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Sample records for approval vivaglobin immune

  1. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008254 Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of Fba,a novel fibronectin-binding protein of group A streptococcus.MA Cuiqing(马翠柳),et al.Dept Immunol,Basic Med Coll,Hebei Med Univ,Shijiazhuang 050017.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(3):146-150.Objective To express the novel fibronectin-binding protein Fba ofgroupAstreptococcus(GAS)and analyze its immunogenicity,so to evaluate the immune responses to GAS infection.Methods fbagene was amplified by

  2. Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme in myelomonocytic cells enhances the immune response [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Bernstein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE converts angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and thereby plays an important role in blood pressure control. However, ACE is relatively non-specific in its substrate specificity and cleaves many other peptides. Recent analysis of mice overexpressing ACE in monocytes, macrophages, and other myelomonocytic cells shows that these animals have a marked increase in resistance to experimental melanoma and to infection by Listeria monocytogenes or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Several other measures of immune responsiveness, including antibody production, are enhanced in these animals. These studies complement a variety of studies indicating an important role of ACE in the immune response.

  3. Biosimilars in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: initial lessons from the first approved biosimilar anti-tumour necrosis factor monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J D; Cutolo, M; Keystone, E C; Park, W; Braun, J

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of targeted biological therapies has revolutionised the management of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Following treatment with these therapies, many patients experience significant improvements in different aspects of their disease, including symptoms, work productivity and other outcomes relevant for individuals and society. However, due to the complexity of biological drug development and manufacturing processes, the costs of these therapies are relatively high. Indeed, the financial burden on healthcare systems due to biological therapies is considerable and lack of patient access to effective treatment remains a concern in many parts of the world. As many reference biological therapies have now reached or are near to patent expiry, a number of 'biosimilar' drugs have been developed for use in various clinical settings, and some of these drugs are already in use in several countries. While the potential pharmacoeconomic benefits of cost-effective biosimilars seem clear, several issues have been raised regarding, for example, the definition of biosimilarity and the validity of indication extrapolation, as well as the 'switchability' and relative immunogenicity of biosimilars and their reference drugs. In this review, these issues will be discussed with reference to CT-P13, a biosimilar of the anti-tumour necrosis factor monoclonal antibody infliximab, which is approved in Europe and elsewhere for the treatment of various IMIDs. Other important issues, including those related to data collection during nonclinical and clinical development of biosimilars, are also discussed. PMID:26403380

  4. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  5. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Arranon (Nelarabine) Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi ...

  7. Echinoderm immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Courtney; Ghosh, Julie; Buckley, Katherine M; Clow, Lori A; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haug, Tor; Henson, John H; Li, Chun; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Matranga, Valeria; Nair, Sham V; Rast, Jonathan P; Raftos, David A; Roth, Mattias; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Stensvåg, Klara

    2010-01-01

    A survey for immune genes in the genome for the purple sea urchin has shown that the immune system is complex and sophisticated. By inference, immune responses of all echinoderms maybe similar. The immune system is mediated by several types of coelomocytes that are also useful as sensors of environmental stresses. There are a number of large gene families in the purple sea urchin genome that function in immunity and of which at least one appears to employ novel approaches for sequence diversification. Echinoderms have a simpler complement system, a large set of lectin genes and a number of antimicrobial peptides. Profiling the immune genes expressed by coelomocytes and the proteins in the coelomic fluid provide detailed information about immune functions in the sea urchin. The importance of echinoderms in maintaining marine ecosystem stability and the disastrous effects of their removal due to disease will require future collaborations between ecologists and immunologists working towards understanding and preserving marine habitats. PMID:21528703

  8. Post-Approval Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH Post-Approval Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated as a condition of approval of a...

  9. Echinoderm immunity

    OpenAIRE

    JE García-Arrarás; F Ramírez-Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically hetero...

  10. DNA Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed.

  11. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kistanguri, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary form characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia, or a secondary form in which immune thrombocytopenia develops in association with another disorder that is usually immune or infectious. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during ...

  12. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  13. Echinoderm immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE García-Arrarás

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically heterogeneous population of free roaming cells that are capable of recognizing and neutralizing pathogens. Celomocytes present diverse morphologies and functions, which include phagocytosis, encapsulation, clotting, cytotoxicity, wound healing among others. Humoral immunity is mediated by a wide variety of secreted compounds that can be found in the celomic fluid and play important roles in defense against infection. Compounds such as lectins, agglutinins, perforins, complement and some cytokines make up some of the humoral responses of echinoderms. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, genomics and transcriptomics have allowed for the discovery of new immune genes and their products. These discoveries have expanded our knowledge of echinoderm immunity and are setting up the stage for future experiments to better understand the evolution of the immune mechanisms of deuterostomes

  14. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae558) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as food

  15. Immunity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R John

    2003-06-11

    As people get older, their immune systems falter. The elderly are more susceptible to infections than youngsters are, and hyperactive inflammatory responses appear to contribute to some age-associated illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Investigating the effect of aging on the immune system was once a scientific stepchild, but card-carrying immunologists are now tackling the problem head-on. Despite the immune system's complexity, researchers have started to make sense of how its components change with age. As the research progresses, scientists hope to bolster elderly people's response to infectious diseases and quiet the inflammation that can make aging a painful experience. PMID:12844525

  16. More New Medication Approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved many new drugs for treating a wide variety of patient health problems. In a previous article, examples of approvals for the early part of last year were addressed. In this article, selected new FDA approvals through January 2016 are discussed. Nurses who are knowledgeable and informed about these new drugs will be able to answer patients' questions, clarify misunderstandings, and reduce the potential for medication misadventures. PMID:27441881

  17. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  18. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  19. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) Becenum ( ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) Becenum ( ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  3. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistangari, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary or a secondary form. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during childhood and in the elderly, in whom the age-specific incidence of ITP is greatest. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP. The pathogenesis of ITP is complex, involving alterations in humoral and cellular immunity. Corticosteroids remain the most common first line therapy for ITP. This article summarizes the classification and diagnosis of primary and secondary ITP, as well as the pathogenesis and options for treatment. PMID:23714309

  4. Premarket Approvals (PMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Premarket approval by FDA is the required process of scientific review to ensure the safety and effectiveness of all devices classified as Class III devices. An...

  5. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome (Dacarbazine) IL-2 (Aldesleukin) Imlygic (Talimogene Laherparepvec) Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) Intron A ( ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North...

  9. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  10. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  11. Immune checkpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Akhil; Philips, Anne V; Alatrash, Gheath; Mittendorf, Elizabeth,

    2014-01-01

    Early clinical trials investigating monoclonal antibodies targeting the T-cell inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have shown efficacy in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. We recently demonstrated PD-L1 expression in 20% of triple negative breast cancers suggesting that targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint may be an effective treatment modality in patients with this disease.

  12. Earthworm Immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Procházková, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Josková, Radka

    New York: Landes Biosciences and Springer Science +Business Media, 2010 - (Söderhäll, K.), 66-79. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 708). ISBN 978-1-4419-8058-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0378; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  13. Brodalumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-09-01

    Brodalumab (Lumicef(®)) is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody that is being developed by Kyowa Hakko Kirin in Japan, where it has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. Brodalumab binds with high affinity to interleukin (IL)-17 receptor A, thereby inhibiting several pro-inflammatory cytokines from the IL-17 family. Regulatory applications for brodalumab in plaque psoriasis are also under review in the USA, EU and Canada. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of brodalumab leading to this first approval for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27577550

  14. [Breaking immune tolerance in cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Mélanie; Champiat, Stéphane; Chaput, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of complex cellular interactions that govern the immune system contributed to the pharmacological targeting of anti-tumor immunity. The activity of immune effector cells, such as NK and T-cells, is regulated by a wide range of activating and inhibiting receptors or ligands. Drugs that target these receptors or ligands can modulate the immune response by exerting antagonistic or agonistic effects. Over the past decade, several immunomodulators have demonstrated clinical effectiveness, and three of them have already been approved for use in oncology. The development of these immunotherapy approaches presented unique challenges for safety and efficacy, requiring revising clinical response criteria and the establishment of guidelines to help oncologists to manage properly inflammatory toxicities. The introduction of these immunotherapies is a revolution in oncology. However, additional efforts in terms of optimizing treatment administration and identification of biomarkers are needed. Identifying the immunodynamics of various immunomodulators should allow a better understanding of anti-tumor and inflammatory mechanisms, and certainly give the opportunity to develop effective therapeutic combinations without potentiating adverse events. PMID:25609492

  15. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Venetoclax: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-06-01

    Venetoclax (Venclexta™) is an oral selective inhibitor of the prosurvival protein BCL-2 and therefore restores the apoptotic ability of malignant cells. The drug arose from research by Abbott Laboratories (now AbbVie) during a collaboration with Genentech and is being co-developed by AbbVie and Genentech/Roche primarily for the treatment of haematological malignancies. Venetoclax is approved in the USA for use as monotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) with the 17p deletion (as detected by an approved FDA test) who have received at least one prior therapy, and is awaiting approval for similar indications in the EU and Canada. Venetoclax is also in phase I-III development as combination therapy for CLL, phase I/II development as monotherapy and/or combination therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma) and acute myeloid leukaemia, and phase I development for multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus and breast cancer. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of venetoclax leading to this first approval for CLL. PMID:27260335

  17. FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FDA is the abbreviation of American Food and Drug Administration. It s main job is assuring the safety and reliability of the food, cosmetics, medicines, medical devices and radiation emitting products such as microwave oven, the food and medicine for animals. Radiopharmaceuticals are also under its management. The basic information of FDA and FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals are introduced

  18. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, George M

    2014-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is a relatively uncommon and generally benign condition presenting as abrupt onset of bruising, petechiae and thrombocytopenia in an otherwise healthy child due to production of anti-platelet autoantibodies. Diagnosis is largely clinical and laboratory investigation should be kept to a minimum. Indications for treatment have not been standardized and include bleeding, parental anxiety and quality of life. Multiple treatments are available that have been proven to increase the platelet count; the most commonly employed include IVIG, steroids and WinRho (anti-D). Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious potential complication but is extremely rare and splenectomy is reserved for chronically symptomatic patients who have not responded to other modalities. Identification of molecular targets may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:25423768

  19. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  20. Cariprazine: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    Cariprazine (Vraylar) is an oral atypical antipsychotic originated by Gedeon Richter. It is a potent dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, which preferentially binds to the D3 receptor. Cariprazine also has partial agonist activity at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. In September 2015, cariprazine received its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of schizophrenia and for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. It is also in development in a variety of countries for the treatment of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms (phase III), as adjunctive therapy for major depressive disorder (phase II/III) and for the treatment of bipolar depression (phase II). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of cariprazine leading to this first approval for schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. PMID:26510944

  1. Immune System Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  2. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  3. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  4. Immune checkpoint‑targeted cancer immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Swatler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells may express on their surface various characteristic antigens that can induce antitumor immunity. However, cancer in human body may induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that limits immune response to its antigens. For many years scientists have tried to develop an immunotherapy which would induce a potent antitumor immune response and lead to an elimination of the disease. One of the most promising immunotherapies is blockade of immune checkpoints, i.e. a group of costimulatory molecules negatively regulating the immune system. Their blockade would overcome immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment and amplify antitumor immunity. What’s more, immune checkpoint blockade may turn out even more profitable, as some of immune checkpoints and their ligands are expressed on tumor surface and on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, contributing to the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment. Phase III clinical trials have confirmed efficacy of an anti‑CTLA‑4 antibody ipilimumab, thereby leading to its acceptance for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Thanks to promising results of the phase I clinical trials, a breakthrough therapy designation and an early approval for the treatment have been granted to anti‑PD‑1 antibodies ‑ nivolumab (for the treatment of advanced melanoma and advanced non‑small cell lung cancer and pembrolizumab (for the treatment of advanced melanoma and, in the treatment of advanced bladder cancer, an anti‑PD‑L1 antibody ‑ MPDL3280A as well. Other immune checkpoints, such as LAG‑3, TIM‑3, BTLA, B7‑H3 and B7‑H4, are also under early evaluation.

  5. Obiltoxaximab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-05-01

    Obiltoxaximab (Anthim(®), ETI-204) is a monoclonal antibody that is being developed by Elusys Therapeutics and the US Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority for the prevention and treatment of inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab has been designed to neutralize the free protective antigen of B. anthracis, thereby inhibiting the lethal effects of anthrax toxins. In March 2016, intravenous obiltoxaximab was approved in the USA for the treatment (in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs) and prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax. Obiltoxaximab is being developed under the US FDA Animal Rule, in which marketing approval is based on its efficacy in relevant animal models and safety in phase I studies in healthy human volunteers. An intramuscular formulation of obiltoxaximab has also been evaluated in animal studies and a phase I study in healthy human volunteers. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of obiltoxaximab leading to this first approval for the treatment and prevention of inhalation anthrax. PMID:27085536

  6. Osimertinib: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-02-01

    Osimertinib (Tagrisso(™), AZD9291) is an oral, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) that is being developed by AstraZeneca for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Osimertinib has been designed to target the EGFR T790M mutation that is often present in NSCLC patients with acquired EGFR TKI resistance, while sparing wild-type EGFR. In November 2015, the tablet formulation of osimertinib was granted accelerated approval in the USA for the treatment of patients with metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC (as detected by an FDA-approved test) who have progressed on or after EGFR TKI therapy. Osimertinib has also been granted accelerated assessment status for this indication in the EU, and is in phase III development for first- and second-line and adjuvant treatment of advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC in several countries. Phase I trials in patients with advanced solid tumours are also being conducted. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of osimertinib leading to this first approval for NSCLC. PMID:26729184

  7. Sequential immune responses: The weapons of immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Charles; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different te...

  8. Recording information about immunizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gadsby, Roger

    1980-01-01

    The recording of information on triple plus polio and rubella immunizations is reviewed and immunization rates determined for patients in a single-handed practice. Rates of triple plus polio immunizations are satisfactory but rates for rubella immunization are very poor. Immunization information is not exchanged between different sections of the Health Service in Stoke-on-Trent and so the general practitioner has no reliable immunization record for his patients.

  9. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries. PMID:26960253

  10. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note from ... are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  11. Necitumumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-02-01

    Eli Lilly is developing necitumumab (Portrazza™), an intravenously administered fully human IgG monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is expressed in a variety of solid tumours and has been implicated in promoting oncogenesis and tumour progression. Necitumumab is approved as a part of combination therapy (with gemcitabine and cisplatin) in the USA for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and regulatory submissions have been made in the EU for this same indication. Necitumumab was derived from the proprietary phage display library of Dyax Corp, and originated with ImClone Systems, which was acquired by Eli Lilly in November 2008. Necitumumab was also under phase II development for colorectal cancer in Belgium and Spain; however, no recent development has been reported for this indication. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of necitumumab leading to this first approval for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC, in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin. PMID:26729188

  12. Council approves statement on natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a scientific society, AGU may adopt positions of advocacy on geophysical science isues based on their intrinsic merits and needs. On December 18, 1996, the AGU Council approved a Union position statement regarding scientific research and education in natural hazards. The complete position statement follows and also is posted at the Union Web Site, http://www.agu.org. Other Union position statements and information about proposing a position statement are in the AGU Handbook and at the Union Web Site.Few locations on Earth are immune from droughts, storms, floods, fires, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, sea level changes, water course changes, atmospheric electrical storms, and impacts from comets and asteroids. Humans and technological systems are also threatened by natural hazards that occur in space. The effects of space weather, for example, can wreak havoc with the satellites we use to provide communications, weather forecasts, and defense and positioning information.

  13. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoll, Drew M.

    2016-01-01

    Among the most promising approaches to activating therapeutic antitumour immunity is the blockade of immune checkpoints. Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and modulating the duration and amplitude of physiological immune responses in peripheral tissues in order to minimize collateral tissue damage. It is now clear that tumours co-opt certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumour antigens. Because many of the immune checkpoints are initiated by ligand–receptor interactions, they can be readily blocked by antibodies or modulated by recombinant forms of ligands or receptors. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) antibodies were the first of this class of immunotherapeutics to achieve US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Preliminary clinical findings with blockers of additional immune-checkpoint proteins, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), indicate broad and diverse opportunities to enhance antitumour immunity with the potential to produce durable clinical responses. PMID:22437870

  14. Multinational design approval programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing of new nuclear power facilities is likely to pose many challenges to national regulatory organizations. The majority of nuclear power plants to be built around the world in the next 15 years will likely be limited to a small number of relatively standardized designs, purchased from a limited number of multinational corporations. Such standardization creates an opportunity to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who will be tasked with the review of the new reactor power plant designs. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed an innovative proposal for a multinational design approval programme (MDAP). This paper describes the stages of the MDAP and the benefits that could be derived from its implementation. (author)

  15. Immune Check Point Inhibitors Combination in Melanoma: Worth the Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Marlana; Weight, Ryan; Valsecchi, Matias E; Sato, Takami

    2016-01-01

    The combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors ipilimumab and nivolumab has been recently been FDA approved for first line treatment of unresectable and metastatic BRAF wild type melanoma. The approval came following the impressive results of the CheckMate 067, where the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab appeared to outperform each as a single agent in regards to response rate and progression free survival. Though we await final overall survival data, the combination will likely be adapted by many oncologists and integrated into the ever changing melanoma treatment algorithm. In this article we aim to summarize the data leading up to the recent FDA approval and publication by Larkin et al. that presents the results from the CheckMate 067 trial. We will also further explore the feasibility, challenges, and applicability of combination immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. PMID:27028970

  16. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic and brand names. This page also lists common drug combinations used in lung ...

  17. Electronic Approval of Invoices (AEF)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With a view to the simplification of administrative procedures, AS and FI Departments have completed the second phase of the new procedure for the electronic approval of invoices via the EDH application. The aim of this new procedure is to rationalise the invoice approval process, notably by eliminating paper copies from the approval circuit. This will simplify the processing of invoices and facilitate their timely settlement, while at the same time maintaining a high level of security. Phase II includes handling the electronic approval process of invoices whose amounts do not correspond exactly to those of the associated orders. In such cases, budgetary approval is required for the entire invoiced amount. Further information can be obtained at : http://ais.cern.ch/projs/AEF/help/F_help.htm Phase II of the procedure will be introduced gradually with effect from April 2004. Finance Department, Accounts Payable Section Tel: 72295 Organisation and Procedures Tel: 75885 Information Technologies Department,...

  18. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age. PMID:26371731

  19. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ... Prevention To decrease the risks from immune system aging: Get the flu and pneumonia vaccines, and any ...

  20. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It helps ... to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  1. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/000093.htm Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...

  2. Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opportunistic infections have been linked to immune restoration. IRIS is a sign of improving immune health. Normally it is not treated. Continuing HIV therapy takes care of any problems. In rare ...

  3. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  4. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  5. Biomarkers for immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lingjia; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Liping; Shi, Yongyu; Ji, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal biomarkers. Immune thrombocytopenia pathogenesis is a complicated process in which the patient’s immune system is activated by platelet autoantigens resulting in immune mediated platelet destruction or suppression of platelet production. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells against self antigens are considered to play a crucial role. In addition, biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta1,Toll-like receptor...

  6. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence aga...

  7. Immune mechanisms in vasculopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Nityanand, Soniya

    1996-01-01

    Soniya Nityanand AB STRACT Most of the inflammatory vasculopathies, termed as vasculitides are considered to be mediated at least in part by immunopathogenic mechanisms. With the recent demonstration of immune cells in atherosclerotic plaques, immune mechanisms are considered to play an important role in atherosclerotic vasculopathies too. The main components involved in the immune-mediated vascular injury are immune complexes, antibodies to vascular wall antigens...

  8. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is tr...

  9. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5- ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin ( ...

  11. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  12. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  13. Immune responses in multiple myeloma: role of the natural immune surveillance and potential of immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerey, Camille; Nakamura, Kyohei; Vuckovic, Slavica; Hill, Geoffrey R; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a tumor of terminally differentiated B cells that arises in the bone marrow. Immune interactions appear as key determinants of MM progression. While myeloid cells foster myeloma-promoting inflammation, Natural Killer cells and T lymphocytes mediate protective anti-myeloma responses. The profound immune deregulation occurring in MM patients may be involved in the transition from a premalignant to a malignant stage of the disease. In the last decades, the advent of stem cell transplantation and new therapeutic agents including proteasome inhibitors and immunoregulatory drugs has dramatically improved patient outcomes, suggesting potentially key roles for innate and adaptive immunity in disease control. Nevertheless, MM remains largely incurable for the vast majority of patients. A better understanding of the complex interplay between myeloma cells and their immune environment should pave the way for designing better immunotherapies with the potential of very long term disease control. Here, we review the immunological microenvironment in myeloma. We discuss the role of naturally arising anti-myeloma immune responses and their potential corruption in MM patients. Finally, we detail the numerous promising immune-targeting strategies approved or in clinical trials for the treatment of MM. PMID:26801219

  14. Approval plans issues and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    How can you, as an acquisition librarians, keep current on the output of hundreds of publishers? The answer, of course, is that you cannot. For over 30 years, approval plans have been used by librarians to acquire current titles, save staff time, and build core collections. Even today, these reasons seem appropriate, as libraries try to maintain up-to-date collections and control personnel and operating budgets. However, as shown in Approval Plans: Issues and Innovations, the use of approval plans is not so simple and straightforward; their use is subject to complex procedures and policies--an

  15. Natural product derived immune-regulatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, James E

    2016-08-01

    We can now declare that the clinical goal of immune intervention as a therapeutic strategy for neoplastic, infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, has been achieved and in many instances obtained regulatory approval. Although, interest in and optimism for this approach has fluctuated, in the last 20years, immunotherapy has progressed from trials with crude microbial mixtures and extracts to the sophisticated use of pure cultured bacterial, synthetized active moieties identified from crude extracts, analogues therefrom and agonists and antagonists identified during screening resulting in reproducible pharmacologically active compounds with multiple mechanisms of action. Our current understanding of the mechanism of action for immunoregulatory agents contributes to the future discovery of improved strategies to use these and future immunotherapies. In this review we have identified and discussed, those drugs that have been approved and or are in clinical development as immunoregulatory agents, emphasizing those derived from or associated with natural product. PMID:26968760

  16. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Electronic Voucher Approval - Financial Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This process provides a workflow and eSignature capability which allows the CFO to router vouchers for review and electronic signature approval to COTRs in AIDW. It...

  18. Is It Really FDA Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical devices. These color additives (except coal-tar hair dyes) are subject by law to approval by the ... Examples of cosmetics are perfumes, makeup, moisturizers, shampoos, hair dyes, face and body cleansers, and shaving preparations. Cosmetic ...

  19. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and acronyms) Brand Name FDA Approval Date Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) NRTIs block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme HIV ... AZT, ZDV) Retrovir March 19, 1987 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) NNRTIs bind to and later alter reverse ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  3. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Simultaneous immunization against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Z Tchilian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.

  12. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune...

  13. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  14. Neural circuitry and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuro-immune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex, are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases define the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  15. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  16. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  17. A Fractal Immune Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Peter J.; Timmis, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are the driving force in development (embryogenesis) and the immune system. Here we describe how a model of proteins designed for evolutionary development in computers can be combined with a model of immune systems. Full details of a prototype system are provided, and preliminary experiments presented. Results show that evolution is able to adjust the mapping between input data and antigens and cause useful changes to the subnetworks formed by the immune algorithm.

  18. Electronic Approval of Invoices (AEF)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    With a view to the simplification of administrative procedures, AS and FI Divisions have drawn up a new procedure for the electronic approval of invoices via the EDH application. The aim of this new procedure is to rationalise the invoice approval process, notably by eliminating paper copies from the approval circuit. This will simplify the processing of invoices and facilitate their timely settlement, while at the same time maintaining a high level of security. This new procedure, in its current phase, will be gradually implemented from 1 November 2003 onwards. For clarification and further information, please see: http://ais.cern.ch/projs/AEF/help/help.htm . Finance Division, Accounts Payable Tel.: 7.22.95

  19. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the type of packaging material on which the label is printed; n. Brand name changes, provided that... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features..., location, and indication of final color. To obtain sketch label approval, domestic meat and...

  20. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  1. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  2. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z Screening ... Z Index • Site Map • Disclaimer • Privacy Policy Immunization Action Coalition • 2550 University Avenue West • Suite 415 North • ...

  3. Identification of a Protein Subset of the Anthrax Spore Immunome in Humans Immunized with the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Kudva, Indira T.; Griffin, Robert W.; Garren, Jeonifer M.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; John, Manohar

    2005-01-01

    We identified spore targets of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)-induced immunity in humans by screening recombinant clones of a previously generated, limited genomic Bacillus anthracis Sterne (pXO1+, pXO2−) expression library of putative spore surface (spore-associated [SA]) proteins with pooled sera from human adults immunized with AVA (immune sera), the anthrax vaccine currently approved for use by humans in the United States. We identified 69 clones that reacted specifically with pooled immu...

  4. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  5. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  6. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Alkylbenzene Project in Xinjiang Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weiyong

    1996-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on alkylbenzene project in Dushanzi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, submitted jointly by the government of Xinjiang UygurAutonomous Region and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), has been approved by State Council recently,after pass appraisa l by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation entrusted by State Planning Committee.

  10. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General is transmitting to the Government of each Member a certified copy of the Agreement in each of the Agency's four working languages

  12. Unilateral approval - Is it working?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion, owned by Canadian based MDS Inc., designs, manufactures and uses transport packages for the distribution of radioactive materials used in the medical, research and sterilisation industries. Each of these packages must be proven to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) transport regulations. This paper will explore the unilateral approval concept as well as provide examples of its implementation. The IAEA transport regulations are recognised and implemented across the world. They include the unilateral approval concept of a single competent authority approval of the package design. Although the performance standards set by the IAEA regulations for Type B(U) packages have been accepted and implemented in national legislation, national authorities tend to require additional reviews of the safety analysis report. Case studies will be presented to demonstrate that the concept of unilateral approval is not applied consistently between all IAEA member states, and that this has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material. The studies also show that these additional reviews have not resulted in changes to the design of a transport package. The lack of recognition of the IAEA unilateral approval for transport packages is a barrier to the effective transport of packages. These additional reviews require allocation of resources for both the company and the regulatory agency. As a responsible partner in a very unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA member states to accept Type B(U) transport certificate from other jurisdictions without requiring additional review or endorsement. In this respect, the collaboration of the competent authorities is important to reduce this regulatory impediment and allowing the effective transport of radioactive material. (author)

  13. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  14. Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159609.html Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C Combination drug treats six major forms of ... to treat the six major strains of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Epclusa combines sofosbuvir, FDA-approved ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  16. Immune responses in DNA vaccine formulated with PMMA following immunization and after challenge with Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrati, Somayeh; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Despite of many efforts toward vaccine against Leishmania no effective vaccine has been approved yet. DNA vaccines can generate more powerful and broad immune responses than conventional vaccines. In order to increase immunity, the DNA vaccine has been supplemented with adjuvant. In this study a new nano-vaccine containing TSA recombinant plasmid and poly(methylmethacrylate) nanoparticles (act as adjuvant) was designed and its immunogenicity tested on BALB/c mouse. After three intramuscular injection of nano-vaccine (100 μg), the recombinant TSA protein (20 μg) was injected subcutaneously. Finally as a challenge animals were infected by Leishmania major. After the last injection of nano-vaccine, after protein booster injection, and also after challenge, cellular immune and antibody responses were evaluated by ELISA method. The findings of this study showed the new nano-vaccine was capable of induction both cytokines secretion and specific antibody responses, but predominant Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ production compared to control groups. Moreover, results revealed that nano-vaccine was effective in reducing parasite burden in the spleen of Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice. Base on results, current candidate vaccine has potency for further studies. PMID:27413316

  17. Vaccines: Engineering immune evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, John R.

    2006-05-01

    One obstacle to realizing the promise of viral vectors for vaccine delivery is pre-existing immunity to such vectors. An adroit application of structure-based design points to a way around that problem.

  18. Immunization for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization History Vaccine Safety Articles Resources Personal Stories Vaccine Education Videos Research Articles ACOG Resources Resources & Links ACOG Update on Zika Virus Pregnancy Attention pregnant women! Pregnant women, their ...

  19. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Vaccines are products that ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  20. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... can't be prevented, you can help your child's immune system stay stronger and fight illnesses by ...

  1. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP ... Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can protect your child by administering not only active immunizations , but sometimes ...

  2. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  3. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  4. 40 CFR 123.61 - Approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process. 123.61 Section 123... REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.61 Approval process. (a) After determining that a...; and (6) Briefly outline the fundamental aspects of the State's proposed program, and the process...

  5. 40 CFR 145.31 - Approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process. 145.31 Section 145.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision and Withdrawal § 145.31 Approval process....

  6. 9 CFR 147.52 - Approved tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... testing known negative samples, as determined by the official NPIP procedures found in this part. If... Approved Tests § 147.52 Approved tests. (a) The procedures for the bacteriological examination of poultry... kits) may be approved through the following procedure: (1) The sensitivity of the kit will be...

  7. 12 CFR 611.510 - Approval procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval procedures. 611.510 Section 611.510 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Transfer of Authorities § 611.510 Approval procedures. (a) Upon receipt of approval of a resolution by the Farm...

  8. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  9. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipeki Nóra; Antal-Szalmás Péter (1968-) (laboratóriumi szakorvos, laboratóriumi hematológus és immunológus, klinikai farmakológus szakorvos); Lakatos Péter László; Papp Mária (1975-) (belgyógyász, gasztroenterológus)

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific comp...

  10. Immune effects of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Agnes E.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty papers concerning the effects on the immune system of ingestion of probiotic bacteria in humans have been reviewed. Several studies report that intake of probiotics stimulate cell-mediated immune effector functions. Thus, enhanced production of interferon-y by blood cells, enhanced phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and to a lesser extent monocytes, and enhanced expression of complement receptors on PMNs are effects quite consistently seen in subjects consuming probioti...

  11. 30 CFR 746.14 - Approval, disapproval or conditional approval, of mining plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., of mining plan. 746.14 Section 746.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.14 Approval, disapproval or conditional approval, of mining plan. The Secretary shall approve, disapprove...

  12. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  13. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  14. 75 FR 48302 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Credit Account Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Credit Account Approval for Reimbursable Services AGENCY: Animal and... information collection associated with credit account approval for reimbursable services. DATES: We will... account approval for reimbursable services, contact Mrs. Kris Caraher, User Fees Section Head,...

  15. Iron overload and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gra(c)a Porto; Maria De Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the characterization of genes involved in the control of iron homeostasis in humans and in mice has improved the definition of iron overload and of the cells affected by it. The cell involved in iron overload with the greatest effect on immunity is the macrophage.Intriguing evidence has emerged, however, in the last 12 years indicating that parenchymal iron overload is linked to genes classically associated with the immune system. This review offers an update of the genes and proteins relevant to iron metabolism expressed in cells of the innate immune system, and addresses the question of how this system is affected in clinical situations of iron overload. The relationship between iron and the major cells of adaptive immunity, the T lymphocytes,will also be reviewed. Most studies addressing this last question in humans were performed in the clinical model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis. Data will also be reviewed demonstrating how the disruption of molecules essentially involved in adaptive immune responses result in the spontaneous development of iron overload and how they act as modifiers of iron overload.

  16. [Immune-mediated neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, G; Reiners, K

    2016-08-01

    The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are the most common immune-mediated polyneuropathies, which can show variable clinical and electrophysiological manifestations. Rarer immune-mediated neuropathies encompass paraproteinemic neuropathies (PPN), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and vasculitic neuropathies. The diagnosis usually relies on the history of symptom evolution, distribution of nerve dysfunction and particularly on characteristic features in nerve conduction studies, aided by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy findings. The therapeutic toolbox encompasses corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis often accompanied by long-term immunosuppression. It is important to note that immune-mediated neuropathies selectively respond to treatment and contraindications need to be considered. Despite treatment a considerable number of patients suffer from permanent neurological deficits. PMID:27474733

  17. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno......-specific scoring matrices based on information from known HLA epitopes prediction tools, and TCR binding to HLA–peptide complex calculated as the averaged sum of a residue–residue contact potential. These steps are executed for all lymphocytes agents encountering the antigen in a wide-reaching Monte Carlo......-informatics methods to allow the simulation of the cardinal events of the antigenic recognition, going from single peptides to whole proteomes. The recognition process accounts for B cell-epitopes prediction through Parker-scale affinity estimation, class I and II HLA peptide prediction and binding through position...

  18. Approval of radioactive consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)

  19. IL–18 AND IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yakushenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Interleukin–18 is one of the main cytokines, inducing production of IFNg. It is the important factor of anti–infectious and anti–tumor immunity. The review represent molecular–genetic and biochemical characteristics of IL–18. The data about producers, the structure of the receptor and of IL–18 binding protein, as well as signal transduction in the cell are considered. Besides that, the main immune effects of IL–18 are discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp 355–364

  20. Mipomersen sodium: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; McKeage, Kate

    2013-04-01

    Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro™) (henceforth mipomersen) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is the main structural component of atherogenic lipid particles. Mipomersen is administered via subcutaneous injection and is indicated as adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). The drug was developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals, which now collaborates with Genzyme Corporation for on-going development and product marketing. Multinational phase III trials of mipomersen as adjunctive therapy were completed in patients with HoFH, severe FH, heterozygous FH (HeFH) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in those with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk of CAD. Mipomersen 200 mg once weekly has been approved in the USA as an adjunct to lipid-lowering medications and diet in HoFH patients and is undergoing regulatory review in the EU for the same indication. Genzyme is also conducting a multinational phase III, open-label extension study to evaluate long-term treatment in HoFH and HeFH patients, as well as a multinational trial to evaluate a three-times-per-week mipomersen regimen in patients with severe FH. This article summarises the milestones in the development of once-weekly, subcutaneous mipomersen leading to this first approval. PMID:23564617

  1. Immune recovery vitritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Immune recovery vitritis (IRV is symptomatic vitritis of > 1+ severity associated with inactive cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. It is an opportunistic infection of the eye, in the patients who suffer from AIDS, and is treated with a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. As a result of this therapy, there is an immune reconstitution in the body and inflammation of the vitreous body. Objective The aim of the study was to show the incidence of IRV in patients treated with HAART. Method A retrospective study was conducted in patients who suffered from CMV retinitis. Twenty-one were treated with HAART and had the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, as well. All of them were examined by the same ophthalmologist who peformed slit lamp examination with mydriasis and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results Nine of 21 patients developed IRV as a complication of HAART, two had cystoid macular edema (CMO. Conclusion CMV retinitis develops when the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes drops below 50/mm3. This results in necrotic retinitis which, if untreated, leads to complete loss of vision. With the introduction of HAART, we learned that the reconstitution of immune status was achieved as well as life expectancy, but there was a dramatic decline in the opportunistic infection, including CMV retinitis, as well. With the immune reconstitution, the inflammation develops in the eye, known as IRV. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat this condition, but in the case of our patients, the inflammation was mild, and no treatment was necessary.

  2. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  3. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  4. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care

  5. Bed rest and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  6. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Upadhyay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  7. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; Follows, George A.; Martin E. Munik

    1992-01-01

    Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/beta)T cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  8. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/betaT cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  9. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162. ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  10. Mucosal immunity in invertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin

    Vol. 1. Elsevier: Academic Press, 2015 - (Městecký, J.; Strober, W.; Russell, M.; Kelsall, B.; Cheroutre, H.; Lambrecht, B.), s. 135-144. (Fourth Edition). ISBN 978-0-12-415847-4 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mucosal immunity * invertebrates Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Cytokines and antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ludmila; Pawelec, Graham

    2003-06-01

    Currently, the notion of immunosurveillance against tumors is enjoying something of a renaissance. Even if we still refuse to accept that tumors arising in the normal host are unable to trigger an immune response because of the lack of initiation ("danger") signals, there is no doubt that the immune system can be manipulated experimentally and by implication therapeutically to exert anti-tumor effects. For this activity to be successful, the appropriate cytokine milieu has to be provided, making cytokine manipulation central to immunotherapy. On the other hand, the major hurdle currently preventing successful immunotherapy is the ability of tumors to evolve resistant variants under the pressure of immune selection. Here, too, the cytokine milieu plays an essential role. The purpose of this brief review is to consider the current status of the application of cytokines in facilitating antitumor immunity, as well their role in inhibiting responses to tumors. Clearly, encouraging the former but preventing the latter will be the key to the effective clinical application of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:12779349

  12. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies

  13. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Gulley, James L. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Medical Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Schlom, Jeffrey, E-mail: js141c@nih.gov; Tsang, Kwong Y. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies.

  14. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  15. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  16. Innate immune memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. PMID:27264335

  17. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rawad; Morales, Joshua; Rehman, Yasser; Khurshid, Humera

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. The treatment of advanced stage tumors usually involves the use of systemic agents that may be associated with significant risk of toxicity, especially in older patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are newcomers to the oncology world with improved efficacy and better safety profiles when compared to traditional cytotoxic drugs. This makes them an attractive treatment option. While there are no elderly specific trials, this review attempts to look at the current available data from a geriatric oncology perspective. We reviewed data from phase III studies that led to newly approved indications of checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell cancer. Data were reviewed with respect to response, survival, and toxicity according to three groups: 75 years. Current literature does not allow one to draw definitive conclusions regarding the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in older adults. However, they may offer a potentially less toxic but equally efficacious treatment option for the senior adult oncology patient. PMID:27287329

  18. Immune modulators with parasite infections

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiangsheng

    2014-01-01

    SNPs in immune-related genes (IL-2 and IL-2R alpha) may used for future prospective studies examining disease susceptibility or may better elucidate various physiological responses. Distinctive immune response profiles could provide a better understanding of the immune response during disease progression or regression and improve the monitoring of alveolar echinococcosis patients.

  19. Diversity in the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity that forms the main difference between the immune systems of invertebrate and vertebrate species.

  20. HEPATITE AUTO IMMUN

    OpenAIRE

    Halfaoui, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Les hépatites auto –immun sont d’une atteinte inflammatoire aigu ou chronique du foie caractérisé par réaction immunitaire dirigé contre un antigène de hôte .il en existe deux types :  Hépatite auto immun type 1 : caractérisé par présence d’auto anticorps anti muscle lisse de spécifité antiactine, anticorps anti nucléaires.  Type 2 caractérisé par présence d’auto anticorps anti microsome de foie et de rein (anti LMNK1). Leur étiologies est multifactoriel ; impliquant...

  1. Humoral immunity in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, A F; Craig, S; Bardana, E J

    1987-09-01

    Bronchiectasis occurs in patients with immunodeficiency and fungal hypersensitivity disorders. To assess the prevalence of abnormal humoral immune parameters in bronchiectasis, a retrospective study was carried out on sera from 30 patients. Studies included immunoglobulin quantitation and specific antibody to fungal species. Eleven patients were found to have immunodeficiency (nine with panhypoglobulinemia and two with selective IgM deficiency). Six patients had elevations of serum IgA and four patients had elevations of serum IgE. Six patients had elevated total antibody to Aspergillus or Candida species and six had precipitin bands to one or more fungal antigens. This study indicates that immunodeficiency is prevalent and plays a causative role in some patients with bronchiectasis. Hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus, Candida, and other ubiquitous environmental fungi may also play an etiopathogenic role in this disease (bronchiectasis, humoral immunity, immunodeficiency). PMID:3631652

  2. 7 CFR 959.123 - Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval. 959.123 Section 959.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... consideration to each application for a Certificate of Privilege. Approval of an application, based upon...

  3. 7 CFR 948.123 - Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval. 948.123 Section 948.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... give prompt consideration to each application for a Certificate of Privilege. Approval of...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.90 - Preliminary approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preliminary approval to the acquisition or merger. However, the borrower may not obtain additional loan funds...) Before RUS will grant preliminary approval, the borrower shall submit: (1) Merger or acquisition documents required by state law; (2) Acquisition agreements covering the transaction; (3) Any...

  5. 77 FR 6560 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... the Federal Register of June 10, 2009 (74 FR 27541) (FRL-8413-2), which announced that Lubrizol, 29400... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approval AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces Agency approval of an application to register the...

  6. 28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures. The Clinical Director shall consider individually any request from an inmate or a BOP medical consultant. (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is... forward the surgery request to the Office of Medical Designations and Transportation for approval. (b)...

  7. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fuses. 28.2 Section 28.2 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 28.2 Approved fuses. (a) On and after the effective date...

  8. 13 CFR 108.370 - Conditional approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditional approval. 108.370 Section 108.370 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.370 Conditional approval....

  9. Ordinal Position, Approval Motivation, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Results of the study suggest that birth-order effects might be included within the wider framework of approval-dependency theory. Females tend to account for a significant share of birth-order effects. More particularly, firstborn females accounted for much of the differences in expressed attraction as well as need for social approval. (Author)

  10. 46 CFR 249.7 - Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.7 Approval. (a) Approval of the applicant will be based upon an.... hull insurance market, if U.S. insurers are denied similar access to the hull insurance market in the... to MARAD's attention any discriminatory laws or practices relating to the placement of marine...

  11. E-Approval Plans in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Carmelita; Tabacaru, Simona; Harrell, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Research libraries have long invested in approval plan services, which offer an economical way to acquire scholarly and scientific publications. Traditional approval plans have evolved and now enable libraries to expand their e-book offerings to better serve researchers. Publishers offer a myriad of e-book purchasing options. These range from…

  12. Immune interactions in endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Herington, Jennifer L.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Lucas, John A.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progester...

  13. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Upadhyay; Linda Hammerich; Paul Peng; Brian Brown; Miriam Merad; Brody, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive grow...

  14. Mammalian gut immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Chassaing; Manish Kumar; Mark T Baker; Vishal Singh; Matam Vijay-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximit...

  15. Auto immune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-05-21

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  16. Update on global immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carol J

    2007-10-01

    The international community recognizes that investing in the health development of poor and disadvantaged countries is central to reducing poverty. Immunization is one strategy in the global effort to reduce infant mortality, improve maternal health, and combat infectious disease. In this day of global interdependence, all countries are vulnerable to uncontrolled spread of disease through epidemics. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals will not only help developing countries, but it will also contribute to improving health and security for all. PMID:17990623

  17. Macrophage: SHIP of Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Charles D.; Thomas, Anita C.; Lenz, Laurel L.; Munder, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Immunology. Why does it exist? Two words. Cure disease. People get diseases. “Test tubes” do not. People fund immunologists for solutions to their health problems. But, immunologists often study leukocytes in test tubes – the laboratory – away from diseases. Why? Because much can be learned from analyzing cellular biochemistry and behaviors in vitro that cannot be ascertained when leukocytes are in animals. At the same time, isolated leukocyte reactions often do not reflect how the immune sys...

  18. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Sim; Natapong Jupatanakul; George Dimopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundam...

  19. Auto immune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Nicole MF; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris JJ; van Nieuwkerk, Carin MJ; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: “auto immune hepatitis”, “clinical presentation”, “symptoms”, “signs”, “diagnosis”, “auto antibodies”, “laboratory values”, “serology”, “histopathology”, “histology”, “genetics”, “HLA genes”, “non-HLA genes”, “environment”, “epidemiology”, “prevalence”, “incidence”, “demographics”, “complications”, “HCC”, “PBC”, “PSC”, “corticosteroid”, “therapy”, “treatment”, “alternative treatment”. English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  20. Brucella evasion of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Anna; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The complex immune system of mammals is the result of evolutionary forces that include battles against pathogens, as sensing and defeating intruders is a prerequisite to host survival. On the other hand, microorganisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade both arms of immunity: the innate and the adaptive immune systems. The successful pathogenic intracellular bacterium Brucella is not an exception to the rule: Brucella displays mechanisms that allow evasion of immune surveillance in order to establish persistent infections in mammals. In this review, we highlight some key mechanisms that pathogenic Brucella use to evade the adaptive immune system. PMID:23374122

  1. Immune modulation of effector CD4+ and regulatory T cell function by sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Roniel; Ararat, Miguel; Xu, Yiling; Brusko, Todd; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A.; Chang, Lung Ji; Liu, Chen; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a difficult to treat cancer characterized by poor tumor immunity with only one approved systemic drug, sorafenib. If novel combination treatments are to be developed with immunological agents, the effects of sorafenib on tumor immunity are important to understand. In this study, we investigate the impact of sorafenib on the CD4+CD25− effector T cells (Teff) and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) from patients with HCC. We isolated Teff and Treg from periphe...

  2. Comparative immune systems in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shaochun; Tao, Xin; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-02-01

    Animal immune systems can be classified into those of innate immunity and those of adaptive immunity. It is generally thought that the former are universal for all animals and depend on germline-encoded receptors that recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), whereas the latter are vertebrate specific and are mediated primarily by lymphocytes bearing a unique antigen receptor. However, novel adaptive or adaptive-like immunities have been found in invertebrates and jawless vertebrates, and extraordinarily complex innate immunities, created through huge expansions of many innate gene families, have recently been found in the cephalochordate amphioxus and the echinoderm sea urchin. These studies not only inspire immunologists to seek novel immune mechanisms in invertebrates but also raise questions about the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunities. PMID:25384142

  3. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. PMID:27131327

  4. 18 CFR 1304.7 - Conditions of approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures for Approval of Construction § 1304.7 Conditions of approvals. Approvals of applications shall contain...

  5. 5 CFR 7601.102 - Prior approval of outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited by statute or Federal regulation, including 5 CFR part 2635. (c) Scope of approval. Approval will... employee's NARA position, the employee shall submit a revised request for approval. (d) Definition...

  6. Immune Monitoring Using mRNA-Transfected Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Troels Holz; Svane, Inge Marie; Met, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells are known to be the most potent antigen presenting cell in the immune system and are used as cellular adjuvants in therapeutic anticancer vaccines using various tumor-associated antigens or their derivatives. One way of loading antigen into the dendritic cells is by mRNA electroporation, ensuring presentation of antigen through major histocompatibility complex I and potentially activating T cells, enabling them to kill the tumor cells. Despite extensive research in the field, only one dendritic cell-based vaccine has been approved. There is therefore a great need to elucidate and understand the immunological impact of dendritic cell vaccination in order to improve clinical benefit. In this chapter, we describe a method for performing immune monitoring using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and autologous dendritic cells transfected with tumor-associated antigen-encoding mRNA. PMID:27236804

  7. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and...... regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  8. Factors predicting BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria: a behavioral-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Lawan, Umar

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the predictors of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization status among infants in northern Nigeria using a behavioral-ecological model. The findings show only 37.3 percent of the children had received BCG vaccine, and reveal that BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria is influenced by multiple layers of factors, including child's characteristics, parental or household factors, community characteristics, vaccine supply and the policy environment. At the child's level, place of birth and ownership of an immunization card are the two most significant predictors. The parental and household predictors of BCG immunization status include maternal use of antenatal care, maternal knowledge about immunization, maternal exposure to child health information, social influence and paternal approval of immunization. Both the regularity of vaccine supply to the health facility and the state of residence are associated independently with BCG immunization status. These findings stress the need for interventions at multiple levels in order to increase BCG immunization status. PMID:19240190

  9. Hypothalamic neurohormones and immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, J. Luis; Guzmán-Soto, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed. PMID:23964208

  10. Protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Claire; Quenee, Lauriane; Anderson, Deborah; Schneewind, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Plague, an infectious disease that reached catastrophic proportions during three pandemics, continues to be a legitimate public health concern worldwide. Although antibiotic therapy for the causative agent Yersinia pestis is available, pharmaceutical supply limitations, multi-drug resistance from natural selection as well as malicious bioengineering are a reality. Consequently, plague vaccinology is a priority for biodefense research. Development of a multi-subunit vaccine with Fraction 1 and LcrV as protective antigens seems to be receiving the most attention. However, LcrV has been shown to cause immune suppression and Y. pestis mutants lacking F1 expression are thought to be fully virulent in nature and in animal experiments. The LcrV variant, rV10, retains the well documented protective antigenic properties of LcrV but with diminished inhibitory effects on the immune system. More research is required to examine the molecular mechanisms of vaccine protection afforded by surface protein antigens and to decipher the host mechanisms responsible for vaccine success. PMID:17966437

  11. Ozone and Pulmonary Innate Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, John W.; Kleeberger, Steven R.; Foster, W. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Ambient ozone (O3) is a commonly encountered environmental air pollutant with considerable impact on public health. Many other inhaled environmental toxicants can substantially affect pulmonary immune responses. Therefore, it is of considerable interest to better understand the complex interaction between environmental airway irritants and immunologically based human disease. The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. Intact innate immunity requ...

  12. The Immune Microenvironment of Myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan, Kimberly; Borrello, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The bone marrow (BM) is the site of disease in myeloma and possesses unique immune characteristics involved in the pathobiology of the disease. Interactions of plasma cells with stromal cells, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, myeloid and lymphoid cells make up the unique bone marrow milieu that mediates myeloma disease progression. Independently or through a complex network of interactions these cells impart immune changes leading to immune evasion and disease progression. The critical role of these...

  13. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Brazdova; Helene Senechal; Gabriel Peltre

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present acti...

  14. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-r...

  15. The dilemma of approving antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2007-04-20

    Clinical trials with antidotes are difficult to perform for a variety of practical, ethical, and financial reasons. As acute poisoning is a rare event, the commercial interest in basic and clinical research is low. Poisoned patients are usually not available for normal clinical trial procedures and, if they are, they cannot give informed consent. This situation results in a dilemma: antidotes are essential drugs. A resolution of the Council of Europe requests to guarantee the optimal availability of antidotes and the improvement of their use. As comprehensive data on the efficacy of antidotes are often missing, a marketing authorisation under exceptional circumstances according to Article 14(8) of Regulation (EC) No. 276/2004, will often be the only way to get an approval, as: (1) the indications for which the product in question is intended are encountered so rarely that the applicant cannot reasonably be expected to provide comprehensive evidence ("orphan drug"), (2) in the present state of scientific knowledge, comprehensive information cannot be provided, or (3) it would be contrary to generally accepted principles of medical ethics to collect such data. Typically, data on antidotes are obtained from a patchwork of studies with animals, human tissue and a few observations from human poisoning corroborated with data from clinical observations and biochemistry. Generalisations from chemical and mechanistic similarities between groups of poisons are usual, but often lack scientific evidence. Current standards of good clinical practice can rarely be observed. Therefore, public funding and other financial support are necessary incentives to initiate trials in this important area. PMID:17207900

  16. Approving of personal dosimeter services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish regulation SSI FS 98:5 requires that radiological workers of category A use dosemeters from an approved personal dosimetry service. The regulation also includes certain specific dosimeter requirements, which are based on those presented in the Technical Recommendations by the European Commission (Report EUR 14852 EN, 1994). All services have been tested for their ability to determine Hp(10) and some of them to determine Hp(0.07) at one radiation quality. The test was performed in the interval 0.2 mSv to 100 mSv at three different dose equivalents unknown to the system owner. The 11 services operating in Sweden at the moment use 5 different types of dosimeters. The five unique systems have been tested regarding the angular and energy dependence of the response of the dosimeters. The dosimeters were irradiated to a personal dose equivalent of about 1 mSv at three photon energies and at four angles (0, 20, 40 and 60 deg. resp. ) both vertically and horizontally rotated. Only 2 of the services determine Hp(0.07) for beta and gamma radiation and were tested for this quantity. The test results for Hp(10) are all except two within the trumpet curve. For the unique systems it is shown that the uncertainty related to angular response at a specified energy is within the required ±40 % except for the lowest X-ray quality at 40 kV. The response is more dependent on photon energy than on the direction of the photon radiation and the choice of radiation quality for the calibration is of great importance for the system performance

  17. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda M. Brand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM, directly to liver (hydrodynamic, or cutaneously (biolistic, ID. We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL, and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.

  18. Drugs Approved for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gestational trophoblastic disease. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159648.html FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers Tiny lens reshapes cornea to ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An implant that helps the aging eye focus on small ...

  20. FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159050.html FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction Experts say steady dosing ... 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new long-acting implant that can help treat people addicted to heroin ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Host Resistance and Immune Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Thilinie; Shaw, Albert C

    2016-08-01

    Human immune system aging results in impaired responses to pathogens or vaccines. In the innate immune system, which mediates the earliest pro-inflammatory responses to immunologic challenge, processes ranging from Toll-like Receptor function to Neutrophil Extracellular Trap formation are generally diminished in older adults. Dysregulated, enhanced basal inflammation with age reflecting activation by endogenous damage-associated ligands contributes to impaired innate immune responses. In the adaptive immune system, T and B cell subsets and function alter with age. The control of cytomegalovirus infection, particularly in the T lineage, plays a dominant role in the differentiation and diversity of the T cell compartment. PMID:27394014

  3. The microbiome and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, Christoph A; Zmora, Niv; Levy, Maayan; Elinav, Eran

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a signalling hub that integrates environmental inputs, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals to affect the host's metabolism, immunity and response to infection. The haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells of the innate immune system are located strategically at the host-microbiome interface. These cells have the ability to sense microorganisms or their metabolic products and to translate the signals into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology. Aberrations in the communication between the innate immune system and the gut microbiota might contribute to complex diseases. PMID:27383981

  4. Marathon training and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many components of the immune system exhibit adverse change after marathon-type exertion. These immune changes occur in several compartments of the immune system and body (e.g. the skin, upper respiratory tract mucosal tissue, lung, peritoneal cavity, blood and muscle). Of all immune cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils and macrophages (of the innate immune system) exhibit the greatest changes in response to marathon competition, both in terms of numbers and function. Many mechanisms appear to be involved, including exercise-induced changes in stress hormone and cytokine concentrations, body temperature changes, increases in blood flow and dehydration. During this 'open window' of immune dysfunction (which may last between 3 and 72 hours, depending on the immune measure), viruses and bacteria may gain a foothold, increasing the risk of subclinical and clinical infection. Of the various nutritional and pharmacological countermeasures to marathon-induced immune perturbations that have been evaluated thus far, ingestion of carbohydrate beverages during intense and prolonged exercise has emerged as the most effective. However, carbohydrate ingestion during a marathon attenuates increases in plasma cytokines and stress hormones, but is largely ineffective against changes in other immune components including suppression of NK and T-cell function, and salivary IgA output. Other countermeasures, such as glutamine, antioxidant supplements and ibuprofen, have had disappointing results and thus the search for companion agents to carbohydrate continues. PMID:17465622

  5. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  6. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  7. Nutrition and immunity in ruminant animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immune system can be generally separated into three broad components; natural immunity, innate immunity, and acquired immunity, all of which must be fully developed and functioning properly to provide adequate immunological protection. Natural and innate immunity are typically grouped together u...

  8. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Innate Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Innate immunity now occupies a central role in immunology. However, artificial immune system models have largely been inspired by adaptive not innate immunity. This paper reviews the biological principles and properties of innate immunity and, adopting a conceptual framework, asks how these can be incorporated into artificial models. The aim is to outline a meta-framework for models of innate immunity.

  9. Immune evasion by pseudomonal proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes and rapidly kills invading bacteria via different mechanisms. Bacteria exploit several strategies to evade recognition by the immune system in order to survive within the host. An important strategy of bacteria is the secretion of proteins that block crucial funct

  10. Feeling manipulated: cytomegalovirus immune manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparer Tim E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract No one likes to feel like they have been manipulated, but in the case of cytomegalovirus (CMV immune manipulation, we do not really have much choice. Whether you call it CMV immune modulation, manipulation, or evasion, the bottom line is that CMV alters the immune response in such a way to allow the establishment of latency with lifelong shedding. With millions of years of coevolution within their hosts, CMVs, like other herpesviruses, encode numerous proteins that can broadly influence the magnitude and quality of both innate and adaptive immune responses. These viral proteins include both homologues of host proteins, such as MHC class I or chemokine homologues, and proteins with little similarity to any other known proteins, such as the chemokine binding protein. Although a strong immune response is launched against CMV, these virally encoded proteins can interfere with the host's ability to efficiently recognize and clear virus, while others induce or alter specific immune responses to benefit viral replication or spread within the host. Modulation of host immunity allows survival of both the virus and the host. One way of describing it would be a kind of "mutually assured survival" (as opposed to MAD, Mutually Assured Destruction. Evaluation of this relationship provides important insights into the life cycle of CMV as well as a greater understanding of the complexity of the immune response to pathogens in general.

  11. 27 CFR 40.394 - Notice of approval of bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer, in writing, of the bond approval, in order that the manufacturer may commence operations. (72... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of approval of bond... Manufacturers § 40.394 Notice of approval of bond. If the bond required under this subpart is approved by...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.42 - Approval of Plan of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of Plan of Study. 2400.42 Section 2400.42... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.42 Approval of Plan of Study. The Foundation must approve each Fellow's Plan of Study. To be approved, the plan must: (a) On a part-time or...

  13. 46 CFR 160.023-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.023-4 Section 160.023... Signals § 160.023-4 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The approval tests are those tests... independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under § 159.010 of this chapter. (b) Production...

  14. 30 CFR 14.10 - Post-approval product audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to audit for cause at any time MSHA believes the approval holder product is not in compliance with... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-approval product audit. 14.10 Section 14... General Provisions § 14.10 Post-approval product audit. (a) Approved conveyor belts will be subject...

  15. 7 CFR 1726.36 - Documents subject to RUS approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents subject to RUS approval. 1726.36 Section... subject to RUS approval. Unless otherwise indicated, the borrower shall make all contracts and amendments that are subject to RUS approval effective only upon RUS approval....

  16. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glenthøj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS.

  17. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner; Hadrup, Sine Reker; O’Connell, Casey; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS. PMID:27314337

  18. Plant innate immunity multicomponent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eAndolfo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of plant–pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defence mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defence response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defence system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant’s ability to distinguish the feeding behaviour of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defence against the different behaviours of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area.

  19. Role of Leptin in Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Queenie Lai Kwan Lam; Liwei Lu

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, a protein hormone produced by the adipocytes, has long been recognized to regulate metabolism, neuroendorine and other physiological functions. Early findings of increased leptin production during infection and inflammation and dysregulated immune response in leptin signaling-deficient mice provide strong evidence for the involvement of leptin in the immune responses. Recent data have established the regulatory function for leptin in immunity similar to the function of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, while gene-targeting studies also demonstrated an essential role of leptin in regulating hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Moreover, there has been increasing evidence that leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the role of leptin in immunity and leptin-signaling pathways involved in modulating immune homeostasis and autoimmune pathogenesis.

  20. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  1. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  2. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-11-01

    The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments. PMID:26597205

  3. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  4. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can in...

  5. 30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes or modifications of approved fuses... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR... Approval and Disapproval § 28.25 Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification...

  6. Recent New Drug Approvals. Part 1: Drugs with Pediatric Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Chasity M.; Chhim, Rebecca F.; Christensen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    This two-part review provides information about drugs that have been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration and focuses on drugs approved with pediatric indications or approved in adults with active pediatric studies. Information was obtained from the product labeling and selected published studies. Part 1 reviews recently approved drugs with labeled pediatric indications, and Part 2 will review recent drug approvals in adults that have potential use in pediatrics and have acti...

  7. Powering the Immune System: Mitochondria in Immune Function and Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Walker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are critical subcellular organelles that are required for several metabolic processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, as well as signaling and tissue-specific processes. Current understanding of the role of mitochondria in both the innate and adaptive immune systems is expanding. Concurrently, immunodeficiencies arising from perturbation of mitochondrial elements are increasingly recognized. Recent observations of immune dysfunction and increased incidence of infection in patients with primary mitochondrial disorders further support an important role for mitochondria in the proper function of the immune system. Here we review current findings.

  8. Remune. Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Derhsing; Jones, Taff

    2002-03-01

    The Immune Response Corp (IRC) is developing Remune, a potential HIV therapeutic vaccine. Remune is based on the Salk Immunogen, which is derived from an HIV isolate which has been inactivated by chemical depletion of glycoprotein 120 (gp120). Preliminary data suggested that Remune, in combination with antiviral drug therapy, results in undetectable levels of HIV. Phase III trials commenced in May 1997 and it was initially expected that registration filings would be made in 1999. However, following interim analysis of the 2500-patient, multicenter, double-blind, pivotal phase III study (study 806) in May 1999, an independent panel recommended concluding the clinical endpoint trial and IRC and licensee, Agouron, decided to pursue alternative regulatory strategies, including initiating two additional phase III surrogate marker trials. Despite this, Agouron gave IRC notice of termination of its continued development in July 2001. In August 2001, IRC informed Agouron that, due to the total number of endpoints to date falling short of that previously assumed by Agouron, it did not intend to continue Agouron's Study 202 of Remune. In July 2001, licensee Trinity Medical Group filed an NDA with the governing health authorities in Thailand for Remune. The Thai FDA certified Immune Response's Remune manufacturing facility as being in compliance with GMP standards, following an on site inspection by Thai officials in November 2001 that was performed as a requirement of Trinity's Thai NDA. As a result of this certification, Trinity expected that a "timely determination" could be made by the Thai FDA. Rhĵne-Poulenc Rorer discontinued its part in the development of Remune, with all manufacturing, marketing and distribution rights reverting to IRC. After Agouron returned rights to Remune in July 2001, IRC heldfull rights in the US, Europe and Japan, while collaborating with its partners Trinity Medical Group and Roemmers Laboratory in the Southeast Asian and Latin American

  9. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State

  10. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter

  11. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  12. The biological significance of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, N A

    1989-01-01

    The classical definition of immunity as the resistance of the body to disease, views the immune system in simple mechanistic terms. In this brief overview, possible reasons and consequences of the presence of an effective immune system across a range of invertebrate and vertebrate animals are considered. Topics discussed include the forces favouring the development of immunity, such as the acquisition of the colonial habit and terrestrial mode of life by many primitive animals, the constant threats of microbial and macrobial invasion, and the need to eliminate somatic mutations. The consequences of immunity in terms of the development of autoimmunity and hypersensitivity reactions, as well as the interaction of the immune system with the brain, the neuroendocrine organs and environmental factors, are also examined. Finally, the possibilities that the delicate balance maintained between many parasites and the immune systems of their hosts results in the spread of disease, and may also determine the maintenance of sexual reproduction and the choice of mate, are discussed. PMID:2680665

  13. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. PMID:26729653

  14. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is a paradoxical deterioration in clinical status in a patient on antiretroviral treatment (ART despite satisfactory control of viral replication and improvement of CD4 count. Aim: To study development of IRIS as a part of ART. Methods: Hundred patients on antiretroviral treatment were studied prospectively in the Department of Skin and VD over a period of 2 years. Patients were asked to come if they developed any symptoms or on a monthly basis. They were screened clinically and investigated suitably for evidence of opportunistic infections. Results: Out of 100 patients, 10 patients did not come for follow-up. Twenty (22.2% out of the 90 patients developed IRIS. Herpes zoster (HZ, herpes simplex virus (HSV, and tuberculosis (TB were the cases of IRIS seen in the present study. Conclusions: IRIS in terms of HSV/TB is known to accelerate HIV disease progression. Hence early detection and prompt treatment, along with continuation of highly active ART, are of utmost importance.

  15. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  16. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  17. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 links) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Immune System National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (8 links) Boston Children's ...

  18. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Schedules Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedules History of the Vaccine Schedule Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's Vaccine Education Center Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  19. Curating the innate immunity interactome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynn, David J

    2010-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http:\\/\\/www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity.

  20. Immune Dysfunction in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Dianne

    2016-08-01

    The aging process in people is associated with changes in adaptive and innate immune responses. Similar changes occur in aged horses. Age-related progressive impairment in the ability to respond to pathogen challenge and an increased inflammatory reactivity may predispose geriatric horses to many diseases of old age. Specific recommendations for immune modification of older horses, including an age-appropriate vaccination schedule, are not currently available. In addition, the effect of old age on risk of infectious disease is poorly documented. More work is needed to better understand the interactions of age on immunity, vaccine response, and disease risk in horses. PMID:27329495

  1. Immune modulation following immunization with polyvalent vaccines in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Alois; May, Bettina; Teltscher, Andrea; Wistrela, Eva; Niedermüller, Hans

    2003-08-15

    A decline in T-cell-mediated immunity and transient state of immunosuppression after immunization has been reported in dogs. Nevertheless, dogs are still routinely vaccinated with polyvalent live vaccines and severe disease does not generally occur. In order to investigate these effects on the canine immune system and to elucidate possible mechanisms we determined the following immune parameters in the blood of 33 clinically sound German shepherd dogs before and after standard vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against distemper, parvovirus, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, kennel cough and rabies: white and differential blood cell count, the serum concentrations and/or activities of IL-1, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, neopterin and IgG, natural killer (NK) cell activity, bactericidal activity and complement hemolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT). Our major findings were that significant postvaccinal decreases in T-cell mitogenic response to PHA and in neutrophil function and neopterin serum concentration were accompanied by simultaneous increase in plasma IgG and hemolytic complement activity. This suggests a transient shift in the balance between cell-mediated and humoral (T(H)1/T(H)2) immunity rather than immunosuppression. These results do not imply that dogs should not receive live vaccines, as the response to vaccines just seems to create a state of altered homeostasis when immunization elicits protection by humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, these recognized compromises of immune function should be considered and vaccines still be applied only in healthy animals and strictly according to the rules and regulations given by the manufacturer. PMID:12909408

  2. Immune system modifications and feto-maternal immune tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Dan; Shi Yichao

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aimed at understanding pregnancy-induced changes in the maternal immune response and mechanisms for the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.Data sources Articles cited in this review were obtained from PubMed in English from 2000 to 2014,and the search string included keywords such as feto-maternal tolerance,dendritic cells,macrophage,T regulatory cells,natural killer cells,cytokines and hormone.Study selection Articles regarding altered maternal immune response,including the proliferation and differentiation of the altered cells,and the production of cytokines and regulation of hormones in the feto-maternal interface were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results The changes in immune cells and cytokines in the local uterine microenvironment and peripheral blood are correlated with the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.The endocrine system regulates the maternal immune system,promoting modifications during pregnancy.In these regulatory networks,every factor is indispensible for others.Conclusions The integration and balance of these immune factors during pregnancy give rise to an environment that enables the fetus to escape rejection by the maternal immune system.This progress is complicated,and needs more comprehensive exploration and explanation.

  3. Review of non-FDA-approved fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David A F; Segall, Lorne

    2007-05-01

    The number of commercially available injectable soft tissue fillers has increased dramatically worldwide over the past decade. In the United States, a variety of temporary non-collagen-based fillers have been approved. However, no permanent soft tissue injectable fillers are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This article discusses some of the more popular soft tissue fillers, such as Restylane Fine Line, Restylane SQ, Perlane, Artecoll, Dermalive, Dermadeep, Bioalcamid, Bioplastique, Evolution, Outline, Argiform, and Aquamid, which are all available outside of the United States. PMID:17544940

  4. Repurposing miltefosine for the treatment of immune-mediated disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaar, Auke P; Wildenberg, Manon E; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Hommes, Daniel W; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2014-08-01

    Miltefosine is an ether lipid that was initially developed for cancer treatment in the early 1980s. Miltefosine largely failed development for oncology, although it was approved for the topical treatment of breast cancer metastasis. It was subsequently discovered that miltefosine is a highly effective treatment of visceral Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease that affects millions worldwide and causes an estimated 30,000 fatalities each year. Oral treatment with miltefosine is generally well tolerated and has relatively few adverse effects. The exact mechanism of action of miltefosine treatment is still under investigation. Its close resemblance to phospholipids allows it to be quickly taken up by cell membranes and affect related processes, such as lipid metabolism and signaling through lipid rafts. These processes play an important role in the immune response and it comes as no surprise that miltefosine has been successfully tested for the treatment of a number of immune-mediated diseases in preclinical models of disease. Drug repurposing of miltefosine for immune-mediated diseases may provide an opportunity to expand the limited number of drugs that are currently available for therapeutic use. PMID:24833702

  5. Gene therapy for cancer: regulatory considerations for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S R; Han, J; Au, P; Shannon, K; Puri, R K

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly changing field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments for cancer patients. Advances in genetic modification of cancer and immune cells and the use of oncolytic viruses and bacteria have led to numerous clinical trials for cancer therapy, with several progressing to late-stage product development. At the time of this writing, no gene therapy product has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Some of the key scientific and regulatory issues include understanding of gene transfer vector biology, safety of vectors in vitro and in animal models, optimum gene transfer, long-term persistence or integration in the host, shedding of a virus and ability to maintain transgene expression in vivo for a desired period of time. Because of the biological complexity of these products, the FDA encourages a flexible, data-driven approach for preclinical safety testing programs. The clinical trial design should be based on the unique features of gene therapy products, and should ensure the safety of enrolled subjects. This article focuses on regulatory considerations for gene therapy product development and also discusses guidance documents that have been published by the FDA. PMID:26584531

  6. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  7. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner;

    2016-01-01

    diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients......Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune......-especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type-demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune...

  8. Synthetic vaccines: Immunity without harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Abhinav P.; Murthy, Niren

    2011-03-01

    Multilamellar lipid vesicles with crosslinked walls carrying protein antigens in the vesicle core and immunostimulatory drugs in the vesicle walls generate immune responses comparable to the strongest live vector vaccines.

  9. A route towards immune protection

    OpenAIRE

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a route towards an immune protective device for islet of Langerhans transplantation. We developed a protocol to use MIN6 β cells aggregates as pseudo-islets to overcome the donor shortage issue (chapter 3). In this thesis we explored two different immune protective strategies; a multibore hollow fiber and flat microwell membranes. In chapter 4 we investigated the possibility to use a commercial multibore hollow fiber. In this chapter we showed that we were capable to physi...

  10. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticit...... and memory has long been a matter of debate. A recent study on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes now establishes Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) as a key immune surveillance factor with characteristics analogous to antibodies....

  11. Portable Immune-Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mishra, Saroj K.

    1995-01-01

    Portable immune-assessment system developed for use in rapidly identifying infections or contaminated environment. System combines few specific fluorescent reagents for identifying immune-cell dysfunction, toxic substances, buildup of microbial antigens or microbial growth, and potential identification of pathogenic microorganisms using fluorescent microplate reader linked to laptop computer. By using few specific dyes for cell metabolism, DNA/RNA conjugation, specific enzyme activity, or cell constituents, one makes immediate, onsite determination of person's health or of contamination of environment.

  12. A Distributed Computer Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A Distributed Computer Immune System (Summary) January 2003 Computer Immunology is about the detection and reaction to changes in the state of the computer system. The goal is to maintain system integrity by detecting and protecting against attacks and failures. Its methods and models are inspired from the biological immune system of living organisms. In this project, the aim is to approach such a system by combining two existing immunological approaches: pH a kernel patch for the GNU/...

  13. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  14. Innate immune recognition of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The observation that a subset of cancer patients show evidence for spontaneous CD8+ T cell priming against tumor-associated antigens has generated renewed interest in the innate immune pathways that might serve as a bridge to an adaptive immune response to tumors. Manipulation of this endogenous T cell response with therapeutic intent-for example, using blocking antibodies inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1) interactions-is showing impressive clinical results. As such, understanding the innate immune mechanisms that enable this T cell response has important clinical relevance. Defined innate immune interactions in the cancer context include recognition by innate cell populations (NK cells, NKT cells, and γδ T cells) and also by dendritic cells and macrophages in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Recent evidence has indicated that the major DAMP driving host antitumor immune responses is tumor-derived DNA, sensed by the stimulator of interferon gene (STING) pathway and driving type I IFN production. A deeper knowledge of the clinically relevant innate immune pathways involved in the recognition of tumors is leading toward new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. PMID:25622193

  15. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. PMID:26872544

  16. Immune regulation of ovarian development: programming by neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LubaSominsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal immune challenge by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS produces enduring alterations in the development and activity of neuroendocrine, immune and other physiological systems. We have recently reported that neonatal exposure to an immune challenge by administration of LPS results in altered reproductive development in the female Wistar rat. Specifically, LPS-treated animals exhibited diminished ovarian reserve and altered reproductive lifespan. In the current study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that lead to the previously documented impaired ovulation and reduced follicular pool. Rats were administered intraperitoneally either 0.05mg/kg of LPS (Salmonella Enteritidis or an equivalent volume of non-pyrogenic saline on postnatal days (PNDs 3 and 5, and ovaries were obtained on PND 7. Microarray analysis revealed a significant upregulation in transcript expression (2-fold change; p<.05 for a substantial number of genes in the ovaries of LPS-treated animals, implicated in immune cell signalling, inflammatory responses, reproductive system development and disease. Several canonical pathways involved in immune recognition were affected by LPS treatment, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB activation and LPS-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling. Real-time PCR analysis supported the microarray results. Protein expression analysis of several components of the MAPK signalling pathway revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in the neonatal ovary of LPS-treated animals. These results indicate that neonatal immune challenge by administration of LPS has a direct effect on the ovary during the sensitive period of follicular formation. Given the pivotal role of inflammatory processes in the regulation of reproductive health, our findings suggest that early life immune activation via TLR signalling may have significant implications for the programming of ovarian development

  17. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  18. 40 CFR 52.722 - Approval status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Act, as amended in 1977. (c) The Administrator finds that the carbon monoxide control strategy... National Ambient Air Quality Standards under section 110 of the Clean Air Act. Furthermore, the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2522 - Approval status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions do not meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.160 for scope. EPA also disapproves 45 CSR 13 section 9... the West Virginia SIP. These provisions do not meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.161 for public... attainment of the primary SO2 NAAQS. The Administrator does not approve the State's control strategy...

  20. 7 CFR 1735.61 - Approval criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of its mortgage or loan contract to obtain RUS approval of a merger or acquisition, the borrower...) Whether the merger or acquisition may result in any relinquishment, impairment, or waiver of a right or power of the Government; (3) Whether the proposed merger or acquisition is in the best interests of...

  1. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  2. 23 CFR 645.215 - Approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 109, 111, and 116, and 23 CFR 1.23 and 1.27, and meet the requirements of this regulation, the FHWA... Accommodation of Utilities § 645.215 Approvals. (a) Each State transportation department shall submit a... the FHWA for prior concurrence, except when the proposed installation is not in accordance with...

  3. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... of receipt published on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19388; FRL- 8808-5). One comment was received during... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approvals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... pesticide products and amended registrations for currently existing pesticide products. FOR...

  4. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  5. Reflections on the Ethics-Approval Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lee; Pushor, Debbie; Renihan, Pat

    2012-01-01

    It is sometimes a difficult journey receiving ethics approval for research involving vulnerable populations, research involving our own children, or innovative research methodologies such as autoethnography. This autoethnographical account is a story about one student who wanted to write a PhD dissertation in a very different way and also the…

  6. 46 CFR 58.16-10 - Approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... been involved in a fire. (c) Safety-relief devices. All required safety-relief devices must be approved... in accordance with 49 CFR part 178. (2) All liquefied petroleum gas cylinders in service shall bear a... with 49 CFR part 178. (d) Valves, regulators, and vaporizers. All component parts of the system,...

  7. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675

  8. Immune-priming in ant larvae: social immunity does not undermine individual immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Malak, Tanya; MacKintosh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Social insects deploy numerous strategies against pathogens including behavioural, biochemical and immunological responses. While past research has revealed that adult social insects can generate immunity, few studies have focused on the immune function during an insect's early life stages. We hypothesized that larvae of the black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus vaccinated with heat-killed Serratia marcescens should be less susceptible to a challenge with an active and otherwise letha...

  9. 30 CFR 28.20 - Certificates of approval; scope of approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT... only for individual, completely fabricated fuses which have been examined, inspected, and tested...

  10. 77 FR 26474 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Approval of 2011 Consent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE). These revisions approve specific provisions of a 2011 Consent Decree between MDE and GenOn to reduce particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SO X ), and...

  11. Immunometabolism: Cellular Metabolism Turns Immune Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Róisín M; Finlay, David K

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells are highly dynamic in terms of their growth, proliferation, and effector functions as they respond to immunological challenges. Different immune cells can adopt distinct metabolic configurations that allow the cell to balance its requirements for energy, molecular biosynthesis, and longevity. However, in addition to facilitating immune cell responses, it is now becoming clear that cellular metabolism has direct roles in regulating immune cell function. This review article describes the distinct metabolic signatures of key immune cells, explains how these metabolic setups facilitate immune function, and discusses the emerging evidence that intracellular metabolism has an integral role in controlling immune responses. PMID:26534957

  12. Vaccines4Kids: Assessing the impact of text message reminders on immunization rates in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Victoria; Johnson, Melissa; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2015-06-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect text messages (TM) immunization reminders have on immunization rates in the first 7 months of life. This randomized-control trial enrolled 57 parent/infant dyads and had a 74% completion rate (43) at the end of the study period. The study was approved by Committee on Human Subjects at the University of Hawaii Institutional Board Review. All participants completed a demographics form and a Barriers to Immunization Survey (SHOTS survey) at the start and end of the study. Parents received TM at 4, 7, 12, 15, 20, & 23 weeks of child's age. The intervention group received immunization reminders and the control group received healthy baby messages. In the overall mixed model, between enrollment and 7 months of age, the barriers to immunizations decreased for all parents significantly. There were no significant differences in immunization rates between groups at 7 months of age. Positive responses from regarding TM interventions show this is a promising intervention, but further research is required regarding how to address behavior change and motivation for health prevention behaviors with TM. PMID:25957663

  13. Polarized immune responses modulated by layered double hydroxides nanoparticle conjugated with CpG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shiyu; Rolfe, Barbara E; Zhang, Bing; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Gu, Wenyi; Xu, Zhi P

    2014-11-01

    Modulation of the immune response is an important step in the induction of protective humoral and cellular immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a nanomaterial conjugated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand CpG to modulate the immune response towards the preferred polarity. MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial has a very similar chemical composition to Alum, an FDA approved adjuvant for human vaccination. We used a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) to demonstrate that MgAl-LDH had comparable adjuvant activity to Alum, but much weaker inflammation. Conjugation of TLR9 ligand CpG to LDH nanoparticles significantly enhanced the antibody response and promoted a switch from Th2 toward Th1 response, demonstrated by a change in the IgG2a:IgG1 ratio. Moreover, immunization of mice with CpG-OVA-conjugated LDH before challenge with OVA-expressing B16/F10 tumor cells retarded tumor growth. Together, these data indicate that LDH nanomaterial can be used as an immune adjuvant to promote Th1 or Th2 dominant immune responses suitable for vaccination purposes. PMID:25145853

  14. Philippine campaign boosts child immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel-santana, R

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, USAID awarded the Philippines a 5-year, US $50 million Child Survival Program targeting improvement in immunization coverage of children, prenatal care coverage for pregnant women, and contraceptive prevalence. Upon successful completion of performance benchmarks at the end of each year, USAID released monies to fund child survival activities for the following year. This program accomplished a major program goal, which was decentralization of health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning in its determination of allocation of resources. Social marketing activities contributed greatly to success in achieving the goal of boosting the immunization coverage rate for the 6 antigens listed under the Expanded Program for Immunization (51%-85% of infants, 1986-1991). In fact, rural health officers in Tarlac Province in Central Luzon went from household to household to talk to mothers about the benefits of immunizing a 1-year-old child, thereby contributing greatly to their achieving a 95% full immunization coverage rate by December 1991. Social marketing techniques included modern marketing strategies and multimedia channels. They first proved successful in metro Manila which, at the beginning of the campaign, had the lowest immunization rate of all 14 regions. Every Wednesday was designated immunization day and was when rural health centers vaccinated the children. Social marketing also successfully publicized oral rehydration therapy (ORT), breast feeding, and tuberculosis control. Another contributing factor to program success in child survival activities was private sector involvement. For example, the Philippine Pediatric Society helped to promote ORT as the preferred treatment for acute diarrhea. Further, the commercial sector distributed packets of oral rehydration salts and even advertised its own ORT product. At the end of 2

  15. Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; Latz, Eicke; Mills, Kingston H G; Natoli, Gioacchino; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; O'Neill, Luke A J; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2016-04-22

    The general view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. In organisms lacking adaptive immunity, as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity" or "innate immune memory." Trained immunity is orchestrated by epigenetic reprogramming, broadly defined as sustained changes in gene expression and cell physiology that do not involve permanent genetic changes such as mutations and recombination, which are essential for adaptive immunity. The discovery of trained immunity may open the door for novel vaccine approaches, new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27102489

  16. 76 FR 30189 - Receipt of Application for Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... program for the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). The approval would be for the cooperative breeding program and all its members, including the applicant. If approved, the program will be overseen by...

  17. 34 CFR 668.144 - Application for test approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of test scores for each edition, form, level, sub-test, or partial battery, for which approval is... submitted to the Secretary for review and approval, documentation of periodic reviews of the content...

  18. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  19. Doctors Often Overestimate Promise of Newly Approved Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158267.html Doctors Often Overestimate Promise of Newly Approved Drugs Many ... and Drug Administration's expedited approval process could mislead doctors about the new drugs' actual benefits, researchers warn. ...

  20. Sympathetic Modulation of Immunity: Relevance to Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bellinger, Denise L.; Millar, Brooke A.; Perez, Sam; Carter, Jeff; Wood, Carlo; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Molinaro, Christine; Lubahn, Cheri; Lorton, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Optimal host defense against pathogens requires cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems. This paper reviews sympathetic-immune interaction, one major communication pathway, and its importance for health and disease. Sympathetic innervation of primary and secondary immune organs is described, as well as evidence for neurotransmission with cells of the immune system as targets. Most research thus far as focused on neural-immune modulation in secondary lymphoid organs, and have reveale...

  1. Immune pathogenesis of pediatric HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemessen, Caroline T.; Kuhn, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Vertical exposure to HIV occurs at a time when functional capacity of the infant’s immune system is attenuated through immaturity. Immune response capability is rooted in host genetic makeup, and the broad and fine specificity of innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively, shape the outcomes of HIV encounter in some instances and imprint viral changes through selective immune pressure in others. Findings from recent studies have profound implications for understanding immune pathogene...

  2. VEGF and Pleiotrophin Modulate the Immune Profile of Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Kristi D.; Roland, Christina L. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390-8593 (United States); Brekken, Rolf A., E-mail: rolf.brekken@utsouthwestern.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390-8593 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390-8593 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    Angiogenesis, the sprouting of the existing vascular network to form new vessels, is required for the growth of solid tumors. For this reason, the primary stimulant of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), is an attractive target for tumor therapy. In fact, there are currently numerous anti-VEGF therapies in clinical development for the treatment of various cancers, including breast cancer. VEGF signals through two primary VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. VEGFR2 is the primary angiogenic receptor, and VEGFR1 has been implicated in macrophage chemotaxis and tumor cell survival and invasion. It has only been appreciated recently that the VEGFRs are expressed not only on endothelial cells and tumor cells but also on many host immune cells. Therefore, to better understand the effects of anti-VEGF therapy it is important to consider the effects of VEGF on all cells in the tumor microenvironment, including immune cells. Bevacizumab (Avastin{sup ®}, Genetech), which binds VEGF and inhibits interaction with VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, was approved for the treatment of metastatic HER2/NEU-negative breast cancer in 2008, however, the majority of human mammary tumors are either innately resistant or will acquire resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. This suggests that these tumors activate alternate angiogenesis pathways. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important angiogenic cytokine in breast cancer and is expressed at high levels in approximately 60% of human breast tumors. PTN functions as an angiogenic factor and promotes remodeling of the tumor microenvironment as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, PTN can have profound effects on macrophage phenotype. The present review focuses on the functions of VEGF and PTN on immune cell infiltration and function in breast cancer. Furthermore, we will discuss how anti-VEGF therapy modulates the immune cell profile.

  3. Adaptive Immune Evolutionary Algorithms Based on Immune Network Regulatory Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hong; QIAN Feng

    2007-01-01

    Based on immune network regulatory mechanism, a new adaptive immune evolutionary algorithm (AIEA) is proposed to improve the performance of genetic algorithms (GA) in this paper. AIEA adopts novel selection operation according to the stimulation level of each antibody. A memory base for good antibodies is devised simultaneously to raise the convergent rapidity of the algorithm and adaptive adjusting strategy of antibody population is used for preventing the loss of the population adversity. The experiments show AIFA has better convergence performance than standard genetic algorithm and is capable of maintaining the adversity of the population and solving function optimization problems in an efficient and reliable way.

  4. The sea urchin immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Smith

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Metchnikoff’s use of sea star larvae to observe encapsulation and phagocytosis, which was followedmuch later by allograft rejection kinetics, revealed that echinoderms had an innate immune system thatwas lacking of adaptive attributes. Larval sea urchins mount defenses in response to contact withmicrobes, which are mediated by phagocytic blastocoelar cells and pigment cells. In the adult, thecoelomocytes mediate immune responses through phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign particles inaddition to degranulation of antimicrobial molecules. Molecular analysis of immune functions in the seaurchin has demonstrated a complement system that appears to have multiple alternative pathways andseveral activators of the lectin pathway, but may be missing the terminal pathway. Other genes andproteins involved in the sea urchin immunity include expanded sets of lectins, proteins with scavengerreceptor cysteine-rich repeats, Toll-like receptors and associated signalling proteins. A vast array ofproteins belonging to the 185/333 family are expressed in coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharideand show a surprising level of diversity. The sea urchin innate immune system has a number of largegene families with unexpected complexities and elevated levels of diversification.

  5. Is adenomyosis an immune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, H; Igarashi, S; Hatazawa, J; Tanaka, T

    1998-01-01

    Adenomyosis is characterized as ectopic endometrial tissues within the myometrium in the uterus. The only difference between adenomyosis and endometriosis is the site of endometriotic tissues: inside or outside of the uterus. It is well known that endometriosis is frequently associated with various autoimmune phenomena. This short review covers various aspects of the immune cascade found in adenomyosis. In adenomyosis, a series of immune responses is activated, including changes in both cellular and humoral immunity, i.e. a strong expression of cell surface antigens or adhesion molecules, an increased number of macrophages or immune cells, and deposition of immunoglobulins and complement components. Furthermore, the disease exhibited high frequency of autoantibodies in peripheral blood. Thus, an immunological 'vicious circle' is formed in the endometrium in adenomyosis. Endometrial cells seem to be under immunological stress, protecting themselves by exposing heat shock proteins. It is concluded that the endometrial environment in adenomyosis differs widely from that in normal fertile women. These abnormal immune responses might be involved in poor reproductive performance in adenomyosis. PMID:9825851

  6. Hepatitis B immunization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M H; Goldstein, M A

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States, previous vaccination strategy, and reasons for its failure and issues leading to the recommendation to vaccinate all adolescents. A review of specific hepatitis B virus risk behaviors of adolescents and barriers to vaccinating adolescents is covered. Strategies that favor successful completion of the immunization series are also examined. Hepatitis B infection is an important public health concern for adolescents. The previous vaccine strategy to immunize only individuals though to be at high risk was unsuccessful, especially because providers of care could not identify these individuals. Furthermore, many individuals thought not to be at high risk for infection were exposed through contacts which could not be identified. Challenges to immunization of adolescents include logistical issues, patient education, cost of the vaccine, and patient compliance. Several of these issues can be addressed by a school-based hepatitis B immunization program. The body of evidence and national policy is rapidly changing to support the recommendation that all adolescents receive the hepatitis B immunization series. The series would be most effective if administered during the middle-school years. A universal adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program would result in the most immediate health benefits and acceleration toward the eradication of hepatitis B in the United States. PMID:8580124

  7. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  8. Apolipophorins and insects immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zdybicka-Barabas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Insect lipoproteins, called lipophorins, are non-covalent assemblies of lipids and proteins serving as lipid transport vehicles. The protein moiety of lipophorin comprises two glycosylated apolipoproteins, apolipophorin I (apoLp-I and apolipophorin II (apoLp-II, constantly present in a lipophorin particle, and an exchangeable protein, apolipophorin III (apoLp-III. ApoLp-III is an abundant protein occurring in hemolymph in lipid-free and lipid-bound state and playing an important role in lipid transport and insect innate immunity. In immune response apoLp-III serves as a pattern recognition molecule. It binds and detoxifies microbial cell wall components, i.e., lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and β-1,3-glucan. ApoLp-III activates expression of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, stimulates their antimicrobial activity, participates in regulation of the phenoloxidase system and in hemolymph clotting. In addition, the protein is involved in cellular immune response, influencing hemocyte adhesion, phagocytosis and nodule formation, and in gut immunity. Although apoLp-III is the best studied apolipophorin in insect immunity so far, a literature review suggests that all the three apolipoproteins, apoLp-I, apoLp-II and apoLp-III, function together in a coordinated defense against pathogens

  9. 46 CFR 164.007-3 - Conditions of approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions of approval. 164.007-3 Section 164.007-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-3 Conditions of approval. (a)...

  10. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  11. 8 CFR 207.6 - Control over approved refugee numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control over approved refugee numbers. 207... ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.6 Control over approved refugee numbers. Current numerical accounting of approved refugees is maintained for each special group designated by the President. As refugee status...

  12. 46 CFR 160.036-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.036-4 Section 160.036... Distress Signals § 160.036-4 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must... Commandant under § 159.010 of this chapter. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections...

  13. 46 CFR 160.040-5 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.040-5 Section 160.040... Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-5 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. An independent... performance tests in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Production inspections and tests....

  14. 46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.037-4 Section 160.037... Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 100... chapter. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and tests of each lot of...

  15. 46 CFR 160.031-5 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.031-5 Section 160.031... Equipment) § 160.031-5 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval test. An independent laboratory accepted... operational test in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Production inspections and tests....

  16. 46 CFR 160.022-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.022-4 Section 160.022... Minutes) § 160.022-4 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a... Commandant under § 159.010 of this chapter. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections...

  17. 46 CFR 160.024-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.024-4 Section 160.024... Signals § 160.024-4 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot... under § 159.010 of this chapter. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and...

  18. 46 CFR 160.021-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.021-4 Section 160.021... Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 100... Chapter. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and tests of each lot of...

  19. 46 CFR 160.028-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.028-4 Section 160.028... § 160.028-4 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval test. An independent laboratory accepted by the... paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and tests...

  20. 46 CFR 160.057-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and production tests. 160.057-4 Section 160.057... Minutes) § 160.057-4 Approval and production tests. (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a... under § 159.010 of this chapter. (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and...

  1. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  2. 14 CFR 21.269 - Export airworthiness approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export airworthiness approvals. 21.269 Section 21.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....269 Export airworthiness approvals. The manufacturer may issue export airworthiness approvals....

  3. 18 CFR 12.34 - Approval of independent consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of independent... PROJECT WORKS Inspection by Independent Consultant § 12.34 Approval of independent consultant. At least 60... Director of the Office of Energy Projects Licensing for approval, with a copy to the Regional Engineer,...

  4. 46 CFR 8.530 - Plan development and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... develop the CAP and VAP with guidance from the Coast Guard SIP Advisor for OCMI approval. (a) Company Action Plan. The CAP shall include at least the following: (1) A copy of the OCMI CAP approval letter (once the CAP is approved). (2) An organization commitment statement. (3) A company organization...

  5. 48 CFR 2806.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification. 2806.304 Section 2806.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Approval of the justification. (a) All justifications for contract actions over the contracting officer's... contracting activity competition advocate for approval. Justifications requiring approval by the PE shall...

  6. 48 CFR 570.502-1 - Justification and approval requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Justification and approval... Contracting for Lease Alterations 570.502-1 Justification and approval requirements. If the proposed... competition, the following justification and approval requirements apply: (a) If the alteration project...

  7. 48 CFR 606.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification. 606.304 Section 606.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION... Approval of the justification. (a)(2) The approval authority for a proposed contract over $550,000 but not... determining the approval level of a justification....

  8. 48 CFR 1406.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification. 1406.304 Section 1406.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Approval of the justification. A class justification shall be approved in accordance with bureau procedures. Copies of approved class justifications shall be promptly transmitted to PAM....

  9. 48 CFR 1306.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of the justification. 1306.304 Section 1306.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Approval of the justification. The designee authorized to approve justifications for other than full...

  10. 38 CFR 17.804 - Loan approval criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan approval criteria... Transitional Housing Loan Program § 17.804 Loan approval criteria. Upon consideration of the application package, loan approval will be based on the following: (a) Favorable financial history and status, (1)...

  11. 46 CFR 162.018-8 - Procedure for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approval of a new design or type of safety relief valve shall submit in quadruplicate detail drawings...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-8 Procedure for approval. (a) General. Safety relief valves for use on pressure vessels containing...

  12. 29 CFR 4221.14 - PBGC-approved arbitration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC-approved arbitration procedures. 4221.14 Section 4221... LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES IN MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS § 4221.14 PBGC-approved arbitration procedures. (a) Use of PBGC-approved arbitration procedures. In lieu of the procedures...

  13. 46 CFR 131.710 - Approved work vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved work vests. 131.710 Section 131.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 131.710 Approved work vests. Each buoyant work vest carried aboard must be approved under subpart...

  14. 7 CFR 1717.609 - RUS approval of general manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS approval of general manager. 1717.609 Section... Operational Controls § 1717.609 RUS approval of general manager. (a) If a borrower's mortgage or loan contract grants RUS the unconditioned right to approve the employment and/or the employment contract of...

  15. 7 CFR 1717.308 - RUS approval of nonconforming rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS approval of nonconforming rates. 1717.308 Section... Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With Power Supply Borrowers § 1717.308 RUS approval of nonconforming rates. Borrowers may request and RUS may approve rates which do not conform with the...

  16. 46 CFR 162.050-23 - Separator: Approval tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separator: Approval tests. 162.050-23 Section 162.050-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-23 Separator: Approval... and influent pressure equal to the maximum throughput and pressure at which the separator being...

  17. On Cheating Immune Secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Pieprzyk

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the cheating prevention in secret sharing. We consider secret sharing with binary shares. The secret also is binary. This model allows us to use results and constructions from the well developed theory of cryptographically strong boolean functions. In particular, we prove that for given secret sharing, the average cheating probability over all cheating vectors and all original vectors, i.e., 1/n 2 n ∑ c=1...n ∑ α∈V n ρ c,α, denoted by ρ, satisfies ρ ≥ ½, and the equality holds if and only if ρ c,α satisfies ρ c,α = ½ for every cheating vector δ c and every original vector α. In this case the secret sharing is said to be cheating immune. We further establish a relationship between cheating-immune secret sharing and cryptographic criteria of boolean functions.This enables us to construct cheating-immune secret sharing.

  18. Immune response to H pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Suarez; Victor E Reyes; Ellen J Beswick

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer,attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium.

  19. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom. PMID:27262554

  20. Circadian Clocks, Stress, and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbell, Rebecca; Matveeva, Olga; Oster, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, molecular circadian clocks are present in most cells of the body, and this circadian network plays an important role in synchronizing physiological processes and behaviors to the appropriate time of day. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal endocrine axis regulates the response to acute and chronic stress, acting through its final effectors – glucocorticoids – released from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid secretion, characterized by its circadian rhythm, has an important role in synchronizing peripheral clocks and rhythms downstream of the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Finally, glucocorticoids are powerfully anti-inflammatory, and recent work has implicated the circadian clock in various aspects and cells of the immune system, suggesting a tight interplay of stress and circadian systems in the regulation of immunity. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of the role of the circadian clock network in both the HPA axis and the immune system, and discusses their interactions. PMID:27199894

  1. [Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, N; Ye, J J

    2016-02-11

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a collection of inflammatory disorders associated with paradoxical worsening of preexisting infectious processes or emerging diseases or even dead after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in a period of recovery of immune function. Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is mainly caused by cytomegalovirus which performing a series of ocular inflammation accompanied with the increase of CD4+ T lymphocytes, such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, after HAART. With HAART widely used, the patients of IRIS gradually increased. But the clinical presentations of IRIS were various because of different pathogens. This review summarized the clinical manifestations, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of ocular IRIS.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 51: 150-153). PMID:26906710

  2. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  3. Immune tolerance in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of immune tolerance in radiation chimeras and the mechanism of maintaining it were discussed from certain points. Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras are mostly of long-living, and the hematopoietic organ of this individual consists mainly of the cells derived from the marrow donor, i. e., F1-type cells. F1-type lymphocytes can distinguish parental strain cells from themselves. In these chimeras, a F1-skin graft maintains to be fresh as long as the host is alive, showing immune tolerance effective through its life. In establishment and maintenance of this immune tolerance, the suppressing mechanism of host-type or F1-type seems to be involved. The allogeneic radiation chimera has very poor long-survival rate compared with that of the semiallogeneic radiation chimera. To raise this survival rate, efforts are now being made from the immunological point of view. (Ueda, J.)

  4. BRAF inhibition improves tumor recognition by the immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Fagone, Paolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando;

    2012-01-01

    be poorly efficient. By characterizing the immunological interactions between T cells and cancer cells in clinical material as well as the influence of the FDA-approved BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib on the immune system, we aimed at unraveling new strategies to expand the efficacy of adoptive T......-cell transfer, which represents one of the most promising approaches currently in clinical development for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Here we show that blocking the BRAF-MAPK pathway in BRAF signaling-addicted melanoma cells significantly increases the ability of T cells contained in clinical grade...... expression of MHC Class I-associated proteins as well as of heat-shock proteins. In conclusion, our preclinical data suggest that an appropriately timed sequential treatment of BRAF(V600) mutant melanoma with vemurafenib and adoptive T-cell transfer might result in synergistic antineoplastic effects owing to...

  5. Three Newly Approved Analgesics: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Saraghi, Mana; Hersh, Elliot V.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three new analgesic entities, tapentadol immediate release (Nucynta) diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules (Zipsor), and bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL) were granted US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat acute pain. Tapentadol immediate-release is a both a mu-opioid agonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules are a novel formula...

  6. Credit Risk Management - Loan Approval Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lulzim Rashiti; Branimir Kalas; Lazar Drec; Nino Stameski

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is on understanding the international regulations issued by Basel I, Basel II and Basel III to best supervise and manage credit risk management policies. Part of paper will focus on the description and impacts of the regulations and the pivotal importance they play in providing a sound banking system. Credit risk represents another important element that will be analysed considering that it lays the foundation during the loan consideration and approval process. The paper...

  7. Social desirability, approval and public good contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel John Zizzo; Piers Fleming

    2009-01-01

    Behaviour in public good experiments is usually attributed partly to rational self-interest and partly to social norms and preferences. This paper examines if sensitivity to social desirability affects public good contribution and in what way. A pre-experimental measure of social desirability (SDS17) was used to match partners in a two-person public good game. Half the participants received experimenter approval based upon their investment. Contrary to predictions, the highest public good inv...

  8. Academic Program Approval and Review Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don G. Creamer

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines general and specific processes for both program approval and program review practices found in 50 states and eight foreign countries and regions.  Models that depict these procedures are defined and the strengths and weakness of each are discussed.  Alternatives to current practice by state agencies in the U.S. are described that might provide for greater decentralization of these practices while maintaining institutional accountability.

  9. Drug updates and approvals: 2015 in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Olga M; Phan, Diep; Ferguson, Kelli

    2015-12-12

    This article highlights important prescribing information for some drugs that received FDA approval within the past year. These include: atazanavir and cobicistat (Evotaz®), ceftazidime and avibactam (Avycaz®), edoxaban (Savaysa®), ivabradine (Corlanor®), liraglutide (rDNA origin) injection (Saxenda®), perindopril arginine and amlodipine besylate (Prestalia®), and secukinumab (Cosentyx®) subcutaneous injection. PMID:26545091

  10. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied to...... determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function. The...

  11. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  12. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Zhang; Chen Dong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  13. Immune responses in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  14. Fc receptors and immunity to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleass, R J; Woof, J M

    2001-11-01

    Fc receptors (FcRs) are crucial in the immune system; they mediate a plethora of biological functions as diverse as antigen presentation, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, induction of inflammatory cascades and modulation of immune responses. Parasites, in order to survive in the immunocompetent host, have devised ingenious methods to subvert this important aspect of the immune response. This article discusses the current thinking on FcRs, their role in immunity to parasites, and immune evasion strategies employed by parasites in their attempt to neutralize the important immune defense mechanisms mediated by these molecules. PMID:11872400

  15. [Obesity and the immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M

    2004-01-01

    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article. PMID:15672646

  16. The Immune System in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  17. Immune Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishraga Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between immunity and neurodevelopmental disorders has been extensively investigated in autism, suggesting a potential involvement of both cellular and humoral immunity in the establishment of synaptic connectivity modulation during development. A similar link has been proposed also for Tourette syndrome (TS, a complex, multifactorial disorder, in which the interplay between genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological factors might be relevant. Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis in TS suggests a possible systemic activation of several T- and B-cell subtypes, whereas the observed decreased numbers of T regulatory lymphocytes might predispose to autoimmunity. Genes related to both cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses may be over-expressed at specific ages in youngsters with TS. Data from cytokine measurements and transcriptomics profiles in TS patients are coherent with the systemic immune activation detected by studies on lymphocyte subpopulations. Moreover, TS patients have exhibited IgG3 and IgA dysgammaglobulinemia, which might predispose to recurrent infections and autoimmunity. To date, the association between TS and autoantibodies has not been demonstrated. Interestingly, however, there is a higher degree of maternal family history of autoimmune diseases among TS patients. Finally, TS patients could be prone to allergic illnesses (asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, but more work is needed in this area.

  18. Antitumor Immunity and Dietary Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise R. Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which natural dietary compounds exert their antitumor effects have been the focus of a large number of research efforts in recent years. Induction of apoptosis by inhibition of cell proliferative pathways is one of the common means of cell death employed by these dietary compounds. However, agents that can activate an antitumor immune response in addition to a chemotherapeutic effect may be useful adjuvants or alternative therapies for the treatment of cancer. The focus of this review is to highlight representative dietary compounds, namely Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng, curcumin and resveratrol with special emphasis on their antitumor immune mechanism of action. Each of these dietary compounds and their sources has a history of safe human use as food or in herbal medicine traditions, potentially making them ideal therapeutics. Here we report the recent advances in the cellular immune mechanisms utilized by these compounds to induce antitumor immunity. Taken together, these findings provide a new perspective for exploiting novel dietary compounds as chemoimmunotherapeutic anti-cancer agents.

  19. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  20. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous vivaglobin® replacement therapy in previously untreated patients with primary immunodeficiency: a prospective, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borte, Michael; Quinti, Isabella; Soresina, Annarosa; Fernández-Cruz, Eduardo; Ritchie, Bruce; Schmidt, Dirk S; McCusker, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of primary immunodeficiency (PI) is typically initiated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) loading and then continued with IVIG or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG). This prospective, open-label, multicenter, 6-month study evaluated a new regimen of initiating IgG therapy with SCIG in 18 previously untreated patients. In the loading phase, SCIG 100 mg/kg was administered for five consecutive days (total loading dose 500 mg/kg). During the maintenance phase, patients self-infused SCIG 100 mg/kg/week at home. The primary efficacy endpoint of IgG levels ≥5 g/L on day 12 was achieved in 17 patients (94.4%; 95% CI 0.727, 0.999). The rate of infections was 3.95 episodes/patient/year. Improvement was found in many subscales of the health-related quality of life questionnaires. SCIG treatment was well tolerated, with no related serious adverse events (AEs). Nine (50%) patients experienced related AEs, including local reactions (rate 0.105 events/infusion). The results suggest that therapy of newly diagnosed patients with PI can be initiated directly with SCIG. PMID:21932110

  1. Dendritic cells in dengue virus infection: Targets of virus replication and mediators of immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Schmid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are sentinels of the immune system and detect pathogens at sites of entry, such as the skin. In addition to the ability of DCs to control infections directly via their innate immune functions, DCs help to prime adaptive B and T cell responses via antigen presentation in lymphoid tissues. Infected Aedes aegypti or Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four dengue virus (DENV serotypes to humans while probing for small blood vessels in the skin. DENV causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans, yet no vaccine or specific therapeutic is currently approved. Although primary DENV infection confers life-long protective immunity against re-infection with the same DENV serotype, secondary infection with a different DENV serotype can lead to increased disease severity via cross-reactive T cells or enhancing antibodies. This review summarizes recent findings in humans and animal models about DENV infection of DCs, monocytes and macrophages. We discuss the dual role of DCs as both targets of DENV replication and mediators of innate and adaptive immunity, and summarize immune evasion strategies whereby DENV impairs the function of infected DCs. We suggest that DCs play a key role in priming DENV-specific neutralizing or potentially harmful memory B and T cell responses, and that future DC-directed therapies may help induce protective memory responses and reduce dengue pathogenesis.

  2. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  3. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  4. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are ``vaccinated'' with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.

  5. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... early. Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  6. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are "vaccinated" with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks. PMID:24452277

  7. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click "GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  8. Considerations for developing an immunization strategy with enterovirus 71 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yin, Hongzhang; An, Zhijie; Feng, Zijian

    2015-02-25

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common pathogen for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has significant morbidity and mortality, and for which children aged 6-59 months age are at highest risk. Due to lack of effective treatment options, control of EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on development of EV71 vaccines. Clinical trials have been completed on 3 EV71 vaccines, with trial results demonstrating good vaccine efficacy and safety. When EV71 vaccine is approved by China's national regulatory authority, an evidence-based strategy should be developed to optimize impact and safety. An immunization strategy for EV71 vaccine should consider several factors, including the target population age group, the number of doses for primary immunization, the need for a booster dose, concomitant administration of other vaccines, economic value, program capacity and logistics, and public acceptance. Once EV71 vaccines are in use, vaccine effectiveness and safety must be monitored in large populations, and the epidemiology of HFMD must be evaluated to assure a match between vaccination strategy and epidemiology. Evaluation in China is especially important because there are no other EV71 vaccines globally. PMID:25444807

  9. Immune-priming in ant larvae: social immunity does not undermine individual immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Malak, Tanya; Mackintosh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Social insects deploy numerous strategies against pathogens including behavioural, biochemical and immunological responses. While past research has revealed that adult social insects can generate immunity, few studies have focused on the immune function during an insect's early life stages. We hypothesized that larvae of the black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus vaccinated with heat-killed Serratia marcescens should be less susceptible to a challenge with an active and otherwise lethal dose of the bacterium. We compared the in vivo benefits of prior vaccination of young larvae relative to naive and ringer injected controls. Regardless of colony of origin, survival parameters of vaccinated individuals following a challenge were significantly higher than those of the other two treatments. Results support the hypothesis that ant larvae exhibit immune-priming. Based on these results, we can infer that brood care by workers does not eliminate the need for individual-level immunological responses. Focusing on these early stages of development within social insect colonies can start addressing the complex dynamics between physiological (individual level) and social (collective) immunity. PMID:24108675

  10. The aging of the immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Grubeck-Loebenstein, B.; Weinberger, B.; Weiskopf, D.

    2009-01-01

    An age-related decline in immune functions, referred to as immunosenescence, is partially responsible for the increased prevalence and severity of infectious diseases, and the low efficacy of vaccination in elderly persons. Immunosenescence is characterized by a decrease in cell-mediated immune function as well as by reduced humoral immune responses. Age-dependent defects in T- and B-cell function coexist with age-related changes within the innate immune system. In this review, we discuss the...

  11. Immunity-based diagnosis for a motherboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Haruki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal behavior of components on the motherboard. PMID:22163857

  12. Immunity-Based Diagnosis for a Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiteru Ishida; Takeshi Okamoto; Haruki Shida

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal...

  13. Biomarkers of HIV Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bonham, Shuli; Meya, David B.; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Boulware, David R

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system drives HIV pathogenesis. As we develop new ways to treat HIV and AIDS, we encounter new clinical ramifications of our treatment on regulatory components of the immune system. HIV-associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) occurs after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) with inappropriate and dysbalanced restoration of the immune system resulting in pathologic inflammatory reactions with significant morbidity. IRIS is most commonly...

  14. Distance Concentration-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; WANG Yao-cai; WANG Zhi-jie; MENG Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The diversity, adaptation and memory of biological immune system attract much attention of researchers. Several optimal algorithms based on immune system have also been proposed up to now. The distance concentration-based artificial immune algorithm (DCAIA) is proposed to overcome defects of the classical artificial immune algorithm (CAIA) in this paper. Compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and CAIA, DCAIA is good for solving the problem of precocity,holding the diversity of antibody, and enhancing convergence rate.

  15. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  16. HIV-associated chronic immune activation

    OpenAIRE

    Paiardini, Mirko; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4+ T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4+ T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4+ T-cell loss has not been for...

  17. Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou Intercity Railways were approved officially by the National Reform and Development Commission (NRDC). The Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway will be located briefly in parallel with the existing Shanghai-Nanjing Railway, starting from Shanghai and ending at Nanjing via Kunshan, Suzhou,Wuxi, Changzhou, Danyang and Zhenjiang, with a total length of 300 km for the main line, among which 32km will be in Shanghai and 268 km in Jiangsu Province.

  18. Shareholders, creditors approve utility reorganization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shareholders and all classes of secured creditors of Public Service Company of New Hampshire voted overwhelmingly last month to approve Northeast Utilities' Chapter 11 reorganization plan for PSNH, the utility announced. PSNH filed for bankruptcy protection in January 1988. Under the reorganization plan, Connecticut-based NU would acquire the utility for $2.3 billion. While PSNH's preferred and common stockholders voted to accept the proposal, holders of warrants to purchase PSNH common stock rejected the plan. Except for the votes of a group of independent power producers, PSNH's unsecured creditors also voted to accept the plan

  19. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Meyboom, Ronald H B; Egberts, Antoine C G

    2004-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia can have several causes, including the use of certain drugs. The mechanism behind drug-induced thrombocytopenia is either a decrease in platelet production (bone marrow toxicity) or an increased destruction (immune-mediated thrombocytopenia). In addition, pseudothrombocytopenia, an in vitro effect, has to be distinguished from true drug-induced thrombocytopenia. This article reviews literature on drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, with the exception of thrombo-haemorrhagic disorders such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. A literature search in PubMed combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles resulted in 108 articles relevant to the subject. The drug classes that are most often associated with drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia are cinchona alkaloid derivatives (quinine, quinidine), sulfonamides, NSAIDs, anticonvulsants, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and diuretics. Several other drugs are occasionally described in case reports of thrombocytopenia; an updated review of these case reports can be found on the internet. A small number of epidemiological studies, differing largely in the methodology used, describe incidences in the magnitude of 10 cases per 1 000 000 inhabitants per year. No clear risk factors could be identified from these studies. The underlying mechanism of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia is not completely clarified, but at least three different types of antibodies appear to play a role (hapten-dependent antibodies, drug-induced, platelet-reactive auto-antibodies and drug-dependent antibodies). Targets for drug-dependent antibodies are glycoproteins on the cell membrane of the platelets, such as glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX and GPIIb/IIIa. Diagnosis of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia may consist of identifying clinical symptoms (bruising, petechiae, bleeding), a careful evaluation of the causal relationship of the suspected

  20. Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.

  1. A genetic inference on cancer immune responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ena; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Marincola, Francesco M.

    2012-01-01

    A cancer immune signature implicating good prognosis and responsiveness to immunotherapy was described that is observed also in other aspects of immune-mediated, tissue-specific destruction (TSD). Its determinism remains, however, elusive. Based on limited but unique clinical observations, we propose a multifactorial genetic model of human cancer immune responsiveness.

  2. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  3. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  4. Autonomic Nervous System and Immune System Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, MJ; Ganta, CK

    2014-01-01

    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsiv...

  5. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yuanhui [Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052 (China); College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China); He, Jinsheng, E-mail: jshhe@bjtu.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China); Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Zheng, Xianxian [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Wu, Qiang [Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Zhang, Mei; Wang, Xiaobo [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Wang, Yan [Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Xie, Can; Tang, Qian; Wei, Wei [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Wang, Min; Song, Jingdong; Qu, Jianguo [Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052 (China); Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xin [College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China); Hong, Tao [Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052 (China); College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China)

    2009-04-17

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract worldwide. There is currently no clinically approved vaccine against RSV infection. Recently, it has been shown that a replication-deficient first generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which encodes modified RSV attachment glycoprotein (G), elicits long-term protective immunity against RSV infection in mice. The major problem in developing such a vaccine is that G protein lacks MHC-I-restricted epitopes. However, RSV fusion glycoprotein (F) is a major cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in humans and mice, therefore, an FGAd-encoding F (FGAd-F) was constructed and evaluated for its potential as an RSV vaccine in a murine model. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with FGAd-F generated serum IgG, bronchoalveolar lavage secretory IgA, and RSV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in BALB/c mice, with characteristic balanced or mixed Th1/Th2 CD4+ T-cell responses. Serum IgG was significantly elevated after boosting with i.n. FGAd-F. Upon challenge, i.n. immunization with FGAd-F displayed an effective protective role against RSV infection. These results demonstrate FGAd-F is able to induce effective protective immunity and is a promising vaccine regimen against RSV infection.

  6. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract worldwide. There is currently no clinically approved vaccine against RSV infection. Recently, it has been shown that a replication-deficient first generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which encodes modified RSV attachment glycoprotein (G), elicits long-term protective immunity against RSV infection in mice. The major problem in developing such a vaccine is that G protein lacks MHC-I-restricted epitopes. However, RSV fusion glycoprotein (F) is a major cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in humans and mice, therefore, an FGAd-encoding F (FGAd-F) was constructed and evaluated for its potential as an RSV vaccine in a murine model. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with FGAd-F generated serum IgG, bronchoalveolar lavage secretory IgA, and RSV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in BALB/c mice, with characteristic balanced or mixed Th1/Th2 CD4+ T-cell responses. Serum IgG was significantly elevated after boosting with i.n. FGAd-F. Upon challenge, i.n. immunization with FGAd-F displayed an effective protective role against RSV infection. These results demonstrate FGAd-F is able to induce effective protective immunity and is a promising vaccine regimen against RSV infection.

  7. Immune regulation in gut and cord : opportunities for directing the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roock, S.

    2012-01-01

    The gut is an important organ for the immune system. Microbes and immune cells interact directly or via epithelial cells. Both TH17 and Treg cells mature in this environment. The composition of the microbiota has an important influence on the immune homeostasis. Influencing the immune system via the

  8. Immune System: Can Your Immune System Still Defend You As You Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aging Heath and Aging Biology of Aging IMMUNE SYSTEM: Can Your Immune System Still Defend You As You Age? Elementary schools ... immune protection in older individuals. Organs of the Immune System Adapted from www.niaid.nih.gov The Future ...

  9. Vitally important - does early innate immunity predict recruitment and adult innate immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Anke; Müller, Wendt; Eens, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    The immune system is one of the most important adaptations that has evolved to protect animals from a wide range of pathogens they encounter from early life onwards. During the early developmental period this is particularly true for the innate immunity, as other components of the immune system are, as yet, poorly developed. But innate immunity may not only be crucial for early life survival, but may also have long-lasting effects, for example if early life immunity reflects the functioning of the immune system as a whole. For this reason, we investigated the importance of four constitutive innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin, and concentrations of nitric oxide) for recruitment in free-living great tits. We compared nestling immunity of recruits with nestling immunity of their nonrecruited siblings. We also investigated within individual consistency of these innate immune parameters for those individuals that recruited, which may be taken as a measure of immune capacity. In accordance with previous studies, we found a clear effect of tarsus length and a trend for body mass on the likelihood to recruit. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that higher levels of constitutive innate immunity as a nestling facilitated local recruitment. Furthermore, individual innate immunity was not consistent across life stages, that is to say, nestling immune parameters did not determine, or respectively, reflect adult innate immune parameters. This plasticity in innate immune components may explain why we did not find long-lasting survival benefits. PMID:26929818

  10. Immune Response to Sipuleucel-T in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Quinn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, chemotherapy has remained the most commonly utilized therapy in patients with metastatic cancers. In prostate cancer, chemotherapy has been reserved for patients whose metastatic disease becomes resistant to first line castration or androgen deprivation. While chemotherapy palliates, decreases serum prostate specific antigen and improves survival, it is associated with significant side effects and is only suitable for approximately 60% of patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. On that basis, exploration of other therapeutic options such as active secondary hormone therapy, bone targeted treatments and immunotherapy are important. Until recently, immunotherapy has had no role in the treatment of solid malignancies aside from renal cancer and melanoma. The FDA-approved autologous cellular immunotherapy sipuleucel-T has demonstrated efficacy in improving overall survival in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer in randomized clinical trials. The proposed mechanism of action is reliant on activating the patients’ own antigen presenting cells (APCs to prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP fused with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and subsequent triggered T-cell response to PAP on the surface of prostate cancer cells in the patients body. Despite significant prolongation of survival in Phase III trials, the challenge to health care providers remains the dissociation between objective changes in serum PSA or on imaging studies after sipleucel-T and survival benefit. On that basis there is an unmet need for markers of outcome and a quest to identify immunologic or clinical surrogates to fill this role. This review focuses on the impact of sipuleucel-T on the immune system, the T and B cells, and their responses to relevant antigens and prostate cancer. Other therapeutic modalities such as chemotherapy, corticosteroids and GM-CSF and host factors can also affect immune response. The

  11. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, 2007, which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility. (J.S.)

  12. Immune epitope database analysis resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang;

    2012-01-01

    homology mapping tool was updated to enable mapping of discontinuous epitopes onto 3D structures. Furthermore, to serve a wider range of users, the number of ways in which IEDB-AR can be accessed has been expanded. Specifically, the predictive tools can be programmatically accessed using a web interface......The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide......:MHC binding and T-cell epitope predictive tools have been added. As validated by different labs and in the first international competition for predicting peptide:MHC-I binding, their predictive performances have improved considerably. In addition, a new B-cell epitope prediction tool was added, and the...

  13. Immune Response to Giardia duodenalis

    OpenAIRE

    Faubert, Gaétan

    2000-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a widespread opportunistic parasite of humans and animals. This parasite inhabits the upper part of the small intestine and has a direct life cycle. After ingestion of cysts, which are the infective stage, the trophozoites emerge from the cysts in the duodenum and attach to the small intestinal mucosa of the host. Since the migration of trophozoites from the lumen of the intestine into surrounding tissues is an unusual occurrence, the immune resp...

  14. Immunization by a bacterial aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Wong, Yun-Ling; Muttil, Pavan; Padilla, Danielle; Sadoff, Jerry; DeRousse, Jessica; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Elbert, Katharina; Bloom, Barry R.; Miller, Rich; Fourie, P. Bernard; Hickey, Anthony; Edwards, David

    2008-01-01

    By manufacturing a single-particle system in two particulate forms (i.e., micrometer size and nanometer size), we have designed a bacterial vaccine form that exhibits improved efficacy of immunization. Microstructural properties are adapted to alter dispersive and aerosol properties independently. Dried “nanomicroparticle” vaccines possess two axes of nanoscale dimensions and a third axis of micrometer dimension; the last one permits effective micrometer-like physical dispersion, and the form...

  15. Immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A.; Shastri, Nilabh

    2013-01-01

    The ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing, ERAAP (or ERAP1), is essential for trimming peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules. ERAP1 is inhibited by human cytomegalovirus, and ERAP1 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases. How the immune system detects ERAAP dysfunction, however, is unknown. We have shown previously that ERAAP-deficient cells present an immunogenic pMHC I repertoire, that elicits CD8+ T cell response in WT mice. Additionally, we disc...

  16. Immunizations Part II: Shingles Vaccine

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-24

    This podcast discusses older adults and shingles, as well as the importance of getting the shingles vaccine. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 9/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  17. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    OpenAIRE

    D. Van der Does

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivores and pathogens with a necrotrophic lifestyle. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions between the SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways allow the plant to fine-tune the activation of defense...

  18. Innate immunity to Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Massis, Liliana M.; Zamboni, Dario S

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune cells, such as macrophages, are highly adapted to rapidly recognize infections by distinct pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. This recognition is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found in host cell surface membranes and the host cell cytoplasm. PRRs include protein families such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and sensors of cytosolic DNA. The activation of these PRRs by...

  19. Innate Immunity to Legionella Pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Massis, Liliana M.; Zamboni, Dario S

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune cells, such as macrophages, are highly adapted to rapidly recognize infections by distinct pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. This recognition is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found in host cell surface membranes and the host cell cytoplasm. PRRs include protein families such as the toll-like receptors, nod-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and sensors of cytosolic DNA. The activation of these PRRs by pathogen-associate...

  20. Levomilnacipran extended release: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2013-09-01

    Pierre Fabre and Forest Laboratories are developing levomilnacipran extended release (ER) [FETZIMA™], an enantiomer of milnacipran, for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). In addition, Pierre Fabre (the originator of the compound) is developing the drug to improve recovery in patients with ischaemic stroke. Levomilnacipran ER exerts its effects by selectively inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin (two neurotransmitters known to play an essential role in regulating mood) without directly affecting the uptake of dopamine or other neurotransmitters. The agent is being developed as an extended-release capsule formulation for once-daily dosing. Levomilnacipran ER is approved and launched in the US for the treatment of MDD; phase III development in this indication was completed in the US and Canada. In Europe, a phase II trial for MDD was completed, and development is in progress for improving functional recovery of patients with ischaemic stroke. A completed phase II trial in the US investigated levomilnacipran ER for the treatment of fatigue associated with MDD. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of levomilnacipran ER leading to the first approval for major depressive disorder. PMID:24000002

  1. The Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A O'Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the variety and abundances of RNA base modifications is rapidly increasing. Modified bases have critical roles in tRNAs, rRNAs, translation, splicing, RNA interference, and other RNA processes, and are now increasingly detected in all types of transcripts. Can new biological principles associated with this diversity of RNA modifications, particularly in mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, be identified? This review will explore this question by focusing primarily on adenosine to inosine (A-to-I RNA editing by the adenine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR enzymes that have been intensively studied for the past 20 years and have a wide range of effects. Over 100 million adenosine to inosine editing sites have been identified in the human transcriptome, mostly in embedded Alu sequences that form potentially innate immune-stimulating dsRNA hairpins in transcripts. Recent research has demonstrated that inosine in the epitranscriptome and ADAR1 protein establish innate immune tolerance for host dsRNA formed by endogenous sequences. Innate immune sensors that detect viral nucleic acids are among the readers of epitranscriptome RNA modifications, though this does preclude a wide range of other modification effects.

  2. Notch2 and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Chiba, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Notch2 is expressed in many cell types of most lineages in the hematolymphoid compartment and has specific roles in differentiation and function of various immune cells. Notch2 is required for development of splenic marginal zone B cells and regulates differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) in the spleen. Notch2 appears to play some specific roles in the intestinal immunity, given that the fate of mast cells and a subset of DCs is regulated by Notch2 in the intestine. Notch2 also has important roles in helper T cell divergence from naïve CD4 T cells and activation of cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, recent genetic evidence suggests that both gain-and loss-of-function abnormalities of Notch2 cause transformation of immune cells. Inactivating mutations are found in Notch2 signaling pathways in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, while activating mutations are found in mature B cell lymphomas, which reflects the role of Notch2 in the developmental process of these cells. PMID:22695918

  3. Immune regulation and CNS autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antel, J P; Owens, T

    1999-01-01

    The central nervous system is a demonstrated target of both clinical and experimental immune mediated disorders. Immune regulatory mechanisms operative at the levels of the systemic immune system, the blood brain barrier, and within the CNS parenchyma are important determinants of the intensity and...... duration of the tissue directed injury. Convergence of research, involving direct manipulation of specific cells and molecular mediators in animal models and in vitro analysis of human immune and neural cells and tissues, is providing increasing insight into the role of these immune regulatory functions...

  4. Epidemic spreading with immunization on bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite networks are composed of two types of nodes and there are no links between nodes of the same type. Thus the study of epidemic spread and control on such networks is relevant to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). When entire populations of two types cannot be immunized and the effect of immunization is not perfect, we have to consider the targeted immunization with immunization rates. We derive the epidemic thresholds of SIR and SIS models with immunization and illustrate the results with STDs on heterosexual contact networks.

  5. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    . However, it has been unclear by which molecular mechanisms plants execute PCD during innate immune responses. We recently examined HR PCD in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg) and find that PCD conditioned by one class of plant innate immune receptors is suppressed in atg mutants....... Intriguingly, HR triggered by another class of immune receptors with different genetic requirements is not compromised, indicating that only a specific subset of immune receptors engage the autophagy pathway for HR execution. Thus, our work provides a primary example of autophagic cell death associated with...... innate immune responses in eukaryotes as well as of prodeath functions for the autophagy pathway in plants....

  6. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  7. Immunity of multiplex networks via acquaintance vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Da-Wei; Wang, Lin; Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    How to find the effective approach of immunizing a population is one open question in the research of complex systems. Up to now, there have been a great number of works focusing on the efficiency of various immunization strategies. However, the majority of these existing achievements are limited to isolated networks, how immunization affects disease spreading in multiplex networks seems to need further exploration. In this letter, we explore the impact of the acquaintance immunization in multiplex networks, where two kinds of immunization strategies, multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization and layer node-based acquaintance immunization, are proposed. With the generating function method, our theoretical framework is able to accurately calculate the critical immunization threshold which is one of the most important indexes to predict the epidemic regime. Moreover, we further uncover that, with the increment of degree correlation between network layers, the immunization threshold declines for multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization, but slowly increases for layer node-based acquaintance immunization.

  8. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations. PMID:24177252

  9. Vaccines and immunization against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Neil D; Budgeon, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic immunization strategies are an effective method to control human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated diseases and cancers. Current protective virus-like particle and capsid-based vaccines are highly protective against vaccine-matched HPV types, and continued improvements in second-generation vaccines will lead to broader protection and cross-protection against the cancer-associated types. Increasing the effectiveness of broadly cross-protective L2-based immunogens will require adjuvants that activate innate immunity to thus enhance adaptive immunity. Therapeutic immunization strategies are needed to control and cure clinical disease and HPV-associated cancers. Significant advances in strategies to improve induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV early (and capsid) proteins have been pretested in preclinical animal papillomavirus models. Several of these effective protocols have translated into successful therapeutic immune-mediated clearance of clinical lesions. Nevertheless, there are significant challenges in activating immunity to cancer-associated lesions due to various immune downregulatory events that are triggered by persistent HPV infections. A better understanding of immune responses to HPV lesions in situ is needed to optimize immune effector T cells that efficiently locate to sites of infection and which should lead to an effective immunotherapeutic management of this important human viral pathogen. The most effective immunization strategy may well require combination antiviral and immunotherapeutic treatments to achieve complete clearance of HPV infections and associated cancers. PMID:24643192

  10. Inverse targeting -- an effective immunization strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian M; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method to immunize populations or computer networks against epidemics which is more efficient than any method considered before. The novelty of our method resides in the way of determining the immunization targets. First we identify those individuals or computers that contribute the least to the disease spreading measured through their contribution to the size of the largest connected cluster in the social or a computer network. The immunization process follows the list of identified individuals or computers in inverse order, immunizing first those which are most relevant for the epidemic spreading. We have applied our immunization strategy to several model networks and two real networks, the Internet and the collaboration network of high energy physicists. We find that our new immunization strategy is in the case of model networks up to 14%, and for real networks up to 33% more efficient than immunizing dynamically the most connected nodes in a network. Our strategy is also numerically effic...

  11. Blurring Borders: Innate Immunity with Adaptive Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kvell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive immunity has often been considered the penultimate of immune capacities. That system is now being deconstructed to encompass less stringent rules that govern its initiation, actual effector activity, and ambivalent results. Expanding the repertoire of innate immunity found in all invertebrates has greatly facilitated the relaxation of convictions concerning what actually constitutes innate and adaptive immunity. Two animal models, incidentally not on the line of chordate evolution (C. elegans and Drosophila, have contributed enormously to defining homology. The characteristics of specificity and memory and whether the antigen is pathogenic or nonpathogenic reveal considerable information on homology, thus deconstructing the more fundamentalist view. Senescence, cancer, and immunosuppression often associated with mammals that possess both innate and adaptive immunity also exist in invertebrates that only possess innate immunity. Strict definitions become blurred casting skepticism on the utility of creating rigid definitions of what innate and adaptive immunity are without considering overlaps.

  12. Innate immune activation in intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Oliver J; Maloy, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of intestinal immune regulation leading to aberrant immune responses to the commensal microbiota are believed to precipitate the chronic inflammation observed in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Innate immune receptors that recognize conserved components derived from the microbiota are widely expressed by both epithelial cells and leucocytes of the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in host protection from infectious pathogens; yet precisely how pathogenic and commensal microbes are distinguished is not understood. Furthermore, aberrant innate immune activation may also drive intestinal pathology, as patients with IBD exhibit extensive infiltration of innate immune cells to the inflamed intestine, and polymorphisms in many innate immunity genes influence susceptibility to IBD. Thus, a balanced interaction between the microbiota and innate immune activation is required to maintain a healthy mutualistic relationship between the microbiota and the host, which when disturbed can result in intestinal inflammation. PMID:21912101

  13. Immunomodulator, immunosuppression of radiation and immune reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a refined and complicated regulatory network between immune cells, and between immune cells and secretory factors. The immune system is kept in a homeostasis and equilibrium by positive activation and negative inhibition. In recent years, the mechanisms of immunosuppression in depth for successful allograft transplantation were studied, and many immunosuppressants and immunosuppressive drugs have been developed for clinical use. Most of them are targeting T cell receptors and three kinds of singnal pathways. The receptors of the immunosuppression were either found highly expressed in immune cells after irradiation. To relieve the suppression by regulating the receptors could help the immune reconstruction out of radiation damage. Many new immunoenhancers have been discovered to improve the immune system function for radiation by Toll-like receptors. The search for new immunoenhancers and agents for relieving immunosuppression is of great importance to immune construction for radiation sickness. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of lung immunity in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defenses in the lung can be studied in several animal species. To assure that the data obtained can be extrapolated to man, it is essential that the development of lung immunity is similar in the experimental animal selected and in humans. Because of the similarity of immune responses in chimpanzees and in humans, the development of immunity in the chimpanzee after lung immunization was evaluated. The results from the chimpanzees were qualitatively the same as those from previous studies in which single lung lobes of dogs were immunized. It was concluded that immunotoxicology data obtained in dogs can be used to estimate the effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defense mechanism in the human lung

  15. Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, 25 years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered as the then tentative aetiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), exactly 25 anti-HIV compounds have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs: tenofovir); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine); protease inhibitors (PIs: saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir); cell entry inhibitors [fusion inhibitors (FIs: enfuvirtide) and co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs: maraviroc)]; and integrase inhibitors (INIs: raltegravir). These compounds should be used in drug combination regimens to achieve the highest possible benefit, tolerability and compliance and to diminish the risk of resistance development. PMID:19108994

  16. 14 CFR 171.25 - Minimum requirements for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio Beacon Facilities... met before the FAA will approve an IFR procedure for a non-Federal, nondirectional radio...

  17. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970239 The effect of interleukin 6 against cytopeniaand suppressed phagocytosis of macrophage caused bychemotherapy. ZHANG Lichao(张利朝), et al.Tangdu Hosp, 4th Milit Med Univ, Xian, 710038. ChinJ Clin Oncol 1997; 24(4): 252-255. Objective: To explore The effect of interleukin 6against cytopenia and suppressed phagocytosis ofmacrophage caused by chemotherapy. Methods:Inter-

  18. Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... d love to go out and get a jab in the arm. But there are good reasons ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  19. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008024 Study on a 10-year protective effects of vaccination against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. GONG Zhenyu(龚震宇), et al. Zhejiang Prov Dis Contr & Prev Center, Hangzhou 310009. Chin J Epidemiol 2007;28(12):1190-1193. Objective To evaluate the epidemiological and serological efficacy after 10 years of vaccination against

  20. ELECTRONIC COMPLIANCE AND APPROVAL PROJECT (ECAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope Morgan; Richard A. Varela; Deborah LaHood; Susan Cisco; Mary Ann Benavides; Donna Burks

    2002-11-01

    The Texas Railroad Commission (RRC), working in partnership with the United States Department of Energy and the oil and gas industry it regulates, is implementing a strategy for improving efficiency in regulations and significantly reducing administrative operating costs through the Electronic Compliance and Approval Process (ECAP). The project will streamline regulatory compliance and reporting by providing the ability to electronically submit, process, and query oil and gas applications and reports through the Internet-based ECAP system. Implementation of an ECAP drilling permit pilot project began September 1999 after funding resources were secured--a $700,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy and an appropriation of $1.4 million from the Texas Legislature. The pilot project involves creating the ability to file, review, and approve a well's drilling permit application through a completely electronic process. The pilot project solution will ultimately provide the infrastructure, technology, and electronic modules to enable the filing of all compliance permits and performance reports through the internet from a desktop computer. The pilot project was conducted in three phases. The first phase, implemented May 2000, provided the infrastructure that allows the electronic filing and approval of simple drilling permit applications, associated fees, and attachments. The official ''roll-out'' of ECAP and the first electronically filed drilling permit application occurred on May 11, 2000 in Dallas in conjunction with an Internet Workshop sponsored by the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. After the completion of Phase I, the ECAP team conducted an extensive review of progress to date and analyzed requirements and opportunities for future steps. The technical team identified core infrastructure modifications that would facilitate and better support future development and expansion of the ECAP system and work began on database structure

  1. [The differentiation of the antigens making up the circulating immune complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, L G; Vul'fovich, Iu V

    1996-01-01

    A simple method for the detection and analysis of circulating immune complexes (CIC) in specimens of biological fluids is proposed. The method was approved in the examination of patients with chronic infections caused by mycoplasmas and Streptococcus pyogenes L-forms. The method made it possible to diagnose infectious diseases accompanied by the formation of immune complexes and to study the dynamics of the processes of the accumulation and elimination of CIC in the course of the disease. Thus, the detection rate of specific antigens (Ag) incorporated into CIC in patients with mycoplasmal pneumonia exceeded 90 %. In children aged up to 1 year this rate decreased to 40 %. The diagnostic value of the determination of specific Ag incorporated into CIC was shown in streptococcal infections caused by S.pyogenes L-forms, viz. in frequently relapsing erysipelas, as well as in subacute rheumatism and in infectious allergic myocarditis. PMID:8820681

  2. Consumer approval of irradiated meat still tentative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the FDA has approved irradiation of red meat, consumers may not be so accepting of the use of this technology. Irradiation is a process used to improve food safety in food products susceptible to disease-causing microorganisms. The red meat ruling was widely praised by federal officials and food industry leaders, but consumers seem less sure. Indeed, on the night of the red meat announcement last December, CBS Evening News reported that over 70 percent of U.S. consumers would not knowingly eat irradiated food. There is hope, however, as a study by the Center for Consumer Research at the University of California, Davis, revealed that consumer interest in buying irradiated food can be substantially improved by providing consumers with information, thereby enabling them to see the benefits and to overcome the myths of irradiation

  3. Mathematical model of tumor-immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasa, Khaphetsi Joseph; Ouifki, Rachid; Eladdadi, Amina; Pillis, Lisette de

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel mathematical model involving various immune cell populations and tumor cell populations. The model describes how tumor cells evolve and survive the brief encounter with the immune system mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and the activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The model is composed of ordinary differential equations describing the interactions between these important immune lymphocytes and various tumor cell populations. Based on up-to-date knowledge of immune evasion and rational considerations, the model is designed to illustrate how tumors evade both arms of host immunity (i.e. innate and adaptive immunity). The model predicts that (a) an influx of an external source of NK cells might play a crucial role in enhancing NK-cell immune surveillance; (b) the host immune system alone is not fully effective against progression of tumor cells; (c) the development of immunoresistance by tumor cells is inevitable in tumor immune surveillance. Our model also supports the importance of infiltrating NK cells in tumor immune surveillance, which can be enhanced by NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27317864

  4. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND IMMUNITY: 1. DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is one of the principal neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNC, and its neuronal pathways are involved in several key functions such as behavior (Hefco et al., 2003a,b, control of movement, endocrine regulation, immune response (Fiserova et al., 2002; Levite et al., 2001, Hritcu et al., 2006a,b,c, and cardiovascular function. Dopamine has at least five G-protein, coupled receptor subtypes, D1-D5, each arising from a different gene (Sibley et al., 1993. Traditionally, these receptors have been classified into D1-like (the D1 and D5 and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4 receptors subtypes, primarily according to their ability to stimulate or inhibit adenylate cyclase, respectively, and to their pharmacological characteristics (Seeman et al., 1993. Receptors for dopamine (particularly of D2 subclass are the primary therapeutic target in a number of neuropathological disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea (Seeman et al., 1987. Neither dopamine by itself, nor dopaminergic agonists by themselves, has been shown to activate T cell function. Nevertheless, lymphocytes are most probably exposed to dopamine since the primary and secondary lymphoid organs of various mammals are markedly innervated, and contain nerve fibers which stain for tyrosine hydroxylase (Weihe et al., 1991, the enzyme responsible for dopamine synthesis. Moreover, cathecolamines and their metabolites are present in single lymphocytes and in extracts of T and B cell clones, and pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase reduces catecholamine levels, suggesting catecholamine synthesis by lymphocytes (Bergquist et al., 1994. The existence of putative dopamine receptors of D2, D3, D4 and D5 subtypes on immune cells has been proposed of several authors, primarily on the basis of dopaminergic ligand binding assays and specific mRNA expression as monitored by reverse transcription-PCR. Several experiments evoked the idea of a

  5. Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha S. Pathinayake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD. Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication.

  6. Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathinayake, Prabuddha S; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Wark, Peter A B

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication. PMID:26694447

  7. Determinants of immunization coverage in Lucknow district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and a cost-effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. Over two million deaths are delayed through immunization each year worldwide. Aims: This study sought to identify specific factors associated with immunization coverage in order to advance improved intervention, policies/strategies therefore raising overall immunization coverage. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 198 children aged 12-23 months at Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, Era′s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, over a period of 6 months i.e., from July 2012-December 2012. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. Results: A total of 198 children of age 12-23 months were included in this study, of which 74.7% of children were fully immunized, 11.1% were partially immunized and 14.1% were not immunized at all. The most common reason for partial or non-immunization was family problems (24% of the respondents followed by lack of knowledge of immunization (20%, and fear of side effects (16%. The odds of risk of partial/non-immunization in illiterate women is 5.78 more than the graduate women (P = 0.039. Conclusions: Although in the present study, majority of the children were immunized, it is still not up to the mark. We have to make it 100%, so that we can reduce mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases. Increasing awareness and reducing fear of side effects of immunization among parents through health education, counseling, etc. can increase the percentage of immunized children.

  8. Molecular immune response of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Hai; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Shoemaker, Craig A; Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A

    2016-07-01

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. The fish surviving natural infections or immunized with live theronts develop strong specific and non-specific immune responses. Little is known about how these immune genes are induced or how they interact and lead to specific immunity against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. This study evaluated the differential expression of immune-related genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, complement factor and toll-like receptors in head kidney from channel catfish at different time points after immunization with live theronts of I. multifiliis. The immunized fish showed significantly higher anti-Ich antibody expressed as immobilization titer and ELISA titer than those of control fish. The vast majority of immunized fish (95%) survived theront challenge. Expression of IgM and IgD heavy chain genes exhibited a rapid increase from 4 hour (h4) to 2 days (d2) post immunization. Expression of immune cell receptor genes (CD4, CD8-α, MHC I, MHC II β, TcR-α, and TcR-β) showed up-regulation from h4 to d6 post immunization, indicating that different immune cells were actively involved in cellular immune response. Cytokine gene expression (IL-1βa, IL-1βb, IFN-γ and TNF-α) increased rapidly at h4 post immunization and were at an up-regulated level until d2 compared to the bovine serum albumin control. Expression of complement factor and toll-like receptor genes exhibited a rapid increase from h4 to d2 post immunization. Results of this study demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in the specific or non-specific immune response post immunization and that the vaccination against Ich resulted in protection against infection by I. multifiliis. PMID:27044331

  9. Innate Immune System and Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Sepulveda, Alejandra; Torres, Maria Jose; Khoury, Maroun; Illanes, Sebastian E

    2014-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is considered as a Th2 type immunological state that favors an immune-tolerance environment in order to prevent fetal rejection. Preeclampsia (PE) has been classically described as a Th1/Th2 imbalance; however, the Th1/Th2 paradigm has proven insufficient to fully explain the functional and molecular changes observed during normal/pathological pregnancies. Recent studies have expanded the Th1/Th2 into a Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cells paradigm and where dendritic cells co...

  10. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, David; Takizawa, Fumio; Sunyer, J Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out t...

  11. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S Bosamiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradoxical clinical worsening of a known condition or the appearance of a new condition after initiating antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients is defined as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. Because of wide variation in clinical presentation and the still increasing spectrum of symptoms and etiologies reported, diagnosis remains problematic. Furthermore, no test is currently available to establish an IRIS diagnosis. Until a greater understanding of the syndrome is achieved in different regions of the world, clinicians need to remain vigilant when initiating ART and individualize therapy according to known treatment options for the specific infectious agent.

  12. Posttraumatic stress and immune dissonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-xin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Stress or neuroendocrine response usually occurs soon after trauma, which is central to the maintenance of posttraumatic homeostasis. Immune inflammatory response has been recognized to be a key element both in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic complications and in tissue repair. Despite the existence of multiple and intricate interconnected neuroendocrine pathways, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system have been considered to be the most important in trauma. Although the short-term and appropriate activation of these

  13. Reprogramming anti-tumor immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Joseph G.; Clever, David; Vizcardo, Raul; Rao, Mahendra; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise in replacing tissues and organs lost to degenerative disease and injury. Applying principles of cellular reprogramming for the treatment of cancer, however, are not well established. Here we present an overview of cell-based reprogramming techniques (i.e. lineage reprogramming and stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency) used in regenerative medicine, and within this context, envision how the scope of regenerative medicine may be expanded to treat metastatic cancer by revitalizing an exhausted and senescent immune system. PMID:24661777

  14. 28 CFR 551.31 - Approval of an organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of an organization. 551.31 Section 551.31 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Organizations § 551.31 Approval of an organization. (a) An inmate must submit a request...

  15. 30 CFR 75.800-2 - Approved circuit schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved circuit schemes. 75.800-2 Section 75... § 75.800-2 Approved circuit schemes. The following circuit schemes will be regarded as providing the necessary protection to the circuits required by § 75.800: (a) Ground check relays may be used...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.12 - Approval of alternate procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of alternate procedures. 1065.12 Section 1065.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and General Provisions § 1065.12 Approval...

  17. 34 CFR 668.156 - Approved State process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... teachers and counselors regarding the student's classroom performance and satisfactory progress toward... student's eligibility for Title IV, HEA program funds must apply to the Secretary for approval of that... approves a State's process if— (1) The State administering the process can demonstrate that the students...

  18. 25 CFR 216.7 - Approval of mining plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of mining plan. 216.7 Section 216.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.7 Approval of mining plan. (a) Before surface mining...

  19. 43 CFR 23.8 - Approval of mining plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of mining plan. 23.8 Section 23.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.8 Approval of mining plan. (a) Before surface mining operations may commence...

  20. Need for Approval and Children's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Caldwell, Melissa S.; Conley, Colleen S.

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that a tendency to base one's self-worth on peer approval is associated with positive and negative aspects of children's well-being. A sample of 153 fourth through eighth graders (9.0 to 14.8 years) reported on need for approval, global self-worth, social-evaluative concerns, anxiety and depression, and…

  1. 14 CFR 21.8 - Approval of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of articles. 21.8 Section 21.8 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.8 Approval of articles. If an article is required to...

  2. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Production Company, Pad ID: FLICKS RUN, ABR-201201011, Cogan House Township, Lycoming County, Pa...-201201014, Cummings Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 3.000 mgd; Approval Date... Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 8.000 mgd; Approval Date: January 11, 2012....

  3. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ..., Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 4.000 mgd; Approval Date: August 10, 2011. 20. Chief Oil.... 38. Seneca Resources Corporation, Pad ID: DCNR 100 Pad G, ABR- 201108032, McIntyre Township, Lycoming...; Approval Date: September 6, 2011. 61. Anadarko E&P Company, LP, Pad ID: Lycoming H&FC Pad C, ABR-...

  4. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ..., Penn Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 8.000 mgd; Approval Date: May 7, 2012. 4... Corporation, Pad ID: DCNR 100 Pad P, ABR- 201205011, Lewis Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of..., Penn Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 8.000 mgd; Approval Date: May 25,...

  5. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    .... Seneca Resources Corporation, Pad ID: DCNR 100 Pad D 85V, ABR- 201107007, McIntyre Township, Lycoming...-20100205.1, Penn Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 8.000 mgd; Approval Date: July 5..., Penn Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 8.000 mgd; Approval Date: July 8,...

  6. 76 FR 63833 - Commission Approval of Divestiture Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... divestiture with an ``up-front buyer''). If the order requires the respondent to divest within some deadline... Commission must approve both the acquirer of the divested assets and all agreements relating to the... perform as required in that agreement fails to divest in the approved manner, and thereby, ] fails...

  7. 14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21.609 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a...

  8. 28 CFR 20.23 - Documentation: Approval by OJARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation: Approval by OJARS. 20.23 Section 20.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.23 Documentation: Approval by OJARS. Within...

  9. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches

  10. 12 CFR 918.5 - Approval by Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval by Finance Board. 918.5 Section 918.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.5 Approval by Finance Board. Payments made to...

  11. 19 CFR 115.63 - Application for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Particulars of construction; (ii) Dimensions; (iii) Construction materials; and (iv) Marks and numbers... TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.63 Application for approval. Each...

  12. 48 CFR 206.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of the justification. 206.304 Section 206.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Competition 206.304 Approval of the justification. (a)(4) The Under Secretary of Defense...

  13. 48 CFR 2406.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Approval of the justification. 2406.304 Section 2406.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2406.304 Approval of the justification. (c) A class justification for other than full and...

  14. 48 CFR 806.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification. 806.304 Section 806.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Approval of the justification. (a) For a justification other than a class justification specified in FAR 6.304(c), Table 806.304-1 provides the authorities who may approve a justification: Table...

  15. 48 CFR 306.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification. 306.304 Section 306.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Approval of the justification. Certification, concurrence, and approval requirements. The Project Officer... Contracting Officer shall certify that the justification is accurate and complete by signing the JOFOC....

  16. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  17. 7 CFR 714.45 - Approval by Deputy Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval by Deputy Administrator. 714.45 Section 714... PENALTIES ERRONEOUSLY, ILLEGALLY, OR WRONGFULLY COLLECTED § 714.45 Approval by Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator shall review each claim forwarded to him by the State committee to determine...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4470 - Loans subject to bank approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 614.4470 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Approval Requirements § 614.4470 Loans subject to bank approval. (a) The following loans... supervising the association in which the loan application originates: (1) Loans to a director of...

  19. 42 CFR 37.42 - Approval of roentgenographic facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of roentgenographic facilities. 37.42 Section 37.42 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Performing Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.42 Approval...

  20. 27 CFR 4.50 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of label approval. 4.50 Section 4.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Approval of Labels...

  1. 46 CFR 160.076-25 - Approval testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications submitted with the application for approval. (b... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing. 160.076-25 Section 160.076-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND...

  2. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.6 Section 900.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... committed fraud, or has submitted material false statements to the agency, FDA may withdraw its approval...

  3. 75 FR 13204 - Notice of Petition for Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... (PSP) submitted pursuant to 49 CFR Part 236, subpart H. The individual petition is described below... approval of a revised version (version 3.0) of their already approved PSP for the Electronic Train Management System (ETMS). BNSF asserts that the revised PSP demonstrates that ETMS has been designed...

  4. 46 CFR 162.017-6 - Procedure for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design or type of pressure-vacuum relief valve shall submit drawings in quadruplicate showing the design... representative sample of the pressure-vacuum relief valve in each size for which approval is desired. Test...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels §...

  5. 40 CFR 57.603 - Criteria for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Research and Development Requirements § 57.603 Criteria for approval. The approvability of any proposed research and development program shall be judged primarily according... technology can be implemented at the smelter in question, should the smelter be placed on a SIP...

  6. Approved forest stands for seed collection; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This map of The Atlas represents the approved forest stands for seed collection of the Slovak Republic. The approved stands rank among the best quality ones of the wood species used for seed collection and they are the result of the previous massive selection expressed by the phenotype value in the forest economic plan. (authors)

  7. 49 CFR 238.21 - Special approval procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS General § 238.21 Special approval procedure.... (Requests for approval of programs for the inspection, testing, and maintenance of Tier II passenger... designated representatives of its employees, together with a list of the names and addresses of the...

  8. 14 CFR 414.29 - Safety approval transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 414.29 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... safety approval or the prospective transferee may request a safety approval transfer. (c) Both the holder and prospective transferee must agree to the transfer. (d) The person requesting the transfer...

  9. Hyapproval : final handbook for approval of hydrogen refuelling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurster, R.; Landinger, H.; Machens, C.; Allidières, L.; Molag, M.; Barron, J.; Reijalt, M.; Hill, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    HyApproval is an EC co-financed Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) to develop a Handbook facilitating the approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS). The project, started in October 2005, will be performed over 24 months by a balanced partnership including 25 partners from industry, SMEs

  10. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the time period specified above: Approvals by Rule Issued Under 18 CFR 806.22(f) 1. EXCO Resources (PA), LLC, Pad... 27, 2012. 28. Range Resources--Appalachia, LLC, Pad ID: Porter, Stephen, ABR- 201203028, Cogan...

  11. 38 CFR 21.4263 - Approval of flight training courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., may seek an administrative review of their approval by the Director, Education Service. Requests for... number of hours should be approved. (ii) The Director, Education Service shall base her or his decision... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Administration of Educational...

  12. 5 CFR 1305.2 - Production prohibited unless approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production prohibited unless approved. 1305.2 Section 1305.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE....2 Production prohibited unless approved. No employee or former employee of OMB shall, in response...

  13. 7 CFR 987.157 - Approved date product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved date product manufacturers. 987.157 Section... DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Qualification to Regulation § 987.157 Approved date product manufacturers. Any person, including date handlers,...

  14. 7 CFR 1717.608 - RUS approval of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements regarding RUS approval of such contracts are set forth in 7 CFR part 1724 for architectural and engineering services, and in 7 CFR part 1726 for construction and procurement. (b) Large retail power... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS approval of contracts. 1717.608 Section...

  15. Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Thrity seven bilateral projects (including 25 joint research projects and 12 joint seminars) between NSFC and KOSEF for FY 2008 were approved by the 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research held in Xiamen,China from May 21 to 24,2008.The approved joint research projects and seminars are listed below.

  16. 32 CFR 644.135 - Lease authorization and approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lease authorization and approvals. 644.135... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Leasing § 644.135 Lease authorization and approvals. (a) Title 10 Reports. Under the provisions of 10 U.S.C. 2662, a lease proposal or renewal with...

  17. Functional Immune Alterations, Latent Herpesvirus Reactivation, Physiological Stress and Clinical Incidence Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Kunz, Hawley; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Ray; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Quiriarte, Heather; Chouker, Alexander; Pierson, Duane

    2016-01-01

    This study (OpNom 'Functional Immune') will be a comprehensive immunity Flight Definition investigation that will use longitudinal repeated measures to assess various aspects of immunity and viral reactivation during long-duration spaceflight. This proposal builds on the successful sampling architecture of the former Integrated Immune flight study, which for the first time returned ambient, live blood samples from space to allow functional assays. Blood (ambient, live) and saliva samples will be collected before, during, and following spaceflight. Previously uninvestigated live cell assays will be performed to assess cellular function during spaceflight. Specialized preservatives will be utilized to assess comprehensive immunophenotype, gene expression and proteomics. Measures of inflammation, stress, antimicrobial activity, etc. will be assessed in blood, saliva, and/or urine. The reactivation of a panel of herpesviruses will be assessed both during flight, and post-flight until shedding resolves. Array technology will be utilized to allow maximal information to be derived from minimal in-flight samples. This study will be a hybrid of NASA internal scientists and researchers external to NASA. The NASA 'Core' science package and implementation strategy was selected and approved in 2014. Via NRA, the solicitation for external participation, with science directed to comply with the parent study sampling architecture, is in progress

  18. Immunity to bacterial infection in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial infections remain important to the poultry industry both in terms of animal and public health, the latter due to the importance of poultry as a source of foodborne bacterial zoonoses such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. As such, much focus of research to the immune response to bacterial infection has been to Salmonella. In this review we will focus on how research on avian salmonellosis has developed our understanding of immunity to bacteria in the chicken from understanding the role of TLRs in recognition of bacterial pathogens, through the role of heterophils, macrophages and γδ lymphocytes in innate immunity and activation of adaptive responses to the role of cellular and humoral immunity in immune clearance and protection. What is known of the immune response to other bacterial infections and in particular infections that have emerged recently as major problems in poultry production including Campylobacter jejuni, Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Clostridium perfringens are discussed. PMID:23648643

  19. [Immune stimulative potency of milk proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroziak, Adam; Cichosz, Grazyna

    2014-02-01

    Milk proteins are characterized by the highest immune stimulative potency from among all the proteins present in human diet. Whey proteins and numerous growth factors that regulate insulin secretion, differentiation of intestine epithelium cells, and also tissue restoration, are priceless in stimulation the immune system. Lactoferrin shows the most comprehensive pro-health properties: antioxidative, anticancer, immune stimulative and even chemopreventive. Also peptides and amino acids formed from casein and whey proteins possess immune stimulative activity. The most valuable proteins, i.e. lactoferrin, immune globulins, lactoperoxidase and lisozyme, together with bioactive peptides, are resistant to pepsin and trypsin activity. This is why they maintain their exceptional biological activity within human organism. Properly high consumption of milk proteins conditions correct function of immune system, especially at children and elderly persons. PMID:24720113

  20. Dendritic Cells and Humoral Immunity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hideki; Schmitt, Nathalie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate the innate and adaptive immune systems to induce tolerance and immunity. DC plasticity and subsets are prominent determinants in the regulation of immune responses. Our recent studies suggest that humoral and cellular immunity is regulated by different myeloid DC subsets with distinct intrinsic properties in humans. While antibody response is preferentially mediated by CD14+ dermal DCs, cytotoxic T cell response is preferentially mediated by Langerhans cells (LCs). Thus, mechanisms whereby DCs induce humoral and cellular immunity appear to be fundamentally distinct. In this review, we will focus on the role of DCs in the development of humoral immunity. We will also discuss the mechanisms whereby DCs induce CD4+ T cells associated with the help of B cell response, including T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and why human LCs lack this ability. PMID:20309010

  1. Immunization of networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an efficient method to immunize modular networks (i.e. networks with community structure) is proposed. The immunization of networks aims at fragmenting networks into small parts with a small number of removed nodes. Its applications include prevention of epidemic spreading, protection against intentional attacks on networks, and conservation of ecosystems. Although preferential immunization of hubs is efficient, good immunization strategies for modular networks have not been established. On the basis of an immunization strategy based on eigenvector centrality, we develop an analytical framework for immunizing modular networks. To this end, we quantify the contribution of each node to the connectivity in a coarse-grained network among modules. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying it to model and real networks with modular structure.

  2. Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2013-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

  3. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  4. Cardiac allograft immune activation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Chang, Jon Kobashigawa Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Heart transplant remains the most durable option for end-stage heart disease. Cardiac allograft immune activation and heart transplant rejection remain among the main complications limiting graft and recipient survival. Mediators of the immune system can cause different forms of rejection post-heart transplant. Types of heart transplant rejection include hyperacute rejection, cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. In this review, we will summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses which influence the post-heart transplant recipient. Different forms of rejection and their clinical presentation, detection, and immune monitoring will be discussed. Treatment of heart transplant rejection will be examined. We will discuss potential treatment strategies for preventing rejection post-transplant in immunologically high-risk patients with antibody sensitization. Keywords: heart transplant, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, rejection, immunosuppression

  5. Regulation of Immunity by Butyrophilins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, David A; Reith, Walter; Trowsdale, John

    2016-05-20

    Butyrophilin molecules (commonly contracted to BTN), collectively take their name from the eponymous protein in cow's milk. They are considered to be members of the B7 family of costimulatory receptors, which includes B7.1 (CD80), B7.2 (CD86), and related molecules, such as PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274), ICOS-L (CD275), and B7-H3 (CD276). These coreceptors modulate T cell responses upon antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex and cognate αβ T cell receptor engagement. Molecules such as BTN3A1 (CD277), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and mouse Skint1 and Btnl2, all members of the butyrophilin family, show greater structural and functional diversity than the canonical B7 receptors. Some butyrophilins mediate complex interactions between antigen-presenting cells and conventional αβ T cells, and others regulate the immune responses of specific γδ T cell subsets by mechanisms that have characteristics of both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26772212

  6. Immunization by a bacterial aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Wong, Yun-Ling; Muttil, Pavan; Padilla, Danielle; Sadoff, Jerry; Derousse, Jessica; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Elbert, Katharina; Bloom, Barry R; Miller, Rich; Fourie, P Bernard; Hickey, Anthony; Edwards, David

    2008-03-25

    By manufacturing a single-particle system in two particulate forms (i.e., micrometer size and nanometer size), we have designed a bacterial vaccine form that exhibits improved efficacy of immunization. Microstructural properties are adapted to alter dispersive and aerosol properties independently. Dried "nanomicroparticle" vaccines possess two axes of nanoscale dimensions and a third axis of micrometer dimension; the last one permits effective micrometer-like physical dispersion, and the former provides alignment of the principal nanodimension particle axes with the direction of airflow. Particles formed with this combination of nano- and micrometer-scale dimensions possess a greater ability to aerosolize than particles of standard spherical isotropic shape and of similar geometric diameter. Here, we demonstrate effective application of this biomaterial by using the live attenuated tuberculosis vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Prepared as a spray-dried nanomicroparticle aerosol, BCG vaccine exhibited high-efficiency delivery and peripheral lung targeting capacity from a low-cost and technically simple delivery system. Aerosol delivery of the BCG nanomicroparticle to normal guinea pigs subsequently challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis significantly reduced bacterial burden and lung pathology both relative to untreated animals and to control animals immunized with the standard parenteral BCG. PMID:18344320

  7. Immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A; Shastri, Nilabh

    2013-09-01

    The ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing, ERAAP (or ERAP1), is essential for trimming peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules. ERAP1 is inhibited by human cytomegalovirus, and ERAP1 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases. How the immune system detects ERAAP dysfunction, however, is unknown. We have shown previously that ERAAP-deficient cells present an immunogenic pMHC I repertoire, that elicits CD8+ T cell response in WT mice. Additionally, we discovered that the WT CD8+ T cells recognized novel peptides presented by non-classical, or MHC class Ib, molecules on ERAAP-deficient cells. The MHC Ib restricted WT CD8 T cells eliminated ERAAP-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified the FL9 peptide, presented by Qa-1(b), a MHC class Ib molecule exclusively on ERAAP-deficient cells. Remarkably, T cells specific for the FL9-Qa-1(b) complex were frequent in naïve WT mice, and had an antigen-experienced phenotype. Thus, novel non-classical pQa-1(b) complexes direct cytotoxic T cells to target cells with defective peptide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings, and the possible roles of pMHC Ib-specific T cells in immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction. PMID:23433779

  8. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  9. Epigenetics and the Adaptive Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Kondilis-Mangum, Hrisavgi D.; Wade, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Cells of the adaptive immune response undergo dynamic epigenetic changes as they develop and respond to immune challenge. Plasticity is a necessary prerequisite for the chromosomal dynamics of lineage specification, development, and the immune effector function of the mature cell types. The alterations in DNA methylation and histone modification that characterize activation may be integral to the generation of immunologic memory, thereby providing an advantage on secondary exposure to pathoge...

  10. Genetically engineered immune privileged Sertoli cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Long, Charles R.; Dufour, Jannette M.

    2012-01-01

    Sertoli cells are immune privileged cells, important for controlling the immune response to male germ cells as well as maintaining the tolerogenic environment in the testis. Additionally, ectopic Sertoli cells have been shown to survive and protect co-grafted cells when transplanted across immunological barriers. The survival of ectopic Sertoli cells has led to the idea that they could be used in cell based gene therapy. In this review, we provide a brief overview of testis immune privilege a...

  11. Early Immune Senescence in HIV Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Seema; Landay, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Non-AIDS–defining comorbidities that occur despite viral suppression and immune reconstitution using antiretroviral therapy depict early aging process in HIV-infected individuals. During aging, a reduction in T-cell renewal, together with a progressive enrichment of terminally differentiated T cells, translates into a general decline of the immune system, gradually leading to immunosenescence. Inflammation is a hallmark of age-associated comorbidities, and immune activation is a hallmark of H...

  12. The origins of vertebrate adaptive immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Fugmann, Sebastian D.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of antigen-binding receptors under evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors. Advances in our understanding of immunity in mammals and other model organisms are revealing the underlying basis and complexity of this remarkable system. Although the evolution of adaptive immunity has been considered to occur by acquisition of novel molecular capabilities, a...

  13. Endocrine Factors Modulating Immune Responses in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Anne; Costa, Serban-Dan; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    How the semi-allogeneic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system remains a fascinating phenomenon. Despite extensive research activity in this field, the mechanisms underlying fetal tolerance are still not well understood. However, there are growing evidences that immune–immune interactions as well as immune–endocrine interactions build up a complex network of immune regulation that ensures fetal survival within the maternal uterus. In the present review, we aim to summarize emerging ...

  14. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  15. HIV & immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Soneja, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected patients leads to recovery of CD4+T cell numbers and restoration of protective immune responses against a wide variety of pathogens, resulting in reduction in the frequency of opportunistic infections and prolonged survival. However, in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune response after initiation of ART leads to the phenomenon of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The hallmark of the syndrome is paradoxical worsen...

  16. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    G Taneja; KS Sagar; Mishra, S

    2013-01-01

    The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers a...

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Immune Response in Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Su, B; Zhou, W; K. S. Dorman; Jones, D. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a spatial–temporal mathematical model (PDE) to capture fundamental aspects of the immune response to antigen. We have considered terms that broadly describe intercellular communication, cell movement, and effector function (activation or inhibition). The PDE model is robust to variation in antigen load and it can account for (1) antigen recognition, (2) an innate immune response, (3) an adaptive immune response, (4) the elimination of antigen and subsequent resolution of the...

  18. The immune response to surgery and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra M.; Słotwiński, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Surgical trauma affects both the innate and acquired immunity. The severity of immune disorders is proportional to the extent of surgical trauma and depends on a number of factors, including primarily the basic disease requiring surgical treatment (e.g. cancer), often coexisting infections and impaired nutritional status. Disorder of the immune response following surgical trauma may predispose to septic complications burdened with the highest mortality rate. Extensive surgery in cancer patien...

  19. Immune response inhibits associative learning in insects.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallon, Eamonn B.; Brockmann, Axel; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In vertebrates, it is well established that there are many intricate interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, and vice versa. Regarding insects, until now little has been known about the link between these two systems. Here, we present behavioural evidence indicating a link between the immune system and the nervous system in insects. We show that otherwise non-infected honeybees whose immune systems are challenged by a non-pathogenic immunogenic elicitor lipopolysacchari...

  20. Innate Immune Activation in Intestinal Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Oliver J.; Maloy, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of intestinal immune regulation leading to aberrant immune responses to the commensal microbiota are believed to precipitate the chronic inflammation observed in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Innate immune receptors that recognize conserved components derived from the microbiota are widely expressed by both epithelial cells and leucocytes of the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in host prot...

  1. Mosquito immune responses to arbovirus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Carol D. Blair; Olson, Ken E

    2014-01-01

    The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNA interference (RNAi), differs substantially from the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections. The exo-siRNA pathway constitutes the major anti-arboviral RNAi response and its essential genetic components have been identified. Recent research has also implicated the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway in mosquito anti-arboviral immunity, but Piwi gene-family components involved are not well-defined. Arboviruses must evad...

  2. Targeting epidermal Langerhans cells by epidermal powder immunization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Immune reactions to foreign or self-antigens lead to protective immunity and, sometimes, immune disorders such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. Antigen presenting cells (APC) including epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) play an important role in the course and outcome of the immune reactions. Epidermal powder immunization (EPI) is a technology that offers a tool to manipulate the LCs and the potential to harness the immune reactions towards prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and immune disorders.

  3. Mass measles rubella immunization campaign: Bhutan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta R Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan has attained universal child immunization since 1991. Since then, immunization coverage is maintained at high level through routine immunization, periodic National Immunization Days, and mop up campaigns. Despite high immunization coverage, every year, significant numbers of clinically suspected measles cases were reported. Objective: To assess the cause of continuing high "suspected measles cases" and take appropriate public health measures. Materials and Methods: Febrile rash outbreaks occurred in several districts in 2003. These episodes were investigated. Simultaneously, a retrospective data search revealed evidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country. Results: Thirty five percent of the tested samples were positive for rubella but none for measles. There were evidences of the presence of CRS. This was discussed in the annual health conference 2004, amongst health policy makers and district heads who recommended that a possibility of inclusion of rubella as an antigen be looked into. A nationwide measles and rubella immunization campaign was conducted in 2006 followed by introduction of rubella vaccine in the immunization schedule. Conclusion: Febrile rash can be caused by a host of viral infections. Following universal measles immunization, it is pertinent that febrile rash be looked in the light of rubella infections. Following the introduction of rubella vaccination in the national immunization schedule, there has been significant reduction of febrile rash episodes, cases of rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome.

  4. Feeding Our Immune System: Impact on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Wolowczuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy.

  5. Immune Algorithm For Document Query Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZiqiang; FengBoqin

    2005-01-01

    To efficiently retrieve relevant document from the rapid proliferation of large information collections, a novel immune algorithm for document query optimization is proposed. The essential ideal of the immune algorithm is that the crossover and mutation of operator are constructed according to its own characteristics of information retrieval. Immune operator is adopted to avoid degeneracy. Relevant documents retrieved am merged to a single document list according to rank formula. Experimental results show that the novel immune algorithm can lead to substantial improvements of relevant document retrieval effectiveness.

  6. Innate immune recognition of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan; Liu; Xiao-Yong; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus and its infection results in acute or chronic hepatitis. It is reported that the host innate immune system contributes to viral control and liver pathology, while whether and how HBV can trigger the components of innate immunity remains controversial. In recent years, the data accumulated from HBV-infected patients, cellular and animal models have challenged the concept of a stealth virus for HBV infection. This editorial focuses on the current findings about the innate immune recognition to HBV. Such evaluation could help us to understand HBV immunopathogenesis and develop novel immune therapeutic strategies to combat HBV infection.

  7. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; E; Norton; Kirsten; A; Ward-Hartstonge; Edward; S; Taylor; Roslyn; A; Kemp

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, par-ticularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship betweencancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment.

  8. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Anoma; Fishman, Jay A

    2016-01-01

    Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future. PMID:26656674

  9. Immunity-Based Diagnosis for a Motherboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal behavior of components on the motherboard.

  10. Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traveling Internationally? Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedules History of the Vaccine Schedule Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's Vaccine Education Center Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  11. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  12. An Immunization Strategy Based on Propagation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquity of smart phones, wearable equipment, and wireless sensors, the topologies of networks composed by them change along with time. The immunization strategies in which network immune nodes are chosen by analyzing the static aggregation network topologies have been challenged. The studies about interaction propagations between two pathogens show that the interaction can change propagation threshold and the final epidemic size of each other, which provides a new thinking of immunization method. The eradication or inhibition of the virus can be achieved through the spread of its opposite party. Here, we put forward an immunization strategy whose implementation does not depend on the analysis of network topology. The immunization agents are randomly placed on a few of individuals of network and spread out from these individuals on network in a propagation method. The immunization agents prevent virus infecting their habitat nodes with certain immune success rate. The analysis and simulation of evolution equation of the model show that immune propagation has a significant impact on the spread threshold and steady-state density of virus on a finite size of BA networks. Simulations on some real-world networks also suggest that the immunization strategy is feasible and effective.

  13. Theory of an immune system retrovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, L N

    1986-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; formerly known as human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus, HTLV-III/LAV), the retrovirus that infects T4-positive (helper) T cells of the immune system, has been implicated as the agent responsible for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. In this paper, I contrast the growth of a "normal" virus with what I call an immune system retrovirus: a retrovirus that attacks the T4-positive T cells of the immune system. I show tha...

  14. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Aaron Pettengill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs, can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review we give particular consideration to soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function.

  15. 78 FR 54617 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Credit Account Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Collection; Credit Account Approval for Reimbursable Services AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with ] credit account approval for reimbursable services. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... call (202) 799-7039 before coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on credit...

  16. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. PMID:27282947

  17. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  18. The text of the Agreement of 16 May 1986 between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and the privileges and immunities of the Agency within the Principality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Seat Agreement between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and defining the privileges and immunities of the Agency in Monaco, as approved by the Board of Governors of the IAEA In September 1985 and signed on 16 May 1985. The agreement entered into force on 17 October 1986

  19. Relevance of a pre-existing measles immunity prior immunization with a recombinant measles virus vector

    OpenAIRE

    Knuchel, Marlyse C.; Marty, René R.; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Ilter, Orhan; Zuniga, Armando; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) vectors are promising candidates for designing new recombinant vaccines since the parental live vaccines have a well-known safety and efficacy record. Like all viral vectors, the MV vector efficacy in inducing a protecting immune answer could be affected by the pre-existing immunity among the human population. In order to determine the optimal immunization route and regimen, we mimicked a MV pre-immunity by passively administrating MV neutralizing antibodies (MV-nAb) prior ...

  20. Local immune response and protection in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model following immunization with Shigella vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, A B; Van De Verg, L L; Collins, H H; Tang, D B; Bendiuk, N O; Taylor, D N; Powell, C J

    1994-01-01

    This study used the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model to examine the importance of route of administration (mucosal versus parenteral), frequency and timing of immunization (primary versus boosting immunization), and form of antigen given (live attenuated vaccine strain versus O-antigen-protein conjugate) on the production of protective immunity against Shigella infection. Since local immune response to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen of Shigella spp. is thought to be important for...