food safety and body health.Food additives were a key part of modern food industry , can affect the entire food industry development , and played an important role in meat processing.Food additives can improve not only the meat color , smell, taste, shape, raw material and product quality and freshness keeping , nutrient value , but also on new product development and food processing technology.Its application in meat processing was discussed through several of common food additives.

  19. A food additive with prebiotic properties of an α-d-glucan from lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

    2014-08-01

    An α-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by α-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products.

  20. Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, J; Gialagkolidou, K; Gogou, M; Mavridou, O; Blatsiotis, N; Ritzoulis, C; Likotrafiti, E

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the potential use of oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in liquid soap for hand washing and for food contact surface cleaning. Oregano essential oil (O.E.O.) was emulsified in liquid detergent solution. This was challenge tested against a commercial antimicrobial soap in hand washing trials using natural flora. Soap with O.E.O. was as effective as the commercial antimicrobial soap at reducing aerobic plate count on the hands and more effective than plain soap with no additives. Cloths wetted with soap with O.E.O. were used to clean three different surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens. For three of the four pathogens, the addition of 0·5% v/v O.E.O. to the soap solution enhanced cleaning performance and also reduced bacterial survival on the cloth after cleaning. Oregano essential oil (0·5%) is effective as an antimicrobial additive to detergent solutions for hand washing and surface cleaning. This preliminary study has shown that oregano essential oil is a potential alternative to antimicrobials used in various detergents, such as chloroxylenol and triclosan, which can have adverse environmental and health effects. Further development could lead to a commercial product. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v).

  2. Food additives reduce lactic acid bacterial growth in culture medium and in meat products, increasing product shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Mendes Pereira Sarmento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in meat and meat products leads to product spoilage, and thus shortens product shelf life. Although food additives are known to decrease LAB growth, this effect has not been analyzed in detail. Here, a detailed analysis was performed of the effects of sodium chloride, sodium polyphosphate, sodium lactate, sodium nitrite/nitrate, and garlic on the growth of the Lactobacillus plantarum in culture medium. The results were used to design and test experimental formulations of meat products. Initially, the effect of food additives on L. plantarum was evaluated using a Fractional Factorial Design (FFD, followed by a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. The Modified Gompertz Model was adjusted to the growth curves to determine the Kinetic parameters of bacterial growth (logarithmic increase in the population, specific growth rate, and lag phase extension. Higher sodium lactate and sodium chloride levels had a negative impact on L. plantarum growth parameters (p?0.05. Therefore, we designed experimental formulations of mortadella and smoked pork sausages containing 4% sodium lactate (w w-1 and 2.4-3.5% sodium chloride (w w-1, and determined LAB growth from samples of stored products produced according to these formulations, in order to determine product shelf life. There was an increased lag phase of LAB growth for most experimental formulations. Also, the experimental smoked pork sausages had a longer shelf life, which was increased by at least 22 days, suggesting that the proposed formulation, with higher than standard lactate concentration, increased the product’s shelf life.

  3. Introduction on codex and standards of food additives overseas%国外食品添加剂法规标准介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志飞; 席静; 奚星林; 林海丹; 潘丙珍

    2012-01-01

    The definition and extent of food additive, structure and content of codex and standards of food additives, and administrative department and different Administrative modes about food additives in the international codex alimentarius commission, the United States, the European Union and Japan, was introduced. Also, a reference about the administration of food additives in China, the administration of food additives usage in import food, as well as the export food manufacturers to organize production was provided.%介绍了国际食品法典委员会、美国、欧盟、日本有关食品添加剂的定义和范围,食品添加剂法规标准框架结构与内容,以及各国食品添加剂的管理部门和不同的管理方式.为加强我国食品添加剂管理和进口食品中添加剂的使用管理,以及出口食品生产企业组织生产提供参考.

  4. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  5. Safety of the proposed amendment of the specifications for the food additive polyvinyl alcohol‐polyethylene glycol‐graft‐co‐polymer (E 1209)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mortensen, Alicja; Aguilar, Fernando; Crebelli, Riccardo; Di Domenico, Alessandro; Dusemund, Birgit; Frutos, Maria Jose; Galtier, Pierre; Gundert‐Remy, Ursula; Lambré, Claude; Leblanc, Jean‐Charles; Lindtner, Oliver; Moldeus, Peter; Mosesso, Pasquale; Parent‐Massin, Dominique; Oskarsson, Agneta; Stankovic, Ivan; Waalkens‐Berendsen, Ine; Woutersen, Rudolf Antonius; Wright, Matthew; Younes, Maged; Rincon, Ana Maria; Tard, Alexandra; Gott, David

    2017-01-01

    .... According to the current EU specifications, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol can be present as impurities in other food additives authorised in the EU , namely in polysorbates (E 432–436...

  6. Analysis of the Usage of Food Additives in Handan City%邯郸市餐饮食品添加剂使用情况与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of use of food additives in Handan city and the existing problems,to explore the management countermeasures of safe use of food additives in the food and beverage industry. Methods The design survey table, table of contents: unit name,using the name of additive,manufacturers,food additive production license number, use storage etc. Results There are special accessories add ingredients and content is not clear; the scope of the use of food additives;storage and the use of non-standard. Conclusion Strengthen health supervision and management of food additives in the catering industry, related laws and regulations knowledge propaganda and training of its, improve the management of food additives, and ensure the safe use of food additives.%目的:通过调查邯郸市食品添加剂的使用情况和存在问题,探讨餐饮业中食品添加剂安全使用管理对策。方法设计调查表格,表格内容为:单位名称、使用添加剂名称、食品添加剂生产厂家、生产许可证号、使用保管情况等。结果存在专用辅料中添加成分和含量不清;超范围使用食品添加剂;保管和使用不规范等。结论加强餐饮业中食品添加剂的卫生监督管理,对其进行相关法律法规知识宣传和培训,及时完善食品添加剂的管理,确保食品添加剂的使用安全。

  7. Identification of two additives, locust bean gum (E-410) and guar gum (E-412), in food products by DNA-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiain, M; Doménech-Sánchez, A; Albertí, S; Benedí, V J; Rosselló, J A

    2004-07-01

    Locust bean gum (E-410) and guar gum (E-412) are high molecular weight galactomannans used by the food industry as versatile food additives. The compounds, although chemically closely related, do not have the same functional properties when used in foods, and the substitution or unadvertised addition of either could change the desired qualities of the product. Analytical discrimination between E-410 and E-412 is technically difficult since they only differ in their galactose: mannose ratios, being 1 : 4 and 1 : 2 for locust bean gum and guar gum, respectively. A qualitative DNA-based method is reported for the authentication of additives E-410 and E-412 in finished food products (ice cream, dehydrated desserts, milk derivatives, dehydrated soups, salad dressing, marmalade and meat) from small quantities of food. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal spacers of Ceratonia siliqua and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, the plant sources of E-410 and E-412, respectively, were used to design polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each additive (PA23/PA21 and PG22/PG21). Twenty-two foods were analysed for the presence of E-410 and E-412 additives by this single-step polymerase chain reaction-based method. Positive DNA amplifications with the E-410 and/or E-412 primers were obtained in all 19 samples reported to contain either additive.

  8. Effect of sodium alginate addition to chocolate milk on glycemia, insulin, appetite and food intake in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D; Goff, H D; Berengut, S; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2014-05-01

    Sodium alginate reduces appetite and glycemia, when consumed in water- and sugar-based drinks. But, its effects when added to other commonly consumed beverages have not been reported. Because chocolate milk (CM) is criticized for raising blood glucose more than unflavored milk, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of adding a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM on glycemia, insulinemia, appetite and food intake. In a randomized crossover design, 24 men (22.9±0.4 years; 22.5±0.3 kg/m(2)) were provided with isovolumetric (325 ml) treatments of CM, 1.25% alginate CM, 2.5% alginate CM or 2.5% alginate solution. Sodium alginate had a ratio of 0.78:1 of mannuronic acid (M) to guluronic acid (G) residues, and was block distributed. Treatments were standardized for lactose, sucrose and calcium content, and provided 120 min before an ad libitum pizza meal during which food intake was measured. Appetite and blood glucose and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals pre- and post-meal. Addition of 2.5% alginate to CM reduced peak glucose concentrations, at 30 min, by an average of 6% and 13% compared with 1.25% alginate CM (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.02-1.08; P=0.037) and CM alone (95% CIs: 0.49-1.55; P=0.000) respectively. Insulin peaks at 30 min were lower by 46% after 2.5% alginate CM relative to CM (95% CIs: 3.49-31.78; P=0.009). Pre-meal appetite was attenuated dose dependently by alginate addition to CM; CM with 2.5% alginate reduced mean appetite by an average of 134% compared with CM alone (95% CIs: 8.87-18.98; P=0.000). However, total caloric intake at the pizza meal did not differ among treatments. The addition of a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM decreases pre-meal glycemia, insulinemia and appetite, but not caloric intake at a meal 2 h later, in healthy adult men.

  9. 食品添加剂在加工中存在的问题及对策%Problems and countermeasures of food additives in processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启镌; 廖文彬; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:With the rapid development of modern food, food additives have become an indispensable role in the food industry, and food industry has become an important driving force for technological progress and innovation of science and technology. However, the food safety problems of health and safety on the consumers by food additives come out a lot. In order to reduce the production cost, the food additives were used out of the range and limitation in some food enterprises, which increased the endanger of food safety. Some even illegally added non food substances that directly affect the people's health in food production and food additives production. The correct application method of food additives, relevant national laws and regulations, national standards and strictly control of the use of food additives are the best way to ensure food safety in the maximum efficiency at the same time. This paper summarized the use of food additives and principles, and the existence of food additives in the processing of the preliminary analysis and research, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures, to ensure food quality and food safety.%随着现代食品的快速发展,食品添加剂已经成为食品产业中必不可少的角色,并成为食品工业技术进步和科技创新的重要推动力。然而,同时由食品添加剂带来的对消费者身体健康和生命安全的食品安全问题凸显了出来。一些企业为降低生产成本,超范围、超限量地使用食品添加剂,危害食品安全,或在食品生产和食品添加剂生产中违法添加非食用物质,影响人们的身体健康。掌握食品添加剂的正确使用方法,按国家相关法律法规、国家标准严格控制使用量,才能使食品添加剂在发挥最大功效的同时保证食品安全。本文综述了食品添加剂的使用要求及原则,并对食品添加剂在加工中存在的问题进行了初步的分析与探讨,提出了相

  10. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  11. Statement on a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU No 257/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS provides a scientific statement presenting a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU No 257/2010. This framework will be used in the evaluation made by the Panel, but the expert judgement of the scientific background, on a case-by-case basis, remains essential to reach a final conclusion. The outcome of the re-evaluation of food additives taking into account all available information is presented in the document, as well as the exposure assessment scenarios to be carried out by the Panel considering the use levels set in the legislation and the availability of adequate usage or analytical data.

  12. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  13. Estimation of inorganic food additive (nitrite, nitrate and sulfur dioxide), antioxidant (BHA and BHT), processing agent (propylene glycol) and sweetener (sodium saccharin) concentrations in foods and their daily intake based on official inspection results in Japan in fiscal year 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Hajimu; Nishijima, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Yoshinobu

    2003-04-01

    The mean concentration and daily intake of inorganic food additives (nitrite, nitrate, and sulfur dioxide), antioxidants (BHA and BHT), a processing agent (propylene glycol), and a sweetener (sodium saccharin) were estimated based on the results of an analysis of 34,489 food samples obtained in official inspections by 106 local governments in Japan in fiscal year 1998. The ratios of mean concentrations of these seven food additives to each allowable limit were 20.0%, 53.9%, 15.5%, 6.2%, 0.4%, 18.5%, and 5.7%, respectively. The daily intakes of these food additives estimated from their concentrations in foods and the daily consumption of foods were 0.205, 0.532, 4.31, 0.119, 0.109, 77.5, and 7.27 mg per person, respectively. These amounts were 6.8%, 0.3%, 12.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 6.2%, and 2.6% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively, when body weight was assumed to be 50 kg. No remarkable differences in the daily intakes of these seven food additives or the ratios to the ADI were observed compared with the results based on the official inspections in fiscal years 1994 and 1996.

  14. Effect of diet composition and mixture of selected food additives on the erythrocytic system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Metabolic processes of food additives which are “exogenous xenobiotics” are catalysed, primarily, by enzymes located in microsomes of hepatocytes affiliated to P-450 cytochrome superfamily, containing iron. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of diet composition and selected food additives on the erythrocyte system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats sorted into three equinumerous groups. For drinking animals received pure, settled tap water, animals from group III were receiving additionally an aqueous solution of sodium (nitrate, potassium nitrite, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and monosodium glutamate. Results. Ascertained a significant effect of changes in diet composition on the increase in hematocrit marker value and the count of red blood cells in blood of animals examined. Used food additives diminished hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and red blood cell count, diminishing also iron concentration in serum, the total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation with iron. Conclusions. Analysis of the results allowed ascertain adverse changes in values of the erythrocytic system markers, occurring under the influence of the applied mixture of food additives. Used food additives change the iron metabolism, most likely from the necessity of applied xenobiotics biotransformation by heme-containing monoxygenases of P-450 cytochrome.  

  15. Abortion after deliberate Arthrotec® addition to food. Mass spectrometric detection of diclofenac, misoprostol acid, and their urinary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzer, Bernhard; Lusthof, Klaas J; Schweer, Horst

    2015-07-01

    Arthrotec(®) (AT) is a combination of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and misoprostol (MP), a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). MP is a lipophilic methyl ester prodrug. It is readily metabolized to the biologically active misoprostol acid (MPA). During the last few years, medical studies exhibited MP to be an excellent abortive. In this paper, we describe a rare criminal case of MP abortion, initiated by the expectant father. After the abortion, samples of vomit and urine were collected. Systemic exposure to MP is difficult to prove, because both MP and the active metabolite MPA are hardly excreted in urine. Therefore, in addition to routine toxicological analysis, we used slightly modified, well-established liquid and gas chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS) methods, for the direct and the indirect detection of MPA and its metabolites. In this case, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the major MP metabolites 2,3-dinor-MPA and 2,3,4,5-tetranor-MPA in the urine of the victim. We also detected paracetamol, 3-methoxyparacetamol and diclofenac-glucuronide in the urine. In the vomit of the victim, we detected diclofenac and MPA. These results, combined with the criminal investigations, showed that the accused had mixed MP into the food of his pregnant girlfriend. Finally, these investigations contributed to a confession of the accused.

  16. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürge Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0, flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min, and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer. Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS- 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2>0.9962, accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%, precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%, limits of detection (LODs, and limits of quantification (LOQs parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  17. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  18. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders.

  19. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  20. FDA Approval for Imiquimod

    Science.gov (United States)

    On July 15, 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval of a new indication for Aldara® (imiquimod) topical cream for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), a type of skin cancer.

  1. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  9. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  10. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for prostate cancer. The list includes generic ...

  13. Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163171.html Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation Drug designed to stimulate upper gastrointestinal tract To ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat persistent constipation of unknown (idiopathic) cause in adults. Some 42 ...

  14. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (Last updated 2/27/2017; last reviewed 2/27/2017) Treatment with HIV medicines is ... approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV infection in the ...

  15. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  16. Higher nutritional quality at no additional cost among low-income households: insights from food purchases of "positive deviants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Dubois, Christophe; Gaubard, Malu S; Maidon, Audrey; Lesturgeon, Audrey; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    It is unknown whether diet quality is correlated with actual food expenditure. According to the positive deviance theory, the study of actual food expenditure by people with limited economic resources could help identify beneficial food-purchasing behavior. The aims were to investigate the relation between actual expenditure on food and nutritional quality and to identify "positive deviants" among low-income households. Individuals in deprived social situations (n = 91) were recruited as part of the "Opticourses" nutrition intervention conducted in 2012-2014 in poor districts of Marseille, France. Opticourses participants collected food-purchase receipts for their household over a 1-mo period. "Actual diet costs" and "estimated diet costs" were calculated per 2000 kcal of food purchases by using actual expenditures and a standard food price database of food consumed by a representative sample of French adults, respectively. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), and energy density (ED) were used as nutritional quality indicators. "Positive deviants" were defined as having a higher MAR and a lower MER than the respective median values. Opticourses participants selected less-expensive food options than the average French population, both within a food group and for a given food item. Higher diet costs were associated with higher nutritional quality (higher MAR, lower ED), regardless of whether costs were calculated from actual expenditure or on the basis of standard food prices. Twenty-one positive deviants were identified. They made significantly healthier purchases than did other participants (MAR: +13%; MER: -90%. ED: -22%) at higher estimated diet costs. Yet, they did not spend more on food (having the same actual diet costs), which showed that they purchased food with a higher nutritional quality for their price. In this low-income population, actual diet cost was positively correlated with nutritional quality, yet the results showed that higher

  17. 我国食品添加剂的使用现状及对策%Current situation of food additives use in China and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖辉; 张智新

    2012-01-01

    食品添加剂广泛用于食品生产和加工,随着我国现代食品工业的快速发展,其种类和数量越来越多,也出现了一系列由于不规范使用食品添加剂引发的事件,已经严重危及到我国食品安全.作者深入分析了当前我国食品添加剂使用中存在的超剂量、超范围、重复使用、隐瞒使用等各种不规范使用甚至违法使用的问题,最后建设性地提出了加强立法、完善标准、提高检测水平、采取新工艺、实行分类监管、强化使用者食品安全意识等解决问题的有效对策.%Food additives are widely used in food production and processing. With the rapid development of modem food industry, types and number of food additives are increasing rapidly, and there are a series of events triggered by non-standard use of food additives, which has seriously influenced the food safety in China. The paper analyzes various problems of non-standard use and illegal use of food additives at present in China, including high dose, beyond its scope, repeated use and conceal use, then puts forward countermeasures of strengthening legislation, perfecting standards, improving detection level, adopting new technology, implementing classification regulation, as well as strengthening users'awareness of food safety.

  18. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.

  19. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, upregulates ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250

  20. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source.

  1. Novel insights into the risk assessment of the nanomaterial synthetic amorphous silica, additive E551, in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, van P.C.E.; Cubadda, F.; Bouwmeester, H.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Dekkers, S.; Jong, de W.H.; Oomen, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents novel insights in the risk assessment of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) in food. SAS is a nanostructured material consisting of aggregates and agglomerates of primary particles in the nanorange (

  2. Novel insights into the risk assessment of the nanomaterial synthetic amorphous silica, additive E551, in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, van P.C.E.; Cubadda, F.; Bouwmeester, H.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Dekkers, S.; Jong, de W.H.; Oomen, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents novel insights in the risk assessment of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) in food. SAS is a nanostructured material consisting of aggregates and agglomerates of primary particles in the nanorange (

  3. Strategy for Food Additives Inspection and Management in Food and Beverage Service Stage%餐饮服务环节使用食品添加剂的监管对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安媛; 闫文杰; 刘连军; 陈艳; 陈凯歌

    2012-01-01

    在餐饮服务环节,使用食品添加剂越来越广泛。食品添加剂在给消费者带来方便和美味的同时,一些滥用食品添加剂的行为却对消费者的身体健康造成严重威胁,成为重大食品安全隐患。本文针对现阶段餐饮服务环节使用食品添加剂存在的主要问题,从监督管理一线的角度探悉切实可行的监管对策。%Food additives were widely used in food and beverage service.With its convenience and tasty,the abuse of food additives posed great threat to people's health and had been the great hidden danger for food safety.The paper pointed out the main problems in the use of food additives in food and beverage service stage at present stage and proposed the feasible inspection and management strategy in the view of supervisors in the first line.

  4. [Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Yao, Shanshan; Jin, Micong

    2011-10-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, i. e. , trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, i. e. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87. 61% and 108. 4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu- rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods.

  5. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  6. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  7. Drug approval processes: A case study of rivaroxaban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Arif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban, a Xa inhibitor, was recently approved (March 2013 in the setting of post-acute coronary syndromes (ACS by the European Medicine Agency. This is in contrast to not being approved by the Food and Drug Agency in the United States for the same indication in 2012 and 2013. The FDA′s decision was based on a lack of follow-up data for the patients enrolled in the study based on the pivotal Anti-Xa Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events in Addition to Standard Therapy in Subjects with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ATLAS-ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial. While both agencies have similar roles when functioning as drug regulatory bodies and goal of granting approval of safe and efficacious drugs, the difference in approval outcome in the case of rivaroxaban highlights the differences in drug review process when both agencies are presented with the same Phase 3 data to review.

  8. Analysis of monitoring results on food additives in snack foods in Ningbo%宁波市休闲食品中食品添加剂使用状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To realize the situation of food additives in snack foods in Ningbo. Methods: Comparison were made a-mong the nine additives in three kinds of snack food during 2009 -2010. Results: The qualified rate of candies was the highest (100% ) .followed by that of puffed foods(92.2% )and then preserved fruits (48.1% ). Unqualified causes mainly were due to the use of preservatives and sweeteners. Excessive sulfur dioxide residue was the most important reason. The other food additives exceeded were sodium cyclamate, benzoic acid, saccharin,acesulfame K and carmine. Conclusion: The relevant departments should strengthen supervision and regulation on the excessive use and misuse of food additives in the snack foods.%目的:了解宁波市休闲食品中食品添加剂使用状况.方法:对2009年-2010年3类休闲食品的9类食品添加剂使用情况进行分析.结果:合格率最高为糖果类(100%),其次是膨化食品类(92.2%),最低为蜜饯凉果类(48.1%).不合格原因主要存在防腐剂和甜味剂的使用上.其中二氧化硫残留量是超标的最重要原因,其他分别是甜蜜素、苯甲酸、糖精钠、安赛蜜、胭脂红.结论:建议食品监管部门加强对休闲食品的食品添加剂过量、超范围使用管理.

  9. A survey of selecting child food and parents' recognition on food additives%儿童食品选择及食品添加剂认知状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞田田; 闫思琪; 杨宇轩; 王嘉; 朱挺; 沈莹; 孙东东; 万田郎; 于燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the selecting of child food and parents' recognition on food additives, so as to enhance the social concern on child food safety and provide reference for parents in purchasing child food. Methods Random cluster sampling method was adopted to select three kindergartens and four primary schools from Yanta District, Xincheng District and Lintong District of Xi an City. The survey was conducted with questionnaires to all of the parents of children aged 3-7 years in school concerning food products selecting and recognition on food additives. Results There were 93% ( 1 068/1 148 ) of the parents often buying various types of child food, mainly including milk products, pastry, snacks, drinks and candy for their children. When selecting child food, 70% ( 748/1 068 ) of the parents only paid attention to manufacture date and validity date, 66% ( 705/1 068 ) to brand name, 58% ( 619/1 068 ) to their children' preference, and only 22% ( 235/1 068 ) to the information about food additives. Among the parents, 7% ( 80/1 148 ) thought that most additives were safe, 42% ( 482/1 148 ) thought that all of food additives had side effects, and only 37% ( 425/1 148 ) thought that food additives were harmless within a reasonable range. As for the type and amount of food additives used in child food, only 1% ( 12/1 148 ) were clear, and 31% ( 356/1 148 ) said they were totally ignorant. Parents who knowing food additives were significantly more than those not knowing (χ2=28. 228, P < 0.05 ). All of the parents showed great concern on the safety problems of food additives, and 82% ( 941/ 1 148 ) hoped that components and contents would be listed in food additives. Conclusion Parents in Xi' an lack related knowledge of food additives in selecting child food, but they show great concern on the safety problems of child food. Helping parents to understand food additives can provide scientific guide for parents in selecting child food, so as to promote healthy growth

  10. The Function and Risk Control of Chemical Additives in Foods%食品中化学添加剂的功能与风险控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱和; 韩婵; 刘利兵

    2009-01-01

    Chemical additive in food is a synthetic food additive produced by chemical method. This article reviews the reasons to produce and use chemical additives in foods, points out that chemical additive is used as supplement of natural material, and then outlines nature and function of chemical synthetic food additive. The procedure and means of safety assessment for food additive before accessing to market proposed by JECFA, America, European Union and China are also introduced. The supervisory agency, legal ground and quality standard of America, European Union and China are mentioned in this review. This review indicates the summary of main influencing factors for chemical additives in foods. Finally, the article proposes how to improve the risk controlling system, and gives some suggestions on safeguarding food security effectively.%食品中的化学添加剂是指由化学方法合成的一类食品添加剂.本文探讨了食品中化学添加剂产生和发展的原因,指出化学合成的食品添加剂是天然物质群的一种补充与完善,概述了化学合成食品添加剂的一般性质和功能,介绍了食品添加剂联合专家委员会(JECFA)、美国、欧盟和中国对食品添加剂进入市场前的安全性评价程序和方法,以及美国、欧盟和中国在化学添加剂投入使用后实施监督管理的机构、法律依据和质量标准等,总结了影响食品中化学添加剂安全风险控制的主要因素,最后在此基础上,提出如何从政府、企业、科研三方面完善风险控制体系和有效保障食品安全的建议.

  11. 欧盟食品添加剂相关法规综述%Overview of regulations on food additives in the European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冠雄; 刘筠筠

    2014-01-01

    食品添加剂在食品行业中占有重要地位,但其使用不当很有可能会对人体造成损害甚至对人的生命造成威胁,所以在食品添加剂的使用中应通过法律进行严格的监督和管理。食品添加剂的管理体制在整个社会法制体系中占有重要的地位。欧盟关于食品添加剂的相关法律制度及其他配套制度体系的规定十分详细,并且具有很高的实践价值与社会现实意义。本文主要综述了欧盟关于食品添加剂的法律法规及监管体系,其有效的管理措施对于我国食品添加剂管理法规和监管体系的完善具有重要借鉴意义。%It is an important role that food additives play in the food industry. Nevertheless, the misuse of food additives adds even more to the problems as damages to human bodies even human lives. There-fore, it is urgently needed to establish a strict system of supervision and management of the use of food additives using regulations. The system of regulations occupies very important position of the social legal system. The European Union (EU) food regulations provide that only food additives included in the Community list may be placed on the market as such and used in foods. This article describes the effective regulations and system of management of the EU. It suggests lessons for the legislation and the estab-lishment of supervision and management system on food additives in the rest of the world.

  12. On Controversial Issues of Additional Malfeasance Crime on Food Supervision%邹议食品监管渎职罪增设之争议问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琴武

    2015-01-01

    食品监管渎职罪是指负有食品监管职责的国家机关工作人员的渎职犯罪。对其增设存在必要性与非必要性之争,关于其罪名设置存在分罪论与合罪说两种不同理论。综合分析,食品监管渎职罪增设具有必要性,在罪名设置上,将食品监管渎职罪分设为食品监管滥用职权罪和食品监管玩忽职守罪更为合理。%Food supervision malfeasance crime refers to the personnel in the national organizations who is responsible for food supervision malfeasance behavior.There are different points on the necessity of the new accusation and its criminal name.In an overall analysis,the addition of food supervision malfeasance crime is necessary.It is more reasonable to change the name of food supervision malfeasance crime to food supervision abuse of authority crime and food supervision dereliction of duty crime.

  13. 76 FR 32332 - BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic Acid; Silicon Dioxide AGENCY: Food and Drug... for the safe use of methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a source of fatty acids in lactating dairy cow diets and for use of silicon dioxide as a carrier for the methyl esters of CLA. DATES...

  14. Effects of C/N ratio and substrate addition on natural food communities in freshwater prawn monoculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Rahman, M.M.; Azim, M.E.; Islam, M.A.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three C/N ratios (10/1, 15/1 and 20/1) along with substrate presence or absence on natural food communities in freshwater prawn culture ponds. An experiment was carried out in 40 m2 ponds stocked with a stocking density of 2 prawn juven

  15. Mobile Client Food Additive Queries System Study%手机客户端食品添加剂查询系统初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷爱荣

    2011-01-01

    “民以食为天”,近年来食品安全问题在我国得到了巨大的关注,接连不断发生的恶性食品安全事故促使我们必须采取有效措施有效遏制在食品生产经营中滥用食品添加剂行为。本文对通过手机客户端食品添加刺查询系统的建设原则、建设目标及平台设计等方面进行了初步探讨。%"Food",food safety issues in China in recent years has been a huge concern,after another vicious food safety incidents occur we must take effective measures to promote the effective containment abuse in food production and management of food additive behavior.In this paper, food additives by the mobile client query system construction principles,objectives and platform , construction design and other aspects of a preliminary study.

  16. Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Selgrade, MaryJane K

    2009-08-01

    A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. The objectives of this evaluation are twofold: (1) to protect allergic consumers from exposure to known allergenic or cross-reactive proteins, and (2) protect the general population from risks associated with the introduction of genes encoding proteins that are likely to become food allergens. The first systematic approach to address these concerns was formulated by Metcalfe et al. [Metcalfe, D.D., Astwood, J.D., Townsend, R., Sampson, H.A., Taylor, S.L., and Fuchs, R.L. 1996. Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods from genetically engineered crop plants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36(5), 165-186.] and subsequently Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) [FAO/WHO, 2001. Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology. January 22-25, 2001. Rome, Italy]. More recently, Codex [Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity. pp. 47-60], noting that no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity, suggested a weight of evidence approach be conducted that takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential. These various recommendations are based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; amino acid sequence identity to human allergens; stability to pepsin digestion in vitro; protein abundance in the crop and

  17. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  18. Trends in use of the only Food and Drug Administration-approved commercially available fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair device in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jessica P; Shue, Bing; Flahive, Julie M; Aiello, Francesco A; Steppacher, Robert C; Eaton, Elizabeth A; Messina, Louis M; Schanzer, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Fenestrated endografts are customized, patient-specific, endovascular devices with potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality of short-neck infrarenal and juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The Zenith fenestrated endovascular graft (ZFEN) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind), Food and Drug Administration-approved in 2012, remains the only fenestrated device available in the United States. This technology is among the most technically complex catheter-based procedures and, therefore, inherently associated with serious risk for device-related complications. We sought to define patterns of physician and hospital adoption of ZFEN. Deidentified datasets containing numbers of physicians trained, orders by physicians and hospitals, and designs (fenestration/scallop configuration) was provided for U.S. ZFEN devices ordered (April 2012-August 2015). We evaluated the number of physicians trained, the number of devices ordered, hospital characteristics, and fenestration/scallop design configurations. Cook Medical assembled the datasets but played no role in study design, analysis, or interpretation of data. Between April 2012 and August 2015, 553 physicians attended formal ZFEN training sessions, 388 (70%) of whom ordered a total of 2669 devices. An increase in orders per month (nine in June 2012 and 91 in August 2015, 911% growth; P 20 devices. For physicians contributing >6 months of data (n = 336), the average number of devices ordered per year was three (standard deviation, 4); 272 (81%) ordered ≤ 5 devices/year, 15 (4.5%) ordered 11-20 devices/year, and 3 (0.9%) ordered >20 devices/year. Of devices with design details available (2618 of 2669; 98%), most common designs were 2 small fenestrations/1 scallop (1443; 55%), 2 small fenestrations/1 large fenestration (568; 22%), 1 small fenestration/1 scallop (173, 6.6%), and 2 small fenestrations (169; 6.5%). The average number of target vessels incorporated in each

  19. Research progress on detection methods of food additives in wine%酒类产品中食品添加剂的检测技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小佳; 马康; 弓爱君; 曹艳秋

    2014-01-01

    Food additives are widely used in food industry for the function of improving taste and proper-ties. But with the development of market economy, many food additive abuse events have also happened. The qualitative and quantitative detection of food additives received an increasing attention. Food additives in al-cohol products were usually limited fromμg/L to mg/L, which had put forward higher requirements for the de-tection technologies. In this paper, the national standards of liquor products were presented. Detection methods that commonly used of food additives in wine at home and abroad were reviewed, as well as the progress in new application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Finally, the future trends of detection method for food additives in wine were also prospected.%食品添加剂在合理使用时,可以有效改进食品的口味和使用性质,因而广泛应用于食品行业。但随着我国市场经济的不断发展,许多超范围使用与超剂量使用的添加剂滥用事件也浮现了。食品添加剂的定性与定量检测受到越来越多的关注。酒类产品中食品添加剂使用量通常在(μg/L~mg/L)范围内,这对检测技术提出了较高的要求。本文介绍了目前酒产品的国家标准要求,综述了近年来国内外对酒及相似基体中着色剂、甜味剂、防腐剂等食品添加剂检测方法的研究进展,包括气相色谱法、气相色谱-串联质谱法、液相色谱法、液相色谱-串联质谱法、离子色谱法、毛细管电泳法等。最后比较了上述检测方法的优缺点,并对其发展趋势作了展望。

  20. 21 CFR 1240.83 - Approval of watering points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communicable diseases. (b) The Commissioner of Food and Drugs may base his approval or disapproval of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of watering points. 1240.83 Section 1240.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  1. [Escherichia coli, other Enterobacteriaceae and additional indicators as markers of microbiologic quality of food: advantages and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossel, D A; Struijk, C B

    1995-03-01

    The 93/43 European Union directive assigns to the food and catering industries the main responsibility for an integrated safety and quality assurance strategy in the food chain. Relying on hazard analysis, followed by design and adoption of control of all critical points and practices ("HACCP"). Hiatus-free compliance with such HACCP-based Codes of Good Practices is to be assessed by monitoring, recording results on process performance charts and gauging such data against experimentally established, attainable and maintainable references ranges ("standards"). Marker microorganisms are a major analytical tool for validating compliance in the sense of the EU directive. They should be expertly chosen amongst microbes usually present in food so that their, whose presence in quantities exceeding predetermined levels point to a lack of microbiological integrity of a food product. This may encompass (i) the potential presence of taxonomically, physiologically and ecologically related pathogens, markers are called index organisms; or else (ii) a lack of process integrity; in this case, markers are termed indicator organisms. The classical index organism was E. coli, introduced in the 1980's to monitor drinking water supplies. It is still used as an appropriate marker to assess the bacteriological safety of raw foods. In the 1920's the coli-aerogenes ("coliform") group was adopted as an indicator to validate the adequate processing, i.e. pasteurization of dairy products. Since the 1950's the entire Enterobacteriaceae taxon is preferred for the latter purpose because it is better defined in determinative sense and includes more organisms of significance. In some food and water supplies, processed for safety, more vigorous or more resistant organisms than the Gram-negative rods are reliable supplementary markers. These include Enterococcus spp., spores of the Clostridium genus, and bacteriophages of E. coli and Bacteroides fragilis mimicking the fate of enteric viruses under

  2. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  3. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 as food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 which are authorised as food additives in the EU and have been previously evaluated by the SCF and JECFA. JECFA allocated an ADI “not limited”. The SCF concluded that potassium propionate could be added to the list of preservatives and established an ADI ”not specified”. Propionates are naturally occurring substances in the normal diet. The Panel considered that forestomach hyperplasia reported in long-term studies in rodents is not a relevant endpoint for humans because humans lack this organ. Based on the reported presence of reversible diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the oesophagus the LOAEL for a 90-day study in dogs was considered by the Panel to be 1 % propionic acid in the diet and the NOAEL to be 0.3 % propionic acid in the diet. The Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The Panel concluded that the present database did not allow allocation of an ADI for propionic acid - propionates. The overall mean and 95th percentile exposures to propionic acid - propionates resulting from their use as food additives (major contributor to exposure ranged from 0.7-21.1 and 3.6-40.8 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The Panel noted that the concentration provoking site of contact effect in the 90-day study in dogs (1 % propionic acid in the diet is a factor of three higher than the concentration of propionic acid - propionates in food at the highest permitted level and concluded that for food as consumed, there would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.

  5. Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  6. Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  7. 食品添加剂和污染物法典委员会简介%Brief Introduction of Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓瑜

    2001-01-01

    @@ 食品添加剂和污染物法典委员会(Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants,简称CCFAC),主持国为荷兰,成立于1964年,通常每年举办一次会议,至今已举办了33次会议.其主要的工作内容有:

  8. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  9. Standard addition flow method for potentiometric measurements at low concentration levels: application to the determination of fluoride in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C; Santos, João Rodrigo; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    A standard addition method was implemented by using a flow manifold able to perform automatically multiple standard additions and in-line sample treatment. This analytical strategy was based on the in-line mixing of sample and standard addition solutions, using a merging zone approach. The flow system aimed to exploit the standard addition method to quantify the target analyte particularly in cases where the analyte concentration in the matrix is below the lower limit of linear response of the detector. The feasibility of the proposed flow configuration was assessed through the potentiometric determination of fluoride in sea salts of different origins and different types of coffee infusions. The limit of quantification of the proposed manifold was 5×10(-6) mol L(-1), 10-fold lower than the lower limit of linear response of the potentiometric detector used. A determination rate of 8 samples h(-1) was achieved considering an experimental procedure based on three standard additions per sample. The main advantage of the proposed strategy is the simple approach to perform multiple standard additions, which can be implemented with other ion selective electrodes, especially in cases when the primary ion is below the lower limit of linear response of the detector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production.

  11. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  12. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Brewer’s Yeast Autolysate and Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Production of a Functional Food Additive Based on Beetroot Juice Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Baras

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of »functional foods« in the world is increasing, and the procedures for their production are under intense development. The goal of this paper is to optimise the production of a functional food additive based on beetroot juice (Beta vulgaris L. using brewer’s yeast autolysate. In order to improve the nutritive properties of the product and to preserve it, the possibility of beetroot juice fermentation using a Lactobacillus species has been investigated. Comparative investigations of three bacteria cultures (L. plantarum A112, L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 and L. acidophilus NCDO1748 during fermentation in two media, beetroot juice and a mixture of beetroot juice with an autolysate of brewer´s yeast, have been performed. The poorest fermentative activity and growth in both substrates was observed using the L. acidophilus NCDO1748 culture. The two cultures demonstrated better fermentative activity in the mixture of tested substrates, while acidifying activity (production of lactic acid and a decrease in pH of the L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 culture was considerably better than that of the L. plantarum A112 culture. L. plantarum A112 culture showed better growth than L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3. From the results obtained, it has been concluded that the L. plantarum A112 and L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 can be successfully used for fermentation of the mixture of beetroot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate in order to obtain a functional food additive.

  14. Effect of a natural food additive rich in thyme essential oil on methane emissions in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Z. LAABOURI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a natural feed additive rich in thyme essential oil on the methane emission by the dairy cows. The methane is a powerful greenhouse gas representing a true energy loss for the ruminants and its reduction is beneficial for the animals and the environment. In order to test the effect of this natural feed additive, rich in thyme essential oil on the emission of methane by ruminants, five dairy cattle of Holstein breed were used and received a ration composed of 4 kg of industrial concentrated feed, 2 kg of alfalfa hay and 2 kg of wheat straw with free access to drinking water. After two weeks of adaptation to the feed, measurements of the production of methane were carried out without feed additive. Then, 50 g of the product rich thyme essential oil were daily added to the basic ration (7.15 g/kg DM during two weeks of adaptation and measurement of methane was taken in the third week. In the third period, 100 g of the same product was added to the same ration (14.3 g/Kg DM, and measurements of methane were carried out after the two weeks of adaptation. The quantity of methane produced by the five cows was estimated to average 195.9 liter/day. The addition of the product rich in thyme essential oil to the basic ration reduced methane emission on average by 21.6% when the feed additive was added with an amount of 7.15 g/kg dry matter, and a reduction on average of 31.8% with the amount was of 14.3 g/kg of dry matter.

  15. Evaluation and Optimization of Amino Acids Retention Rate of Japanese Scallop Powder with Different Food Additives in Spray-drying Process by Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray-drying process for Japanese scallop powder can cause damage because of its heat-sensitive components such as amino acids. Therefore it is important for amino acids to be embedded with the appropriate food additives in spray-drying process. In this study, with Japanese scallop as the raw, Response Surface Method (RSM with three variables (the addition level of &beta-cyclodextrin, modified starch and CMC was used to investigate the effect of food additives on the amino acids retention rate in Japanese scallop powder in spray drying. The equation model to predict amino acids retention rate was reported. The results showed that the optimal addition level of &beta-cyclodextrin, modified starch and CMC were 25.55, 24.55 and 2.96%, respectively. And the amino acids retention rate was 56.75±0.64%. This model was testified to fit the actual situation preferably, therefore it can provide theoretical and practical basis for industrial production of Japanese scallop powder.

  16. The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, H J; Racki, E M

    2010-07-01

    Breakfast skipping (BS) is closely associated with overeating (in the evening), weight gain and obesity. It is unclear whether the addition of breakfast, with emphasis on dietary protein, leads to better appetite and energy intake regulation in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of addition of a normal-protein (PN) breakfast vs protein-rich (PR) breakfast on appetite and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents. A total of 13 adolescents (age 14.3+/-0.3 years; body mass index percentile 79+/-4 percentile; skipped breakfast 5+/-1 x per week) randomly completed 3 testing days that included a PN (18+/-1 g protein), PR (48+/-2 g protein) or BS. Breakfast was 24% of estimated daily energy needs. Appetite, satiety and hormonal responses were collected over 5 h followed by an ad libitum lunch and 24-h food intake assessments. Perceived appetite was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to greater reductions vs BS (Pintake was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to fewer kcal consumed vs BS (Pfood intake was not different among treatments. Breakfast led to increased satiety through increased fullness and PYY concentrations in 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. A breakfast rich in dietary protein provides additional benefits through reductions in appetite and energy intake. These findings suggest that the addition of a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control in young people.

  17. High-performance ion mobility spectrometry with direct electrospray ionization (ESI-HPIMS) for the detection of additives and contaminants in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midey, Anthony J., E-mail: anthony.midey@excellims.com; Camacho, Amanda; Sampathkumaran, Jayanthi; Krueger, Clinton A.; Osgood, Mark A.; Wu, Ching

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ESI source was built for direct ionization from syringe. •Phthalates, food dyes, and sweeteners detected with high-performance IMS. •Phthalates directly detected in cola, soy bubble tea matrices with simple treatment. -- Abstract: High-performance ion mobility spectrometry (HPIMS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source detected a series of food contaminants and additive compounds identified as critical to monitoring the safety of food samples. These compounds included twelve phthalate plasticizers, legal and illegal food and cosmetic dyes, and artificial sweeteners that were all denoted as detection priorities. HPIMS separated and detected the range of compounds with a resolving power better than 60 in both positive and negative ion modes, comparable to the commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but with most acquisition times under a minute. The reduced mobilities, K{sub 0}, have been determined, as have the linear response ranges for ESI-HPIMS, which are 1.5–2 orders of magnitude for concentrations down to sub-ng μL{sup −1} levels. At least one unique mobility peak was seen for two subsets of the phthalates grouped by the country where they were banned. Furthermore, ESI-HPIMS successfully detected low nanogram levels of a phthalate at up to 30 times lower concentration than international detection levels in both a cola matrix and a soy-based bubble tea beverage using only a simplified sample treatment. A newly developed direct ESI source (Directspray) was combined with HPIMS to detect food-grade dyes and industrial dye adulterants, as well as the sweeteners sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate, with the same good performance as with the phthalates. However, the Directspray method eliminated sources of carryover and decreased the time between sample runs. Limits-of-detection (LOD) for the analyte standards were estimated to be sub-ng μL{sup −1} levels without extensive

  18. Stability improvement of natural food colors: Impact of amino acid and peptide addition on anthocyanin stability in model beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Rojanasasithara, Thananunt; Mutilangi, William; McClements, David Julian

    2017-03-01

    Anthocyanins are prone to chemical degradation and color fading in the presence of vitamin C. The potential of three amino acids (l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, l-tryptophan) and a polypeptide (ε-poly-l-lysine) in prolonging the color stability of purple carrot anthocyanins (0.025%) in model beverages (0.05% l-ascorbic acid, citric acid, pH 3.0) stored at elevated temperature (40°C/7 days) was examined. In the absence of amino acids or peptides, anthocyanin degraded at first-order reaction rate. Addition of amino acids or peptide (0.1%) increased the color stability of anthocyanins, with the most significant improvement observed for l-tryptophan. The average half-life of anthocyanin color increased from 2 days to 6 days with l-tryptophan addition. Fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that the l-tryptophan interacted with anthocyanins mainly through hydrogen bonding, although some hydrophobic interaction may also have been involved. Overall, this study suggests that amino acid or peptide addition may prolong the color stability of anthocyanin in beverage products.

  19. Effect of Food Additives on Texture of Stored PickIes%食品添加剂对贮藏泡菜质地的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 吴婷; 俞兴伟

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment,choose six kinds of chemical food additives such as sodium benzoate, sodium bisulfite,sodium dehydroacetate,fumaric acid,potassium sorbate,ethanol and three kinds of natural food additives such as tea polyphenols,nisin and water soluble chitosan to study the effect of food additives on the texture of pickles.The activities of pectinase and hardness of pickles are investigated respectively.The results show that the chemical and natural additives have a certain improvement of softening the texture of pickles;all of these food additives have certain inhibitory action to pectinase activity in pickles except for sodium benzoate and sodium dehydroacetate;24.69 mg/g of potassium sorbate and 0.33 mg/g of water soluble chitosan have obvious preservation effect on the inhibition of texture softening and activity of pectinase in pickles.%为了研究食品添加剂对泡菜质地的影响,实验分别选用了六种化学食品添加剂苯甲酸钠、亚硫酸氢钠、脱氢乙酸钠、富马酸、山梨酸钾、乙醇以及三种天然食品添加剂茶多酚、乳酸链球菌素和水溶性壳聚糖对泡菜进行处理,分别测定了其对泡菜的硬度和果胶酶的作用。结果表明:化学和天然添加剂对泡菜质地变软问题都有一定的改善作用;除苯甲酸钠和脱氢乙酸钠之外,其他的食品添加剂对泡菜中果胶酶活性都有一定的抑制作用;其中24.69 mg/g 山梨酸钾和0.33 mg/g 水溶性壳聚糖对抑制泡菜质地变软和果胶酶活性效果显著。

  20. Food Resources of Stream Macronivertebrates Determined by Natural-Abundance stable C and N Isotopes and a 15N Tracer Addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Trophic relationships were examined using natural-abundance {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N analyses and a {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment in Walker Branch, a 1st-order forested stream in eastern Tennessee. In the {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment, we added {sup 15}NH{sub 4} to stream water over a 6-wk period in early spring, and measured {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios in different taxa and biomass compartments over distance and time. Samples collected from a station upstream from the {sup 15}N addition provided data on natural-abundance {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios. The natural-abundance {sup 15}N analysis proved to be of limited value in identifying food resources of macroinvertebrates because {sup 15}N values were not greatly different among food resources. In general, the natural-abundance stable isotope approach was most useful for determining whether epilithon or detritus were important food resources for organisms that may use both (e.g., the snail Elimia clavaeformis), and to provide corroborative evidence of food resources of taxa for which the {sup 15}N tracer results were not definitive. The {sup 15}N tracer results showed that the mayflies Stenonema spp. and Baetis spp. assimilated primarily epilithon, although Baetis appeared to assimilate a portion of the epilithon (e.g., algal cells) with more rapid N turnover than the bulk pool sampled. Although Elimia did not reach isotopic equilibrium during the tracer experiment, application of a N-turnover model to the field data suggested that it assimilated a combination of epilithon and detritus. The amphipod Gammarus minus appeared to depend mostly on fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), and the coleopteran Anchytarsus bicolor on epixylon. The caddisfly Diplectrona modesta appeared to assimilate primarily a fast N-turnover portion of the FBOM pool, and Simuliidae a fast N-turnover component of the suspended particulate organic matter pool rather than the bulk pool sampled. Together, the

  1. Survey on Usage Situation of Food Additives in Consumer Food in Luogang District%萝岗区市售食品中添加剂使用情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹; 郑创亮; 余泳红; 冯秀琼; 戴冉; 李敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of additives usage in food sold in the markets of Luogang District, Guangzhou, and to provide a scientific basis for government to enhance the management of food additives. Methods Eight kinds of food samples were collected at the relative fixed monitoring points in Luogang District and examined for contents of 12 varieties of additives and 3 kinds of inedible materials. Results Totally 328 food samples were detected and 1,420 valid data were obtained. 267 samples were qualified, with the eligible rate of 81.4% . Inedible material, sodium formaldehyde sulfox-ylate was detected in grain products as well as non- fermented bean products. Furthermore, the exceeding standard rate of sodium cyclamate in preserved fruits was 46.2%. Conclusions The contamination of sodium cyclamate and sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate in consumer food of Luogang District is very serious. It is suggest that the relative departments of the government should strengthen the supervision and detection ability so as to ensure the food safety.%目的 了解广州市萝岗区市售食品中添加剂使用情况,为政府加强食品添加剂的管理提供科学依据. 方法 在萝岗区相对固定监测点抽检8类食品,开展12种添加剂和3种非食用物质检测. 结果 共抽检328份样品获得1 420个有效数据,合格267份,合格率为81.4%.主要问题是市售米面制品和非发酵性豆制品违法添加非食用物质甲醛次硫酸氢钠,蜜饯类食品甜蜜素超标率达46.2%. 结论 萝岗区市售食品中甜蜜素和甲醛次硫酸氢钠超标现象比较严重,建议相关部门加强监督和检测能力,确保食用安全.

  2. A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolith as the sorbent for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hui; Ma, Jun-Feng; Hu, Min-Jie; Li, Ying; Fang, Jiang-Hua; Gao, Hao-Qi

    2014-08-01

    A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolithic capillary column was prepared and used for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of acidic food additives. The primary amino group of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was reacted with the epoxide group of glycidyl methacrylate. The as-prepared new monomer was then copolymerized in situ with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 and PEG-10,000 as porogens. The extraction performance of the developed monolithic sorbent was evaluated for benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamic acid. Such a sorbent, bearing hydrophobic and anion-exchange groups, had high extraction efficiency towards the test compounds. The adsorption capacities for the analytes dissolved in water ranged from 0.18 to 1.74 μg cm(-1). Good linear calibration curves (R(2) > 0.99) were obtained, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the analytes were found to be in the range 1.2-13.5 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of five acidic food additives spiked in Coca-Cola beverage samples ranged from 85.4 % to 98.3 %, with RSD less than 6.9 %. The excellent applicability of the ionic liquid (IL)-modified monolithic column was further tested by the determination of benzoic acid content in Sprite samples, further illustrating its good potential for analyzing food additives in complex samples.

  3. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive; Potencial radioprotetor do acido ascorbico sobre a carragenana utilizada como aditivo alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against {sup 60} Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  4. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  5. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  6. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992–2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675

  7. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits.

  8. Methods of Contrast on the Limit of Food Additives at Home and Aboard%国内外食品添加剂限量指标对照实施方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing the requirement of the contrast on the limit of food additives at home and aboard,this paper discusses that the basic work about contrast on the limit of food additives at home and aboard is to understand and grasp the safety system of food additives, scope and classification of food additives, code and function classification of food additives, and food classification. The main information items during contrast on the limit of food additives home and aboard are put forward and a flow chart on contrast on the limit of food additives home and aboard is established.%文章通过分析国内外食品添加剂限量指标对照的需求,阐述了了解和掌握不同国家和地区的食品添加剂安全体系、范围和类别、编码与功能分类、食品分类是对照工作开展的基础,给出了国内外食品添加剂限量指标对照的主要信息并建立了对照实施路线.

  9. Sodium Benzoate, a Food Additive and a Metabolite of Cinnamon, Enriches Regulatory T Cells via STAT6-Mediated Upregulation of TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Madhuchhanda; Mondal, Susanta; Roy, Avik; Martinson, Jeffrey L; Pahan, Kalipada

    2016-10-15

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during autoimmune insults may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Earlier we have reported that sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against urea cycle disorders, upregulates Tregs and protects mice from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, mechanisms by which NaB increases Tregs are poorly understood. Because TGF-β is an important inducer of Tregs, we examined the effect of NaB on the status of TGF-β. In this study, we demonstrated that NaB induced the expression of TGF-β mRNA and protein in normal as well as proteolipid protein-primed splenocytes. The presence of a consensus STAT6 binding site in the promoter of the TGF-β gene, activation of STAT6 in splenocytes by NaB, recruitment of STAT6 to the TGF-β promoter by NaB, and abrogation of NaB-induced expression of TGF-β in splenocytes by small interfering RNA knockdown of STAT6 suggest that NaB induces the expression of TGF-β via activation of STAT6. Furthermore, we demonstrated that blocking of TGF-β by neutralizing Abs abrogated NaB-mediated protection of Tregs and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. These studies identify a new function of NaB in upregulating TGF-β via activation of STAT6, which may be beneficial in MS patients. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Isotope dilution-GC-MS/MS analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in selected medicinal herbs used as health food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Cao, Y; Zhang, J; Cui, Z; Sun, H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have a very important role in health protection and disease control, and have been used in health foods. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have carcinogenic, biological and mutagenic effects. In this paper, the content of 16 PAHs as representative contaminants in nine Chinese medicinal herbs, as additives for health foods, was investigated in order to ensure food safety from this source. A highly sensitive isotope dilution-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS/MS) method combined with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Calibration curves showed good linearity for all PAHs (R² > 0.999), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.42 to 2.7 µg kg⁻¹. Average recoveries for these compounds were in the range of 52.5-117%, 52.6-119% and 81.4-108% at the concentrations of 10, 50 and 250 µg kg⁻¹ with RSD of 1.8-15%, 0.9-15% and 1.0-15%, respectively. The proposed method was used for the analysis of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. Total levels of PAHs varied from 98.2 µg kg⁻¹ (cassia seed) to 2245 µg kg⁻¹ (eucommia bark). The highest level was found for phenanthrene (Phe) in liquorice root (631.3 µg kg⁻¹), indigowoad leaf (551.0 µg kg⁻¹), rose flower (435.2 µg kg⁻¹) and eucommia bark (432.3 µg kg⁻¹). The proposed method could provide a useful basis for safety monitoring of herbs and risk management for PAHs in the health food industry.

  11. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Drugs Approved for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gestational trophoblastic disease. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for kidney (renal cell) cancer. The list ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes ...

  19. Discussion of How Scientific Rationality of the Whole Society Should Treat Food Additives%全社会应如何科学理性地对待食品添加剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少华; 廖斌; 王锡茂

    2016-01-01

    With the continual development and progress of the food industry, the use of food additives in food production is becoming more extensive. Regarding this situation, most of citizens believe that the application of food additives will reduce food safety, and could threaten people's health, leading to a resistant to the application of food additives. In fact, it’s a wrong understanding of food additives, causing an indirect impact on food production. In this article, an analysis of food additives misunderstandings from the whole society has been made, a discussion of the society as a whole how to treat food additives on the basis of scientiifc rationality has been done, ensuring a proper and safe use in food production, providing people with security food.%在食品行业不断进步与发展的情况下,食品生产中食品添加剂的使用更加广泛。对此,大多数国民认为食品添加剂的应用,将会降低食品的安全性,会威胁人们的身体健康,比较抵触食品添加剂的应用。其实,这是对食品添加剂的错误认识,间接影响食品生产。基于此,本文将从分析全社会对食品添加剂认识存在的误区,在基础上探究全社会如何科学理性地对待食品添加剂,希望确保食品添加剂正确的、安全的应用在食品生产中,为人们提供安全的食品。

  20. 9 CFR 317.4 - Labeling approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling approval. 317.4 Section 317.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... by descriptive language the final colors, or submission with the sketch of previously approved final...

  1. Obinutuzumab breaks through to FDA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab for use with chlorambucil in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The drug is the first to receive approval under the agency's breakthrough therapy designation, created in July 2012.

  2. 2006年-2008年广州市部分食品添加剂监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results on food additives in some foods in Guangzhou during 2006-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李意兰; 何洁仪; 李迎月; 林晓华; 余超

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解广州市部分食品食品添加剂使用现状.方法:2006年-2008年广州市对来源于所辖12个区县的肉菜市场、超市、餐饮店、批发点和零售点等的酱菜、蜜饯凉果、饮料、熟肉制品等食品进行食品污染物及部分食66添加剂按国家标准方法进行检测.结果:酱菜、蜜饯中的苯甲酸超标率分别为11.4%和6.3%;蜜饯、熟肉制品中的山梨酸超标率分别为6.3%和0.3%;蜜饯中的二氧化硫残留超标率为5.5%;熟肉制品中的哑硝酸盐超标率为0.3%;蜜饯、酱菜中的糖精钠超标率分别为17.2%和5.7%;蜜饯、饮料中的甜蜜素超标率分别为49.6%和20.O%;蜜饯中的安赛蜜、肭脂红、柠檬黄和只落黄的超标率分别为1.8%、3.2%、2.5%和1.6%.结论:广州市部分食品的食品添加剂过量、超范围使用问题应引起相关监督监管部门蕈视.%Objective:To understand the situation of food additives of foods in Guangzhou. Methods: Food samples were collected from the spots such as food market,supermarket, catering industry, wholesale and retailoutlet of 12 districts in Guangzhou during 2006 -2008. and food contaminants including some food additives were detected. Results: The content of benzoic acid in the pickled vegetables and preserved fruits samples exceeded the national standards by 11.4% and 6.3% respectively. The content of sorbic acid in the preserved fruits and cooked meat products samples were higher than the national standards allowable amount by 6.3% and 0. 3%. The content of residual sulfur dioxide in the preserved fruits samples were 5.5% above. The content of nitrites in the cooked meat products samples exceeded the permit volume by 0. 3%. The content of saccharin in the preserved fruits and pickled vegetables samples exceeded by 17.2% and 5.7%. The content of sodium cyclamate in the preserved fruits and drinks samples were higher by 49.6% and 20.0% respectively. The excessive content of

  3. 75 FR 55334 - Schmid Laboratories, Inc. et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of Five New Drug Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Five New Drug Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of five new drug applications (NDAs)...

  4. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  5. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot.

  6. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  7. Freezing point osmometry of milk to determine the additional water content – an issue in general quality control and German food regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz Birger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of the osmolality of aqueous samples using a freezing point osmometer is a well-established, routine laboratory method. In addition to their use in clinical and pharmaceutical laboratories, freezing point osmometers are also employed in food testing laboratories. One application is the determination of the osmolality of milk. Although cow's milk is a natural product whose water content is approximately 87%, the osmolality of milk is a significant value when the milk is collected from a larger population of animals. This value is used in milk processing to control the water content, based on the German Food Control Regulations for Milk. Results Measurement of the freezing point and osmolality of milk samples was performed with a Knauer Semi-Micro Freezing Point Osmometer. Osmolality was measured for the untreated milk samples and following their dilution (by volume with 10% and 50% water. The measurements were made after 1, 4 and 7 days to evaluate changes over time. All measurement values for the undiluted milk were spread over a small interval with an average of 271 mOsmol/kg. After mixing the milk samples with 10% water, the average decreased to 242 mOsmol/kg, while mixing with 50% water resulted in an average osmolality of 129 mOsmol/kg. There was no significant change for the osmolality within the 7 days (measurements from days 1, 4 and 7. Conclusion The results observed demonstrate clearly that the additional water content of milk can be determined easily using a freezing point osmometer. Milk samples that contain additional water have a significantly decreased osmolality, corresponding to an increased freezing point. The effect on osmolality of ageing the milk samples could not be determined in this study's time-dependent measurements.

  8. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied.

  9. Use of ion-molecule reactions and methanol addition to improve arsenic determination in high chlorine food samples by DRC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Hu, Shenghong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Shesheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongfei

    2011-05-15

    Direct determination of trace arsenic in high chlorine food samples by ICP-MS is complicated by the presence of ArCl(+) interferences, and the high first ionization energy of As (9.81 eV) also results in low analytical sensitivity in ICP-MS. In this work, two strategies based on ion-molecule reactions were successfully used to eliminate ArCl spectral interference in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC). The interference ion ((40)Ar(35)Cl(+)) was directly removed by the reaction with methane gas, and the background signal was reduced by up to 100-fold at m/z 75. Alternatively, by using molecule oxygen as the reaction gas, (75)As(+) was effectively converted to (75)As(16)O(+) that could be detected at m/z 91 where the background is low. The poor signal intensity of As or AsO was improved 3-4 times by addition of 4% methanol in the analyzed solutions. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for (75)As (CH(4)-DRC method) and (75)As(16)O (O(2)-DRC method) was 0.8 and 0.3 ng g(-1) and the analytical results of seaweed and yellow croaker standard reference materials were in good agreement with the certified values. As the routine arsenic monitoring method in our laboratory, it was applied to the accuracy determination of 119 high chlorine food samples from eight different markets of Beijing.

  10. Determination of polymer additives-antioxidants and ultraviolet (UV) absorbers by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV photodiode array detection in food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yali; Gu, Yanxiang; Wei, Yun

    2011-12-28

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of migration levels of polymer additives such as antioxidants and UV absorbers in food packages by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-vis photodiode array detection has been developed. The pretreatment step involved solid-phase extraction with silica C18 cartridges. The analytical method showed good linearity, presenting regression coefficients (R(2)) ≥ 0.9990 for all compounds. This optimized method was also validated with respect to precision, reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.09 and 1.72 μg mL(-1) and between 0.20 and 5.64 μg mL(-1) for 12 analytes, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 67.48 and 108.55%, with relative standard deviations between 2.76 and 9.81%. Migration levels of antioxidants and UV absorbers were determined. Butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, Cyanox 2246, Irganox 1035, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 328, Irganox 1010, and Irganox 1330 were detected; BHT and Cyanox 2246 were at higher levels than the specific migration levels in some food simulants.

  11. Determination of Polymer Additives-Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers, Plasticizers and Photoinitiators in Plastic Food Package by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying; Su, Qi-Zhi; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of 4 antioxidants, 9 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 12 phthalate plasticizers and 2 photoinitiators in plastic food package using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic conditions were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method of ASE-HPLC showed good linearity with good correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9833). The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 µg mL(-1) and between 0.10 and 1.00 µg mL(-1) for 27 analytes. Average spiked recoveries for most analytes in samples were >70.4% at 10, 20 and 40 µg g(-1) spiked levels, except UV-9 and Irganox 1010 (58.6 and 64.0% spiked at 10 µg g(-1), respectively), the relative standard deviations were in the range from 0.4 to 15.4%. The methodology has been proposed for the analysis of 27 polymer additives in plastic food package. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Food additives as a cause of medical symptoms: relationship shown between sulfites and asthma and anaphylaxis; results of a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, K E; Houben, G F; Stam, M; Dubois, A E

    2000-09-16

    To determine if a causal connection exists between food additives and various medical complaints. Literature study. Medline over the period January 1966-January 1999 was searched for articles on the following substances not containing protein and lactose: monosodium glutamate (MSG), sulfites, azo-dyes (tartrazine, sunset yellow, azorubin, amarant, cochineal red), benzoates, sorbates, butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), parabens, cinnamon and vanilla, in combination with key words regarding food and side effects. Of those studies purporting to demonstrate an effect, only double-blind randomized placebo-controlled studies with oral challenge were assessed further, unless the complaint was anaphylaxis. Of studies not demonstrating an effect the design was assessed. Only for sulfites as causative agents of asthma and anaphylaxis, methodologically adequate studies demonstrating a causal connection could be found. For azo-dyes, benzoates, MSG, sorbates and BHA/BHT, no link with medical symptoms was demonstrable. For parabens, cinnamon and vanilla there were insufficient or inadequate data to justify a conclusion.

  13. Review on applied foods and analyzed methods in identification testing of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Hoo Chul; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kwan Soo [Greenpia Technology Inc., Yeojoo (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Identification methods of irradiated foods have been adopted as official test by EU and Codex. PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS methods were registered in Korea food code on 2009 and put in force as control system of verification for labelling of food irradiation. But most generally applicable PSL and TL methods are specified applicable foods according to domestic approved items. Unlike these specifications, foods unpermitted in Korea are included in applicable items of ESR and GC/MS methods. According to recent research data, numerous food groups are possible to effective legal control by identification and these items are demanded to permit regulations for irradiation additionally. Especially, the prohibition of irradiation for meats or seafoods is not harmonized with international standards and interacts as trade friction or industrial restrictions due to unprepared domestic regulation. Hence, extension of domestic legal permission for food irradiation can contrive to related industrial development and also can reduce trade friction and enhance international competitiveness.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of eight additives in polymer food packaging materials by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Gong, Zhiguo; Wang, Pengju; Wang, Jide; Feng, Shun

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight additives (Irgafos 168 (tri(2.4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite), Irganox 1076 (octadecyl-β-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate), Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakys 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate), BHA (butyl hydroxy anisole), TBHQ (tertiary butylhydroquinone), PG (propyl gallate), DG (dodecyl gallate), UV-326 (2-( 2'-hydroxyl-3'-tert-butyl-5'-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole) in food packaging materials. After extracted by chloromethane through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic conditions were optimized, and the best separation was obtained on a Waters BEH-C18 column (50 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution of 0. 05% acetic acid solu- tion and methanol. The analysis was performed by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in switching between the positive and negative ion modes in one run for multiple reaction monitoring. The eight additives showed good linear relationships in the ranges with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0. 993. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) and limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N= 10) of this method were 0. 13-5.50 μg/L and 0.45-17.50 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 63. 9% - 127. 0% with all the RSDs food packaging materials.

  15. Thiazolidinediones: a comparative review of approved uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, V; Colleran, K; Burge, M R

    2000-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones are a powerful and clinically important new class of oral antidiabetic agents that act by improving insulin sensitivity. Troglitazone is the prototype drug in this class but was withdrawn from the market in March 2000 due to its association with idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Currently two thiazolidinediones, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) and work by altering the expression of genes involved in glucose uptake, glucose disposal, and lipid metabolism. The drugs differ in receptor binding and potency due to differences in their side chain moieties. These agents are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are metabolized mainly in the liver. Rosiglitazone is FDA approved for monotherapy and for use in combination therapy with metformin or sulfonylureas. Pioglitazone is FDA approved for monotherapy as well as for use in combination therapy with metformin, insulin, or sulfonylureas. These drugs may also cause significant changes in plasma lipid concentrations, and improved insulin sensitivity may improve ovulatory function and fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The most serious side effect of the thiazolidinediones is hepatotoxicity. Although rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were not associated with hepatotoxicity in premarketing clinical trials, there were two recent case reports of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in patients treated with rosiglitazone. In addition, these agents may be associated with edema and some hematological changes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the two currently approved thiazolidinediones and to suggest an approach for their safe and rational use.

  16. GRAS Flavoring Substances 25. The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on reent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Fukushima, S.; Gooderham, N.J.; Hecht, S.S.; Marnett, L.J.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; McGowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.

  17. Effects of Some Food Additives on Biofilm Formation of Food-Borne Staphylococcus aureus%食品添加剂对食源性金黄色葡萄球菌生物被膜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽斯; 张文艳; 许佳晶; 刘彦兰; 黄宝威; 张宏梅

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of food additives on biofilm formation (BF), Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) from spoiled food were isolated and identified. BF of this strain was tested in 96-well microplates in the presence of food additives. The results showed that BF of the strains was inhibited by low concentrations of preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate). No biofilm was formed when the concentration of anticorrosive reached 0.4 g/L or higher. The BF inhibiting capacity of potassium sorbate was much greater than that of sodium benzoate. Generally, glycol mannate sulfate had greater BF inhibiting action than diacylglycerol at concentrations of 2--4g/L. Glycol mannate sulfate and diacylglycerol had maximum BF inhibiting capacity at concentrations of 3 g/L and 4 g/L, respectively. For sucrose ester emulsifier, SE7 and SE13 inhibited BF at concentrations of 0.3 -- 4 g/L, while SE11 inhibited BF at all concentrations tested. Nonionic surfactants such as Span-60 and Tween-80 showed different effects on BF of S.aureus, which might be related to their amphipathic property. In summary, all these tested food additives had inhibitory effect on biof'flm formation of food-borne S. aureus. This study will provide references for the prevention and control of bacteria biofilm formation.%从腐败食品分离筛选金黄色葡萄球菌,研究食品添加剂对金黄色葡萄球菌生物被膜的影响。按国标方法鉴定金黄色葡萄球菌。在不同质量浓度的防腐剂和乳化剂作用的情况下,用96孔板法检测金黄色葡萄球菌生物被膜形成情况。结果表明:在添加低质量浓度防腐剂山梨酸钾和苯甲酸钠后,金黄色葡萄球菌成膜能力受抑制,当两者质量浓度均≥0.4g/L时无成膜作用,且山梨酸钾抑制成膜趋势比苯甲酸钠明显;添加单甘酯后,质量浓度3g/L成膜率最低,而双甘酯质量浓度4g/L成膜率最低,两者比较,在质量浓度2

  18. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome ( ...

  19. Nelfinavir: fourth protease inhibitor approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted accelerated approval to nelfinavir in both adult and pediatric formulations. Agouron, the manufacturer, used innovative computerized drug design techniques to discover, design, and refine the nelfinavir molecule. Nelfinavir is marketed under the trade name Viracept, and costs $5,000 per year. Early clinical trials find it to be as powerful as the other protease inhibitors, but with a different resistance profile. The drug has relatively few drug indications; however, several compounds have been contraindicated.

  20. CYTOKINES IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS DURING RADIATION THERAPY: COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FOOD ADDITIVE CONTAINING SALMON SOFT ROE AND VITAMIN C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Fedyanina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied some effects of a biologically active food additive (BAFA «DNAaC» which contains DNA from salmon soft roe and vitamin C as active substances. This BAFA was investigated as a complementary remedy during radiation therapy of women with breast cancer (BrC, with respect to dynamics and levels blood serum cytokines, i.e., early hematopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFa, and balance of marker cytokines for Th1- and Th2-response (IFNγ, IL-10. It was shown that «DNAaC» has modulating effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines. There was, however, a higher and statistically valid corrective effect upon GM-CSF, along with increase of initially low IFNγ and TNFa concentrations, and reduction of initially high IL-10 levels. Hence, «DNAaC» contributes to improvement of cell-mediated immune deficiency, stabilization of hematopoietic system, and brings about tolerance to basic treatment approaches in oncological diseases.

  1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Paclitaxel Protein-Bound Particles (Abraxane® in Combination with Gemcitabine as First-Line Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On September 6th, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved paclitaxel proteinbound particles (albumin-bound (Abraxane® for injectable suspension, Abraxis BioScience, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Celgene Co., Summit, NJ, USA, in combination with gemcitabine for the firstline treatment of patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas based on the MPACT study which demonstrated a clinically meaningful increase in overall survival [1]. The promising results of a phase I/II study led to the performance of this phase III study named MPACT [2]. MPACT was a multi-center, international, open-label, randomized trial that enrolled 861 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients were randomized to receive either the combination of Abraxane® plus gemcitabine (n=431 or gemcitabine alone (n=430. Randomization was stratified by geographic region (Australia, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, or North America, performance status, and presence of liver metastasis. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS and secondary objectives included progression-free survival (PFS and overall response rate (ORR, both assessed by independent, central, blinded radiological review using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST criteria (version 1.0 [3].

  2. 21 CFR 314.153 - Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA... new drug application. (a) Suspension of approval. The approval of an abbreviated new drug...

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  4. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  5. Florida Transformer Public Notice for Proposed PCB Storage Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Announcement of a Public Notice period for the proposed renewal of the PCB Commercial Storage Approval for Florida Transformer. Florida Transformer has requested to renew the PCB Approval. The renewal includes an additional tank storage and the acceptance

  6. Influence of the food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio and temperature on batch anaerobic digestion processes with and without zeolite addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, S; Gonzalez, P; Mena, C; Guerrero, L; Borja, R

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio and temperature on batch anaerobic digestion processes carried out with and without zeolite addition as a microbial carrier. Three laboratory-scale experimental runs were conducted using a synthetic substrate with a COD:N:P ratio of 500:5:1. The first run (I) was conducted at a constant temperature of 27°C, increasing the F/M ratio from 0.21 to 0.40 (g COD/g VSS). During the second run (II) the temperature and the F/M ratio increased from 27°C to 37°C and from 0.21 to 0.40, respectively. Finally, in the third experimental run (III) the F/M ratio achieved high values (1.92 and 1.30) either by varying the substrate concentration at a constant biomass concentration or by increasing the biomass concentration at a constant substrate concentration. Higher biomass growth rate, COD removal and methane production were found in the reactors with zeolite, especially at the highest F/M assayed during the first run. The highest ammonium removals were also achieved at the highest F/M ratio (0.40) in the reactors with zeolite. Within the range studied (25°C-37°C) in the reactors with zeolite operating at 37°C, the second run demonstrated the low influence of temperature on substrate consumption and ammonia removal, with 93% and 70% of COD and ammonia removal efficiencies, respectively. The third run corroborated the results previously obtained and fit the experimental results to simple kinetic models, the Monod model being the most adequate for predicting the behavior of the systems studied. The maximum specific microorganism growth rate (μ(max)) values for the reactors with zeolite were almost twice as high as those obtained for the reactors without zeolite for similar F/M ratios.

  7. Gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drugs, up-regulate tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 in brain cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α: implications for late infantile Batten disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Corbett, Grant T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-11-09

    The classical late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCLs) is an autosomal recessive disease, where the defective gene is Cln2, encoding tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP1). At the molecular level, LINCL is caused by accumulation of autofluorescent storage materials in neurons and other cell types. Currently, there is no established treatment for this fatal disease. This study reveals a novel use of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drugs, in up-regulating TPP1 in brain cells. Both gemfibrozil and fenofibrate up-regulated mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of TPP1 in primary mouse neurons and astrocytes as well as human astrocytes and neuronal cells. Because gemfibrozil and fenofibrate are known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the role of PPARα in gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-mediated up-regulation of TPP1 was investigated revealing that both drugs up-regulated TPP1 mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT) and PPARβ(-/-), but not PPARα(-/-), mice. In an attempt to delineate the mechanism of TPP1 up-regulation, it was found that the effects of the fibrate drugs were abrogated in the absence of retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα), a molecule known to form a heterodimer with PPARα. Accordingly, all-trans-retinoic acid, alone or together with gemfibrozil, up-regulated TPP1. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP studies revealed the formation of a PPARα/RXRα heterodimer and binding of the heterodimer to an RXR-binding site on the Cln2 promoter. Together, this study demonstrates a unique mechanism for the up-regulation of TPP1 by fibrate drugs via PPARα/RXRα pathway.

  8. 21 CFR 1004.6 - Approval of plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of plans. 1004.6 Section 1004.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL... person who contests denial of a plan shall have an opportunity for a regulatory hearing before the...

  9. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for...

  10. Post-Approval Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH Post-Approval Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated as a condition of approval of a...

  11. Food irradiation--US regulatory considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehouse, Kim M. E-mail: kim.morehouse@cfsan.fda.gov

    2002-03-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in food processing has received increased interest as a means of reducing the level of foodborne pathogens. This overview discusses the regulatory issues connected with the use of this technology in the United States. Several recent changes in the FDA's review process are discussed. These include the current policy that utilizes an expedited review process for petitions seeking approval of additives and technologies intended to reduce pathogen levels in food, and the recent USDA rule that eliminates the need for a separate rulemaking process by USDA for irradiation of meat and poultry. Recently promulgated rules and pending petitions before the FDA associated with the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of foods are also discussed along with the current FDA labeling requirements for irradiated foods and the 1999 advanced notice of proposed rule on labeling. Another issue that is presented is the current status of the approval of packaging materials intended for food contact during irradiation treatment of foods.

  12. Comparative study of fatty-acid composition of table eggs from the Jeddah food market and effect of value addition in omega-3 bio-fortified eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Aziz Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005, diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011, and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004 in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008. Lack of nutrient dense foods and the prevailing food related disorder of obesity (Popkin, 2001; Prentice, 2014 especially render egg as a choice food to be value-added for attaining nutritional security in Saudi Arabia and in effect reverse the increasing incidences of lifestyle diseases. Nutritional intervention through a commonly consumed food product would be an important step in improving the health of the people, and reducing health care costs. As eggs are a frequently consumed food item in Saudi Arabia, enriching them with omega-3 fatty acids would be an excellent way to alleviate the existing problems. A significant deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in the eggs was observed when the diet of hens was supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids from either flaxseed or fish oil source. Inadequacy of omega-3 fatty acids could thus be rectified by producing omega-3 enriched eggs from hens supplemented with flaxseed or fish oil source, and thus contribute toward better health choice of the consumer.

  13. Safinamide: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2015-04-01

    Safinamide (Xadago(®)) is an oral α-aminoamide derivative developed by Newron for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The drug has both dopaminergic properties (highly selective and reversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase-B) and non-dopaminergic properties (selective sodium channel blockade and calcium channel modulation, with consequent inhibition of excessive glutamate release). Safinamide is approved in the EU, Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway, as an add-on therapy to stable-dose levodopa, alone or in combination with other PD therapies in mid- to late-stage fluctuating PD patients; regulatory submissions have also been filed in the USA and Switzerland for its use in this indication. Additional submissions have been made in the USA, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland for early-stage PD. Safinamide has also undergone phase II investigation in PD patients with drug-induced dyskinesia (France, Germany, Austria, Canada and South Africa) or cognitive impairment (USA and Spain). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of safinamide leading to its first approval for PD.

  14. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  15. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among more than twenty food additives and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compounds that were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogen...

  16. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  18. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  19. Construction and Practical Exploration of Food Additives Course based on Micro-lecture%《食品添加剂》微课教学体系的构建与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹏; 赵卉双; 程文健; 陈丽娇

    2016-01-01

    近年来,微课教学模式越来越受到教育工作者的重视.在《食品添加剂》教学中引入微课教学体系,对于提升教学效果具有很好的促进作用.为建设和实践《食品添加剂》微课教学体系,该文选择了《食品添加剂》课程中的重点难点内容作为微课设计对象,具体分析了《食品添加剂》教学的现状以及教学组织的特点,并提出了微课教学在《食品添加剂》课程的设计原则、设计思路与设计要点,为探求《食品添加剂》的教学改革提供了新的思路.%In recent years,more and more attention has been paid to the micro teaching mode.In the teaching of Food Additives,the introduction of the micro teaching system has a very good role in promoting the teaching effect. This study choosed the key difficulties of Food Additives and designed the micro course,analyzed the theory and the pres-ent situation of teaching of Food Additives,and the characteristics of the teaching organization,the lecture of Food Additives curriculum was designed based on the micro principle,idea and the key points to explore a new way of for Food Additives teaching.

  20. The Introduction of Key Enterprises for Food Additive Calcium Sulphate Production%国内食品级硫酸钙行业市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    In the food industry, food grade calcium sulfate is widely used in soy products, baking, beer, gels and other industries. Food grade calcium sulfate only can be used by natural gypsum, non-chemical gypsum adding. The main production sites concentrated in Hubei, existing clear regional differences. The domestic food-grade calcium sulfate industry policy environment, technical environment, market size and regional differences were described, It was showed that the current domestic food-grade calcium sulfate industry still had more room for development, especially it was not yet saturated in high-end market.%在食品行业中,食用级硫酸钙被广泛用于豆制品、烘焙、啤酒、凝胶等行业。由于食用级硫酸钙只能用天然石膏生产,严禁化学添加。全国主要的生产场地集中在湖北,生产地有着明显的地域差异。本文主要介绍了国内食品级硫酸钙行业的政策环境、技术环境、市场规模及区域性差异等,指出目前国内食品级硫酸钙行业仍然有较大发展空间,特别是高端市场,尚未饱和。

  1. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  2. 30 CFR 7.409 - Approval marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approval number in addition to the number and size (gauge) of conductors and cable type. For cables containing electric conductors, the marking shall also include the voltage rating. For splices, the...

  3. For the approval process of GMOs: The Japanese case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebata, A.; Punt, M.J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the approval process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Japan. The purpose of this review is to explain the Japanese safety approval procedures for food, feed, and imported GMOs and place it in an international context through a comparison with the United States and the

  4. For the approval process of GMOs: The Japanese case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebata, A.; Punt, M.J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the approval process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Japan. The purpose of this review is to explain the Japanese safety approval procedures for food, feed, and imported GMOs and place it in an international context through a comparison with the United States and the

  5. 76 FR 53851 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker Electrode; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... development protocol for the class III preamendments device: Cardiovascular permanent pacemaker electrode. The...

  6. Curative and preventive activity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite coatings containing antifungal food additives to control citrus postharvest green and blue molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Pérez-Gago, María B; Del Río, Miguel A; Palou, Lluís

    2009-04-08

    Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lipid components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated in vivo on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules, hybrid mandarins cv. Ortanique, and oranges cv. Valencia. Their curative and preventive activity against citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue molds (BM), caused by Penicillium digitatum (PD) or Penicillium italicum (PI), respectively, were determined. Fruits were artificially inoculated before or after the application of the coatings and incubated up to 7 days at 20 degrees C. Selected food preservatives included mineral salts, organic acid salts, parabens, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Inoculated but uncoated fruits were used as controls. For curative activity, HPMC-lipid edible composite coatings containing sodium benzoate (SB) were most effective in reducing the incidence and severity of GM on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules (86 and 90%, respectively). On this cultivar, the reduction in GM incidence by the SB-based coating was twice that of potassium sorbate (PS)-based coating. On mandarins cv. Ortanique, PS- and SB-based coatings reduced the incidence of GM and BM by more than 40 and 21%, respectively. However, the HPMC-lipid coating containing a mixture of PS and sodium propionate (PS + SP) exhibited a synergistic effect in the reduction of the incidence of GM (78%) and BM (67%). Coatings with parabens modestly reduced disease incidence and severity. On oranges cv. Valencia, coatings with food preservatives better controlled BM than GM. Coatings containing SB + PS and SB + SP reduced the incidence and severity of BM by 85% and 95%, respectively. PS- and SB- based coatings controlled GM more effectively than coatings formulated with other food preservatives. In every cultivar, fruit coated before inoculation did not show any incidence or severity reduction of both GM and BM (preventive activity). In every test, the antifungal action of the

  7. Integration of the sensory experience and post-ingestive measures for understanding food satisfaction. A case study on sucrose replacement by Stevia rebaudiana and addition of beta glucan in fruit drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Mielby, Line H.; Viemose, Ida

    2017-01-01

    The present study provides a more holistic view on consumers’ hedonic food experience compared to what is traditionally seen in sensory research, by integrating the hedonic sensory experience and post-ingestive sensations in one study to understand food satisfaction. The study was performed using....... Satisfaction with sensory attributes was found to be the main driver of food satisfaction, while post-ingestive sensations drove satisfaction as well. While replacing sucrose with Stevia rebaudiana did not affect the hedonic and post-ingestive sensations, addition of beta glucan resulted in both positive...... apple-cherry fruit drinks with different levels of beta-glucans and different sweeteners, sucrose or Stevia rebaudiana. The aims were: 1) to study the hedonic sensory experience, 2) to study time and product effects on post-ingestive sensations and satisfaction, and 3) to study main drivers...

  8. The analysis of food additives surveillance results in Wanzhou district in 2010%万州区2010年食品添加剂监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向晓霞; 周江; 李世荣; 段希勇; 孙政

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the service condition of food additives in Wanzhou and provide scientific basis for drawing up some practical and effective preventive measures. Methods: The food samples from supermarkets, farmers markets, restaurants, eating houses etc. , were analysed based on the Methods of Food Hygienic Analysis. Results: 231 food samples were tested and, among them, 206 were qualified, the qualification rate was 89. 2% ; 121 were detected, the detectable rate was 52.4%. Conclusion: The exceeding standard rate of food additives was low in Wanzhou, but the detectable rate was higher, so the related department should take corresponding measures to enhance food safety.%目的:了解万州区食品添加剂使用状况,为制定切实有效的预防措施提供科学依据.方法:从万州区各类超市、农贸市场、酒楼、饮食店采集(购买)食品样品,按食品卫生检验方法进行检测分析.结果:共检测食品样品231件,206件合格,合格率89.2%,检出121件,检出率为52.4%.结论:万州区食品添加剂超标率较低,但检出率较高,相关部门应采取针对性措施,以提高食品安全.

  9. Prevalência de Aditivos em Alimentos Industrializados Comercializados em uma Cidade do Sul de Minas Gerais/Prevalence of Additives in Processed Food Marketed in a South City of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando S. Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de aditivos em quatro categorias de alimentos comercializados em Lavras, MG. Materiais e Métodos: Os dados da presença de aditivos em biscoitos salgados e doces, sopas instantâneas e salgadinhos foram obtidos por meio de visitas nos principais supermercados da cidade, e foram submetidos a uma análise de frequência em cada uma das classes de alimentos. Resultados: Dentre os 217 alimentos pesquisados, os aditivos encontrados com maior risco de toxicidade foram respectivamente: corante caramelo e amarelo crepúsculo, glutamato monossódico e o antioxidante TBHQ. Discussão: Não foram encontrados na literatura problemas de toxicologia com o restante de aditivos estudados, sobretudo em relação aos estabilizantes e fermentos químicos. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a prevalência de aditivos comprovadamente nocivos à saúde humana foi baixa nos alimentos industrializados estudados. Estudos para determinar efetivamente a nocividade dos demais aditivos encontrados são necessários. Introduction: Intake of processed food for easy consumption by the population is increasing due to the convenience and pleasant taste offered, but the use of these products can cause health problems due to numerous chemical additives. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of additives in four categories of foods marketed in Lavras, MG. Materials and Methods: Data from the presence of additives in crackers and cookies, instant soups and snacks were obtained through visits in the major grocery stores in the city, and were subjected to a frequency analysis on each of the food classes. Results: Among the 217 surveyed food additives, those with increased risk of toxicity were respectively: caramel coloring and sunset yellow, monosodium glutamate and antioxidant TBHQ. Discussion: It was not found in the toxicology literature problems with the rest of the additives studied, especially with regard to stabilizing and

  10. Scientific opinion on the safety assessment of medium viscosity white mineral oils with a kinematic viscosity between 8.5 – 11 mm2/s at 100 °C for the proposed uses as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS delivers a scientific opinion evaluating the safety in use of medium viscosity white mineral oil (MVMO (kinematic viscosity between 8.5 – 11 mm2/s at 100 °C as a food additive. In 2009, EFSA evaluated the safety of high viscosity white mineral oils (HVMO (kinematic viscosity ≥ 11 mm2/s at 100 °C. In this evaluation, the ANS Panel considered as pivotal a 2-year feeding study in the rat on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of two mineral oils: MVMO and HVMO. Based on the results of the study the Panel concluded that no carcinogenic effect was observed in F344 rats tested with MVMO and HVMO. The ANS Panel considered the NOAEL for both MVMO and HVMO in the above study to be 1200 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. Presently the Panel confirmed this conclusion and established a group ADI of 12 mg/kg bw/day for HVMO (kinematic viscosity ≥11 mm2/s at 100 °C and for MVMO (kinematic viscosity between 8.5 - 11 mm2/s at 100 °C. The Panel noted that conservative estimates indicated that the potential dietary intake of MVMO and/or HVMO from the proposed uses and use levels as food additive in high consumers would reach up to approximately 10.1 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers. This exposure is below the established group ADI. The Panel also noted that additional exposure to MVMO and/or HVMO via other sources could represent a major source of exposure. With the data presently available it is difficult to draw conclusions as to the magnitude of exposure and the number of consumers affected by this potential additional exposure.

  11. Effects of nationwide addition of selenium to fertilizers on foods, and animal and human health in Finland: From deficiency to optimal selenium status of the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfthan, Georg; Eurola, Merja; Ekholm, Päivi; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Root, Tarja; Korkalainen, Katja; Hartikainen, Helinä; Salminen, Pirjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Aspila, Pentti; Aro, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Despite different geological features the Nordic countries are generally selenium-poor areas. In each country various factors such as food importation and life-style determine the selenium (Se) intake. Due to an extremely low Se intake in the 1970s in Finland, 0.025 mg/day, an official decision was made in 1984 to supplement multinutrient fertilizers with Se in the chemical form of sodium selenate. Almost all fertilizers used in Finland since 1985 have contained Se. Currently all crop fertilizers contain 15 mg Se/kg. Finland is still the only country to take this country-wide measure. In a national monitoring programme, sampling of cereals, basic foodstuffs, feeds, fertilizers, soils, and human tissues has been carried out annually since 1985 by four governmental research organizations. Sampling of foods has been done four times per year and human blood has been obtained annually from the same (n=60) adults. The accuracy of analyses has been verified by annual interlaboratory quality control. During this programme the selenium concentration of spring cereals has increased on average 15-fold compared with the level before the Se fertilization. The mean increase in the Se concentration in beef, pork and milk was 6-, 2- and 3-fold. In terms of Se, organically grown foods of plant origin are generally comparable to products produced before the Se supplementation of fertilizers. Milk from organically fed cows is 50% lower in Se than the usual milk. The average dietary human intake increased from 0.04 mg Se/day/10 MJ in 1985 to a present plateau of 0.08 mg Se/day/10 MJ, which is well above the current nutrition recommendations. Foods of animal origin contribute over 70% of the total daily Se intake. The mean human plasma Se concentration increased from 0.89 μmol/L to a general level of 1.40 μmol/L that can be considered to be an optimal status. The absence of Se deficiency diseases and a reference population have made conclusions on the impact on human health difficult

  12. Exposure estimate for FD&C colour additives for the US population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Daniel E.; Lee, Hyoung S.; Butts, Kyla M.; Carberry, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary exposures to the seven food, drug, and cosmetic (FD&C) colour additives that are approved for general use in food in the United States were estimated for the US population (aged 2 years and older), children (aged 2–5 years) and teenage boys (aged 13–18 years) based on analytical levels of the FD&C colour additives in foods. Approximately 600 foods were chosen for analysis, based on a survey of product labels, for the levels of FD&C colour additives. Dietary exposure was estimated using both 2-day food consumption data from the combined 2007–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and 10–14-day food consumption data from the 2007–10 NPD Group, Inc. National Eating Trends – Nutrient Intake Database (NPD NET-NID). Dietary exposure was estimated at the mean and 90th percentile using three different exposure scenarios: low exposure, average exposure and high exposure, to account for the range in the amount of each FD&C colour additive for a given food. For all populations and all exposure scenarios, the highest cumulative eaters-only exposures in food were determined for FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5 and FD&C Yellow No. 6. In addition, the eaters-only exposure was estimated for individual food categories in order to determine which food categories contributed the most to the exposure for each FD&C colour additive. Breakfast Cereal, Juice Drinks, Soft Drinks, and Frozen Dairy Desserts/Sherbet (also referred to as Ice Cream, Frozen Yogurt, Sherbet (including Bars, Sticks, Sandwiches)) were the major contributing food categories to exposure for multiple FD&C colour additives for all three populations. PMID:27092991

  13. Microencapsulation of Food Additives and Its Application in Preserved Fruit Processing%食品添加剂的微胶囊化及其在蜜饯加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 侯小桢; 李远志; 赖宣

    2012-01-01

      介绍了微胶囊技术的定义,芯材、壁材的种类及选用,常用的微胶囊化方法;阐述了微胶囊技术在食品添加剂中的应用与研究现状,指出食品添加剂在蜜饯加工中存在的问题;并对微胶囊技术在佛手果蜜饯加工中的应用做了展望。%  The definition of microcapsule technique, choosing of core material and wall-material, meth-ods of microencapsulation were summarized. Research and application of microencapsulation in food additives and main processing problems of food additives in preserved fruit were illustrated. Meanwhile, the application prospect of microencapsulation in process of bergomat preserved fruit was described.

  14. Analysis study on maximum use levels for the food additives in aquatic products and advices%水产品中食品添加剂限量标准分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娣; 宋怿; 房金岑

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of establishing maximum use levels for food additives in aquatic products were introduced in this study, which analyzed the difference in food additives standards among codex alimentarius commission ( CAC) ,American, Japan , EU and China, then advanced some measures and advices for advancing national standards.%介绍CAC、美国、日本、欧盟等我国几个主要水产品出口对象的食品添加剂限量标准,并与我国相关标准要求进行了对比分析,探讨了我国现行水产品中食品添加剂限量标准存在的问题,提出了对策和建议.

  15. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples.

  16. 76 FR 22713 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Sulfamethazine; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  17. Currently approved and emerging oral therapies in multiple sclerosis: An update for the ophthalmologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Christopher; Bhatti, M Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Although our understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) has grown substantially, its cause remains unknown. Nonetheless, in the past 3 decades, there have been tremendous advancements in the development of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). In July 1993, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the first disease-modifying drug-interferon β- and there are currently 13 medications approved for use in relapsing MS. All the early medications are administered either as a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection, and despite the clinical efficacy and safety of these medications, many patients were hampered by the inconvenience of injections and injection-related side effects. In September 2010, the first oral DMD-fingolimod-was approved. Since then, 2 additional oral DMDs (teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate) have been approved, and several other oral medications are being evaluated in extensive MS development programs. Because of frequent ocular involvement, ophthalmologists are often involved in the care of MS patients and therefore need to be aware of the current treatment regimens prescribed by neurologists, some of which can have significant ophthalmic adverse events. We update the current advancements in the treatment of MS and discuss the published clinical data on the efficacy and safety of the currently approved and emerging oral therapies in MS.

  18. 高职院校食品添加剂课程教学改革与实践%Teaching Reform and Practice of Food Additives Course in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许旖旎

    2012-01-01

    In order to adapt to the needs of food additives teaching reform and development in the new period, this paper discusses the effective ways of improving the teaching contents, teaching methods and means, and evaluation methods in terms of the present state and existent problems in food additives course. It will play an important role to improve the quality of teaching and cultivate the actual ability of the students in using food additives.%为适应新时期食品添加剂课程教学改革与发展的需要,针对食品添加剂课程的现状及存在问题,探讨改进教学内容、教学方法与手段以及考核方式的有效途径,旨在为提高教学质量、培养学生对食品添加剂的实际应用能力提供参考。

  19. Research development of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria%利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述日; 吴清平; 吴军林

    2011-01-01

    主要从两个方面介绍了利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂的发展状况:一方面是关于益生菌(双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发针对不同人群的特定益生菌功能性食品添加剂的发展前景;另一方面是关于细菌代谢产物(乳酸链球菌素、溶菌酶、聚赖氨酸)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发细菌素相关的新型功能性食品添加剂的发展前景.%The progress of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria was introduced from two aspects. On the one hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) ,and the prospects of developing specific probiotic functional food additives for different groups of people. On the other hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of bacterial metabolites (nisin,lysozyme, polylysine) ,and the prospects of developing the new bacteriocin-related functional food additives.

  20. Analysis on domestic and international quality specifications of food additives%国内外食品添加剂质量规格标准状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霁月; 王华丽; 张俭波

    2012-01-01

    The profiles of quality specification on food additives in Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Japan and China were described; The specifications for the same food additive from different countries and international organizations were compared, and the similarity and difference of related monographs were analyzed. Then, recommendations for the management and reply for the specification of food additives from different countries were presented.%本文介绍了国际食品法典委员会(CAC)、欧盟、澳大利亚和新西兰、加拿大、日本及中国对食品添加剂质量规格标准的构成概况;举例对比了不同国家及国际组织对同一种食品添加剂的规格要求,分析了中国和其他发达国家及国际组织对于食品添加剂质量规格标准的异同;文章讨论了各国食品添加剂质量规格的管理模式并对我国食品添加剂的管理提出建议.