WorldWideScience

Sample records for approval history letters

  1. [Protestant clergymen among Hahnemann's clientele. Patient histories in letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreher, Simone; Schlott, Melanie; Schlott, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    As part of the research project, developments in the history of science and in the regional and ecclesiastic history of the late feudal petty state of Köthen-Anhalt have been assessed and numerous documents of the Nagel and Mühlenbein family histories examined that place the transcribed patient letters of the two Protestant clergymen within the context of the Hahnemann Archives. These findings complement and extend previous insights into Hahnemann's Köthen clientele, especially when it comes to the structure and milieu of the local clerical elite. Inspired by the interpretive methods of sequential textual analysis, form and content of the letters of the two clergymen and their relatives were also investigated as methodically structured lines of communication. The body of sources published here presents--embedded in the body-image (of sickness and health) prevalent at the time--the medical cultures of educated patients as well as the increasingly professionalized medical practices of Samuel Hahnemann in a flourishing urban doctor's surgery. The correspondence between the pastors Albert Wilhelm Gotthilf Nagel (1796-1835) and August Carl Ludwig Georg Mühlenbein (1797-1866), presented here in a standard edition, has been investigated at Fulda University as part of the project 'Homöopathisches Medicinieren zwischen alltäglicher Lebensführung und professioneller Praxis' ('Homeopathic medicine between everyday use and professional practice'). Of the altogether 78 transcribed documents, 53 are letters written by either of the two pastors, 16 are patient journals by Samuel Hahnemann, 9 letters by the pastors' wives and Mühlenbein's mother. The two series of letters, originally composed between 1831 and 1833 in old German cursive script, can now be used as sources for research into the history of homeopathy. PMID:27263219

  2. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... equivalent to that provided by the TSO designated in § 21.305(b); and (2) The manufacturer has submitted...

  3. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  4. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dear Editor, I am a loyal reader of your magazine. I read Issue No.9 (March 2, 2006) and was deeply impressed by the articles on tobacco. Tobacco is indeed a big problem in China. Well, I would like to introduce, through your letters page, an association closely related to tobacco control. It is called Green Breathing Association, a student organization in Xiamen University (probably the first one of its kind in China). The mission of Green Breathing is to promote the public awareness of tobac-

  5. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  6. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  7. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  9. Our Grandparents' Civil Rights Era: Family Letters Bring History to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Willow

    2013-01-01

    This article describes second graders in a predominantly white suburban school who were assigned to ask their grandparents to write about their experiences during the Civil Rights Movement. The letters bring surprising wisdom--and some thought-provoking issues--to the classroom. The author found that the power of the primary source documents…

  10. European Society for the History of Science - Letter from the future president

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbáňová, Soňa

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2010), s. 361-362. ISSN 0008-8994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520; CEZ:AV0Z80770509 Keywords : history of science and technology * European Society for the History of Science Subject RIV: AB - History

  11. [History of a letter addressed to the Academy of Medicine of Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségal, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The author presents an autograph manuscript sent from Laval by Dr Hubert to Paris Academy of medicine in which he reports the birth of a freak who died at birth during a difficult delivery. This freak is, according to our contemporary classifications, a thoraco pagus who represents from 70 to 73% of symmetrical conjoined monmphalic twins. The address mentioned is that of the first location of the Academy. He gives explanations concerning both the Academy and Dr Hubert, a Parisian MD who was a regular contributor. He goes on explaining how it was received by Professor Adelon, then annual secretary. The letter sets up in the margin a commission offamous scientists such as Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Serres et Antoine Dubois. The case was presented to the Academy during the session of 17 november 1829. Though the Academy does not seem to have been able to keep detailed archives of that period, the Archives Générales de Médecine lets us know the reactions. PMID:27029130

  12. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process: A History and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher Ty

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the processing of investigational and new drug applications is described and the standard and expedited review processes are examined. The efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure greater agency transparency and fiscal responsibility and intensify oversight during the drug development and approval process are reviewed. Often attributed to a decrease in the number of uninsured adults, both the increase in prescription drug sales and the high costs associated with bringing a new drug to market highlight the necessity for a streamlined and cost-effective process to deliver these drugs safely and effectively. PMID:26897420

  13. A History of the Sonocare CST-100: The First FDA-approved HIFU Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The Sonocare CST-100 Therapeutic Ultrasound System, designed for the treatment of glaucoma, was developed in the 1980s and became the first high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to receive Food and Drug Administration approval. The system arose from studies done by F.L. Lizzi, Eng.Sc.D., of Riverside Research Institute and D.J. Coleman, M.D., of Cornell Medical Center/New York Hospital on the safety of ultrasound diagnosis of the eye. As safety limits were probed, therapeutic regimes were discovered. Optimization of operational parameters, clinical experience, and engineering design came together through a spin-off company, Sonocare, Inc., formed to produce and market the ophthalmic device. Various precedents were set during the approval process, including the acceptance by the FDA of radiation momentum imparted to an absorber as a measure of acoustic power. Many devices were sold, but the laser industry, grandfathered into the therapeutic field, eventually out-marketed Sonocare. The CST-100 remains as a model of elegant industrial design, and existing units are used daily in HIFU laboratory experiments.

  14. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  15. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans...

  16. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  17. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  18. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  19. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  20. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  1. What can numerical computation do for the history of science? (a study of an orbit drawn by Newton in a letter to Hooke)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing. (paper)

  2. Resource Letter SW1: Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    This Resource Letter describes the phenomena and effects on technological systems that are known collectively as space weather. A brief history of the topic is provided, and the scientific understandings of drivers for such phenomena are discussed. The impacts of space disturbances are summarized, and the strategies for dealing with space weather threats are examined. The Resource Letter concludes with description of approaches that have been proposed to deal with threats to our increasingly technological society.

  3. 50 years of JETP Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  4. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  5. Teaching Letter Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Madan, Avi J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a remedial technique for teaching letter formation to students with handwriting difficulties. The approach blends traditional procedures (modeling, physical prompts, tracing, self correction, etc.) with cognitive behavior modification principles. (CL)

  6. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Students as Letter Writers: How Letters Inform Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirms, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    Letters from students, serve to enhance the insight toward students at a personal level while adding a familiar form and friendly voice to the classroom community. The biographical letter and study-skill letter are the two sets of students' letters discussed. It is found that one needs to know one's student better versus the time needed for this…

  8. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. On The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2016-01-01

    Reading The Scarlet Letter, one is mostly impressed by the spirit of The Bible the story depicted. The book chiefly discusses sin and how to atone for it. Hester Prynne is the heroine of the fiction. This paper researches her fate to illustrate the influence of The Bible to Hawthorne.

  13. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  14. BUSINESS LETTERS GENRE PECULIARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Derbishewa Khadizat Askhabalievna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Authentic business letters are classified according to lexico-phraseological collocations used in them. Methodology Semiotic method, descriptive method, method of continuous sampling. Practical implications The paper is of interest for specialists in the fields of Text linguistics, English for Specific Purposes and Business English.

  15. 12 CFR 560.50 - Letters of credit and other independent undertakings-authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... undertakings-authority. 560.50 Section 560.50 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Letters of credit and other independent undertakings—authority. A Federal savings association may issue letters of credit and may issue such other independent undertakings as are approved by OTS, subject to...

  16. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  17. 46 CFR 8.530 - Plan development and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... develop the CAP and VAP with guidance from the Coast Guard SIP Advisor for OCMI approval. (a) Company Action Plan. The CAP shall include at least the following: (1) A copy of the OCMI CAP approval letter (once the CAP is approved). (2) An organization commitment statement. (3) A company organization...

  18. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠杰

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  19. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  20. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on data on elastic (p,n) charge exchange: compilation, the potentialities of δ-electron control of luminosity in experiments with internal targets at the Nuclotron, pion broadening and low-mass dilepton production, fluctuation of electromagnetic cascade axis in dense amorphous segmented media, the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Tracking system and its use in data analysis, quantum field theory with three-dimensional vector time, curvature decomposition and the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations, an integral equation for the spinor amplitude of a massive neutral Dirac particle in a curved space time with arbitrary geometry and surprising resonances in 147Sm(nα)144Nd reaction

  1. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the νe → νe neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  2. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  3. Letters to the Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Benjamin J

    1990-01-01

    Varol Akman, in his letter (AI Magazine, Spring 1990) criticizing QSIM, quotes both me and Janowski, accurately I believe, describing various limitations of QSIM. At the risk of being scolded again for "employing universal truths and unarguable facts" in support of my position, I must point out that it is the responsibility of a scientist or engineer to document clearly the known limitations of any method he develops and publishes. In addition to truth in packaging, a clear and unblinking exa...

  4. Letter of the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    A recent decision by the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in a case from Arkansas centered on a vicious letter written by an 8th-grade boy about his former girlfriend and turned over to school officials. The court ruled for the school district in expelling the student for the year, without allowing him to attend an alternative school. Argues that…

  5. A Letter to Alien

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱政榜

    2012-01-01

    Dear Alien, 1 am sorry to hear that you have some problems. I hear you argued with your best friend. 1 think you could call him up or go to his home. You could write him a letter. And you could tell him you are sony. Or maybe you could give him a ticket to a ball game. I am sure you will get on well with him again.

  6. Letters on nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started. (orig.)

  7. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6He and3H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  8. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ-, e+) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  9. First Letter from America

    OpenAIRE

    Kopelow, Murray

    2014-01-01

    I thought this first “Letter from America” should be on independence—the independence of continuing medical education from industry. In the United States, accredited continuing medical education is free of the control of entities that produce, market, re-sell, or distribute health care products or services used by or on patients. This independence is very important to us. It has become part of the brand identity of accredited CME in the United States. Independence is one of the tactics put in...

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on results from the AMANDA high-energy neutrino detector, the Lake Baikal neutrino experiment: present and future, direct CP and T violation in kaon decays, lepton number violating processes and Majorana neutrinos, measurement of the 187Re beta spectrum, the double β decay experiment NEMO-3, double beta decay of 100Mo, the directional rate and the modulation effect for direct supersymmetric matter detection, status of the EDELWEISS experiment and the CAMEO project: high sensitivity quest for Majorana neutrino mass with the BOREXINO counting test facility

  11. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ6He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  12. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on the DELPHI experiment at LEP, the Fermi-surface dynamics of rotating nuclei, production of large samples of the silica dioxide aerogel in the 37-litre autoclave and test of its optical properties, preliminary radiation resource results on scintillating fibers, a new algorithm for the direct transformation method of time to digital with the high time resolution and development and design of analogue read-out electronics for HADES drift chamber system

  13. Dynamic information about letter production influences visual letter perception: Evidence from an acquired letter recognition deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reilhac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Letter recognition is traditionally assumed to involve matching a perceptual representation of a stimulus letter with a stored representation of a static letter shape. However, people learn not only to recognize letters, but also to write them, and several researchers have suggested that knowledge concerning the dynamics of letter production (e.g., knowledge about the direction and sequencing of writing strokes may play a role in letter recognition (James & Atwood, 2009; Longcamp, Lagarrigue, & Velay, 2010; Parkinson & Khurana, 2007. We report results from NGN, a 77-year-old man who suffered a large left ventro-medial lesion as a consequence of stroke. NGN is severely impaired in visual letter identification. His perception of letter shapes is intact, but his ability to map these shapes onto abstract letter representations is severely disrupted. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of letters might improve NGN’s letter identification. Upper-case letters were presented individually in dynamic or static conditions (see Figure 1. In the Dynamic-Forward condition a moving dot drew a path from the beginning to the end of the letter as it is typically written, until the entire letter was displayed. In the Static condition the whole letter was displayed for the full duration required to “write” the letter in the dynamic condition. NGN’s letter identification accuracy was significantly higher in the Dynamic-Forward condition (90% than in the Static condition (73%, p < .001. Two additional dynamic conditions established that the advantage of the Dynamic-Forward condition was not due to the mere presence of motion in this condition (a possibility suggested by the findings of Rauschecker et al., 2011, or to the fact that the stimulus shape evolved over time. In the Dynamic-Backward condition a moving dot “wrote” the letter from end to beginning; and in the Dynamic-Random condition the dots making up the letter shape appeared in random

  14. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  15. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the properties of the N=82 even-even nuclei, an investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL preshower, the rate capability of the CSC cathode readout electronics, the timing resolution of cathode strip chambers of the CMS ME1/1 muon station and bunch crossing identification, strengthening and damping of synchrotron oscillations, photoradiation hardness of organic scintillators, as well as on a method of anode wire incident angle calculation of the first muon station (ME1/1) of the Compact Muon Solenoid set-up (CMS), heavy ion studies with CMS HF calorimeter, an investigation of the possibility of developing iodine-containing treatment and prophylactic pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis using neutron activation analysis, a comparison between schemes for heavy ion injection into Nuclotron booster

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the transport of the evanescent electron beam in the vacuum section with plasma disks, determination of ΔΓs from analysis of untagged decays Bs0→J/ψφ by using the method of angular moments, investigation of light nucleus clustering in relativistic multifragmentation processes, secondary fragments of relativistic 22Ne at 4.1 A · GeV/c nuclei in nuclear emulsion, extrapolation of experimental data of accelerated radiation aging to the operation condition of dipole magnet electrical insulation at low dose rates, automatic quality control system of the installed straws into TRT wheels, a new method of fast simulation for a hadron calorimeter response, empirical evidence for relation between threshold effects and neutron strength function as well as on what information can be derived when no events are registered

  17. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on the integral representation for structure functions and target mass effects, multiscale properties of DNA primary structure including cross-scale correlations, dissipative evolution of the elementary act, the fine structure of the MT=1 Gamow-Teller resonance in 147gTb→147Gd β+/EC decay, the behaviour of the TVO temperature sensors in the magnetic fields, a fast method for searching for tracks in multilayer drift chambers of HADES spectrometer, a novel approach to particle track etching including surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology, azimuthal correlations of secondary particles in 32S induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei at 4.5 GeV/ c/ nucleon

  18. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the new results on simulation of the nuclotron beam extraction with a bent crystal, the Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field, the e/h ratio of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a new approach to develop hadronic event generators in HEP, an algebraic description of multilayer systems with resonances, a high-voltage module for photomultipliers, an estimation of the spin-flip contribution to the np→pn process from the charge exchange reaction on the deuteron, a measurement of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hp reactions at RIKEN as well as on calibration of SPES4-π set-up in experiments on SATURNE-II

  19. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on Wien filter using in exploring on low-energy radioactive nuclei, memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision, topological charge and topological susceptibility in connection with translation and gauge invariance, solutions of the multitime Dirac equation, the maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description, the charged conductor inside dielectric. Solution of boundary condition by means of auxiliary charges and the method of linear algebraic equations, optical constants of the TGS single crystal irradiated by power pulsed electron beam, interatomic pair potential and n-e amplitude from slow neutron scattering by noble gases, the two-coordinate multiwire proportional chamber of the high spatial resolution and neutron drip line in the region of O-Mg isotopes

  20. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth, solar neutrino results from SAGE, the present and future oscillation experiments at reactors, as well as on the possibilities to test the LSND parameters at reactors, the energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and searches for new physics (recent developments), angular distribution of radiative gamma quanta in radiative beta decay of neutrons, an 37Ar based neutrino source for calibration of the iodine solar neutrino detector, detector LENS as a new tool for solar neutrino spectroscopy, limits on different Majoron decay modes of 100Mo, 116Cd, 82Se, and 96Zr for neutrinoless double beta decays in the NEMO-2 experiment as well as on the search for 76Ge and 150Nd double beta decay to excited states

  1. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116Cd double β decay study with 116CdWO4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40Ca and 46Ca by using low radioactive CaF2(Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0+ and 2+ final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23Na, 127I and 129Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  2. Letter: Blueprint for Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Jeffery

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambily Banerjee's letter was very thought-provoking and expressed the frustration that I think many of us academic mothers feel, in being expected to participate in the academic equivalent of running a marathon with a concrete breeze block strapped to one leg. It's hardly surprising that even the most academically athletic mothers do not make it to the finish line, or, if they do, they find themselves pulling up at the rear. It's also not surprising that many ambitious women with a dislike of failure choose to avoid altogether a competition that is so stacked against them. Indeed, it is a testament to the power of human curiosity (and optimism that so many even decide to try.

  3. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on thermal multifragmentation, nuclear fog and critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, topological and nontopological solutions for the chiral bag model with constituent quarks, comparison of ATLAS tilecal module No. 8 high-precision metrology measurement results obtained by laser (JINR) and photogrammetric (CERN) methods, calibration of the beam polarimeter at the JINR synchrophasotron, anomalous A-, t-dependence and the phase behaviour of partial wave of coherent production of radial state π (1300), about some inverse problems of nuclear physics, the nuclear matter modification at intermediate energies, experimental research of the NN scattering with polarized particles at the VdG accelerator of Charles university. Project 'NN interactions' and the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Scintillation and Cherenkov hodoscopes

  4. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on independent yields of Xe isotopes at photofission of 232Th and 238U, importance of dark matter for LHC physics, the search and study of the resonances in the system of π+π- - mesons from the reaction np → npπ+π- at Pn = 5.20 GeV/c, 'γ + jet' events rate estimation for gluon distribution determination at LHC, extraction of protons with the energy of 35 MeV from the upgraded AIC-144 cyclotron, charge exchange injection for Nuclotron and Nuclotron booster, the effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton spectrum in free neutron β-decay and accelerator and reactor

  5. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the mass spectra of the pseudoscalar mesons in the relativistic independent quark model, CDF silicon vertex tracker: tevatron run II preliminary results, the ''miniskirt' counter array at CDF II, efficiency profile method to study the hit efficiency of drift chambers, resonances in the system of π+π- mesons from np → npπ+π- reaction at Pn = 5.20 GeV/c: search, results of direct observations, interpretation, activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF, on very high multiplicity distributions, automatization of the monitoring and control of the muon scintillation counters at CDF II and study of fast neutron radiation effects in cold moderator materials

  6. Letters of business, letters of friendship : Letter writing in Jane Austen's novels

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The thesis is about the importance of letter writing in Austen s novels. I focus on the following aspects: how the British postal services worked, the letters significance in people s social lives, and the 'rules' and conventions of the art of letter writing. After a historical account of the above-mentioned factors, I will use this background in a literary analysis where I take a closer look at how letter writing influences the plots in the novels; how it is used in character description, a...

  7. LETTER TO EDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Shirani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of aborted thoracopagus conjoined twins is presented. The fetus was the result of pregnancy in a 20-year-old woman (Gravid 1 Para1, who had no history of congenital malformation or exposure to medical or toxic agents.

  8. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the role of the Coulomb distortion in form-factor calculations for 12C with alpha-clusterization and nucleon-nucleon correlations, optimization of a set-up for the investigation of the light-nuclei spin structure at the internal target of the Nuclotron, precessing deuteron polarization, connection of the parameter estimation quality of maximum likelihood and generalized moments, determination of the total energy QEC for 156Ho(T1/2∼56 min)β+/EC decay using the total absorption γ-ray spectrometer, selection of signal events in the DUBTO experiment, a search for the dineutron in the interaction of neutrons with deuterons, tracking performance of the HERA-B outer tracker PC chambers, construction and manufacture of large size straw-chambers of the COMPASS spectrometer tracking system, as well as on the charge form factor and the nucleon momentum distribution of 24He and their centre-of-mass correction

  9. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are contained within a single PostScript or PDF document available at the bottom of this page. Contents On the determination of a period of oscillation P Glaister Department of Mathematics, University of Reading Finding the ratio of the specific heats of gases G Millar 75 Morningside Rd, Edinburgh EH10 4AY Moving frame and the Doppler effect in mechanical waves Murshed Hossain Department of Chemistry and Physics, Rowan College of New Jersey, Glassboro, and Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, USA . The fly and train paradox Don Koks Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Australia Easier A-levels? P C Clark Head of Physics, Oundle School Centripetal acceleration Telford Moore Depute Rector, Hawick High School Curriculum development at 16-19 Bryan R Chapman 16-19 Curriculum Development Officer, Institute of Physics, London A fly on the wall P Litchfield Rochdale, Lancs Motion revealed by a laser Frank Munley Raonoke College, Salem, VA 24153, USA

  10. Letters From Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. Marks

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2006 I returned to Lebanon for a third time. I had lived in Beirut for almost a year in 2002–2003, during which time I fell in love with the city, as so many people do—the generosity, resilience and joie de vivre of so many Lebanese people, the lively artistic scene, the intensity with which so many historical and international forces cross this small country. I built strong friendships then. I returned in 2004, and again in June 2006, this time to study Arabic at the American University of Beirut. On 14 July, in response to Hizballah’s action of taking two Israeli soldiers hostage and shooting across the Lebanese–Israeli border, Israel began an intense bombardment of Lebanese infrastructure, starting with the airport, as well as places where Hizballah supporters lived. A privileged outsider waiting to be evacuated, I was also helpless, afraid, and furious at the pro-Israeli tone of the international media. So I wrote daily letters to family, friends, and a growing email list of interested people. This is an edited version.

  11. Parents’ compliance with specific medical instructions in newborn discharge letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Michael S; Wasserteil, Netanel; Perry, Zvi H; Erlichman, Matti

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to decreased hospital stay, follow-up of unresolved medical problems of babies with uncomplicated postpartum course is relegated to outpatient clinics. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors in discharge letters that influence parent compliance. METHODS: Telephone contact with parents three months after discharge queried compliance with routine and special instructions as written in discharge letters. Statistical analyses compared responses of compliant versus less compliant parents. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The present study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Review Board Committee. RESULTS: Of the 2000 discharge letters, 319 (16%) included special instructions. Parents of 252 infants (79%) who received discharge letters containing 332 special instructions were interviewed by telephone. Compliance was greater for noninvasive instructions (86%) relative to others (57.8%) (P<0.001). Initiation of follow-up visits was correlated with parity (P<0.001) and maternal age (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Discharge letters should be read and discussed with parents before infants are discharged, and the relevance of specific medical instructions should be emphasized. PMID:22131863

  12. Two New Letters by Denning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  13. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    OpenAIRE

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-01-01

    A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subj...

  14. The Style of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the application of Systemic Functional Granunar (SFG) to the analysis of English Business Letters (EBL). With China's opening up to the outside, especially its entrance into WTO, international business is becoming more and more popular. Most of the transactions in international business are discussed in detail through airmail letters, telegrams, telexes, faxes or E-mails.As a world language, English is used widely in the negotiation of international businesses. Writing a piece of effective English Business Letter is of great importance. As a medium between the business partners, EBL affects the interaction and negotiation between them. This article is intended to seek the linguistic characteristics of business letters and prove that the theories of SFG can be used to analyze EBL discourse and they are actually effective.

  15. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  16. A Jubilee Letter In Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ October 20 this year marked the 60th anniversary of the China National Acrobatic Troupe (CNAT).The grand performance,A Family Letter,was held at the Great Hall of the People on October 19 and 20 to celebrate the occasion.The performance,a spectacular award-winning show,depicted the letter of a young acrobatic student to his mother,telling the story of how the nameless acrobatic trainee grew up to be an outstanding artist.

  17. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  18. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  19. A letter to Sylos Labini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Modigliani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The letter, dated 14 September 1956, starts a decade long correspondence between Franco Modigliani and Paolo Sylos Labini. Here Modigliani discusses at length a first draft of Sylos Labini’s book on oligopoly theory. Differently from Modigliani’s well known 1958 review of the book, Modigliani focuses here not mainly on the structure of oligopoly industries, but especially on the macroeconomic implications of Sylos Labini’s model. The letter is reproduced with Sylos Labini’s annotated comments on Modigliani’s remarks.

  20. THE POWER OF LOWERCASE LETTERS IN READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the most superior way of obtaining knowledge is reading. Reading gives direction to the individual's language, cognitive, social skills and future. For this reason, great importance is given to the teaching of reading. The teaching of reading is carried out based on two basic skills including word recognition and comprehension. In the word recognition process, appearance of the letters the shapes of the wordswritten in uppercase or lowercase letters are effective. Brain research reveal that the words written in small letters more quickly recognized and understood. Based on the recognition of words written in capital letters, small letters become stronger and they are recognised easier than the capital letters. For this reason, a text written in small letter is read more quickly than in capital letters. In addition, text in lowercase letters makes to examine all the details of the text, in-depth awareness and understanding. Small letters are in the process of visual recognition, attention, and remember the rule affects reading, seeing, understanding, and accelerates the configuration tasks in mind. This situation makes the use of lowercase letters in advertising. The advertising in small letters and logos were more easily recognized and remembered. Therefore, in order to increase strength of association big companies and brands, are used lowercase letters. In reading activities taking these results into well known and necessary precautions should be taken about lowercase letters.

  1. Letter from Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Some of the ideas of Sigmund Freud were preceded in a literary form by the Swedish writer August Strindberg in the late 19th century. Psychoanalysis itself was introduced in Sweden about a decade into the 20th century by two rivalling pioneers, the doctors Emanuel af Geijerstam and Poul Bjerre. After a slow start, the Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytical Society and the Finnish-Swedish Psychoanalytical Society were formed in 1934 in Stockholm. The same year, Ericastiftelsen [The Erica Foundation], a psychotherapeutic clinic for children, was founded by Hanna Bratt. Five years later, in 1939, also in Stockholm, the organization that was to become St. Lukasstiftelsen [The Saint Luke's Foundation] was founded. It has been, and still is, an association that has trained psychodynamic psychotherapists, with a focus on existential, religious and philosophical questions. Today, St. Luke's tries to be up-dated from an academic standpoint. During the Second World War, several important psychoanalysts came to Sweden, for example René de Monchy, Lajos and Edith Székely, and Stefi Pedersen. Ola Andersson's doctoral dissertation ("Studies in the Prehistory of Psychoanalysis", 1962) and the historian Gunnar Brandell's essay ("Freud, a Man of His Century", 1961) have had an international impact. In the last two decades, an authorized and carefully edited translation of Freud's collected works has been published by Natur och Kultur, and the history of psychoanalysis in Sweden has been written at the University of Gothenburg. As a result of a recent interest in the work of Jacques Lacan, and French psychoanalysis, philosophy and literature, the journal Psykoanalytisk Tid/Skrift was founded in 2002, in Gothenburg. Since 2011 the journal is called Arche. The largest organized group of psychoanalysts in Sweden today is the Swedish Psychoanalytical Association (SPAF), which has around 225 members. Since 2008, it no longer has the right to license psychotherapists, a situation which

  2. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  3. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  4. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  5. A literary commentary on Jerome, Letters 1, 60, 107

    OpenAIRE

    Scourfield, J. H. D.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis consists of a commentary on Jerome, Letters 1, 60, and 107, literary pieces which readily lend themselves to a study of aspects of Jerome's art by the narratio method, and bear witness to his position as a Christian writer with roots in the Classical tradition. It is thus essentially a literary commentary, though matters of text, language, history, theology, and Scriptural exegesis are also discussed where they are of special interest or where such disc...

  6. Letters of Reprimand: The Important Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines two legal cases involving letters of reprimand written by administrators and put in teachers' files. Shows how in these cases the letters did not constitute defamation or a violation of First or Fourteenth Amendment rights. (MD)

  7. How to write an editorial letter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süer, Evren; Yaman, Önder

    2013-09-01

    In most journals, there are letters or answers sections. Letters to the editor are usually a type of short communication that can be written on any topic that attracts the attention of the readers. Although articles are stringently vetted before publication in a journal, some issues can still go unnoticed. In this situation, readers can offer their interpretations by writing a letter to the editor. Thus, letters are also a control mechanism that facilitates progress after an article has been published. One of the most important aspects of a letter to the editor is that it must be short. It is known that a letter is more easily accessible to readers when the message is short and brief. The letter to the editor or author must make reference to objectives or discussions on medical, scientific or general topics that may attract attention. A letter must have a purpose, and it should convey its message in a short and definitive fashion. PMID:26328135

  8. Letter to President [Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Lostwood Wilderness area. The letter discusses the...

  9. The Presentation of Courtesy in Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the tendency of economic globalization in the world brings about increasingly closer international trade cooperation. The business letter has been an important communicative tool in the international trade. A polite business letter could promote the trade and help achieve the business cooperation. Therefore the presentation of courtesy in the business letter is of great significance. This paper presents a study of the courtesy in the business letter from the lexical aspect.

  10. VAGUE LANGUAGE AND BUSINESS ENGLISH LETTER WRITING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYongqiang

    2004-01-01

    It is general practice for business executives to use preciseand accurate language when writing business letters in order toavoid misunderstanding. However, proper use of vague languagein writing letters also enhances the successful conclusion of transactions. This article shows how vague language is exploitedin writing business letters, which ineludes proper expression ofcourtesy, realization of self-protection and embodiment of the“you-attitude”.

  11. Educators' Liability for Negative Letters of Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the protection of "qualified privilege" provided by the law to teachers writing letters of recommendation for students. The letter must be written in good faith and with a belief that it contains no inaccurate information. Reviews some related court decisions and provides seven recommendations for writing such letters. (MD)

  12. History of physical culture as a reflection of social history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Y.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic of the article consists of the letters of the USSR citizens, which are dedicated to some aspects of physical culture development in the years after the World War II. In particular, the situation concerning renewing air sports, airclubs and in general the situation in sport field is described. The author, within the framework of historical hermeneutics, analyses letters and describes the social history of soviet Ukraine through the view of physical culture. In this context physical culture shows as a part of every day history.

  13. Resource Letter Exo-1: Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Perryman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter gives an introduction to the main topics in exoplanet research. It is intended to serve as a guide to the field for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students, both theoretical and experimental, and for workers in other fields of physics and astronomy who wish learn about this new discipline. Topics include historical background, detection methods, host star properties, theories of planet formation and evolution, their interiors and atmospheres, their relationship...

  14. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  15. The Jung-White Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kirsten; Nielsen, Sine Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the correspondence The Jung-White Letters, between psychotherapist C. G. Jung and theologian Victor White. Their correspondence deals mainly with the relationship between religion and science. The report analyses Jung and White's conflict on the subject of evil as understood in the Christian doctrine privatio boni, investigating the underlying epistemological reasoning behind their disagreement. Theologian White is influenced by the Catholic Dominican order, whose phil...

  16. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  17. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-04-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  18. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Waste Not,Want Not I enjoy reading your magazine and was moved by your story about the massive famine in the Horn of Africa in your September issue.Last week I attended a banquet for an outgoing official at a popular restaurant in Beijing.We had many different dishes and after we had finished I noticed how much food remained uneaten on the table.After having read your story I thought about how so much is wasted in one place and so much needed in another.How does that happen? I felt guilty and wanted to do something to help at that moment. I think as people sharing the same planet we must be aware of what goes on

  19. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Peace Bringers I was interested to read about the Kofi Annan Institute for Conflict Transformation playing a positive role in Liberia.This concept of teaching peace and then practically applying that knowledge is an excellent example of how to get to the root issue of conflict.Many people who get into a conflict situation have little or no idea of how to mediate or settle disputes. The idea of someone trained to resolve conflict and keep the peace through working in tribal areas to prevent conflict is far reaching.

  20. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Veggie Dream I was interested to read your articles about vegetarianism(January issue) and how it is catching on in China.I always imagined China to be a meat eating country before. Being vegetarian is very misunderstood by many people.I am a vegetarian and it has taught me to be very tolerant.If I go to any banquet,dinner,buffet,cocktail party,or any other event where food is served,I have learned to always try and eat beforehand or at least carry some of my own snacks.Vegetarians are rarely,if ever,catered for at social events,apart from the odd carrot or celery stick,tucked away in between the moun-

  1. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Stop the Violence I was interested to read your story[Breaking the Code of Silence]in November issue on domestic violence.For some reason I was not aware this issue was a problem in China(my own ignorance) but it seems to be a universal problem. The case for most women is that they are heavily dependent on their abus-

  2. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despicable Acts Images of children starving to death are always disturbing.After reading a report about how food aid is being stolen and then sold on the market in Somalia I was saddened,sickened and outraged at the same time.A news report from Associated Press said that the food reaches the hungry people in the refugee camps and is then being removed from them with threats of violence and sold for profit.What kind of people are these that we share the planet with.What would make someone

  3. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Heroines We are so proud of women and our clean sweep of the Nobel Peace Prize this year.President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf,Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman have been recognized for their outstanding efforts made all the more remarkable in that they function in societies that traditionally repress women.The award also recognizes the peace and security activism and strategic advocacy of the global women’s movement,and of national and local women’s groups,in Africa and the Middle East since the late 1990s.It is this kind of activism that has succeeded in placing issues of gender equal-

  4. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco Problem Your recent cover story 'Tobacco Dilemma" (Issue No.9, March 2, 2006) should not be a dilemma at all. The Chinese Government should just come down very hard on cigarette smoking. It does not make sense to let tobacco smoking proliferate because it enriches government coffers through heftv taxes. Tobacco smokine is an

  5. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Interesting ArticlesThere are many interesting articles in the Aprilissue of China Today, among which I would particu-larly like to mention of "The Unequal Law of FeudalTimes", and "Honest and Upright Official Respectedby the People".

  6. Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenzi M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Martino LaurenziSenior Medical Director, Internal Medicine Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, USAThe article “Optimizing management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the upcoming decade” by Russell et al1 (January edition of the International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease provides an overview of the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and discusses emerging treatment options for managing this disease. I wish to draw your attention to the general information and clinical trial data presented on roflumilast. Several inaccuracies have been noticed in this section as well as in Table 2 of the article.View original paper by Russell and colleagues.

  7. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Stop Abusing Us The recent case of the arrest of Dominique Strauss Kahn,the once powerful managing director of the International Monetary Fund(IMF) and France’s presidential hopeful,being charged as an alleged sex offender - he is waiting for trial for allegedly sexually assaulting and attempting to rape a chambermaid in Sofitel Hotel in Manhattan on May 14,2011-once again brings into public focus the issue of abuse agaisnt women.

  8. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Female Farmers Zambian female farming groups are very happy to hear the news that the government has launched a $500,000 Sustainable Livelihood and Women Empowerment Project. Poor women farmer groups will now at least have some opportunity of getting financial help as well as help with new technology.We women farmers will also get help with training and livestock resources.The project is said to support 1,900 households and is in part of the process toward meeting the millennium goals.

  9. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Votes Mean Little Thanks for your magazine, which I got a copy from my friend at the embassy. We are all becoming fed up with the constant image of Africa resorting to volience after each election or regime change. Cote d’Ivoire, Libya, now Nigeria. We are so steeped in tribalism that it is almost impossible for any election to end peacefully with one side accepting defeat.

  10. 38 CFR 17.804 - Loan approval criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan approval criteria... Transitional Housing Loan Program § 17.804 Loan approval criteria. Upon consideration of the application package, loan approval will be based on the following: (a) Favorable financial history and status, (1)...

  11. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    OpenAIRE

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense competes with bluetooth. Compared to bluetooth, NFC: ● Requires the devices to be really close (less than 4cm) ● Does not require the devices to pair before communicating We applied the Android Beam ...

  12. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  14. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  15. Resource letter for Accelerated Matter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This resource letter covers diverse literature(400 titles) relevant to the Accelerated Matter Program in the Particles and Fields Group at the University of Melbourne. Specifically, the research areas covered are: inertia induced electric fields in accelerated matter; strain induced contact potentials; the patch effect/surface potentials. There are no claims made for completeness. The areas of gravity, acceleration and strain induced effects in matter, and drift tube experiments with matter/antimatter are extensively covered, if not complete. The literature on acceleration/inertia induced effects in metals has a long history dating back to the 19th century and the reader is referred to the review by Barnett (1935) for an extensive list of references not included here. All other work following this 1935 review, has been included here. The literature on surface physics is very extensive and no attempt has been made to cover it all. Every major paper on metal surfaces has been cited. Several other references have been included which fall only loosely into the above areas and they represent useful and/or interesting material for this research program

  16. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science. PMID:26915234

  17. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  18. On Becoming a Doctor of Humane Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble Md, Curt

    2016-01-01

    In an era of rapid, cheap, and efficient electronic communication, the practice-and art-of letter writing has faded. There are many reasons for us as physicians and surgeons to resist this evolution. And, there are many opportunities to employ letter writing to the benefit of ourselves, our patients, and our colleagues. A true Doctor of Humane Letters is an honorary degree, generally awarded for significant contributions to society.  However, given that humane can be defined as showing compassion, understanding, mercy, and tolerance, we can all strive to be worthy of such a distinction. There are many mundane letters familiar to us all, such as letters of recommendation, letters of thanks, and letters of commendation. However, I would like to offer some suggestions about other less common, but useful, types of letters that might prove valuable to physicians both in training and in practice. These include letters of inquiry, condolence, reflection, and explanation, as well as some notes about missives that are often best written but not sent. PMID:27585190

  19. Letter perception: from item-level ERPs to computational models

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Arnaud; Dufau, Stéphane; Massol, Stéphanie; Grainger, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, online measures of letter identification were used to test computational models of letter perception. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to letters and pseudo-letters revealing a transition from feature analysis to letter identification in the 100-200 ms time window. Measures indexing this transition were then computed at the level of individual letters. Simulations with several versions of an interactive-activation model of letter perception were fitted with ...

  20. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  1. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Arranon (Nelarabine) Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi ...

  2. Resource Letter BSSMF-1: Biological Sensing of Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the effects of static (time-invariant) magnetic fields B on life, concentrating on how selected creatures sense/detect B. Journal articles, books, and previous and future electronically accessible media are cited for the following topics: history, the magnetic sensing/detection of B by creatures from bacteria to bugworms to butterflies to bees to birds to bats to bovines to beings (human), some of the mechanisms of effects at the developmental and cellular levels, experimental pitfalls, claimed healing effects of B, some medical uses of magnets, and cosmetics. The field presents a fascinating, evolving saga.

  3. Feminist Criticism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林; 何志燕

    2007-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great book. Through feminist criticism we can get how The Scarlet Letter may be read as dramatizing Hester Prynne's spiritual and physical struggle to survive as an individual in a society whose values authorize the privileged power of men.

  4. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  5. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    Letter from Birmingham Jail” is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  6. Letter Cuing in Oral Translation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Dwight E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a method of vocabulary prompting where the initial letter of each word in a phrase serves as a cue. Vocabulary recall is often difficult, but if the instructor uses whole words or phrases for cuing this leads to loss of creative effort from students. Letter cuing is a compromise between no help and too much help. (TL)

  7. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  8. Does the Cover Letter Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-08-01

    Many journals require a covering letter alongside the submission process. Some of them, particularly elitist journals, pay a particular attention to the cover letter to such extent an editor may decide not to send a paper out for external peer-review because of a 'bad' or absence of a covering letter. As stated in the instructions of many journals, the goal of the covering letter is to emphasize the novelty and to communicate the potential implications of the reported findings. Authors are also invited to tell the handling editor how the topic is related to the journal's scope and to demonstrate how the results fit in broader context of the literature. Here, I briefly discuss if the cover letter is really necessary. PMID:24839946

  9. (Extra)Ordinary letters. A view from below on seventeenth-century Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobels, Judith Maria Petrus

    2013-01-01

    In the National Archives in Kew, London, a treasure is kept which is of great importance for the history of the Dutch language: a collection of seventeenth-century letters written by men and women from various social backgrounds. Given the fact that much of the linguistic research of seventeenth-cen

  10. Differences between English and Chinese Sales Promotion Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to figure out the differences in English and Chinese sales promotion letters by analyzing ten selected letters from business writing books and websites, which might provide more valuable information for businessmen in their sales promotion letter writing.

  11. Statistical mechanics of letters in words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Greg J.; Bialek, William

    2010-06-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ˜92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even “discovering” words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ˜68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  12. Alphabetical: How Every Letter Tells a Story

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    From minding your Ps and Qs to wondering why X should mark the spot, Alphabetical is a book for everyone who loves words and language. Whether it's how letters are arranged on keyboards or Viking runes, textspeak or zip codes, this book will change the way you think about letters for ever. How on Earth did we fix upon our twenty-six letters, what do they really mean, and how did we come to write them down in the first place? Michael Rosen takes you on an unforgettable adventure through the hi...

  13. A letter to Georg Kneer: replik

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, A.

    2010-01-01

    In answer to the text written by Dr. Georg Kneer, below you find a letter that I address to him. It is a polite letter, as the genre requires. But it is not a nice letter. Because Kneer is so blandly judgemental, no, worse, scathing in his text, he left me with few options. I had to fight back. And so I do. Thus, I point out that in his contribution Kneer does not discuss my text, nor, for that matter, any other version of Actor Network Theory, as he was asked to do, but, instead, dismisses t...

  14. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    OpenAIRE

    ThomasLachmann; Ceesvan Leeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE) seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter ite...

  15. Letters in the forest: global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lachmann, Thomas; Schmitt, Andreas; BRAET, WOUTER; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Normally skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known global precedence effect (GPE) seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter ite...

  16. COMPARISON OF THE BUBSECQ LETTERS AND ARİFİ SULEYMANNAME DEPICTIONS: KANUNİ PERIOD OTTOMAN CULTURE AND ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Burcu TEKİN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Letters of Busbecq who served as ambassador of Habsburg Empire during reign of Suleyman the Magnificent and pictures of Süleymanname manuscript written by Arifi will be analyzed comparatively. Busbecq letters report the reign of Kanuni during 1555-1562. Süleymanname narrates event during 1520-1555. Sections chosen from Busbecq narratives were analyzed in the sense of culture and art history together with depictions from Süleymanname.

  17. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Letter to President [Valentine National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness area....

  19. Open letter to children going to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of things you should know and which I will explain in this small letter. To learn what you should do in school, and what you should ask them, their teachers and classmates.

  20. On the Commercial Features of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬娜

    2008-01-01

    Effective business communication is the"lifeblood"of every organization and a key to success in your business career. Generally,each trade or each business achieves an agreement and then draws up a contract after buyer and seller exchange business letter. Thus,a successful business letter is one of the most personal method to promote a business career. The paper informs how to write suc-cessful correspondence.

  1. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition. PMID:25386702

  2. How to Write a Letter of Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, George

    2005-01-01

    Letters of recommendation for students are never easy to write. All faculty feel charged with telling the truth, but they also feel compelled to go over the top far enough that the student won't seem damned with faint praise. And, as with grade point averages, the top gets higher every year. Is it possible to write too positive a letter anymore?…

  3. Letter to the Editor: Robert W. Evans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-12-01

    I read the Letters page of the latest issue of the JBAA (2000 October) with some amusement. My very good friend Bob Evans had, according to the letter header, not only been elevated to the clergy, but had also transferred his nationality from Kiwi to Aussie. While he'll probably overlook the religious error he may not be so sanguine about being mistaken for an Australian.

  4. Eastwood's Iwo Jima:Critical Engagements With Flags of Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The anthology Eastwood's Iwo Jima has 14 articles by 13 authors, all about his two war films, Flag of Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima (both 2006).With Flags of Our Fathers (2006) and Letters from Iwo Jima (2006), Clint Eastwood made a unique contribution to film history, being the first director to make two films about the same event. Eastwood's films examine the battle over Iwo Jima from two nations' perspectives, in two languages, and embody a passionate view on conflict, enemies, and...

  5. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  6. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  7. Post-Approval Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH Post-Approval Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated as a condition of approval of a...

  8. 28 CFR 20.23 - Documentation: Approval by OJARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation: Approval by OJARS. 20.23 Section 20.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.23 Documentation: Approval by OJARS. Within...

  9. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  10. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  11. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    efforts to write such letters by 21 NSE and 23 NNSE non-professionals (British undergraduates and overseas English teachers). The results showed that the non-native professionals by and large perceived the rhetorical demands of the situation similarly to native professionals but were a little less likely...... to use appropriate language. The native non-professionals controlled some appropriate phrases, and were able to use appropriate vocabulary, but had very little idea of the rhetoric, while the non-native non-professionals produced grammatically competent letters that were inappropriate in both...

  12. Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2008-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

  13. Lexically guided retuning of letter perception

    OpenAIRE

    D. Norris; Butterfield, S.; McQueen, J; Cutler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Participants made visual lexical decisions to upper-case words and nonwords, and then categorized an ambiguous N–H letter continuum. The lexical decision phase included different exposure conditions: Some participants saw an ambiguous letter “?”, midway between N and H, in N-biased lexical contexts (e.g., REIG?), plus words with unambiguousH(e.g., WEIGH); others saw the reverse (e.g., WEIG?, REIGN). The first group categorized more of the test continuum as N than did the second group. Control...

  14. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  15. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  16. 77 FR 74168 - Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History AGENCY... information collection, OMB 0596- 0084, Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History. The... Corps Application and Medical History. OMB Number: 0596-0084. Expiration Date of Approval:...

  17. Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2011-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the great writers in the nineteenth century America. Since it was published in the year of 1850, it has been reread in the circle of literary criticism..In the book, Hawthorne Portrays H

  18. Sellafield paternal cases. Letter to the editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief letter points out that with regard to the Sellafield paternal irradiation cases, such legal proceedings can be little more than a costly charade if the dosimetry or radiobiology on which they rest is out of date, incomplete or lacks pertinence. (UK)

  19. An Open Letter to Lynn's Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Anne Q.

    1987-01-01

    In a letter to her six-year-old's kindergarten teacher, a parent discusses the child's (who has cerebral palsy) use of communication devices for expressive language and ways in which the teacher can help the child adjust and learn in such areas as "wait time," spontaneous conversation, and peer relationships. (CB)

  20. Researches Made on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舫

    2011-01-01

    Being the first American native novel,a great number of researches have been made on The Scarlet Letter.This paper collects some popular researches that have been made on this novel and classifies them into five perspectives --- romance,symbolism,Puritanism,feminism and psychoanalysis.

  1. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK)

  2. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  3. Resource Letter CF-1: Casimir Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamoreaux, S.K. [University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division P-23, M.S. H803, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This resource letter provides an introductory guide to the literature on the Casimir force. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: introductory articles and books, calculations, dynamical Casimir effect, mechanical analogs, applications, and experiments. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers.}

  4. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto, A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  5. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  6. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from http://www.medicine20congre

  7. Introduction to Literary Criticism: "The Scarlet Letter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This course seeks to provide high school students the opportunity to sharpen their critical thinking skills and use of language through acquaintance with some ideas of literary criticism. The course features Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," assuming that the students have just finished reading that American classic novel. The course…

  8. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  9. Bohmian Histories and Decoherent Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories -- sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their ...

  10. More New Medication Approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved many new drugs for treating a wide variety of patient health problems. In a previous article, examples of approvals for the early part of last year were addressed. In this article, selected new FDA approvals through January 2016 are discussed. Nurses who are knowledgeable and informed about these new drugs will be able to answer patients' questions, clarify misunderstandings, and reduce the potential for medication misadventures. PMID:27441881

  11. A Man of Letters and the Economy - Enzensbergers Views and Understanding of Utopias, Capitalism and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Starbatty

    2004-01-01

    Though men of letters have a strong impact on public opinion and articulate strong judgments on their economic environment, economic evaluations of those reflections are rather rare. This article analyses the essays of Hans Magnus Enzensberger. It is shown that one cannot distinguish between Marx as the analyst of global capitalism and Marx as the prophet of a new world, as Enzensberger believes. Marx's understanding of the capitalist world is developed from his deterministic view of history....

  12. Event Related Potentials Reveal Early Phonological and Orthographic Processing of Single Letters in Letter-Detection and Letter-Rhyme Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Sewon A.; Herdman, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300 ms) orthographic and phonological processing of letters. Methods: Fifteen participants aged 20–35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID) and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme) tasks. From the EEG recordings, event related potential (ERP) differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP) for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioral: Reaction times were 18 ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27 ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean evoked potentials (EPs) showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160–600 ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145 ms and 426 ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks. Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters vs. pseudoletters between 130–190 ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters. PMID:27148023

  13. Reviews of ASME Section XI pump and valve relief requests post Generic Letter 89-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a discussion of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Pump and Valve Inservice Testing relief request reviews by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and their contractors. Topics discussed include the scope of NRC reviews in Technical Evaluation Reports and Safety Evaluations, including the basis for granting relief requests, the status of relief requests in Inservice Testing (IST) Program updates, and the Generic Letter 89-04 approval process; and the level of technical detail required in submitted programs. This presentation is based on the experiences of Brookhaven National Laboratory in reviewing IST Programs for the Mechanical Engineering Branch of the NRC

  14. Letter to President [Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Cedar Island Wilderness area. The letter...

  15. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  16. [Draft letter to President: White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a draft letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the White River Wilderness area. The letter...

  17. "I would eagerly leave Neuchâtel ..." A 1912 letter by Jean Piaget with an introduction and notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, F

    1986-01-01

    A 1912 letter from fifteen-year-old Jean Piaget (1896-1980) to the director of the Museum of Natural History of Geneva illustrates Piaget's precocious integration into a community of professional naturalists, and reveals his hitherto unknown plan to study medicine. It is not certain whether he actually intended to realize that plan. An essential biographical fact, however, is that he finally left natural history by turning to philosophy rather than to medicine. PMID:11608771

  18. 76 FR 61062 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver,'' 76 FR 41731, at 41734 (July 15, 2011). \\2\\ By letter dated.... See 61 FR 3578 (February 1, 1996). MCAQDM's stage I vapor recovery program and related rule are not... provisions in the Arizona SIP? On November 1, 1994 (59 FR 54521), we approved Arizona's stage II...

  19. 77 FR 35279 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...'s Submittal On October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61062), we proposed to approve a revision to the Arizona State... FR 41731, at 41734 (July 15, 2011). \\2\\ By letter dated April 12, 2011, ADEQ substituted the statutes.... See 61 FR 3578 (February 1, 1996). MCAQDM's stage I vapor recovery program and related rule are...

  20. Comparison of the Commercial and Standby Letter of Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Homayoun Mafi; Ahmad Ali Mohsenzadeh

    2015-01-01

    The Letter of credit as a method of smoothing international payment is a conditional security and obligation to pay the customer bank (issuing bank) to seller (applicant). For this purpose, the letters of credit may be considered as the most usual method of payment of goods price in international trade. The classic form of letters of credit is the commercial letters of credit whose financial obligation is rooted in the documents that demonstrates the making of transaction by the beneficiary a...

  1. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  2. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  3. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  4. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Gosseye; F. Blom; A. Leerintveld

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend w

  5. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average…

  6. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  7. Who is Teaching the History of Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Kenneth G.; DeLoach, Will S.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into how the history of chemistry is being taught in colleges and universities. Results indicate that courses on the history of chemistry are hardly ever required of chemistry majors, and they are offered in only 10 percent of American Chemical Society approved chemistry departments. (TW)

  8. Osterc's letters to Milojević

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence between two of the most important composers in Yugoslavia during the period between the two world wars: Miloje Milojević (1884-1946, a Serb living in Belgrade, and Slavko Osterc (1895-1946, Slovene living in Ljubljana, gives us valuable insight into their musical aspirations ambitions, relations to other colleagues, the functioning of musical institutions and the cultural and even political climate of the times. The stylistic features of their works are basically different, Milojević being a modernist with late romantic roots, while Osterc was inclined to objectivity of the neoclassical and "constructive expressionist type. The main topics of their correspondence include: the activities of the Yugoslav section of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in which they were very much involved, and the efforts they made to have their works performed both in the country and abroad. Milojević and Osterc maintained very good relations throughout the period covered by this exchange of letters, that is from 1933-1941 (Osterc's last letter was sent three months before his death in May 1941 and their correspondence provides evidence of several instances of the mutual generosity, as they helped each other in their careers. The portion of this correspondence that is kept in Ljubljana - Milojević's letters to Osterc - has already been published and analyzed by Dragotin Cvetko. As such, the edition of the remaining correspondence, Osterc's letters to Milojević, that is kept in the private archive of Milojević's grandson Vlastimir Trajković in Belgrade, completes the picture. The language Osterc used was his mother tongue, Slovenian, with "borrowings" from the Serbian, the result being an often amusing mixture of the two.

  9. The Washakie Letters of Willie Ottogary

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Matthew E.

    2000-01-01

    Writings by American Indians from the early twentieth century or earlier are rare. Willie Ottogary's letters have the distinction of being firsthand reports of an Indian community's ongoing social life by a community member and leader. The Northwestern Shoshone residing at the Washakie colony in northern Utah descended from survivors of the Bear River Massacre. Most had converted to the Mormon Church and remained in northern Utah rather than moving to a federal Indian reservation. For over tw...

  10. Parent and Child References to Letters during Alphabet Book Reading: Relations to Child Age and Letter Name Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, William; Zevenbergen, Andrea; Zevenbergen, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of extratextual references to letters made by parents and preschoolers during shared reading of an alphabet book. The frequency of letter references was also examined in relation to child age and knowledge of letter names. Participants consisted of 44 preschoolers and their…

  11. LEXICAL PHRASEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH BUSINESS LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoruchko I. S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of international cooperation has promoted the updating of problems connected with business communication effectiveness. These problems are very crucial, because their solution may predetermine the collaboration success of business partners. The integral part of this success is the efficiency of the exchange of textual information. Nowadays the main information exchange method in modern business relations is business correspondence in English; therefore, its research makes an important contribution to the solution of the pressing problem connected with the achievement of some goals in business. In the article, we analyze both general and specific linguistic features of English business letters, which differ them from texts of other fields of human activity. A special attention is paid to the question of the content and presence degree of lexicological and phraseological units in English business letters. In the end the author comes to the conclusion that business communication is considered effective if it contributes to the mutual understanding of partners with the help of the most optimal means. The analysis of practical material showed that these means could be lexicological and phraseological units. The correct choice of these units helps with the formation of those features of a business letter, which would make it effective

  12. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) Becenum ( ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) Becenum ( ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  16. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  17. Mental rotation of letters and shapes in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiak, Patrycja; Lachmann, Thomas; Jaskowski, Piotr; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2007-01-01

    Extending the work of Corballis et al (1985, Cortex 21 225-236), we investigated mental rotation of letters (experiment 1), and of letters and shapes (experiment 2) in normal readers and developmental dyslexics. Whereas the overall response times were equal for shapes in both groups, for letters they were slower in dyslexics. For letters as well as for shapes, however, the same mental-rotation effects were obtained between the groups. The results are interpreted as support for the notion of developmental dyslexia as a deficit in functional coordination between graphemic and phonological letter representations. PMID:17564205

  18. The time course of visual influences in letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Sylvain; Le Goff, Kévin; Riès, Stéphanie K; Legou, Thierry; Rousselet, Guillaume; Courrieu, Pierre; Alario, F-Xavier; Grainger, Jonathan; Rey, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    This study builds on a specific characteristic of letters of the Roman alphabet-namely, that each letter name is associated with two visual formats, corresponding to their uppercase and lowercase versions. Participants had to read aloud the names of single letters, and event-related potentials (ERPs) for six pairs of visually dissimilar upper- and lowercase letters were recorded. Assuming that the end product of processing is the same for upper- and lowercase letters sharing the same vocal response, ERPs were compared backward, starting from the onset of articulatory responses, and the first significant divergence was observed 120 ms before response onset. Given that naming responses were produced at around 414 ms, on average, these results suggest that letter processing is influenced by visual information until 294 ms after stimulus onset. This therefore provides new empirical evidence regarding the time course and interactive nature of visual letter perception processes. PMID:26742753

  19. US PRESIDENT L.B. JOHNSON’S LETTER OF 1964 AND ITS IMPACT ON TURKISH PUBLIC OPINION

    OpenAIRE

    Murat ERDEM

    2014-01-01

    In its 50th year of a major break in the history of Turkish-American relations, US President L.B.Johnson’s Letter of 1964 to Turkish Republic still exists as a reference for academic and political studies in the field. This article aims at analyzing Johnson’s Letter of 1964 and its perception by the Turkish public opinion as reflected in newspapers of the period as well as the debate between the political parties and intellectuals regarding the confidentiality of state and autonomy in foreign...

  20. Schumpeter and the History of Economic Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Schumpeter's The History of Economic Analysis, is a tour de force of scholarship. The display of erudition is truly unbelievable. How may one man and then digested have acquired much knowledge? Not only does the History offer two thousand years of economics, from Aristotle to Paul Samuelson, But also, it expertly almost ranges over all the other social sciences, history and belles letters as well. For more that 1,100 pages on the prose flows in a way That one has come to expect from Schumpete...

  1. Referral letter: evaluation of quality of communication between Primary Health Care and Otolaryngology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelegrín-Hernández JP, Hernández-Cervantes AE, Estevez-Monción A, Hellín-Meseguer D, Amorós-Rodriguez LM.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Referral letter, is a fundamental tool in the link between Primary Care and second care level. So the main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of this document on Otolaryngology Department as a high demand specialty. For this purpose, we conducted a prospective, descriptive and observational study, which analyzed all referral letter sent it from Primary Health Care Centers for a month, and used quality criteria previously defined by Izabal et al.The study included 144 referral letters, which 40.3% were male and 59.7% women, mean age was 50 years. In reference to the quality level, we found that 77.1%, was acceptable, 13.9% good and 9% poor. Regarding compliance with quality criteria, we were found very different results, appearing as readability parameters and current condition in a high number of psychiatric liaison, against personal history and physical exam came barely reflected. In conclusion we can say, there are an improvement can be done, mainly in the sections on physical examination and medical history. To achieve this goal is important and appropriate to develop a referral guide, which clearly establishes the guidelines to follow in the referral patient process.

  2. Premarket Approvals (PMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Premarket approval by FDA is the required process of scientific review to ensure the safety and effectiveness of all devices classified as Class III devices. An...

  3. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome (Dacarbazine) IL-2 (Aldesleukin) Imlygic (Talimogene Laherparepvec) Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) Intron A ( ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North...

  7. Letters to Solovine 1906-1955

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A provocative collection of letters to his longtime friend and translator that spans Einstein's career and reveals the inner thoughts and daily life of a transformative genius From their early days as tutor and scholar, discussing philosophy over Spartan dinners, to their work together to publish Einstein's books in Europe, in Maurice Solovine Einstein found both an engaged mind and a loyal friend. While Einstein frequently shared his observations on science, politics, philosophy, and religion in his correspondence with Solovine, he was just as likely to express his feelings about everyday l

  8. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and furnish mortgagees... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management... charges or credits to such accounts; and (5) Whether RUS approval was obtained for the sale, lease...

  9. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  10. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ''next generation'' melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area

  11. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  12. Politeness Principle in the Translation of Business Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As the primary form of business communication, business letters play an indispensable role in business activities and contribute considerably to the rapid development of international trade and business. Therefore, the translation of business letters seems critical to the successful communication. Business letters are very formal writing and they observe politeness principle strictly in order to maintain and enhance a good rapport with business partners. So the translation of them needs to co...

  13. O Gênero Epistolar na Antiguidade: a importância das Cartas de Cipriano para a História do Cristianismo Norte Africano (século III d.C. * The Epistolary Genre in Antiquity: the importance of Letters of Cyprian for North African History of Christianity...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLLINE DA SILVA SOARES

    2014-01-01

    during the third century, at which Christian belief is yet considered a religio illicita.Keywords: Christianity – Cyprian – Letters – Christians – North Africa.

  14. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  15. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  16. Resource letter MENP-1: Medium energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepared at the request of the AAPT Editorial Board for Resource Letters. This is one of a series of Resource Letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course contents in specified fields. No Resource Letter is meant to be exhaustive and complete; in time there may be more than one letter on some of the main subjects of interest. Comments on these materials as well as suggestions for future topics will be welcomed. Please send such communications to Professor Aaron Owens, Editor, Resource Letter Board, Department of Physics, Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, Illinois 60045. Notation: The letter E after an item number indicates elementary level; the letter I indicates intermediate level; and the letter A indicates advanced material. An asterisk (*) indicates those references we feel to be especially helpful. Reprints: When ordering, request Resource Letter MENP-1. Enclose 50 cents per copy (not in stamps) together with a stamped and self-addressed envelope and send to Arnold A. Strassenburg, Executive Officer, American Association of Physics Teachers, Graduate Physics Building, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794. (U.S.)

  17. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn

    2002-11-01

    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill. PMID:12623449

  18. Noise masking reveals channels for second-order letters

    OpenAIRE

    Oruç, İpek; Landy, Michael S.; Pelli, Denis G.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the channels underlying identification of second-order letters using a critical-band masking paradigm. We find that observers use a single 1–1.5 octave-wide channel for this task. This channel’s best spatial frequency (c/letter) did not change across different noise conditions (indicating the inability of observers to switch channels to improve signal-to-noise ratio) or across different letter sizes (indicating scale invariance), for a fixed carrier frequency (c/letter). Howeve...

  19. Assessment of the Readability of Genetic Counseling Patient Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily; Skinner, Megan; Ashley, Stephanie; Reed, Kate; Dixon, Shannan DeLany

    2016-06-01

    Patient letters are a powerful tool that genetic counselors use to communicate with their patients. Patient letters are often sent to provide information on a new diagnosis, reiterate test results, and to serve as a permanent record of the visit. Patient letters, however, are only helpful if the patients can understand them. More than 50 % of the US population reads below a 9th grade reading level and over one-third of the population has low health literacy skills. In this study we evaluate the readability of genetic counseling patient letters by assessing reading level, image use, and terminology use. One hundred forty-nine genetic counselors participated in the survey and of these, 79 submitted a sample patient letter. Analyses of the letters revealed a mean reading level of 10.93. On average, 6 genetic terms were included in each letter, and only 25 % of these terms were defined. Analyses of survey responses revealed over 75 % of the genetic counselors did not include images in their patient letters. These results indicate there is room for improvement in order to make genetic counseling patient letters more accessible to the general population. PMID:26416185

  20. Brodalumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-09-01

    Brodalumab (Lumicef(®)) is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody that is being developed by Kyowa Hakko Kirin in Japan, where it has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. Brodalumab binds with high affinity to interleukin (IL)-17 receptor A, thereby inhibiting several pro-inflammatory cytokines from the IL-17 family. Regulatory applications for brodalumab in plaque psoriasis are also under review in the USA, EU and Canada. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of brodalumab leading to this first approval for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27577550

  1. 77 FR 67851 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To.... 67592 (August 3, 2012), 77 FR 47681 (``Notice''). \\5\\ See Letter to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary... basis. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 49068 (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2775 (January 20,...

  2. Original Sin in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2012-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,a representative work of Nathaniel Hawthorne,is a classical novel in American literature of 19th century.It vividly portrays people's life which was greatly influenced by Puritanism and Calvinism.And the author Nathaniel Hawthorne,who lived in that er-a,is also inevitably influenced by these mainstream thoughts.He ex-pressed his black romanticism,black view of human nature and original sin theory in almost each of his work.In his masterpiece,the Scarlet Let-ter,one important theme is original sin.This essay will first analyze where the original sin theory stems from and how it's developed by Hawthorne,and secondly will study how this theory influences the plot and major characters.

  3. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  4. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  5. Venetoclax: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-06-01

    Venetoclax (Venclexta™) is an oral selective inhibitor of the prosurvival protein BCL-2 and therefore restores the apoptotic ability of malignant cells. The drug arose from research by Abbott Laboratories (now AbbVie) during a collaboration with Genentech and is being co-developed by AbbVie and Genentech/Roche primarily for the treatment of haematological malignancies. Venetoclax is approved in the USA for use as monotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) with the 17p deletion (as detected by an approved FDA test) who have received at least one prior therapy, and is awaiting approval for similar indications in the EU and Canada. Venetoclax is also in phase I-III development as combination therapy for CLL, phase I/II development as monotherapy and/or combination therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma) and acute myeloid leukaemia, and phase I development for multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus and breast cancer. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of venetoclax leading to this first approval for CLL. PMID:27260335

  6. FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FDA is the abbreviation of American Food and Drug Administration. It s main job is assuring the safety and reliability of the food, cosmetics, medicines, medical devices and radiation emitting products such as microwave oven, the food and medicine for animals. Radiopharmaceuticals are also under its management. The basic information of FDA and FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals are introduced

  7. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  8. Cortical Effects of Shifting Letter Position in Letter Strings of Varying Length

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Piers; Tarkiainen, Antti; Helenius, Päivi; Salmelin, Riitta

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that occipitotemporal brain areas play a necessary role in recognizing a wide variety of objects, be they faces, letters, numbers, or household items. However, many questions remain regarding the details of exactly what kinds of information are processed by the occipito-temporal cortex. Here, we address this question with respect to reading. Ten healthy adult subjects performed a single word reading task. We used whole-head magnetoencephalography to mea...

  9. An Approach to the Humanity of the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Feng; Wang qingping

    2009-01-01

    "The Scarlet Letter"is Hawthorne's realist representative.In his masterpiece the Scarlet letter.Hawthorne tells us that all human beings are combination of goodness and evil.As human nature changes between goodness and evil,the science mastered by human beings may bring happiness or pains.

  10. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  11. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  12. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a... that date. See, however, § 177.10(e) (changes of practice published in the Federal Register) and §...

  13. Vamos a Jugar con Letras (Let's Play with Letters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This Spanish language workbook is intended to help elementary school children learn the Spanish alphabet. Each page presents a letter of the alphabet, a number of Spanish words beginning with that letter, and pen and ink drawings illustrating some of the words. The drawings are suitable for coloring. (AMH)

  14. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  15. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Colizoli; J.M.J. Murre; R. Rouw

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typ

  16. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. This letter of credit is effective as of and shall expire on , but... credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 280.99(b) as such regulations were constituted on... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of credit. 280.99 Section...

  17. Positioning Resumes and Cover Letters as Reflective-Reflexive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Chalice

    2012-01-01

    Although the resume and cover letter genre is widely discussed in both popular and scholarly publications, discussion thus far has failed to acknowledge that the process of creating a resume and cover letter has the potential for encouraging students' reflective and reflexive capacities. This article suggests that business communication educators…

  18. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the...... decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures....

  19. The Effect of Bipolar Mood Disorder on Sadegh Hedayat's Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeelpour, Elmira; Sasani, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies linguistic characteristics of bipolar mood disorder in Sadegh Hedayat's letters. It attempts to explore the possibility of diagnosing bipolar disorder through qualitative analysis of text. The personal letters of Iranian author Sadegh Hedayat addressed to Shahid Nouraie are studied. The addressee is fixed to reduce effective factors, including linguistic differences among different registers and styles. Therefore, interpersonal variation is also neutralized. Letters are chosen to reduce the potential effects of aesthetic manipulation used in the author's narratives and published works. To analyze the data, semantic fields used in the letters are studied, and to find any instance of pressured speech and poverty of speech, topical shifts and moves are analyzed as well. Linguistic study of each letter reveals that different types of bipolar mood episodes (i.e., hypomanic, depressed, euthymic and mixed) can be diagnosed with this methodology. Other semantic criteria are explored, including themes of humiliation and ridicule. PMID:25708966

  20. CURRENT CONDITIONS OF INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN AZERBAIJAN
    AZERBAYCAN’DAKİ ARAP HARFLİ YAZITLARIN BUGÜNKÜ DURUMU

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz ALYILMAZ

    2011-01-01

    The territory within the boundaries of Azerbaijan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The case in territories contain many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions with Arabic letters found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places, manuscripts, coins, knick-knacks and belong...

  1. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  2. Cariprazine: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    Cariprazine (Vraylar) is an oral atypical antipsychotic originated by Gedeon Richter. It is a potent dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, which preferentially binds to the D3 receptor. Cariprazine also has partial agonist activity at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. In September 2015, cariprazine received its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of schizophrenia and for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. It is also in development in a variety of countries for the treatment of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms (phase III), as adjunctive therapy for major depressive disorder (phase II/III) and for the treatment of bipolar depression (phase II). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of cariprazine leading to this first approval for schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. PMID:26510944

  3. Obiltoxaximab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-05-01

    Obiltoxaximab (Anthim(®), ETI-204) is a monoclonal antibody that is being developed by Elusys Therapeutics and the US Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority for the prevention and treatment of inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab has been designed to neutralize the free protective antigen of B. anthracis, thereby inhibiting the lethal effects of anthrax toxins. In March 2016, intravenous obiltoxaximab was approved in the USA for the treatment (in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs) and prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax. Obiltoxaximab is being developed under the US FDA Animal Rule, in which marketing approval is based on its efficacy in relevant animal models and safety in phase I studies in healthy human volunteers. An intramuscular formulation of obiltoxaximab has also been evaluated in animal studies and a phase I study in healthy human volunteers. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of obiltoxaximab leading to this first approval for the treatment and prevention of inhalation anthrax. PMID:27085536

  4. Osimertinib: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Sarah L

    2016-02-01

    Osimertinib (Tagrisso(™), AZD9291) is an oral, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) that is being developed by AstraZeneca for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Osimertinib has been designed to target the EGFR T790M mutation that is often present in NSCLC patients with acquired EGFR TKI resistance, while sparing wild-type EGFR. In November 2015, the tablet formulation of osimertinib was granted accelerated approval in the USA for the treatment of patients with metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC (as detected by an FDA-approved test) who have progressed on or after EGFR TKI therapy. Osimertinib has also been granted accelerated assessment status for this indication in the EU, and is in phase III development for first- and second-line and adjuvant treatment of advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC in several countries. Phase I trials in patients with advanced solid tumours are also being conducted. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of osimertinib leading to this first approval for NSCLC. PMID:26729184

  5. Gilles vs Pugh and the lost letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, J D

    2009-07-01

    In June 1842 the wife of Lewis W Gilles, a banker in Launceston, wrote to Mrs Pugh, inviting her and her husband, Mr William Russ Pugh, to an entertainment and ball. The Pughs neither responded to the invitation, nor attended the ball. Mrs Gilles mentioned the discourtesy of their non-attendance to a friend, who the following morning brought the complaint to the attention of Dr Pugh. Pugh immediately wrote a brief note explaining that neither he nor his wife had received the invitation. Further correspondence between Gilles and Pugh ensued, becoming more and more bitter until Pugh publicly insulted Gilles. The Launceston Club, of which both men were members, ultimately became a casualty of the dispute and was dissolved. A Supreme Court defamation and libel case followed with Gilles as plaintiff and Pugh as defendant. Gilles won the case but received only token damages. And the missing letter? Too late, Mrs Pugh's maid found it tucked between the pages of a periodical on the dresser PMID:19705633

  6. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  7. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  8. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  9. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  10. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  11. The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels th...

  12. Potted history

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  13. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risky behaviors (such as smoking) and increasing healthy behaviors (such as regular exercise). Learn more about heart attacts. Q: How can knowing my family health history help lower my risk of disease? A: You ... you can change behaviors that affect your health, such as smoking, inactivity ...

  14. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  15. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  16. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  17. [Letter of Concurrence : Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter states that the Illinois Department of Conservation concurs with Meredosia NWRs efforts to establish a public use program on the Refuge.

  18. Letter to President [White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the White River National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness...

  19. Letter to President [Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge...

  20. Toward a statistical mechanics of four letter words

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Greg J

    2008-01-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial (and arbitrary), we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of four letter words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information among letters and even "discovering" real words that were not represented in the data from which the pairwise correlations were estimated. The maximum entropy model defines an energy landscape on the space of possible words, and local minima in this landscape account for nearly two-thirds of words used in written English.

  1. Letter from Army Corps of Engineers [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a letter from the Army Corps of Engineers to the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It confirms that the proposed wilderness designation does not...

  2. Letter from Federal Power Commission [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Federal Power Commission to the Secretary of the Interior. It confirms that the Federal Power Commission has no plans that...

  3. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  4. Sept 2013 NFHL Letter of Map Revision (LOMR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  5. 33 CFR 157.142 - Letter of acceptance: Inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.142 Letter of...

  6. TPG response to the foregoing letters-to-the-editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Katsma, K.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Boyack, B.E. (Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)); Catton, I. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S. (S. Levy Inc., Campbell, CA (United States)); Rohatgi, U.S.; Wulff, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Zuber, N. (United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The Technical Program Group (TPG) is pleased with the broad range of interest in the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology evidenced by the letters to the editor. We note that before publication the articles were submitted to the standard peer-review process in which all review comments were individually addressed in the final articles. Even so the TPG welcomes this second opportunity to address comments because of the continued interest in the work. In reviewing the individual letters the TPG found significant commonalty of questions and/or comments throughout the letters. Accordingly, and in the interest of efficiency, we have chosen to address the letters by common topic rather than by each concern, question or comment. (orig.).

  7. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  8. On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules——Comments on The Scarlet Letter%On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules--Comments on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter is a moral and psychological novel which focuses on human nature and the effects of sin. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the analysis ofa sable field and the second part is about gules letter A. Actually the two parts are the answers to where the sin is and how to achieve redemption. Hawthorne's thoughts,good wishes and artistic characters are fully expressed in it.

  9. Politeness Strategies in English and Chinese Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查琳琳

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores similarities and differences in the application of positive and negative politeness strategies to Eng-lish and Chinese business letters and illuminates underlying causes of such similarities and differences. The results indicate that English and Chinese business letters have some common features and great discrepancies in categories and the distribution of posi-tive and negative politeness strategies. It is argued that common situational factors, different cultural backgrounds and different syntactic features result in their similarities and differences.

  10. CEO letters in CSR reports: oil companies in focus

    OpenAIRE

    von Berg, Marhaba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives of the study: A main challenge in planning CSR communication strategy is how to communicate positive motives of a corporation in its CSR activities and how to decrease stakeholder uncertainty. This study provides an analysis of the CEO letters issued by eight oil companies in their CSR reports. The thesis is an investigation of target stakeholder group and move-structure carried out to determine the communicative purpose of CEO letters in CSR reports of eight oil companies. The...

  11. Uniformly balanced words with linear complexity and prescribed letter frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Berthé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the following problem. Let us fix a finite alphabet A; for any given d-uple of letter frequencies, how to construct an infinite word u over the alphabet A satisfying the following conditions: u has linear complexity function, u is uniformly balanced, the letter frequencies in u are given by the given d-uple. This paper investigates a construction method for such words based on the use of mixed multidimensional continued fraction algorithms.

  12. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of reading and writing posit a level of representation that codes abstract letter identities (ALIs) independent of the font, case, and even modality in which the letter was presented or produced (e.g., Caramazza & Hillis, 1990). Most cognitive theories assume that ALIs are critical for mediating between peripheral (e.g., processing visual shapes, executing motor plans) and central (e.g., accessing semantic or lexical information) written language processes. We present a case stu...

  13. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    OpenAIRE

    Olympia Colizoli; Jaap M J Murre; Romke Rouw

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modifie...

  14. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became favour...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  15. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913778

  16. Agreement with the government of India for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material subject to Agency safeguards under INFCIRC/154, part I and the agreements between India and the IAEA contained in exchanges of letters dated 1 October and 1 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting the amendment to the Agreement with the Government of India for the Application of Safeguards to all nuclear material subject to Agency safeguards under INFCIRC/154, Part I, and the Agreements between India and the IAEA contained in Exchanges of Letters dated 1 October and 1 December 1993, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The amendment to the Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994. The amendment to the Agreement entered into force, pursuant to the Exchange of Letters, on 12 September 1994

  17. Agreement with the Government of India for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material subject to Agency safeguards under INFCIRC/154, Part 1 and under the Agreements between India and the IAEA contained in exchanges of letters dated 1 October and 1 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters and the Attachment, constituting the Agreement with the Government of India for the Application of Safeguards to all nuclear material subject to Agency safeguards under INFCIRC/154, Part 1, and under the Agreements between India and the IAEA contained in Exchanges of Letters dated 1 October and 1 December 1993, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 21 February 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to the Exchange of Letters, on 1 March 1994

  18. Necitumumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-02-01

    Eli Lilly is developing necitumumab (Portrazza™), an intravenously administered fully human IgG monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is expressed in a variety of solid tumours and has been implicated in promoting oncogenesis and tumour progression. Necitumumab is approved as a part of combination therapy (with gemcitabine and cisplatin) in the USA for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and regulatory submissions have been made in the EU for this same indication. Necitumumab was derived from the proprietary phage display library of Dyax Corp, and originated with ImClone Systems, which was acquired by Eli Lilly in November 2008. Necitumumab was also under phase II development for colorectal cancer in Belgium and Spain; however, no recent development has been reported for this indication. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of necitumumab leading to this first approval for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC, in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin. PMID:26729188

  19. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  20. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  1. Effect of kapalabhati on performance of six-letter cancellation and digit letter substitution task in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Balaram Pradhan

    2013-01-01

    Background : Attention and concentration are valuable skills for all fields of human activity. Training to improve these skills is described in ancient hatha yoga texts. Aims: To study the effect of 1-min Kapalabhati (KB1) and 5-min Kapalabhati (KB5) practice of the Yoga rapid breathing exercise, Kapalabhati (KB), on psychomotor performance, as measured by the six-letter cancellation task (SLCT) and digit-letter substitution task (DLST). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six subjects, 21 ma...

  2. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  3. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  4. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  5. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  6. Multinational design approval programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing of new nuclear power facilities is likely to pose many challenges to national regulatory organizations. The majority of nuclear power plants to be built around the world in the next 15 years will likely be limited to a small number of relatively standardized designs, purchased from a limited number of multinational corporations. Such standardization creates an opportunity to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who will be tasked with the review of the new reactor power plant designs. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed an innovative proposal for a multinational design approval programme (MDAP). This paper describes the stages of the MDAP and the benefits that could be derived from its implementation. (author)

  7. Neural Correlates of Visual versus Abstract Letter Processing in Roman and Arabic Scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Salillas, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic orthographies, letter identification is a critical process during the recognition of visually presented words. In the present experiment, we examined whether and when visual form influences letter processing in two very distinct alphabets (Roman and Arabic). Disentangling visual versus abstract letter representations was possible because letters in the Roman alphabet may look visually similar/dissimilar in lowercase and uppercase forms (e.g., c-C vs. r-R) and letters in the Arab...

  8. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic and brand names. This page also lists common drug combinations used in lung ...

  9. The Intentions of Letter Writers for Applicants to a Baccalaureate-M.D. Program: Self-Report and Content Analyses of Letters of Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Mavis, Brian E.; Shafer, Christine L.; Magallanes, Belinda M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine how individuals providing reference letters framed the task and the specific attributes used to describe applicants. Methods: Participants were letter writers (N=106) for accepted or alternate applicants. Par­ticipants received a brief anonymous survey and a return postcard to release their past letter for content analysis. Results: Seventy-six percent of letter writers (N=81) returned a survey. Most (64%) intended to describe applicants...

  10. Electronic Approval of Invoices (AEF)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With a view to the simplification of administrative procedures, AS and FI Departments have completed the second phase of the new procedure for the electronic approval of invoices via the EDH application. The aim of this new procedure is to rationalise the invoice approval process, notably by eliminating paper copies from the approval circuit. This will simplify the processing of invoices and facilitate their timely settlement, while at the same time maintaining a high level of security. Phase II includes handling the electronic approval process of invoices whose amounts do not correspond exactly to those of the associated orders. In such cases, budgetary approval is required for the entire invoiced amount. Further information can be obtained at : http://ais.cern.ch/projs/AEF/help/F_help.htm Phase II of the procedure will be introduced gradually with effect from April 2004. Finance Department, Accounts Payable Section Tel: 72295 Organisation and Procedures Tel: 75885 Information Technologies Department,...

  11. Written work: the social functions of Research Ethics Committee letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard E; Bryman, Alan

    2007-08-01

    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are increasingly institutionalised as a feature of research practice, but have remained strangely neglected by social scientists. In this paper, we argue that analysis of letters from RECs to researchers offers important insights into how RECs operate. We report a traditional content analysis and an ethnographic content analysis of 141 letters to researchers, together with an analysis of the organisational and institutional arrangements for RECs in the UK. We show that REC letters perform three important social functions. First, they define what is deemed by a REC to be ethical practice for any particular application, and confer authority on that definition. They do this actively, through comments on particular aspects of proposals, and passively, through silences about other aspects. Second, they provide an account of the work of the REC, and function as a form of institutional display. Third, they specify the nature of the relationship between the REC and the applicant, casting the applicant in a supplicant role and requiring forms of docility. Writing and reading REC letters require highly specific competences, and engage both parties in a Bourdieusian "game" that discourages challenges from researchers. The authority of RECs' decisions derives not from their appeal to the moral superiority of any ethical position, but through their place in the organisational structure and the social positioning of the parties to the process thus implied. Letters are the critical point at which RECs act on researchers and their projects. PMID:17490795

  12. Historie v uvozovkách: Pár poznámek k myšlení Marjorie Garberové

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2012), s. 225-234. ISSN 0009-0468 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : history * new historicism * cultural studies * quotation * psychoanalysis * deconstruction * bisexuality * transvestism * Garber, Marjorie Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  13. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Health and Justice', 'Global Impacts of Particulate Matter Air Pollution', 'Wind Energy' and 'The Rebirth of Nuclear Power'. Environmental news, including topical features and reviews of research developments, conferences, patents, and fast-breaking scientific and political events. Job listings and notices, in academic, industrial, and public-service areas, to help link the community and to make the website of added value to the entire environmental community. Events listings, providing a directory of conferences, meetings and workshops taking place across environmental science. Institute of Physics Publishing is a not-for-profit, learned society publisher with a comprehensive range of products serving the scientific community. ERL will therefore benefit from tools at the forefront of electronic publishing including completely online author and referee services that enable the community to communicate and provide feedback to the journal as easily and efficiently as possible. Finally, ERL would be impossible without a tremendously dedicated and active staff, which it has, but also without a diverse and engaged group of editors and advisors. It is in this last area, the editors and advisors who have agreed to sign-on and serve despite the incredible pressures and competition for their time, where I am truly thrilled. Both the board of editors and advisory committee collectively reflect the geographic, intellectual, and disciplinary diversity that ERL must support and expand. With aerosols, carbon sequestration, climate variability, ecological economics, environmental history, environmental justice and law, human and environmental health, R&D policy, renewable energy science and policy, science and government, all represented on the board, ERL has buy-in from leaders across the spectrum. That said, we always invite, and will solicit, input on areas and individuals to add. So welcome to the inaugural issue of Environmental Research Letters!

  14. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19 th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we can find the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  15. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we canfind the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  16. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-05-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours. PMID:23667365

  17. Letter from the Board of Directors of Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynet, Georges

    2005-07-01

    1. New A&A memberships and scientific editorial structure for the Letters section At its meeting in Tartu, Estonia on 8 May 2004, the A&A Board of Directors decided to grant observer status on the Board to Brazil, Chile, and Portugal (Sandqvist 2004, A&A, 426, E15). Then on 6-7 May 2005, at its meeting in La Laguna, Spain, the Board of Directors admitted these three countries to full membership in A&A, starting 1 January 2006. The Letters Editor, Dr. P. Schneider, will complete his terms of service on 31 January 2006. A&A is indebted to him for his thoughtful and competent editing over the past several years. As a consequence of his departure, the Board has decided to restructure the manner in which the Letters will be handled as of 1 January 2006. The Associate Editor-in-Chief, Dr. M. Walmsley, will also become Editor-in-Chief for the Letters, and he will forward the Letters to the appropriate topical Associate Editor to organize the reviewing process. Likewise, the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. C. Bertout, will become the Associate Letters-Editor-in-Chief. This change will permit a more specialized treatment of Letters in the future and also allow Letters to benefit from language editing. Hence, after 1 January 2006, manuscripts for Letters should be submitted via the A&A Manuscript Management System (MMS) that is already in place for Main Journal submissions. Letters submitted before that will be handled by the current Letters Editor even after 1 January 2006. 2. New Associate Editor positions Considering both the increased workload on the Associate Editors due to the above change and the continuing specialization of sub-fields in astronomy, the Board decided to open two new positions for Associate Editors, one specialized in Cosmology with a particular interest in theoretical aspects and the other in Observational Stellar Physics. Applications are invited for these two new positions. The Associate Editors are expected to have a broad knowledge of astronomy and

  18. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. PMID:23238370

  19. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-05-01

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent

  20. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake (TTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent interviews. Most pertinently, an interview in 2005 with a

  1. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5- ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin ( ...

  3. Left cortical specialization for visual letter strings predicts rudimentary knowledge of letter-sound association in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochy, Aliette; Van Reybroeck, Marie; Rossion, Bruno

    2016-07-26

    Reading, one of the most important cultural inventions of human society, critically depends on posterior brain areas of the left hemisphere in proficient adult readers. In children, this left hemispheric cortical specialization for letter strings is typically detected only after approximately 1 y of formal schooling and reading acquisition. Here, we recorded scalp electrophysiological (EEG) brain responses in 5-y-old (n = 40) prereaders presented with letter strings appearing every five items in rapid streams of pseudofonts (6 items per second). Within 2 min of recording only, letter strings evoked a robust specific response over the left occipito-temporal cortex at the predefined frequency of 1.2 Hz (i.e., 6 Hz/5). Interindividual differences in the amplitude of this electrophysiological response are significantly related to letter knowledge, a preschool predictor of later reading ability. These results point to the high potential of this rapidly collected behavior-free measure to assess reading ability in developmental populations. These findings were replicated in a second experiment (n = 26 preschool children), where familiar symbols and line drawings of objects evoked right-lateralized and bilaterally specific responses, respectively, showing the specificity of the early left hemispheric dominance for letter strings. Collectively, these findings indicate that limited knowledge of print in young children, before formal education, is sufficient to develop specialized left lateralized neuronal circuits, thereby pointing to an early onset and rapid impact of left hemispheric reentrant sound mapping on posterior cortical development. PMID:27402739

  4. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  5. Letters from Ainsworth: Contesting the ‘Organization’ of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, ‘she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.’ These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedur...

  6. [Letterer-Siwe disease in half-brothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribluda, B A

    1986-01-01

    Letterer-Siwe disease is reported in half-brothers, 15 and 11 months old, with a duration of the disease about 2 and 1 month. A similar clinical picture manifested by hyperthermia, hepatosplenomegaly, moderate lymphadenopathy, cutaneous changes in one of the brothers, increasing hypochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, as well as similar morphologic changes (marked histiocytic infiltration of the viscera, hemorrhages, necroses, neoplastic changes in the liver and lungs of one boy) allowed differentiation of familial hemophagocytic histiocytosis from Letterer-Siwe disease in one family. PMID:3827626

  7. Liam Downey Letter to Minister for Health and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2008-01-01

    Liam Downey Letter to HSE I refer to your letter dated 27th November 2007 requesting the Board to undertake an immediate review of the management of all events following the decision to suspend breast radiology service at the Midland Regional Hospital, Portlaoise.The HSE Board met on 27th November, 2007 to consider this request. It decided to establish a Board Committee to finalise the terms of reference for the review and to engage an external independent person to conduct it. Click he...

  8. Letter as a Writing to Learn Activity and the Addressee

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yıldız

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study how the instructiveness of the letter, one of the writing to learn activities; changes according to the person to whom it is written (the addressee). The document analysis method was used in this qualitative study. Since documents are very important information sources used effectively in qualitative studies, their authenticity is important. The book named “Letters from Father Inönü to Erdal Inönü” published by Bilgi Publishing in 1988 and prepar...

  9. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  10. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  11. Approval plans issues and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    How can you, as an acquisition librarians, keep current on the output of hundreds of publishers? The answer, of course, is that you cannot. For over 30 years, approval plans have been used by librarians to acquire current titles, save staff time, and build core collections. Even today, these reasons seem appropriate, as libraries try to maintain up-to-date collections and control personnel and operating budgets. However, as shown in Approval Plans: Issues and Innovations, the use of approval plans is not so simple and straightforward; their use is subject to complex procedures and policies--an

  12. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  13. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Electronic Voucher Approval - Financial Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This process provides a workflow and eSignature capability which allows the CFO to router vouchers for review and electronic signature approval to COTRs in AIDW. It...

  15. Is It Really FDA Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical devices. These color additives (except coal-tar hair dyes) are subject by law to approval by the ... Examples of cosmetics are perfumes, makeup, moisturizers, shampoos, hair dyes, face and body cleansers, and shaving preparations. Cosmetic ...

  16. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and acronyms) Brand Name FDA Approval Date Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) NRTIs block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme HIV ... AZT, ZDV) Retrovir March 19, 1987 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) NNRTIs bind to and later alter reverse ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. The Effects of Sin in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴希博; 逯海涛

    2008-01-01

    "Sin" plays a very important role in the understanding of Hawthorne's "psychological romance"- The Scarlet Letter. The paper introduces the major view that influences him--the Puritan doctrine of "original sin" so as to investigate Hawthorne's own attitudes towards the sin and the effects of sin on the two main characters in the novel.

  7. The Psychological Reflection of Hawthorn in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece, representing the height of Hawthorne’s literary genius. This thesis tries to reveal part of the author’s psychological activities, repressed feelings from his childhood from analyzing the main characters, especially Hester, the mother and Pearl, the daughter.

  8. Please Write: Using Critical Friend Letter Writing in Teacher Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Anastasia P.; Sell, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' experiences using letter writing designed as a socio-cultural-based tool for critical friend work to promote dialogue and critique of their self-study teacher research projects. It seeks to understand their diverse experiences to inform future practice and contribute to the knowledge base of critical friend work in…

  9. 49 CFR 1503.703 - Civil penalty letter; referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... civil penalty action and that the matter is closed. (e) Referral for prosecution and collection. If the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty letter; referral. 1503.703 Section... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Judicial Assessment of Civil Penalties § 1503.703 Civil penalty...

  10. The Puritan Flavour--Comment on THE SCARLET LETTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锦锐

    2002-01-01

    When we analyze literary works, we should comment on whether or not these thoughts contribute to the progress of society. We should comment whether or not it exerts positive influence. We can deeply know about Puritan thoughts and values with the masterpiece --THE SCARLET LETTER

  11. Research on the Attitude towards Lettered-words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘正华

    2014-01-01

    Lettered words have sprouted in all kinds of situations and many kinds of media, which has been a very common phenomenon. This essay focuses on the relationship between the attitudes and the factors such as age, sex, and the educational background, trying to find some correlation between them, which is important also in the language policy.

  12. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  13. Cold-induced vasodilation : letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactie op: Flouris, et al. Effect of body temperature on cold induced vasodilationa. Eur J Applied Phys 2008;104:491-499. De aurteurs hebben daar weer een reply op geschreven; Flouris AD, Cheung SS (2009) Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘cold-induced vasodilation’ letter. Eur J Appl Physiol 106:31

  14. September 2016 Letter to the Editor-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Letter to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "One More Cause of Failure to Validate a CPR: Overfitting" with Author's Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):811-812. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0202. PMID:27581182

  15. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  16. Why a Letter of Transmittal Should Accompany Annual Financial Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Bill W.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the importance of comprehensive annual financial reports, including introductory, financial, and statistical sections. Advises school districts to pay special attention to the letter of transmittal, which should provide information on services, financial highlights, economic forecasting, accounting principles used, and other pertinent…

  17. Alternatives to Greek-Letter Organizations Warrant a Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marc C.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the discriminatory practices and lack of appeal of many predominantly White Greek-letter organizations, students of color sought the development of their own. Alpha Phi Alpha, Rho Psi, MALIK Sigma Psi, Lambda Theta Phi, and Alpha Pi Omega set the stage for later African American, Asian, African, Latino and American Indian Greek-letter…

  18. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee...: HITCommittee@gao.gov ; GAO: 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20548. FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: GAO:...

  19. A Cohesive and Coherent Analysis of The Purloined Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟娟; 郭鸿雁

    2013-01-01

      The thesis aims to do a research on the cohesion and coherence in The Purloined Letter written by Edgar Allan Poe based on the theories of Halliday and Hasan as well as the Chinese scholars Zhang Delu and Liu Rushan. By the means of them, Poe’s ingenious composition and vivid characters emerge in the mind of the readers.

  20. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  1. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment. 70.5 Section 70.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Amendment. Upon determining from available scientific or technical information that a FHBM or a...

  2. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  3. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 310 - Sample Notification Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Notification Letter B Appendix B to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED... computer was stolen from the parked car of a DoD employee in Washington, DC after normal duty hours...

  4. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rouw; L. Case; R. Gosavi; V. Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specific

  5. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade. PMID:27024935

  6. When "Slime" Becomes "Smile": Developmental Letter Position Dyslexia in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne; Friedmann, Naama; McArthur, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    We report the first three cases of selective developmental letter position dyslexia in English. Although the parents and teachers of the children were concerned about these children's reading, standard tests did not reveal their deficit. It was only when the appropriate target words were presented, in this case, migratable words, that their letter…

  7. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast Guard...) The plans submitted show that the COW system meets this subpart; or (b) The plans submitted and...

  8. Rock 'n' Roll Heroes: Letter to President Eisenhower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean W., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This primary source document can be used to teach secondary students about the rock 'n' roll era that emerged in the 1950's. The document is a letter written in 1958 by three teenagers to President Eisenhower concerning the induction of Elvis Presley into the U.S. Army. Class activities are also suggested. (RM)

  9. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  10. Resource Letter FC-1: The physics of fundamental constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.

    2010-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of fundamental constants and their values as determined within the International System of Units (SI). Journal articles, books, and websites that provide relevant information are surveyed. Literature on redefining the SI in terms of exact values of fundamental constants is also included.

  11. A letter addressed by Gustav Hertz to James Franck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A letter from Gustav Hertz is published which he sent from Copenhagen on 23 March 1938 to James Franck asking him to help Lise Meitner. The threat to her of the Nazi regime and the relations between the three physicists are described in the introduction. (author)

  12. Priming of abstract letter representations may be universal: the case of Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem

    2012-08-01

    Recent research on the Roman alphabet has demonstrated that the magnitudes of masked repetition priming are equivalent for letter pairs that have similar visual features across cases (e.g., c-C) and for letter pairs with dissimilar features (e.g., g-G). Here, we examined whether priming of abstract letter representations occurs in an orthographic system, Arabic, in which the letters show an intricate number of contextual forms. Arabic does not have a lowercase/uppercase distinction, but the letters exhibit different forms that depend on their position (initial, medial, final, or isolated) and their connectivity. Importantly, some letters look quite different across positions (e.g., (symbol in text) and (symbol in text), which correspond to the letter 'ayn), whereas others look very similar (e.g. (symbol in text), and (symbol in text), which correspond to the letter fā'). We employed a masked priming same-different task, in which native speakers of Arabic decided whether a target letter was the same as or different from a reference letter presented in a different position (middle vs. isolated). The results showed masked repetition priming effects of the same magnitude for letter pairs with similar and with dissimilar visual features across letter positions. These data support the view that priming of abstract letter representations is a universal phenomenon. PMID:22569990

  13. Letter as a Writing to Learn Activity and the Addressee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yıldız

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study how the instructiveness of the letter, one of the writing to learn activities; changes according to the person to whom it is written (the addressee. The document analysis method was used in this qualitative study. Since documents are very important information sources used effectively in qualitative studies, their authenticity is important. The book named “Letters from Father Inönü to Erdal Inönü” published by Bilgi Publishing in 1988 and prepared for printing by Sevgi Özel with the permission of the Inönü Foundation and the letters published under the title “The letters of Erdal Inönü to his father” by Can Dündar in his column in the Milliyet on 17, June, 2007 were analysed using the qualitative analysis method. It was analysed in the study that how the instructiveness of the letters (1947-1951 whose content was only related to physics and written from father to son and from son to father changed according to the addressee. The documents analysed in this study provide the first three stages of document analysis, which has five stages namely; access to the documents, control of their authenticity, understanding the documents, analysis of the data and the use of the data. The findings of the research support the views of the students, who stated that they had written more clearly to students who were younger than they were or studying in the subclasses than they had written to their teachers in the studies conducted previously.

  14. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 21, No.1, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    CONTENTS LETTERS vi ARTICLES --Presidential Address Mormon Memory, Mormon Myth, and Mormon History Roger D. Launius, 1 --Conflict in the Camps of Israel: The 1853 Cutlerite Schism Danny L Jorgensen, 25 --Migration, Social Change, and Mormonism in Portugal Mark L Grover, 65 --"Are You That Damned Presbyterian Devil?" The Evolution of an Anti-Mormon Story R. Douglas Brackenridge, 80 --The Mormon Relief Society and the Inter...

  15. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 38, No. 2, Spring 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    CONTENTS LETTERS --Augusta Adams Cobb Young: Priesthood Holder Connell O’Donovan, vii PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS --“Not as a Stranger”: A Presbyterian Afoot in the Mormon Past William P. MacKinnon, 1 TANNER LECTURE --Mormon Stories: A Librarian’s Perspective George A. Miles, 47 ARTICLES --From Doctor to Disciple: Willard Richards’s Journey to Mormonism Devery S. Anderson, 67 --New Ways In: Writing Interdisciplinary Mormon History Introduction Rachel Cope, 99 --Shifting...

  16. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 34, No. 2, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    LETTER --Cain, Bigfoot, and Folklore Robert A. Clark, vi ARTICLES --TANNER LECTURE --Thoughts from the Farther West: Mormons, California, and the Civil War William Deverell, 1 --LDS Church History: Past, Present, and Future Marlin K. Jensen, 20 --Hannah S. Jenkins: Missionary Wife in Palestine, 1911–20 Carol Freeman Braby, 43 --Ezra Taft Benson’s 1946 Mission to Europe Gary James Bergera, 73 --The St. George Temple Tower: Evolution of a Design Darrell E. Jones, 113 ...

  17. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and transposed-letter…

  18. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  19. The fifth force: A personal history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ephraim

    2015-12-01

    On January 6, 1986, a paper written by our group appeared in Physical Review Letters entitled "Reanalysis of the Eötvös Experiment". In that Letter we reanalyzed a well-known 1922 paper by Eötvös, Pekár, and Fekete (EPF) which compared the accelerations of samples of different composition to the Earth. Our surprising conclusion was that "Although the Eötvös experiment has been universally interpreted as having given null results, we find in fact that this is not the case". Two days later a front page story appeared in the New York Times under the headline "Hints of 5th Force in Universe Challenge Galileo's Findings", and so was born the concept of a "fifth force". In this personal history I review the pre-history which motivated our paper, and discuss details of our reanalysis of the EPF paper that have not been presented previously. Our work led to illuminating correspondence with Robert Dicke and Richard Feynman which are presented here for the first time. I also discuss an interesting meeting with T.D. Lee, one of whose papers with C.N. Yang provided part of the theoretical motivation for our work. Although there is almost no support from the many experiments motivated by the EPF data for a fifth force with properties similar to those that we hypothesized in our original paper, interest in the EPF experiment continues for reasons I outline in the Epilogue.

  20. Letter about Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Allan Grey Estate (Dahomey NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Letter contains historic information regarding ivory-billed woodpecker occurance on Dahomey NWR prior to World War II. Letter found in museum in PA by Dr. Jerome...

  1. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-...

  2. The Million Dollar Letter: Some Hints on How to Write One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests ways of writing a truly effective cover letter, an extremely important document in the search for a job. First, features gleaned from 13 model letters in technical writing textbooks yield figures on the number of words, sentences, and paragraphs per letter, plus the average number of words per sentence and paragraph,…

  3. 78 FR 28793 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012-D048) AGENCY: Defense... officer role in assisting the DoD implementing agency in preparation of the letter of offer and acceptance... to assist the DoD implementing activity in preparing the letter of offer and acceptance for a...

  4. Mental Rotation of Mirrored Letters: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. Isabel; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (n=13) were presented with mirrored and normal letters at different orientations and were asked to make mirror-normal letter discriminations. As it has been suggested that a mental rotation out of the plane might be necessary to decide on mirrored letters, we wanted to…

  5. Teaching Letter-Sound Connections with Picture Mnemonics: "Itchy's Alphabet" and Early Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLorenzo, Kim E.; Rody, Carlotta A.; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored "Itchy's Alphabet" as an innovative approach to teaching letter-sound connections through multisensory cues. This is the initial demonstration of this instructional method for increasing students' sublexical skills (letter identification, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness). To examine the effectiveness of the…

  6. Modelling Normal and Impaired Letter Recognition: Implications for Understanding Pure Alexic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Letter recognition is the foundation of the human reading system. Despite this, it tends to receive little attention in computational modelling of single word reading. Here we present a model that can be trained to recognise letters in various spatial transformations. When presented with degraded stimuli the model makes letter confusion errors…

  7. Stamps of New China: Special Stamps:Liu Yi Delivers a Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On July 17, 2004 the State Postal Bureau issued a setof four stamps whose theme is Liu Yi Delivers a Letter. Thestamps picture the Dragon Princess Asking Liu Yi to Delivera Letter, Liu Yi Delivering a Letter to Dongting Lake, FamilyReunion, and Mutual Love.

  8. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  9. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), the NRC published for public comment Draft Generic Letter...

  10. Electronic Approval of Invoices (AEF)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    With a view to the simplification of administrative procedures, AS and FI Divisions have drawn up a new procedure for the electronic approval of invoices via the EDH application. The aim of this new procedure is to rationalise the invoice approval process, notably by eliminating paper copies from the approval circuit. This will simplify the processing of invoices and facilitate their timely settlement, while at the same time maintaining a high level of security. This new procedure, in its current phase, will be gradually implemented from 1 November 2003 onwards. For clarification and further information, please see: http://ais.cern.ch/projs/AEF/help/help.htm . Finance Division, Accounts Payable Tel.: 7.22.95

  11. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL open-quotes Melter Performance Assessmentclose quotes and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report

  12. Scientific Interaction Within Henry Oldenburg’s Letter Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates various functions fulfilled by letters exchanged by European scholars and experimenters in the period 1660-1676. The correspondence network taken into consideration is the one coordinated by Henry Oldenburg, who was responsible for a large exchange of letters in that period, particularly when he became the first Secretary of the Royal Society. The analysis shows that this correspondence greatly stimulated the growth of a real community of adepts, as it provided an excellent means for the exchange of views, the conducting of controversies, the corroboration of individual observations and the official recognition of one’s own findings. Communal correspondence also fulfilled other important goals linked to socialization purposes, favouring the creation of a new specialized community sharing innovative intellectual interests and professional practices, as well as the adoption of a spirit of solidarity among its members.

  13. Foreword: Advanced Science Letters (ASL), Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Computational astrophysics has undergone unprecedented development over the last decade, becoming a field of its own. The challenge ahead of us will involve increasingly complex multi-scale simulations. These will bridge the gap between areas of astrophysics such as star and planet formation, or star formation and galaxy formation, that have evolved separately until today. A global knowledge of the physics and modeling techniques of astrophysical simulations is thus an important asset for the next generation of modelers. With the aim at fostering such a global approach, we present the Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics for the Advanced Science Letters (http://www.aspbs.com/science.htm). The Advanced Science Letters (ASL) is a new multi-disciplinary scientific journal which will cover extensively computational astrophysics and cosmology, and will act as a forum for the presentation and discussion of novel work attempting to connect different research areas. This Special Issue collects 9 reviews on 9 k...

  14. The “Sin” Analysis in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永秀

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,one of the immortal representatives of Romanticism literature makes the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne known around the world.The unique organization of the novel,the skillful use of symbolism and metaphor demonstrate the writer’s profound insight and unique view of the society and the human nature,which make the"sin"rise to a higher level.

  15. Letter-to-Sound Pronunciation Prediction Using Conditional Random Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; King, Simon; Frankel, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pronunciation prediction, or letter-to-sound (LTS) conversion, is an essential task for speech synthesis, open vo- cabulary spoken term detection and other applications dealing with novel words. Most current approaches (at least for English) employ data-driven methods to learn and represent pronunciation ``rules'' using statistical models such as decision trees, hidden Markov models (HMMs) or joint-multigram models (JMMs). The LTS task remains challenging, particularly for languages with a co...

  16. UCP & INCOTERMS : Legal study of letter of credit problems

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In 1933, the International Chamber of Commerce formulated the UCP, which is now a set of universally accepted governing rules for letters of credit and the most successful private rules for commerce ever developed. But rules require interpretation, and courts worldwide have interpreted how the UCP should be applied in daily practice. In this thesis, some of the most important court cases interpreting the UCP have been collected, analyzed and explained. Regarding disputes and available r...

  17. Business valuation engagement letter: Regulations adopted in selected standards

    OpenAIRE

    Grudziński, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The article presents conclusions drawn from the analysis of regulations concerning the issue of the content of business valuation engagement letter. The analysis covered regulations appearing in eight business valuation standards used in Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Canada and the USA. Author also took into consideration two international standards. The first part of the article reviews business valuation standards valid in selected countries. The second part presents regulations valid ...

  18. Authority and Persuasion: Self-Presentation in Paul's Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Kevin Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Paul's self-presentation in Galatians, Philippians, and 1 Corinthians in order to determine the purpose of each letter and Paul's relationship to each community. A fundamental premise of this study is that Paul did not provide communities with autobiographical information so that they might possess a more robust portrait of Paul. Rather, the information he provided was carefully selected in order to fit the needs of each audience and to increase the chance of success for e...

  19. Beyond Orality and Literacy: Letters and Organizational Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fayard, Anne-Laure; METIU, Anca

    2008-01-01

    We draw on communication theories to study organizational communication from a literacy perspective. We suggest that the current debate over the capability of new media to foster the sharing and development of ideas and allow the expression of emotions, which presupposes face-to-face communication as the ideal form of communication, disappears once we switch the focus from the medium to the modality – written versus oral communication. An analysis of personal and organizational letters illust...

  20. THE INTERLOCUTOR IN THE PRODUCTION OF PERSONAL LETTERS IN CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    Ednéia Aparecida Bernardineli Bernini; Renilson José Menegassi

    2014-01-01

    : Considering a teaching-learning conception based on the discourse as a social practice, experiences in reading and writing in classroom become more meaningful, because resources that allow the student to assume a dialogic attitude are valued. In this perspective, this paper aims to analyze the presence of the interlocutor/other in personal letters of students from the eighth grade / elementary school of a private school of the municipality of Marialva – Paraná. The presenc...

  1. Nursing empire: travel letters from Africa and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This essay analyses colonial nurses’ travel letters, written from West Africa and the Caribbean between the turn of the century and 1920, in order to better understand the role of nurses in forming satellite versions of home. Though their primary function was to ‘nurse empire’ by helping to repair and maintain the bodies needed for imperial labour, nurses also contributed to written discourses supporting Britain's economic interests and political goals. Through careful consideration of primar...

  2. Lettere diplomatiche inedite della Russia alla Serenissima (1655-1695)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Santa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the present study is the transcription, translation and historical and linguistic commentary of selected (thirteen, to be precise) Russian diplomatic missives sent to the doge of the Republic of Venice and now preserved at the State Archives of Venice with the following cataloguing: Collection: “Collegio”, series: “Lettere Principi (1426-1797)”, string 13. The string in question, labelled “Czar of Muscovy”, contains the missives written between 1655 and 1740. The present st...

  3. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  4. Gender Differences in Iranian EFL Students’ Letter Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Somaye Hamdi asl; Azizollah Dabaghi

    2012-01-01

    Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001...

  5. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  6. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  7. The “Sin” Analysis in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永秀

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,one of the immortal representatives of Romanticism literature makes the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne known around the world.The unique organization of the novel,the skillful use of symbolism and metaphor demonstrate the writer’s profound insight and unique view of the society and the human nature,which make the“sin”rise to a higher level.

  8. Discerning Calvin’s pastoral care from his letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Potgieter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The same acuity that is evident in John Calvin’s theological writings accompanied his correspondence. Calvin’s mission was not to support God, but to honour him. Divine revelation and the glory of God underlie the content of his letters. The audacious confidence with which he writes, reveals his utter reliance upon the veracity of Scripture, which understanding must be conveyed through sound teaching. Yet, his letters are not inundated with scriptural references or quotes in the fashion of a medical prescription. Rather the connection between Scripture and writing for Calvin were twofold: it lies in the foundations of sound theology applied pastorally. This undergirded his pastoral care. To bring that across in his correspondence with Duchess Renata Ferrara, he followed basic doctrinal principles, evident from many of his letters applied pastorally to the recipient(s of the letter.Calvyn se pastorale benadering soos waargeneem in sy briewe. Dieselfde pastorale noukeurigheid wat duidelik in Johannes Calvyn se teologiese geskrifte waarneembaar is, kom ook in sy korrespondensie voor. Calvyn se oogmerk was nie bloot om God te eer nie, maar om Hom te verheerlik. Die inhoud van sy briewe reflekteer sowel die openbaring as die heerlikheid van God. Hy skryf met waagmoed en ’n selfversekerdheid wat sy vertroue in die waarheid van die Skrif weerspieël en wat deur Skrifgetroue onderrig oorgedra moet word. Tog maak hy nie in sy briewe op oordrewe wyse van teksverwysings of aanhalings gebruik om sy teologiete staaf nie. Die verband tussen die Skrif en sy skryfwerk was eerder vir Calvyn ’n tweeledige saak: dit berus naamlik op gesonde teologie wat pastoraal toegepas word. Dit blyk derhalwe uit baie van sy briewe, soos dié aan die Hertogin Renata Ferrara, dat hy die metode volg ombasiese dogmatiese leerstellings in sy korrespondensie uit te lê en met pastorale sorg toe te pas.

  9. Resource Letter SS-1: The Spin-Statistics Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curceanu, Catalina; Gillaspy, J. D.; Hilborn, Robert C.

    2012-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the spin-statistics connection and related issues such as the Pauli exclusion principle and particle indistinguishability. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: basic resources, general aspects of spin-statistics, the spin-statistics theorem, theories that go beyond the standard spin-statistics theorem, and experimental tests of the spin-statistics theorem and the symmetrization postulate.

  10. Resource Letter PSEn-1: Physics and society: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2007-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the physics-related literature about energy-and-society. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: general references, textbooks, other pedagogical resources, population growth, fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear power, side effects of nuclear power, fusion power, renewable resources (including hydroelectric, biofuels, wind, photovoltaics, direct solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and energy storage), energy efficiency, and transportation efficiency.

  11. Resource Letter PoD-1: The Physics of Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kenneth; Lott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of dance. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: General references for dance, physics of dance, research methods in physics of human movement and in biomechanics, using dance in the physics classroom; anatomy and injuries; physics applied to specific dance movements or styles of dance; equipment (dance shoes, flooring, the barre); and dance of physics.

  12. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the type of packaging material on which the label is printed; n. Brand name changes, provided that... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features..., location, and indication of final color. To obtain sketch label approval, domestic meat and...

  13. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  14. Letter to Sound Rules for Accented Lexicon Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pagel, V; Black, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents trainable methods for generating letter to sound rules from a given lexicon for use in pronouncing out-of-vocabulary words and as a method for lexicon compression. As the relationship between a string of letters and a string of phonemes representing its pronunciation for many languages is not trivial, we discuss two alignment procedures, one fully automatic and one hand-seeded which produce reasonable alignments of letters to phones. Top Down Induction Tree models are trained on the aligned entries. We show how combined phoneme/stress prediction is better than separate prediction processes, and still better when including in the model the last phonemes transcribed and part of speech information. For the lexicons we have tested, our models have a word accuracy (including stress) of 78% for OALD, 62% for CMU and 94% for BRULEX. The extremely high scores on the training sets allow substantial size reductions (more than 1/20). WWW site: http://tcts.fpms.ac.be/synthesis/mbrdico

  15. Accurate reading with sequential presentation of single letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Seow Chiang Price

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically-controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 words/minute and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with >90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.

  16. Doing accountability: a discourse analysis of research ethics committee letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard; Bryman, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) are charged with adjudicating the ethical status of research projects, and determining the conditions necessary for such projects to proceed. Both because of their position in the research process and because of the controversial nature of ethical judgements, RECs' views and decisions need to be accountable. In this paper we use techniques of discourse analysis to show how REC decision letters 'do' accountability. Using a sample of 260 letters from three datasets, we identify a range of discursive devices used in letters written by RECs. These include drawing attention to: the process behind the decision, including its collaborative nature; holding the applicants accountable, by implying that any decision made by the REC can be attributed to the performance of the applicants; referring to specialist expertise; and calling upon external authorities. These tactics 'do' accountability by showing that routines of ethical assessment have been enacted, by establishing the factuality of claims, and by managing questions of fault and blame attribution. They may, however, also risk undermining legitimacy by failing to acknowledge the inherent contestability of ethical decision making or the limited nature of the cultural authority accorded to RECs, and thus may appear as an illegitimate exercise of power. PMID:18983419

  17. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, Edith; Carlisle, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs) were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …), in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …), without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed. PMID:25343262

  18. Response letter regarding the interpretation of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Ozmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a response letter to Verna E’s comments regarding our previous manuscript published last year in the World Journal of Gastroenterology entitled “Relationship between LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 gene expressions and lymphatic metastasis in gastric cancer”, which evaluated the relationship between these expression levels and clinicopathological parameters (Ozmen F et al, World J Gastroenterology 2011; 17: 3220-3228. The mean values for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, CD44 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 expression (represented as 2-ΔΔCt were 1.13, 1.24 and 1.17, respectively, suggesting an increase in gene expression in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Despite the increase in gene expression in the cancer tissues (2-ΔΔCt > 1, only some of the results reached statistical significance, which was thoroughly discussed in our paper. In the present letter, we report that his comments are flawed and result in confusion. Therefore, we herein provide more explanation regarding gene expression in gastric cancer. We hope that this letter will address Verna E’s misunderstandings.

  19. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene;

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter......Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...

  20. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  1. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suryadi

    2015-01-01

    The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara) with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important so...

  2. Comparative efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regnier, Stephane A; Larsen, Michael; Bezlyak, Vladimir;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to BRVO were identified from...... an updated systematic review. SETTING: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of RCTs of treatments for macular oedema secondary to BRVO. INTERVENTIONS: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg pro re nata, aflibercept 2 mg monthly (2q4), dexamethasone 0.7 mg implant, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab+laser, or sham...... intervention. Bevacizumab and triamcinolone were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy outcomes were mean change in best corrected visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale) and the percentage of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters. Safety outcome was the percentage of patients with increased...

  3. Alkylbenzene Project in Xinjiang Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weiyong

    1996-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on alkylbenzene project in Dushanzi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, submitted jointly by the government of Xinjiang UygurAutonomous Region and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), has been approved by State Council recently,after pass appraisa l by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation entrusted by State Planning Committee.

  4. Unilateral approval - Is it working?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion, owned by Canadian based MDS Inc., designs, manufactures and uses transport packages for the distribution of radioactive materials used in the medical, research and sterilisation industries. Each of these packages must be proven to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) transport regulations. This paper will explore the unilateral approval concept as well as provide examples of its implementation. The IAEA transport regulations are recognised and implemented across the world. They include the unilateral approval concept of a single competent authority approval of the package design. Although the performance standards set by the IAEA regulations for Type B(U) packages have been accepted and implemented in national legislation, national authorities tend to require additional reviews of the safety analysis report. Case studies will be presented to demonstrate that the concept of unilateral approval is not applied consistently between all IAEA member states, and that this has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material. The studies also show that these additional reviews have not resulted in changes to the design of a transport package. The lack of recognition of the IAEA unilateral approval for transport packages is a barrier to the effective transport of packages. These additional reviews require allocation of resources for both the company and the regulatory agency. As a responsible partner in a very unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA member states to accept Type B(U) transport certificate from other jurisdictions without requiring additional review or endorsement. In this respect, the collaboration of the competent authorities is important to reduce this regulatory impediment and allowing the effective transport of radioactive material. (author)

  5. History of Chiropractic Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACA News Digital Edition Archives: ACA News Articles Advertising Opportunities News Newsroom News Releases Letters to the Editor Facts About Chiropractic Chiropractic in the Media ACA Radio Chiropractic Cares Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram LinkedIn Advocacy Regulatory Policy Issue ...

  6. Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159609.html Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C Combination drug treats six major forms of ... to treat the six major strains of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Epclusa combines sofosbuvir, FDA-approved ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  8. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  9. 40 CFR 123.61 - Approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process. 123.61 Section 123... REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.61 Approval process. (a) After determining that a...; and (6) Briefly outline the fundamental aspects of the State's proposed program, and the process...

  10. 40 CFR 145.31 - Approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process. 145.31 Section 145.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision and Withdrawal § 145.31 Approval process....

  11. 9 CFR 147.52 - Approved tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... testing known negative samples, as determined by the official NPIP procedures found in this part. If... Approved Tests § 147.52 Approved tests. (a) The procedures for the bacteriological examination of poultry... kits) may be approved through the following procedure: (1) The sensitivity of the kit will be...

  12. 12 CFR 611.510 - Approval procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval procedures. 611.510 Section 611.510 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Transfer of Authorities § 611.510 Approval procedures. (a) Upon receipt of approval of a resolution by the Farm...

  13. The role of the right posterior parietal cortex in letter migration between words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Kennard, Christopher; Rosenthal, Clive R

    2015-02-01

    When briefly presented with pairs of words, skilled readers can sometimes report words with migrated letters (e.g., they report hunt when presented with the words hint and hurt). This and other letter migration phenomena have been often used to investigate factors that influence reading such as letter position coding. However, the neural basis of letter migration is poorly understood. Previous evidence has implicated the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in processing visuospatial attributes and lexical properties during word reading. The aim of this study was to assess this putative role by combining an inhibitory TMS protocol with a letter migration paradigm, which was designed to examine the contributions of visuospatial attributes and lexical factors. Temporary interference with the right PPC led to three specific effects on letter migration. First, the number of letter migrations was significantly increased only in the group with active stimulation (vs. a sham stimulation group or a control group without stimulation), and there was no significant effect on other error types. Second, this effect occurred only when letter migration could result in a meaningful word (migration vs. control context). Third, the effect of active stimulation on the number of letter migrations was lateralized to target words presented on the left. Our study thus demonstrates that the right PPC plays a specific and causal role in the phenomenon of letter migration. The nature of this role cannot be explained solely in terms of visuospatial attention, rather it involves an interplay between visuospatial attentional and word reading-specific factors. PMID:25203274

  14. On the flexibility of letter position coding during lexical processing: the case of Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Winskel, Heather; Ratitamkul, Theeraporn

    2011-01-01

    In Indo-European languages, letter position coding is particularly noisy in middle positions (e.g., judge and jugde look very similar), but not in the initial letter position (e.g., judge vs. ujdge). Here we focus on a language (Thai) which, potentially, may be more flexible with respect to letter position coding than Indo-European languages: (i) Thai is an alphabetic language which is written without spaces between words (i.e., there is a degree of ambiguity in relation to which word a given letter belongs to) and (ii) some of the vowels are misaligned (e.g., [see text] ε:bn/ is pronounced as /bε:n/), whereas others are not (e.g., [see text]/a:p/ is pronounced as /a:p/). We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with 3-4 letter Thai words (with vs. without an initial misaligned vowel) in which the prime was: (i) identical to the target, (ii) a nonword generated by transposing the two initial letters of the target, or (iii) a replacement-letter control nonword. Results showed a significant masked transposed-letter priming effect in the initial letter positions, which was similar in size for words with and without an initial misaligned vowel. These findings reflect that: (i) letter position coding in Thai is very flexible and (ii) the nature of the obtained priming effects is orthographic rather than phonological. PMID:21914592

  15. 28 CFR 901.3 - Approval of delayed fingerprint submission requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of delayed fingerprint submission requests. 901.3 Section 901.3 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY... supporting requests for III records by agencies authorized to access and receive criminal history...

  16. Homoharringtonine/Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate: The Long and Winding Road to Food and Drug Administration Approval

    OpenAIRE

    Kantarjian, Hagop M.; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Homoharringtonine/omacetaxine is a unique agent with a long history of research development. It has been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia after failure of 2 or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Research with this agent has spanned over 40 years, with many instructive lessons to cancer research, which are summarized in this review.

  17. A Finite Abelian Group of Two-Letter Inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Balbuena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In abstract algebra, the study of concrete groups is fundamentally important to beginners. Most commonly used groups as examples are integer addition modulo n, real number addition and multiplication, permutation groups, and groups of symmetry. The last two examples are finite non-abelian groups and can be investigated with the aid of concrete representations. This study presents a finite abelian group of inversions of two letter symbols with vertical and horizontal axes of symmetry and whose binary operation is established through motions like alternation, rotation, reflection, and a combination of two or all motions.

  18. Resource Letter PhD-2: Physics Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Richard E.

    2012-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to physics demonstrations, computer simulations of physics demonstrations, and physics education research regarding the use and effectiveness of demonstrations and simulations. Articles, books, and materials on the internet are cited for the following: professional journals dealing with demonstrations, web sites of professional organizations, workshops including use of demonstrations and simulations, books dealing with demonstrations in classroom teaching as well as informal settings, web sites for physics demonstrations, videos of physics demonstrations, demonstration simulations, and physics education research regarding the use of demonstrations in teaching.

  19. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature of...... American culture and the subculture of science. Research published elsewhere (Okamura and Shaw 1999, ESPJ) shows that neither native speakers of English nor non-natives who were not practising scientists could produce the appropriate genre, while NNS scientists produced texts which only deviated slightly...

  20. 3D Printing the Big Letters in the JDRF Logo

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a 3D-print of the big letters in the logo for JDRF (formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). The methods described in this paper involve processing the image of the logo through a Mathematica script, and the methods can be applied to most logos and other images that are sparse in the sense of not having many edges within the image. With the Mathematica script, a STereoLithography (.stl) file is create...

  1. Encyclical Letter "Caritas in Veritate": An Economist's Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Dembinski, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    On the 29 of June 2009, the Pope Benedict XVIth published Caritas in Veritate, his third encyclical letter. It was addressed to the clergy but also to “lay faithful and all people of good will”. In the two papers assembled here under one single title, the author enters in dialogue with the Papal encyclical from the perspective of an economist interested in ethical issues related specially to finance. > First paper “Incompleteness of Economy and Business: A Forceful Reminder” is to be publishe...

  2. WRITING FOR A REAL AUDIENCE: A LETTER-EXCHANGE PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In an EFL class, writing for a real audience can bring aboutmany inherent educational benefits. However, this is often ne-glected by many language teachers. This paper reports on the re-sults obtained from using a writing for a real audience project inan Intensive Reading course for non-English majors. Students inthis project wrote letters to their partners in the target languageand shared information with each other. The author found thatthe process of writing for a real audience can not only help stu-dents practice using the target language but also can encouragethem to overcome writing apprehension.

  3. 30 CFR 746.14 - Approval, disapproval or conditional approval, of mining plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., of mining plan. 746.14 Section 746.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.14 Approval, disapproval or conditional approval, of mining plan. The Secretary shall approve, disapprove...

  4. Transposed-letter priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Wu, Simon; Norris, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    A masked nonword prime generated by transposing adjacent inner letters in a word (e.g., jugde) facilitates the recognition of the target word (JUDGE) more than a prime in which the relevant letters are replaced by different letters (e.g., junpe). This transposed-letter (TL) priming effect has been widely interpreted as evidence that the coding of letter position is flexible, rather than precise. Although the TL priming effect has been extensively investigated in the domain of visual word recognition using the lexical decision task, very few studies have investigated this empirical phenomenon in reading aloud. In the present study, we investigated TL priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords and found that these effects are of equal magnitude for the two types of items. We take this result as support for the view that the TL priming effect arises from noisy perception of letter order within the prime prior to the mapping of orthography to phonology. PMID:25665798

  5. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. PMID:24766365

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  7. Critical band masking reveals the effects of optical distortions on the channel mediating letter identification

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Laura K.; Smithson, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that letter identification is mediated by only a narrow band of spatial frequencies and that the center frequency of the neural channel thought to underlie this selectivity is related to the size of the letters. When letters are spatially filtered (at a fixed size) the channel tuning characteristics change according to the properties of the spatial filter (Majaj et al., 2002). Optical aberrations in the eye act to spatially filter the image formed on the retina—their effect ...

  8. Critical band masking reveals the effects of optical distortions on the channel mediating letter identification

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eYoung; Hannah eSmithson

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that letter identification is mediated by only a narrow band of spatial frequencies and that the centre frequency of the neural channel thought to underlie this selectivity is related to the size of the letters. When letters are spatially filtered (at a fixed size) the channel tuning characteristics change according to the properties of the spatial filter (Majaj et al., 2002). Optical aberrations in the eye act to spatially filter the image formed on the retina - their effec...

  9. A Linguistic Comparison of Letters of Recommendation for Male and Female Chemistry and Biochemistry Job Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Schmader, Toni; Whitehead, Jessica; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2007-01-01

    Letters of recommendation are central to the hiring process. However, gender stereotypes could bias how recommenders describe female compared to male applicants. In the current study, text analysis software was used to examine 886 letters of recommendation written on behalf of 235 male and 42 female applicants for either a chemistry or biochemistry faculty position at a large U.S. research university. Results revealed more similarities than differences in letters written for male and female c...

  10. Persuasive Discourse Strategies Used in Persian and English Business Letters Biook Behnam

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Zamanian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in communication styles is becoming much important in intercultural business communication. This study aims to report the result a contrastive study of rhetorical differences between Persian and English "For Your Information" (FYI) letters and investigate how information is presented in business correspondence and what rhetorical strategies are used to illicit compliance by a given readership in a given culture. (FYI letter is a kind of business letter informing the ...

  11. Missive dal limbo. Lettere inedite di Florence MacKnight al barone Bettino Ricasoli (1869)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Salvadori

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a series of unpublished letters, held by the Archivio di Stato in Florence, written by Florence MacKnight to Baron Bettino Ricasoli and analyses how letter writing becomes a means of affirming feminine identity, by way of a different conception of maternity. The letters contribute to foregrounding Florence’s personality and biography and, furthermore, her relationship with the Florentine societal cultural context.

  12. QUALITY OF PRIMARY CARE REFERRAL LETTERS AND FEEDBACK REPORTS IN BURAIDAH, QASSIM REGION, SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Alfi, Mohammed A.; Al-Saigul, Abdullah M.; Ashraf M Abed-Elbast; Sourour, Atef M.; Ramzy, Hasnin A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of referral letters and feedback reports written according to the standards of Quality Assurance Manual of Ministry of Health from primary health care centers (PHCC′s) in Buraidah. Methodology: This study was conducted during October and November 2004. A total of 330 referral letters and feedback reports were randomly selected from six PHCCs (20% from PHCCs in Buraidah City). About 55 referral and feedback letters were selected from each PHCC by systemat...

  13. On legalizing abortion: an open letter from Mexico's Christian Women's Collective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In Mexico City the Christian Women's Collective's open letter to the Catholic Church is a response to the Catholic bishops' threats of excommunication of lawmakers in Chiapas State, Mexico, who may have approved a bill legalizing abortion. The bishops maintain that God is a just and merciful God who loves women and suffers with them. The Collective cannot ignore the 2 million women, 1.72 million of whom are Catholics, who undergo illegal abortions annually in Mexico. They tend to be poor and in a union and to have large families. The Collective does not advocate abortion, but recognized that almost all women who have had an abortion were not at all happy to do so. Instead they suffer depression, solitude, shame, and pain. In addition to the moral punishment, these women are at high risk of dying (150,000-200,000 women die annually from illegal abortions). Economic circumstances, health problems, rape, and abandonment threaten their lives, so abortion is a last resort. The Collective maintains that the Catholic Church must understand that God empathized with women's pain, and in sending Jesus, has become one with humanity. The Church must seriously consider this sorrowful and very complex situation and reflect on the circumstances leading to abortion rather than condemn it. It must realize that by choosing abortion women want to avoid harm in those cases where pregnancy could cause death, avoid injustice when rape caused the pregnancy, or avoid giving birth to an infant that society or family cannot sustain. The present adverse and unjust situation contributing to unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion is a social sin. The Catholic Church needs to build a new pastoral program with women at its center emphasizing sexuality, maternity, and contraception. Indeed, confronting the true social, moral, and political causes of abortion, and avoiding punishment, incarceration, or excommunication will resolve the issue. PMID:12178854

  14. 75 FR 48302 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Credit Account Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Credit Account Approval for Reimbursable Services AGENCY: Animal and... information collection associated with credit account approval for reimbursable services. DATES: We will... account approval for reimbursable services, contact Mrs. Kris Caraher, User Fees Section Head,...

  15. Essays in History & Finance

    OpenAIRE

    D'ACUNTO, FRANCESCO

    2015-01-01

    To which extent may history help us understand current financial outcomes? FinancialHistory typically tests for financial theories using historical data, or studies past financialoutcomes to understand the present through analogy. This dissertation focuses on an alternative approach to the use of history in finance, which I label "History & Finance." This approach exploits facts and institutions of the past, and the persistence of the economic and social phenomena they determine, to directly...

  16. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  17. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  18. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  19. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  20. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  1. Approval of radioactive consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)

  2. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the purpose of understanding the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) concerns regarding online promotion of prescription drugs advertised directly to consumers, this study examines notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers. Methods: The FDA’s warning letters and NOVs, which were issued to pharmaceutical companies over a 10-year period (2005 to 2014) regarding online promotional activities, were content-analyzed. Results: Six violation categories were identified: risk information, efficacy information, indication information, product labeling, material information issues, and approval issues. The results reveal that approximately 95% of the alleged violations were found on branded drug websites, in online paid advertisements, and in online videos. Of the total 179 violations, the majority of the alleged violations were concerned with the lack of risk information and/or misrepresentation of efficacy information, suggesting that achieving a fair balance of benefit versus risk information is a major problem with regard to the direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs. In addition, the character space limitations of online platforms, eg, sponsored links on search engines, pose challenges for pharmaceutical marketers with regard to adequately communicating important drug information, such as indication information, risk information, and product labeling. Conclusion: Presenting drug information in a fair and balanced manner remains a major problem. Industry guidance should consider addressing visibility and accessibility of information in the web environment to help pharmaceutical marketers meet the requirements for direct-to-consumer promotion and to protect consumers from misleading drug information. Promotion via social media warrants further attention, as pharmaceutical manufacturers have already begun actively establishing a social media presence, and the FDA has thus

  3. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyosun Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background For the purpose of understanding the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s concerns regarding online promotion of prescription drugs advertised directly to consumers, this study examines notices of violations (NOVs and warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers. Methods The FDA’s warning letters and NOVs, which were issued to pharmaceutical companies over a 10-year period (2005 to 2014 regarding online promotional activities, were content-analyzed. Results Six violation categories were identified: risk information, efficacy information, indication information, product labeling, material information issues, and approval issues. The results reveal that approximately 95% of the alleged violations were found on branded drug websites, in online paid advertisements, and in online videos. Of the total 179 violations, the majority of the alleged violations were concerned with the lack of risk information and/or misrepresentation of efficacy information, suggesting that achieving a fair balance of benefit versus risk information is a major problem with regard to the direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription drugs. In addition, the character space limitations of online platforms, eg, sponsored links on search engines, pose challenges for pharmaceutical marketers with regard to adequately communicating important drug information, such as indication information, risk information, and product labeling. Conclusion Presenting drug information in a fair and balanced manner remains a major problem. Industry guidance should consider addressing visibility and accessibility of information in the web environment to help pharmaceutical marketers meet the requirements for direct-to-consumer promotion and to protect consumers from misleading drug information. Promotion via social media warrants further attention, as pharmaceutical manufacturers have already begun actively establishing a social media presence, and the

  4. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Yeaton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings.

  5. Resource Letter APPO-1: Acoustics for Physics Pedagogy and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.

    2014-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the use of acoustics in physics pedagogy, whether in stand-alone courses, or as examples, analogies, or demonstrations in other contexts. Included are the principal journals and conference proceedings in the field, references to descriptions of existing acoustics courses, textbooks at different levels, and myriad online resources appropriate for courses at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels and for outreach. Also provided are topic-specific references that are divided into source, resonance, and traveling-wave phenomena. Because of the ability of sound to bridge the gap between mathematical understanding and everyday human experience, acoustical examples and demonstrations may deepen understanding of physical phenomena at all levels.

  6. The signage archive: type and lettering around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Zalazar, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Com a evolução das tecnologias novas técnicas são desenvolvidas, colocando em risco técnicas antigas de comunicação como, por exemplo, letterings pintados à mão nas paredes dos edifícios das cidades, que dia após dia vão sendo retirados. Como consequência, acreditamos que estão a ser perdidas características próprias que representam e caracterizam uma cidade. Durante este projeto, foram investigados vários outros, relacionados com a documentação de imagens de letreiros que p...

  7. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  8. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  9. The generating function enumerating words in n letters without increasing subsequences of length d and with each letter occurring r times

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Gessel's famous Bessel determinant formula gives the generating function to enumerate permutations without increasing subsequences of a given length. Ekhad and Zeilberger recently proposed the challenge to find a suitable generalization to count words of length rn in an alphabet consisting of n letters in which each letter appears exactly r times and which have no increasing subsequences of length d. In this paper we present a generating function for arbitrary values of r expressible as multi...

  10. Mipomersen sodium: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; McKeage, Kate

    2013-04-01

    Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro™) (henceforth mipomersen) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is the main structural component of atherogenic lipid particles. Mipomersen is administered via subcutaneous injection and is indicated as adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). The drug was developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals, which now collaborates with Genzyme Corporation for on-going development and product marketing. Multinational phase III trials of mipomersen as adjunctive therapy were completed in patients with HoFH, severe FH, heterozygous FH (HeFH) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in those with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk of CAD. Mipomersen 200 mg once weekly has been approved in the USA as an adjunct to lipid-lowering medications and diet in HoFH patients and is undergoing regulatory review in the EU for the same indication. Genzyme is also conducting a multinational phase III, open-label extension study to evaluate long-term treatment in HoFH and HeFH patients, as well as a multinational trial to evaluate a three-times-per-week mipomersen regimen in patients with severe FH. This article summarises the milestones in the development of once-weekly, subcutaneous mipomersen leading to this first approval. PMID:23564617

  11. Agreement of 1 July 1986 between Albania and the Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear activities of Albania. An agreement by exchange of letters of 31 October and 28 November 2002 with the Republic of Albania in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: - the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement 1 that entered into force on 25 March 1988, concluded between the Republic of Albania and the IAEA, satisfies the obligation of Albania under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); - the safeguards set forth in the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Albania, in connection with the NPT; - notwithstanding Article 25 of the SGA, the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement shall remain in force as long as Albania is party to the NPT. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 28 November 2002 and, pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  12. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 17 November 2003 with the Republic of Panama in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: the Safeguards Agreement of 23 March 1984, concluded between the Republic of Panama and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Panama under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Panama, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Panama is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 November 2003, and pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  13. Continuous histories and the history group in generalised quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, N

    1995-01-01

    We treat continuous histories within the histories approach to generalised quantum mechanics. The essential tool is the `history group': the analogue, within the generalised history scheme, of the canonical group of single-time quantum mechanics.

  14. Alphabetics: A History of Our Alphabet. A Source Guide for Self-Directed Units. Great Ideas Series. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Sally J.

    This teaching resource presents a historical perspective of the alphabet which encompasses a study of major contributions by: (1) "Prehistoric People"; (2) "The Sumerians"; (3) "The Egyptians"; (4) "The Chinese"; (5) "The Greeks"; and (6) "The Romans." Background information, vocabulary study, student activities, a letter history, and a…

  15. The further interpretation of human nature by Hawthorne's novel "the Scarlet Letter"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Feng Wang qingping

    2009-01-01

    "The Scarlet Letter"is Hawthorne's realist representative.In his masterpiece the Scarlet letter,Hawthorne tells us that all human beings are combination of goodness and evil.As hun~n namre changes between goodness and evil,the science mastered by human beings may bring happiness or pains.

  16. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  17. Adequacy of authors' replies to criticism raised in electronic letters to the editor: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Delamothe, Tony; Godlee, Fiona; Lundh, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors.......To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors....

  18. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 78 FR 28793 on May 16... Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012-D048) AGENCY: Defense... contracting officer role in assisting the DoD implementing agency in preparation of the letter of offer...

  19. 76 FR 43693 - Standard Operating Procedure for “Notice to Industry” Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Standard Operating Procedure for ``Notice to Industry...) for ``Notice to Industry'' Letters. The SOP describes the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's... ``Notice to Industry'' Letters to all manufacturers of a particular group of devices for which the...

  20. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 28, Number 2, March-April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Course Credits on the Quick: Controversial Online Recovery Programs Speed the Path to Graduation (Andrew Brownstein); (2) Collaborating to Make Schools More Inclusive…

  1. An Analysis of the Readability and Style of Letters to Stockholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Jean T.; Darsey, Nancy S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study in which 30 letters from corporation executives to shareholders were examined for readability and writing style. Concludes that letters written by executives who were viewed as successful fell into accepted levels of readability. Observes that opening paragraphs tended to be equivocal or positive. Suggests study of shareholder…

  2. 46 CFR 154.1801 - Certificates, letters, and endorsements: U.S. flag vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificates, letters, and endorsements: U.S. flag... Operations § 154.1801 Certificates, letters, and endorsements: U.S. flag vessels. No person may operate a U.S. flag vessel unless the vessel has a Certificate of Inspection, issued under Subchapter D of...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1802 - Certificates, letters and endorsements: Foreign flag vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificates, letters and endorsements: Foreign flag... Operations § 154.1802 Certificates, letters and endorsements: Foreign flag vessels. (a) No person may operate on the navigable waters of the United States a foreign flag vessel, whose flag administration...

  4. Suppression of Mirror Generalization for Reversible Letters: Evidence from Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Panadero, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Readers of the Roman script must "unlearn" some forms of mirror generalization when processing printed stimuli (i.e., herb and herd are different words). Here we examine whether the suppression of mirror generalization is a process that affects all letters or whether it mostly affects reversible letters (i.e., b/d). Three masked priming lexical…

  5. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 5, September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) The Invisible Hand in Education Policy: Behind the Scenes, Economists Wield Unprecedented Influence (David McKay Wilson); (2) Bonding and Bridging: Schools Open Doors for…

  6. The New Scarlet Letter: Student Perceptions of the Accounting Profession after Enron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mimi; Kreuze, Jerry; Langsam, Sheldon

    2004-01-01

    Recent scandals have tarnished the integrity of the accounting profession, marking it with a modern version of the scarlet letter "A," which represented disgrace in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter." In this study, the authors surveyed college business students on their perceptions of the accounting profession and examined how it can…

  7. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  8. Lettered Resistance at the Genoa Indian School, Genoa, Nebraska (1884-1934).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, Amy

    Little attention has been paid to students' specific literacy practices within Indian boarding schools. This paper examines the letter writing practices of students from the Genoa Industrial Indian School (GIS) in Genoa, Nebraska, from 1884-1934. The paper "reads" the letters as social spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each…

  9. The Letter Position as Facilitative or Debilitative in Word Retention of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marefat, Hamideh; Shirazi, Masoumeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns the effect of letter position on the retention of words by EFL learners. Given the fact that everyone has a mental lexicon, we would suggest that words are possibly organized in alphabetical order, then it would be likely for the learners to retain the words easily when exposed to the first letters of given words. The study…

  10. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  11. Intentional Practices in Supervision of Family Counseling: The Use of Supervisory Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Kimberly J.; Kindsvatter, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Supervisors perform various roles in helping to guide the supervisee through the challenging process of family counseling. The use of letters in supervision helps to focus the supervisory processes in family counseling. Following the discrimination model of supervision, three types of supervisory letters are suggested for intentional supervision…

  12. Designing of a letter sorting machine for the regional post offices in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Normanyo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The hitherto manual sorting of 1,200 letters per hour in the post offices is laborious, labour-intensive and time-consuming. This paper seeks to design a letter sorting machine (LSM based on the conveyor belt transportation and letter sorting principle to replace the manual method of sorting letters. This machine is designed to make sorting of letters very effective and efficient thus, minimizing sorting into wrong destination bins and increasing the number of well-sorted letters per hour to over 30,000. A programmable logic controller (PLC installed in-between the sensors and actuators effects programming flexibility by way of the control program in its memory. Optical character recognition (OCR technology and barcode sorter (BCS systems are employed to read handwritten and printed addresses as well as barcodes. Coding of the regions and a proposed addressing format is resolved thereby enhancing compatibility with the postal optical character reading system. This paper therefore seeks to design a letter sorting machine for the regional post offices in Ghana to increase effectiveness and efficiency of letter delivery.

  13. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  14. Linking Composition and Literature through Metagenres: Using Business Sales Letters in First-Year English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains how first-year composition students wrote business sales letters about short fiction and then revised those letters into full-fledged literary essays that analyzed the stories. By completing these two writings back-to-back (that is, experiencing the metagenres between business writing and literary analysis), students not only…

  15. An Analysis of English Business Letters from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to find out the features of English business letters. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics is used as the theoretical framework, mainly, interpersonal fucntion. The English business letter (EBL) is an important written text used for international business communication and it has its own features of text.…

  16. Effect of Assessment Task and Letter Writing Ability on Preschool Children's Spelling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia; Apel, Kenn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether spelling performance in preschool children varied as a function of the method of assessment and letter writing ability. The authors manipulated the motoric element and memory demands of the task by having children spell single words using letter tiles, orally, and by writing. The authors also…

  17. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... and 48 CFR Ch. 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards... implementing Executive Order No. 12866 (October 4, 1993, 58 FR 51735). OMB policy guidelines are issued...

  18. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... III 48 CFR Chapter 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In a document published in the Federal Register of September 29, 2011 (77 FR...

  19. A 2004 unanswered letter to the Economist magazine requesting a retraction (and apology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2012-01-01

    This is a copy of (the bulk of) a letter I mailed on May 13, 2004 to Sir Robert P. Wilson, President, and three editors of the magazine, the Economist. With the letter, I also sent each recipient a copy of my latest book, "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level" as a gesture of good will. PMID:24437003

  20. MARKETING TECHNIQUES: RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN CEOs’ LETTERS INTRODUCING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTS OF THE COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Anca GÂŢĂ; Michael STOICA

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides limited but new details on the rhetoric of Chief Executive Officers’ letters to stakeholders. We analyze CEOs’ letters to which introduce Corporate Social Responsibility reports for 2012 of several US large companies. The analysis is rooted in discourse analysis, rhetoric, and the theory of argumentation. It yields significant results to be later valued in the field of Business Ethics.

  1. Dissociation between the Procedural Learning of Letter Names and Motor Sequences in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Schiff, Rachel; Vakil, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Motor sequence learning has been studied extensively in Developmental dyslexia (DD). The purpose of the present research was to examine procedural learning of letter names and motor sequences in individuals with DD and control groups. Both groups completed the Serial Search Task which enabled the assessment of learning of letter names and motor…

  2. 39 CFR 320.4 - Suspension for certain letters of college and university organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... letters of college and university organizations. The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and... university. Colleges and universities choosing to provide their student or faculty organizations access to... of a single college or university and which operate in accordance with the Letters of the...

  3. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 6, November-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Video Games Take Testing to the Next Level: Researchers See Promise in Game-Like Assessments That Measure Complex Skills (Robert Rothman); (2) An Academic Foothold for…

  4. Direct-Mail Letters: A Computerized Linkage between Style and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Roy, Emil

    1992-01-01

    Uses a computerized style checker to analyze 14 direct-mail letters used to market books to a middle-class female audience. Outlines methods for correlating stylistic traits with sales success. Finds that letter effectiveness is enhanced by lowering readability levels, as well as by limiting the use of negative words and modifiers. (PRA)

  5. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  6. Does location uncertainty in letter position coding emerge because of literacy training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    In the quest to unveil the nature of the orthographic code, a useful strategy is to examine the transposed-letter effect (e.g., JUGDE is more confusable with its base word, JUDGE, than the replacement-letter nonword JUPTE). A leading explanation of this phenomenon, which is line with models of visual attention, is that there is perceptual uncertainty at assigning letters ("objects") to positions. This mechanism would be at work not only with skilled readers but also with preliterate children. An alternative explanation is that the transposed-letter effect emerges at an orthographic level of processing as a direct consequence of literacy training. To test these accounts, we conducted a same-different matching experiment with preliterate 4-year-old children using same versus different trials (created by letter transposition or replacement). Results showed a significantly larger number of false positives (i.e., "same" responses) to transposed-letter strings than to 1/2 replacement-letter strings. Therefore, the present data favor the view that the visual processing of location information is inherently noisy and rule out an interpretation of confusability in letter position coding as emerging from literacy training. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651460

  7. Phoneme Isolation Ability Is Not Simply a Consequence of Letter-Sound Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Caravolas, Marketa; Malkova, Gabriela; Brigstocke, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether knowledge of specific letter-sound correspondences is a necessary precursor of children's ability to isolate phonemes in speech. In both studies, Czech and English children reliably isolated phonemes for which they did not know the corresponding letter. These data refute the idea that phoneme manipulation ability…

  8. Involving Parents through School Letters: Mothers, Fathers and Teachers Negotiating Children's Education and Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The present article explores home-school relations by analyzing how Swedish teachers and parents negotiate responsibility for children's education and rearing through school letters. It draws on participant observations using a video camera in families, interviews with parents, and analysis of school letters written by teachers to parents. The…

  9. Development of the Letter Identity Span in Reading: Evidence from the Eye Movement Moving Window Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikio, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    By means of the moving window paradigm, we examined how many letters can be identified during a single eye fixation and whether this letter identity span changes as a function of reading skill. The results revealed that 8-year-old Finnish readers identify approximately 5 characters, 10-year-old readers identify approximately 7 characters, and…

  10. 49 CFR 220.29 - Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.29 Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications. (a) If necessary for... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications. 220.29 Section 220.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  11. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... risk and to submit the requested information to facilitate the NRC's determination if there is a need...- mail: Kamal.Manoly@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX Seismic...

  12. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 21, Number 5, September-October 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Where High Turnover Meets Low Performance: New Initiatives Target the Special Problems of Hard-to-Staff Schools (Alexander Russo); (2) Parents as Partners in School Reform:…

  13. Journal of Mormon History, Volume 39, issue 4 (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    LETTER --More on Elijah Ables, Russell W. Stevenson, vi ARTICLES --The Affairs of the “Runaways”: Utah’s First Encounter with the Federal Officers, Part 1, Ronald W. Walker, 1 --Isaac Russell: Mormon Muckraker and Secret Defender of the Church, Kenneth L. Cannon II, 44 --Evil in the Family: Mormons and Catholics Struggling with the Dark Side of Their Histories, Father Daniel P. Dwyer, O.F.M., 99 --“It Was Awful in Its Majesty”: Mary Ann Burnham Freeze’s 1892 Mission to San J...

  14. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 34, No. 4, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    LETTER --Correction Dean Hughes, vi ARTICLES --“Temple Pro Tempore”: The Salt Lake City Endowment House Lisle G Brown, 1 --“They Shall Be Made Whole”: A History of Baptism for Health Jonathan A. Stapley and Kristine L. Wright, 69 --“Cheat the Asylum of a Victim”: George Albert Smith’s 1909–12 Breakdown Mary Jane Woodger, 113 --Appropriating the Secular: Mormonism and the World Columbia Exposition of 1893 Konden Rich Smith, 153 --Under the Gun at the Smoot Hearings: Jose...

  15. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  16. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  17. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  18. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters in Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zolfaghari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intensity of emotion and fluctuation of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and convey intellectual and emotional meanings through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparations. He has sharp eyes and a sensitive spirit and creative temperament and attempts strengthening his own literary language and creating personal style by inventing novel images, showing the creativity and imagination and entering in various arenas of imagination. This point more than anything else could be done by presenting images and new figures. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, a wide field that they have competed. It is obvious that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani's Divan of poetry, as one of the greatest poets of this school, is the perfect poetical book of paintings in which meaning has been hidden under a delicate pattern and new different scientific, cultural and religious images. Letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters, new images, and artistic creativity techniques as well. This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet letters, alphabetic-based authenticity of images, different similarity reasons, semantic and literal multi-relevance of letters in the context of poetry, producing figures of speech based on letters, sensational relationship exists between images and letters which have been shown in his poetry. Letter have a double and even multiple application in Khaghani's poetic works (divan and moreover the construction of words and conveying meaning which is the real and common usage, they were used as artistic instruments

  19. St. Vincent History Research Correspondence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a series of letters about the locations of the Confederate fortress that existed on St. Vincent Island during the Civil War.

  20. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R

    1993-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718