WorldWideScience

Sample records for approaching waterflood depletion

  1. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first project objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second project objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work during the second quarter falls within the demonstration project

  2. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  4. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs

  5. A New Comprehensive Approach for Predicting Injectivity Decline during Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander;

    bores. The ability to predict injectivity decline accurately is of great importance for project designs and water management. A comprehensive model that incorporates a variety of factors influencing the process is desirable for the prediction. In this paper, a new comprehensive approach for predicting...

  6. Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, Mohan; Liner, Chris; Kerr, Dennis

    1999-10-15

    This final report describes the progress during the six year of the project on ''Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance.'' This report is funded under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvially-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The project was divided into two budget periods. In the first budget period, many modern technologies were used to develop a detailed reservoir management plan; whereas, in the second budget period, conventional data was used to develop a reservoir management plan. The idea was to determine the cost effectiveness of various technologies in improving the performance of mature oil fields.

  7. Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report describes the progress during the six year of the project on ''Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance.'' This report is funded under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvially-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The project was divided into two budget periods. In the first budget period, many modern technologies were used to develop a detailed reservoir management plan; whereas, in the second budget period, conventional data was used to develop a reservoir management plan. The idea was to determine the cost effectiveness of various technologies in improving the performance of mature oil fields

  8. Molecular beam depletion: a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dorado, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    During the last years some interesting experimental results have been reported for experiments in N20, N0 , N0 dimer , H2 , Toluene and BaFCH3 cluster. The main result consists in the observation of molecular beam depletion when the molecules of a pulsed beam interact with a static electric or magnetic field and an oscillating field (RF). In these cases, and as a main difference, instead of using four fields as in the original technique developed by I.I. Rabi and others, only two fields, those which configure the resonant unit, are used. That is, without using the nonhomogeneous magnetic fields. The depletion explanation for I.I. Rabi and others is based in the interaction between the molecular electric or magnetic dipole moment and the non-homogeneous fields. But, obviously, the change in the molecules trajectories observed on these new experiments has to be explained without considering the force provided by the field gradient because it happens without using non-homogeneous fields. In this paper a theoreti...

  9. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual progress report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the fourth year of the project on {open_quotes}Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance{close_quotes}. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage 1) has sustained an increase of 30 bbls/day over a year with an additional increase anticipated with further implementation. We have collected available core, log and production data from Section 16 in the Berryhill Glenn Unit and have finished the geological description. Based on the geological description and the associated petrophysical properties, we have developed a new indexing procedure for identifying the areas with the most potential. We are also investigating an adjoining tract formerly operated by Chevron where successful miceller-polymer flood was conducted. This will help us in evaluating the reasons for the success of the flood. Armed with this information, we will conduct a detailed geostatistical and flow simulation study and recommend the best reservoir management plan to improve the recovery of the field.

  10. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    porous media. The main conclusion of most previous studies was that it is the rock wettability alteration towards more water wetting condition that helps improving the oil recovery. In the first step of this project, we focused on verifying this conclusion. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using...... imbibition rather than forced flooding. The objective of the third step of this project was to investigate the potential of high salinity waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition using core plugs with and...... without aging. The total oil recovery, recovery rate and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injected fluids under different temperatures and wettability conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the oil recovery mechanism under high salinity seawater flooding at...

  11. Ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence: an integrated modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; den Elzen MGJ; de Woerd HJ; de Greef J

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in stratospheric ozone, probably caused by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, has been observed over large parts of the globe. The incidence of skin cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion. An integrated source-risk model is developed and applied to evaluate the increased

  12. Depleted uranium weapons and international law: A precautionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. McDonald; J.K. Kleffner; B. Toebes

    2008-01-01

    This books provides an in-depth analysis of the international legal aspects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition and armour. The military use of DU has been surrounded by considerable controversy, mainly as regards the health and environmental risks that such use entails. The debate about

  13. Ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence: an integrated modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Slaper H; den Elzen MGJ; de Woerd HJ; Greef J de

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in stratospheric ozone, probably caused by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, has been observed over large parts of the globe. The incidence of skin cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion. An integrated source-risk model is developed and applied to evaluate the increased skin cancer incidence related to various CFC emission scenarios. The source-risk model is an independent submodule within the framework of IMAGE, an integrated source-effect-model for climate change...

  14. Self-regulatory failure: a resource-depletion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, K D; Heatherton, T F

    2000-05-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the behavioral consequences of effortful self-regulation. Individuals with chronic inhibitions about eating were exposed to situations varying in level of self-regulatory demand. Subsequently, participants' ability to self-regulate was measured. Two studies manipulated self-regulatory demand by exposing participants to good-tasting snack foods, whereas a third study required participants to control their emotional expressions. As hypothesized, exerting self-control during the first task led to decrements in self-control on a subsequent task. Moreover, these effects were not due to changes in affective state and occurred only when self-control was required in the first task. These findings are explained in terms of depletion of self-regulatory resources, which impairs successful volitional control. PMID:11273412

  15. Identification of waterflooded zones and the impact of waterflooding on reservoir properties of the Funing Formation in the Subei Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-hui ZHANG; Jin-liang ZHANG; Wei-wei REN; Jun XIE; Ming LI; Jing-zhe LI; Fang DING; Jin-kai WANG; Zi-rui DONG

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the identification ofwaterflooded zones and the impact ofwaterflooding on reservoir properties of sandstones of the Funing Formation at the Gao 6 Fault-block of the Gaoji Oilfield,in the Subei Basin,east China.This work presents a new approach based on a back-propagation neural network using well log data to train the network,and then generating a cross-plot plate to identify waterflooded zones.A neural network was designed and trained,and the results show that the new method is better than traditional methods.For a comparative study,two representative wells at the Gao 6 Fault-block were chosen for analysis: one from a waterflooded zone,and the other from a zone without waterflooding.Results from this analysis were used to develop a better understanding of the impact of waterflooding on reservoir properties.A range of changes are shown to have taken place in the waterflooded zone,including changes in microscopic pore structure,fluids,and minerals.

  16. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project consist of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. During this phase the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task were completed. Completion of these tasks enabled the project to be designed, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation to be generated and submitted to the working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consists of the implementation and execution of the project in the field

  17. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2003-08-13

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on characterization of Germania Unit using an analog field ET ODaniel unit and old cased hole neutron. Petrophysical Characterization of the Germania Spraberry units requires a unique approach for a number of reasons--limited core data, lack of modern log data and absence of directed studies within the unit. The need for characterization of the Germania unit has emerged as a first step in the review, understanding and enhancement of the production practices applicable within the unit and the trend area in general. In the absence or lack of the afore mentioned resources, an approach that will rely heavily on previous petrophysical work carried out in the neighboring ET O'Daniel unit (6.2 miles away), and normalization of the old log data prior to conventional interpretation techniques will be used. A log-based rock model has been able to guide successfully the prediction of pay and non-pay intervals within the ET O'Daniel unit, and will be useful if found applicable within the Germania unit. A novel multiple regression technique utilizing non-parametric transformations to achieve better correlations in predicting a dependent variable (permeability) from multiple independent variables (rock type, shale volume and porosity) will also be investigated in this study. A log data base includes digitized

  18. Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and reservoir rock due to the presence of active components in the injected brine produce changes within the reservoir and can significantly impact the fluid flow. We have developed a 1D numerical model for waterflooding accounting for dissolution and...... equation of state is used to account for brine density variation with regard to pressure and composition. We present a numerical study of the evolution of the reservoir parameters in the framework of the developed model. It is demonstrated that the systems characterized by large Damkohler numbers (fast...

  19. Probabilistic approach for decay heat uncertainty estimation using URANIE platform and MENDEL depletion code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilanizara, A.; Gilardi, N.; Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.; Lahaye, S.; Martinez, J. M.; Diop, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the decay heat quantity and the associated uncertainties are important issues for the safety of nuclear facilities. Many codes are available to estimate the decay heat. ORIGEN, FISPACT, DARWIN/PEPIN2 are part of them. MENDEL is a new depletion code developed at CEA, with new software architecture, devoted to the calculation of physical quantities related to fuel cycle studies, in particular decay heat. The purpose of this paper is to present a probabilistic approach to assess decay heat uncertainty due to the decay data uncertainties from nuclear data evaluation like JEFF-3.1.1 or ENDF/B-VII.1. This probabilistic approach is based both on MENDEL code and URANIE software which is a CEA uncertainty analysis platform. As preliminary applications, single thermal fission of uranium 235, plutonium 239 and PWR UOx spent fuel cell are investigated.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of dimensionless parameters for physical simulation of water-flooding reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuhu; LI; Jiachun; ZHOU; Jifu

    2005-01-01

    A numerical approach to optimize dimensionless parameters of water-flooding porous media flows is proposed based on the analysis of the sensitivity factor defined as the variation ration of a target function with respect to the variation of dimensionless parameters. A complete set of scaling criteria for water-flooding reservoir of five-spot well pattern case is derived from the 3-D governing equations, involving the gravitational force,the capillary force and the compressibility of water, oil and rock. By using this approach,we have estimated the influences of each dimensionless parameter on experimental results, and thus sorting out the dominant ones with larger sensitivity factors ranging from 10-4 to 100.

  1. Waterflooding optimization in uncertain geological scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Suwartadi, Eka; Foss, Bjarne;

    2013-01-01

    In conventional waterflooding of an oil field, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with a conventional reactive strategy in which producers are closed based on water breakthrough. To compensate for the inherent geological uncertainties in an oil field...... realizations is maximized. In this paper, we both consider an open-loop optimization scenario, with no feedback, and a closed-loop optimization scenario. The closed-loop scenario is implemented in a moving horizon manner and feedback is obtained using an ensemble Kalman filter for estimation of the....... It uses the mean of the ensemble as its permeability field. Simulations reveal that the RO strategy and the certainty equivalent strategy give a higher NPV compared to the reactive strategy. Surprisingly, the RO strategy and the certainty equivalent strategy give similar NPVs. Consequently, the...

  2. DNA vector-based RNAi approach for stable depletion of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique that is now being used in mammalian cells to specifically silence a gene. Some recent studies have used this technique to achieve variable extent of depletion of a nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). These studies reported either transient silencing of PARP-1 using double-stranded RNA or stable silencing of PARP-1 with a DNA vector which was introduced by a viral delivery system. In contrast, here we report that a simple RNAi approach which utilizes a pBS-U6-based DNA vector containing strategically selected PARP-1 targeting sequence, introduced in the cells by conventional CaPO4 protocol, can be used to achieve stable and specific silencing of PARP-1 in different types of cells. We also provide a detailed strategy for selection and cloning of PARP-1-targeting sequences for the DNA vector, and demonstrate that this technique does not affect expression of its closest functional homolog PARP-2

  3. Analyzing waterflood responses for Pekisko B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedenczuk, L. [Gambit Consulting Ltd., (Canada); Pedersen, P.; Marshall, M. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    A study was conducted between January 1990 and September 1997 to find fluid communication between injectors and producers in the Pekisko B pool, the largest oil pool in the Sylvan Lake Field, and the third largest oil pool in the Gilby, Medicine River and Sylvan Lake Field areas in Alberta. A total of eight injectors (patterns) and all wells within a radius of 1700 m from any specific injector were analyzed. The analysis was based on responses of producers to change in the injection rates. The strength of the oil response was measured as the correlation between the oil rate and the injection rate. Three sets of primary parameters characterized the oil, gas and water response. The waterflood responses were presented in the form of special XY diagrams. All injectors showed medium or strong communication with producers as defined by the oil responses. This method of finding fluid responses proved to be more cost and time effective than conventional engineering methods. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Health impacts of climate change and ozone depletion: an ecoepidemiologic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W J

    1998-02-01

    Anthropogenic climate changes and stratospheric ozone depletion affect human health in various ways. Current mainstream epidemiologic research methods do not appear well adapted to analyze these health impacts, which involve complex systems influenced by human interventions or simpler processes that will take place in the future. This paper discusses a different paradigm for studying the health impacts of global environmental changes and focuses on the development of integrated ecoepidemiologic models using three examples--the effect of climate change on vector-borne diseases, the effect of climate change on thermal-related mortality, and the effects of increasing ultraviolet levels because of ozone depletion on the rates of skin cancer. PMID:9539017

  5. An approach for serotonin depletion in pigs: effects on serotonin receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Kornum, Birgitte R; Weikop, Pia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    CPA caused average decreases in 5-HT concentrations of 61% ± 14% and 66% ± 16%, respectively, and a substantial loss of 5-HT immunostaining was seen throughout the brain. The serotonin depletion significantly increased 5-HT₄ receptor binding in nucleus accumbens, but did not alter 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A...

  6. An approach for serotonin depletion in pigs: effects on serotonin receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Kornum, Birgitte R; Weikop, Pia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    CPA caused average decreases in 5-HT concentrations of 61% ± 14% and 66% ± 16%, respectively, and a substantial loss of 5-HT immunostaining was seen throughout the brain. The serotonin depletion significantly increased 5-HT4 receptor binding in nucleus accumbens, but did not alter 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A...

  7. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  8. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  9. Breaching the Castle Walls: Hyaluronan-Depletion as a Therapeutic Approach to Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Michael eShepard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA has many functions in the extracellular milieu of normal and diseased tissues. Disease-associated HA accumulation has been shown to predict a worsened prognosis in cancer patients, with tumors having a high extracellular HA content (HA-high being more aggressive than their HA-low counterparts. HA-high tumor aggressiveness is derived from the specialized biomechanical and molecular properties of the HA-based assembly of HA binding proteins and the growth-promoting factors that accumulate in it. Biophysical characteristics of an HA-high tumor microenvironment include high tumor interstitial pressure, compression of tumor vasculature, and resulting tumor hypoxia. Within the tumor cell membrane, HA receptors, primarily CD44 and RHAMM, anchor the HA-high extracellular network. HA-CD44 association on the tumor cell surface enhances receptor tyrosine kinase activity to drive tumor progression and treatment resistance. Together, malignant cells in this HA-high matrix may evolve dependency on it for growth. This yields the hypothesis that depleting HA in HA-high tumors may be associated with a therapeutic benefit. A pegylated form of recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (PEGPH20 has been deployed as a potential cancer therapeutic in HA-high tumors. PEGPH20 can collapse this matrix by degrading the HA-assembled tumor extracellular framework, leading to tumor growth inhibition, preferentially in HA-high tumors. Enzymatic depletion of HA by PEGPH20 results in re-expansion of the tumor vasculature, reduction in tumor hypoxia, and increased penetration of therapeutic molecules into the tumor. Finally, HA depletion results in reduced signaling via CD44/RHAMM. Taken together, HA-depletion strategies accomplish their antitumor effects by multiple mechanisms that include targeting both biophysical and molecular signaling pathways. Ongoing clinical trials are examining the potential of PEGPH20 in combination with partner therapeutics in several

  10. A Linear Dynamic Programming Approach to Irrigation System Management with Depleting Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stoecker, A. L.; A. Seidmann; Lloyd, G S

    1985-01-01

    A model for measuring the economic benefits of irrigation system development over a depleting aquifer is presented, along with related methodology for detailed long-range farm planning. The paper considers management issues, such as distribution system configuration, drilling policy, area developed for irrigation, and crop production. A Linear Dynamic Programming (LDP) method is developed and applied to derive optimal temporal investments in the use of stock resources and long-term cropping p...

  11. Health impacts of climate change and ozone depletion: an ecoepidemiologic modeling approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate changes and stratospheric ozone depletion affect human health in various ways. Current mainstream epidemiologic research methods do not appear well adapted to analyze these health impacts, which involve complex systems influenced by human interventions or simpler processes that will take place in the future. This paper discusses a different paradigm for studying the health impacts of global environmental changes and focuses on the development of integrated ecoepidemiolog...

  12. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  13. Comparison of microbial community compositions of injection and production well samples in a long-term water-flooded petroleum reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Ren

    Full Text Available Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water.

  14. Space Weathering: A Proposed Laboratory Approach to Explaining the Sulfur Depletion on Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, M. A.; Kracher, A.; Sears, D. W. G.; Cassidy, W.; Hapke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Space weathering is the cumulative effect of physical and chemical changes that occur to substances exposed on the exterior of body void of an atmosphere [1], in this case the regolith on asteroid Eros. It is only recently that the scientific community has accepted the theory first developed in the mid- 1970s by Hapke and his colleagues of how space weathering occurs. The theory [1] asserts that optical and magnetic effects, first studied on moon rocks and lunar regolith, are caused by submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe), smaller than the wavelength of light in vapor deposit coatings, on regolith grains, and in agglutinates. This vapor is generated by solar wind and micrometeorite impacts and does not require additional heating, melting, or a reducing environment to produce space weathering. One of the major finds of the first detailed reconnaissance of an asteroid by the NEAR Shoemaker mission was that the surface of Eros was essentially chondritic yet showed major depletions in sulfur [2, 3]. Here we propose space weathering sputtering experiments that may contribute to the explanation of sulfur depletion on asteroid Eros.

  15. A Novel Integrated Approach to Modelling of Depletion-Induced Change in Full Permeability Tensor of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More than half of all hydrocarbon reservoirs are Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFRs, in which production forecasting is a complicated function of fluid flow in a fracture-matrix system. Modelling of fluid flow in NFRs is challenging due to formation heterogeneity and anisotropy. Stress sensitivity and depletion effect on already-complex reservoir permeability add to the sophistication. Horizontal permeability anisotropy and stress sensitivity are often ignored or inaccurately taken into account when simulating fluid flow in NFRs. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach for evaluating the dynamic and true anisotropic nature of permeability in naturally fractured reservoirs. Among other features, this approach considers the effect of reservoir depletion on reservoir permeability tensor, allowing more realistic production forecasts. In this approach the NFR is discretized into grids for which an analytical model yields full permeability tensors. Then, fluid flow is modelled using the finite-element method to obtain pore-pressure distribution within the reservoir. Next, another analytical model evaluates the change in the aperture of individual fractures as a function of effective stress and rock mechanical properties. The permeability tensor of each grid is then updated based on the apertures obtained for the current time step. The integrated model proceeds according to the next prescribed time increments.

  16. Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progressive reduction of high-quality-easy-to-extract energy is a widely recognized and already ongoing process. Although depletion studies for individual fuels are relatively abundant, few of them offer a global perspective of all energy sources and their potential future developments, and even fewer include the demand of the socio-economic system. This paper presents an Economy-Energy-Environment model based on System Dynamics which integrates all those aspects: the physical restrictions (with peak estimations for oil, gas, coal and uranium), the techno-sustainable potential of renewable energy estimated by a novel top-down methodology, the socio-economic energy demands, the development of alternative technologies and the net CO2 emissions. We confront our model with the basic assumptions of previous Global Environmental Assessment (GEA) studies. The results show that demand-driven evolution, as performed in the past, might be unfeasible: strong energy-supply scarcity is found in the next two decades, especially in the transportation sector before 2020. Electricity generation is unable to fulfill its demand in 2025–2040, and a large expansion of electric renewable energies move us close to their limits. In order to find achievable scenarios, we are obliged to set hypotheses which are hardly used in GEA scenarios, such as zero or negative economic growth. - Highlights: • The paper presents and describes a new Energy–Economy–Environment global model. • GEA scenario dynamics have the potential to lead us to energy resource scarcity in the next 2 decades. • Global forecasts of international agencies show inconsistency in energy constraints. • Renewable energies are only partially able to replace fossil fuels depletion. • Climate change still reaches dangerous dimensions

  17. Experimental waterflooding using polyacrylamide solution in the Romashkinskoe field. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidullin, G.N.; Lezhenin, V.G.; Lerman, B.A.; Riyanov, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    After the start of waterflooding, productivity of the wells was significantly improved; however, an early breakthrough of water was observed in wells located near the injection contour. This could be attributed to heterogeneity of the formation and high viscosity of oil. This would result in low recovery factors. To improve oil recovery, polymer flooding was started in the fifth horizon of the Romashkinskoe field on a pilot scale. An increase of 8% in the recovery factor is expected over the recovery factor which would be obtained by regular waterflooding. Recovery factors for polymer flooding were calculated by the Buckley-Leverett method with the assumption that water-injection after the polymer slug injection could not change significantly the conductivity of the formation. Field-wise and well-wise data of this pilot test are presented.

  18. A microvisual study of steamdrive mechanisms in waterflooded oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinmin, Song; Yongbin, Wu; Xiuluan, Li; Hongzhuang, Wang; Youwei Jiang [RIPED of CNPC (China); Xin, Zhao [Daqing Oilfield of CNPC (China)

    2011-07-01

    In conventional heavy and light oil reservoirs, waterflooding is used as a development technology but the oil recovery rates are usually low. In order to address this issue, steam injection has been tested and has performed well in pilot tests and industrialized application. The aim of this study is to present a model for visualizing pore scale EOR mechanisms. A high temperature high pressure (HTHP) micromodel was developed, it is housed in a pressure vessel with water bath for it to withstand high pressure and temperature conditions; experiments were undertaken using this tool. Results showed that the oil's thermal expansion, viscosity reduction and steam dilatation and wettability alteration are some of the EOR mechanisms. This study demonstrated that the steamflooding after waterflooding in porous media is an effective method for enhancing oil recovery through an improvement of the displacement efficiency.

  19. Benefits of a horizontal well in sandstone waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a case study which describes the planning and results of a horizontal well in a shallow Wilcox sandstone waterflood unit in central Louisiana. The Tremont H-13-1 was OXY USA Inc.'s first horizontal well. Analysis will include examination of the selection criteria, planning, execution, completion, and production. A variety of well and field data is presented and reviewed to access the value of this information as it applies towards other applications. The Cruse Waterflood Unit is a 2100 ft. Wilcox formation in central Louisiana. Production improvements have been 500% or greater for the horizontal well versus adjacent vertical wells. The horizontal well paid out in less than 4 months Results from this well indicate that not only was this project an economic success, but that other fields will similar conditions can be produced in a more profitable manner with horizontal wells

  20. Low Salinity Waterflood in Combination with Surfactant/Polymer; Effect of Surfactant Slug Size

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ajmi, Adnan Ibrahim Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    In last years, there has been a growing interest in the effect of reducing salinity of injected water in oil recovery. Many studies have showed that low salinity waterflooding is a promising method that can lead to a significant reduction in residual oil saturation compared to traditional waterflooding. The mechanisms behind improved oil recovery by low salinity waterflooding are not fully understood, but many researchers have claimed wettability alteration. In t...

  1. Experimental Study of Low Salinity Waterflooding and its Effect on Wettability

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvig, Sigrid Ingebjørg Hidle

    2011-01-01

    Many low salinity waterflooding studies have been performed, both in the laboratory and on the reservoir scale, over the last decades. These studies have proven that, under the right conditions, it is possible to get an enhanced oil recovery by reducing the salinity of the injecting water.This report presents laboratory core sample experiments on low salinity waterflooding and its effect on wettability, along with a literature study of low salinity waterflooding and rock wettability.Two set o...

  2. REFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2004-02-13

    This report describes the work performed during the first semi-annual third year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on analyzing production and injection data to optimize the reservoir management strategies for Germania Spraberry Unit. This study address the reservoir characterization and monitoring of the waterflooding project and propose alternatives of development of the current and future conditions of the reservoir to improve field performance. This research should serve as a guide for future work in reservoir simulation and can be used to evaluate various scenarios for additional development as well as to optimize the operating practices in the field. The results indicate that under the current conditions, a total of 1.410 million barrels of oil can be produced in the next 20 years through the 64 active wells and suggest that the unit can be successfully flooded with the current injection rate of 1600 BWPD and the pattern consisting of 6 injection wells aligned about 36 degrees respect to the major fracture orientation. In addition, a progress report on GSU waterflood pilot is reported for this period.

  3. Waterflood improvement in the Permian Basin: Impact of in-situ-stress evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, R.C.; Avasthi, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Pape, W.C. (West Australian Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)); El Rabaa, A.W. (Mobil E and P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluated in-situ-stress magnitudes and directions to support waterflood improvement programs in McElroy field and North Westbrook Unit. In-situ-stress and hydraulic-fracture directions coincided with directional floodwater effects. This information contributed to successful waterflood realignment programs.

  4. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  5. Enhanced oil recovery by improved waterflooding. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    Energy Resources Co. Inc. is currently operating a pilot polymer improved waterflood of the Storms Pool, a sandstone reservoir in the Illinois basin. During the second year of the project, progress was made in the laboratory work, field preparation, and computer simulation. Tasks II, VII, and IX, polymer selection, workovers, and model building were completed during 1979. The polymer selected is a xanthan type polysaccharide polymer. Other laboratory work included preliminary testing of biocides and oxygen scavengers. Development of the pilot area continued with the completion of the well workovers and the design and initiation of construction of the injection facility. Preliminary simulation was begun.

  6. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  7. The optimized algorithm for the microscopic depletion model in the COCAGNE core code a 2-level core partitioning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF/R and D is developing a new calculation scheme based on the transport-Simplified Pn (SPn) approach. The lattice code used is the deterministic code APOLLO2, developed at CEA with the support of EDF and AREVA-NP. The core code is the code COCAGNE, developed at EDF R and D. The latter can take advantage of a microscopic depletion solver which improves the treatment of spectral history effects. The accuracy of this model has been proven to be very useful for industrial uses but until now, being very time consuming as well as memory greedy, this model could not be used in production and needed to be re-written from the ground with speed and memory constraints in mind. This paper introduces the new methodology, a 2-levels core partitioning paradigm. Theses partitions, based on physics considerations, are also well suited for modern multi-core CPU architecture, and parallelizing in shared memory shows good speedup. Compared to the previous version, a total speedup of around 100 has been obtained: roughly 20 due to the algorithm and 5 due to the parallelization on a 8 cores chip. These results have been obtained on a machine similar to those that will be used in production. (author)

  8. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Balali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

    2005-09-05

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air

  10. The use of interruptible power in west Texas waterflood operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interruptible power purchased from electric utilities has been used by chemical and process industries for many years, but is not generally used in oil producing operations. Interruptible power represents an established option to reduce electric power costs, which are often the oil producer's single largest operating expense. The recent use of interruptible power in Amoco Production Company's West Texas waterflood operations has significantly reduced operating expenses. Interruptible power rates are offered by many electric utility companies; however, the impact on producing operations is generally not known. This paper addresses the initial areas of concern and offers over two years of case history data showing how interruptible power affects operating costs. production equipment, producing rates and safety/environmental operations

  11. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  12. Agricultural production and groundwater depletion under climate variability in India - Results from a regional scale crop modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Sobolowski, S.; Fishman, R.; Vasquez, V.; Raj, P.; Narula, K. K.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    In India, recent declines in national food security may point to systemic deficiencies of agricultural production. Over the past decade and in the face of declining public investments in irrigation projects, the growth of production has increasingly become reliant on the allocation of large volumes of groundwater in an unsustainable manner. As a result, shallow as well as deep fossil groundwater resources are increasingly depleted and the buffer that mitigates negative impacts on production in case of Monsoonal dry-spells / drought conditions is lost. In the face of future climate and food supply uncertainty, it is vital that the connections between climate variability, unsustainable irrigation practices and their impacts on regional scale agricultural production be quantified and better understood. In our analysis, we focus on rice production in the Telengana region in Andhra Pradesh, which is characterized by a semi-arid tropical climate that is driven by the bimodal seasonality of the south-western monsoon. Traditionally, agricultural production of rice was constrained by precipitation variations during the wet season (Kharif). However, the advent of inexpensive pump technology in the 1970's, coupled with governmentally subsidized electricity has allowed year-round rice production. Thus, the Monsoon rains must not only drive wet season production but must also sufficiently recharge groundwater in order to support dry season production. Observed Production time series are characterized by non-stationarity and heteroscedasticity. Using a subset of eight districts, a non-linear Gaussian Process regression model is developed and yearly crop production is modeled at the district level over 48 years. We show that interannual climate variations, in the form of the monsoon rains, play a significant role in determining the area of land set aside for dry season planting and thus affect total yearly production. The results suggest that a non-linear Bayesian regression

  13. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei, issued today the following statement: The IAEA has been involved in United Nations efforts relating to the impact of the use of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition in Kosovo. It has supported the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the assessment which it is making, at the request of the Secretary-General, of that impact. In this connection, in November 2000, Agency experts participated in a UNEP-led fact-finding mission in Kosovo. DU is only slightly radioactive, being about 40% as radioactive as natural uranium. Chemically and physically, DU behaves in the same way as natural uranium. The chemical toxicity is normally the dominant factor for human health. However, it is necessary to carefully assess the impact of DU in the special circumstances in which it was used, e.g. to determine whether it was inhaled or ingested or whether fragments came into close contact with individuals. It is therefore essential, before an authoritative conclusion can be reached, that a detailed survey of the territory in which DU was used and of the people who came in contact with the depleted uranium in any form be carried out. In the meantime it would be prudent, as recommended by the leader of the November UNEP mission, to adopt precautionary measures. Depending on the results of the survey further measures may be necessary. The Agency, within its statutory responsibilities and on the basis of internationally accepted radiation safety standards, will continue to co-operate with other organizations, in particular WHO and UNEP, with a view to carrying out a comprehensive assessment. Co-operation by and additional information from NATO will be prerequisites. The experience gained from such an assessment could be useful for similar studies that may be carried out elsewhere in the Balkans or in the Gulf. (author)

  14. The Status and Prospects of Enhancing Oil Recovery Technology for Waterflooding Oilfields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Pingping; Yuan Shiyi

    1994-01-01

    @@ The water injection method has been used in most of oilfields in China even at the beginning of development, meanwhile the laboratory research on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) for these oilfields simultareously started too. Oilfields developed in 1960's have mostly been at a high watercut stage since 1990.Tasks in face of petroleum reservoir engineers are on the one hand, further improving recovery of waterflooding by integrated adjustments such as infill well drilling, water/oil ratio controlling, injection profile adjusting, etc. On the other hand, EOR techniques for waterflooding oilfields must be studied and applied to improve mostly the potential of underground resources and to increase recoverable reserves.

  15. Comparison of autoregressive (AR) strategy with that of regression approach for determining ozone layer depletion as a physical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication presents the development of a comprehensive characterization of ozone layer depletion (OLD) phenomenon as a physical process in the form of mathematical models that comprise the usual regression, multiple or polynomial regression and stochastic strategy. The relevance of these models has been illuminated using predicted values of different parameters under a changing environment. The information obtained from such analysis can be employed to alter the possible factors and variables to achieve optimum performance. This kind of analysis initiates a study towards formulating the phenomenon of OLD as a physical process with special reference to the stratospheric region of Pakistan. The data presented here establishes that the Auto regressive (AR) nature of modeling OLD as a physical process is an appropriate scenario rather than using usual regression. The data reported in literature suggest quantitatively the OLD is occurring in our region. For this purpose we have modeled this phenomenon using the data recorded at the Geophysical Centre Quetta during the period 1960-1999. The predictions made by this analysis are useful for public, private and other relevant organizations. (author)

  16. The Gulf War depleted uranium cohort at 20 years: bioassay results and novel approaches to fragment surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Hines, Stella; Breyer, Richard; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Engelhardt, Susan M; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Kane, Robert; Cernich, Alison; Kaup, Bruce; Hoover, Dennis; Gaspari, Anthony A; Liu, Juan; Harberts, Erin; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A; Gray, Patrick J; Xu, Hanna; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-04-01

    During the 1991 GulfWar, U.S. service members were exposed to depleted uranium (DU) through friendly-fire incidents involving DU munitions and vehicles protected by DU armor. Routes of exposure to DU involved inhalation of soluble and insoluble DU oxide particles, wound contamination, and retained embedded DU metal fragments that continue to oxidize in situ and release DU to the systemic circulation. A biennial health surveillance program established for this group of Veterans by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has shown continuously elevated urine DU concentrations in the subset of veterans with embedded fragments for over 20 years. While the 2011 assessment was comprehensive, few clinically significant U-related health effects were observed. This report is focused on health outcomes associated with two primary target organs of concern for long term effects of this combat-related exposure to DU. Renal biomarkers showed minimal DU-related effects on proximal tubule function and cytotoxicity, but significant biomarker results were observed when urine concentrations of multiple metals also found in fragments were examined together. Pulmonary tests and questionnaire results indicate that pulmonary function after 20 y remains within the clinical normal range. Imaging of DU embedded fragment-associated tissue for signs of inflammatory or proliferative reactions possibly associated with foreign body transformation or with local alpha emissions from DU was also conducted using PET-CT and ultrasound. These imaging tools may be helpful in guiding decisions regarding removal of fragments. PMID:23439138

  17. Total depletion of ozone reached in the 2010–2011 Arctic winter as observed by MIPAS/ENVISAT using a 2-D tomographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Dinelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the 2010–2011 Arctic winter stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard ENVISAT. Limb sounding infrared measurements were taken by MIPAS during the Northern polar winter and into the subsequent spring, giving a continuous vertically resolved view of the Arctic dynamics, chemistry and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. We adopted a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach to account for the strong horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere present under vortex conditions, self-consistently comparing 2011 to the 2-D analysis of 2003–2010. Unlike most Arctic winters, 2011 was characterized by a strong stratospheric vortex lasting until early April. Lower stratospheric temperatures persistently remained below the threshold for PSC formation, extending the PSC season up to mid-March, resulting in significant chlorine activation leading to ozone destruction. Through inspection of MIPAS spectra, 84% of PSCs were identified as supercooled ternary solution (STS or STS mixed with nitric acid trihydrate (NAT, 16% formed mostly by NAT particles, and only a few by ice. In the lower stratosphere at potential temperature 450 K, vortex average ozone showed a daily depletion rate reaching 100 ppbv day−1. In early April at 18 km altitude, 10% of vortex measurements displayed total depletion of ozone, and vortex average values dropped to 0.6 ppmv. This corresponds to a chemical loss from early winter greater than 80%. Ozone loss was accompanied by activation of ClO, associated depletion of its reservoir ClONO2, and significant denitrification, which further delayed the recovery of ozone in spring. Sporadic increases of NO2 associated with evaporation of sedimenting PSCs were also observed. Once the PSC season halted, ClO was reconverted into ClONO2. Compared to MIPAS observed 2003–2010 Arctic average values, the 2010–2011 vortex in late winter had 15 K lower temperatures, 40% lower

  18. Extreme ozone depletion in the 2010–2011 Arctic winter stratosphere as observed by MIPAS/ENVISAT using a 2-D tomographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arnone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the 2010–2011 Arctic winter stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard ENVISAT. Limb sounding infrared measurements were taken by MIPAS during the Northern polar winter and into the subsequent spring, giving a continuous vertically resolved view of the Arctic dynamics, chemistry and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. We adopted a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach to account for the strong horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere present under vortex conditions, self-consistently comparing 2011 to the 2-D analysis of 2003–2010. Unlike most Arctic winters, 2011 was characterized by a strong stratospheric vortex lasting until early April. Lower stratospheric temperatures persistently remained below the threshold for PSC formation, extending the PSC season up to mid-March, resulting in significant chlorine activation leading to ozone destruction. On 3 January 2011, PSCs were detected up to 30.5 ± 0.9 km altitude, representing the highest PSCs ever reported in the Arctic. Through inspection of MIPAS spectra, 83% of PSCs were identified as supercooled ternary solution (STS or STS mixed with nitric acid trihydrate (NAT, 17% formed mostly by NAT particles, and only two cases by ice. In the lower stratosphere at potential temperature 450 K, vortex average ozone showed a daily depletion rate reaching 100 ppbv day−1. In early April at 18 km altitude, 10% of vortex measurements displayed total depletion of ozone, and vortex average values dropped to 0.6 ppmv. This corresponds to a chemical loss from early winter greater than 80%. Ozone loss was accompanied by activation of ClO, associated depletion of its reservoir ClONO2, and significant denitrification, which further delayed the recovery of ozone in spring. Once the PSC season halted, ClO was reconverted primarily into ClONO2. Compared to MIPAS observed 2003–2010 Arctic average values

  19. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan

  20. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  1. Simulation of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery: History Match of Waterflooding and Polymer injection at Adverse Mobility Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sawafi, Marwan Sulaiman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Waterflooding and polymer flooding total recovery in the unstable immiscible displacement is very attractive and its applications are interesting in recent years. However, the simulation models of unstable immiscible flooding are not well understood and need more investigations and studies. The conventional method to simulate polymer flooding is to history match the waterflooding and uses relative permeability in addition to the bulk polymer rheology to predict t...

  2. A note on the effects of replenishment of depleted cells on HIV infection dynamics: A graph-theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwembi, Simon

    2008-02-01

    We study the effects of the rate of replacement of dead cells by either healthy cells or by infected cells on HIV infection dynamics through a graph-theoretic approach. Our framework takes into account a reasonable amount of the immune action to any pathogen and the local cell interactions that occur in the lymph nodes. Our results, in an extremal case where dead cells are highly likely to be replaced by healthy cells, show that all cells become healthy in a finite number of steps of given order and infection stops propagating. Further, for this extremal case, we give an algebraic formula for the number of infected cells at any given time in the HIV progression. We also find a sufficient condition, determined by dead cell replacement rate, which guarantees that an infected patient is continually positive, and give bounds on the number of infected, healthy and dead cells at any given time. We apply our theoretical results to a recently proposed model of the HIV infection dynamics.

  3. Microbial diversity and abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang long-term water-flooding petroleum reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Microbial populations associated with microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and their abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang water-flooding petroleum reservoir were investigated using 16S rRNA, nitrate reductases, dissimilatory sulfate reductase, and methyl coenzyme-M reductase-encoded genes to provide ecological information for the potential application of MEOR. 16S rRNA gene miseq sequencing revealed that this reservoir harbored large amounts of taxa, including 155 bacterial and 7 archeal gener...

  4. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  5. Induced migration of fines during waterflooding in communicating layer-cake reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fines migration induced by injection of water with a different salinity than the reservoir brine are incorporated into the upscaling model for waterflooding in a layer cake reservoir with good communication between the layers. Mobilization and re-capturing of the reservoir fines may give rise to reduction of the permeability in water swept zones, which subsequently leads to the diversion of water flow from the initially more permeable layers to the less permeable ones. As a res...

  6. B-SPLINE-BASED SVM MODEL AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO OIL WATER-FLOODED STATUS IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Fuhua; Zhao Tiejun; Yi Xiongying

    2007-01-01

    A method of B-spline transform for signal feature extraction is developed. With the B-spline,the log-signal space is mapped into the vector space. An efficient algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to automatically identify the water-flooded status of oil-saturated stratum is described.The experiments show that this algorithm can improve the performances for the identification and the generalization in the case of a limited set of samples.

  7. Assessing Source Zone Mass Depletion in Heterogeneous Media: Application of a Multi-Rate-Mass-Transfer Approach Based on a Geostatistical Medium Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenius, M. T.; Miller, E. L.; Abriola, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated solvents tend to persist for long periods in heterogeneous porous media, in part due to sustained sources of contaminant sequestered in lower permeability zones and sorbed to the soil matrix. Sharp contrasts in soil properties have been modeled successfully using Markov Chain / Transition Probability (MC/TP) methods. This statistical approach provides a means of generating permeability fields that are consistent with prior knowledge concerning the frequency and relative positioning of different strata.To assess source zone mass depletion in a suite of such geological realizations, the large computational burden may prohibit the use of direct numerical simulations. One alternative approach is the application of a multi-rate-mass-transfer (MRMT) method, an extension of the dual-domain concept that was first developed in the soil science literature for sorption modeling. In MRMT, rather than discretizing immobile regions, such as clay layers, the concentration in these regions is treated by explicit state variables, and the transport between mobile and immobile regions is modeled by first-order exchange terms. However, in the implementation of this approach, fine-scale simulations on subdomains are often necessary to develop appropriate parameters. Such simulations are tedious, especially when attempting to account for uncertainty in the geological description. In this work, the link between characteristics of MC/TP and transfer parameters in the MRMT is evaluated by regression based on fine-scale simulations, using the simulator MODFLOW/MT3DMS. Upscaled simulation results are obtained with the same simulator, linked to an MRMT module. The results facilitate efficient assessment of reactive transport in domains with sharp contrasts in soil properties and limit the need for fine-scale numerical simulations.

  8. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  9. DEPLETED URANIUM TECHNICAL WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Depleted Uranium Technical Work is designed to convey available information and knowledge about depleted uranium to EPA Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, contractors, and other Agency managers involved with the remediation of sites contaminated with this mater...

  10. Repulsive depletion interactions in colloid polymer mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Rudhardt, Daniel; Bechinger, Clemens; Leiderer, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Depletion forces in colloidal systems are known to be entirely attractive, as long as the background of macromolecules is small enough that an ideal gas approach is valid. At higher densities, however, structural correlation effects of the macromolecules which lead to additional repulsive parts in the depletion interaction, have to be taken into account. We have measured the depletion interaction between a single polystyrene sphere and a wall in the presence of non-ionic polymer coils. Althou...

  11. Effect of prolonged waterflooding of oil deposits on developing biocenosis and layer microflora activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevskaya, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that prolonged waterflooding of the oil layer with fresh water forms conditions for the spread and subsequent development of biocenosis of hydrocarbonaceous acid, sulpha-forming and methane-forming bacteria. The activity of the layer microflora under near natural conditions are determined. The 24 hour growth of bacterial biomass depending on such ecological factors as salinity and acidic-forming conditions varies from 0.138 to 0.408 mkM C/1. The time it takes for the bacterial biomass to double is given. Under varying ecologic conditions, it is from 18 to 120 h.

  12. Induced migration of fines during waterflooding in communicating layer-cake reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fines migration induced by injection of water with a different salinity than the reservoir brine are incorporated into the upscaling model for waterflooding in a layer cake reservoir with good communication between the layers. Mobilization and re-capturing of the reservoir fines may...... increased. On the other hand, more energy for the pressure drop is required to maintain a constant flow rate. These effects are studied within a new upscaling model developed previously (Zhang et al., 2011). In a communicating layer cake reservoir, higher end-point mobility ratio (water to oil) leads to...

  13. Depleted Uranium Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers radiological and toxic impact of the depleted uranium on the human health. Radiological influence of depleted uranium is less for 60 % than natural uranium due to the decreasing of short-lived isotopes uranium-234 and uranium-235 after enrichment. The formation of radioactive aerosols and their impact on the human are mentioned. Use of the depleted uranium weapons has also a chemical effect on intake due to possible carcinogenic influence on kidney. Uranium-236 in the substance of the depleted uranium is determined. The fact of beta-radiation formation in the uranium-238 decay is regarded. This effect practically is the same for both depleted and natural uranium. Importance of toxicity of depleted uranium, as the heavier chemical substance, has a considerable contribution to the population health. The paper analyzes risks regarding the use of the depleted uranium weapons. There is international opposition against using weapons with depleted uranium. Resolution on effects of the use of armaments and ammunitions containing depleted uranium was five times supported by the United Nations (USA, United Kingdom, France and Israel did not support). The decision for banning of depleted uranium weapons was supported by the European Parliament

  14. Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zhang; Yue-Hui She; Lu-Jun Chai; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Xiao-Tao Zhang; Fu-Chang Shu; Zheng-Liang Wang; Long-Jiang Yu; Du-Jie Hou

    2012-01-01

    Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effec...

  15. Depleted uranium in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, depleted uranium ammunition is regarded as nuclear weapons and meets with fierce opposition. The fact that US Marines mistakenly fired bullets containing depleted uranium on an island off Okinawa during training exercises in December 1995 and January 1996, also contributes. The overall situation in this area in Japan is outlined. (P.A.)

  16. Effect of Pore-Scale Heterogeneity and Capillary-Viscous Fingering on Commingled Waterflood Oil Recovery in Stratified Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad W. Al-Shalabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil recovery prediction and field pilot implements require basic understanding and estimation of displacement efficiency. Corefloods and glass micromodels are two of the commonly used experimental methods to achieve this. In this paper, waterflood recovery is investigated using layered etched glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs with large permeability contrasts. This study focuses mainly on the effect of permeability (heterogeneity in stratified porous media with no cross-flow. Three experimental setups were designed to represent uniformly stratified oil reservoir with vertical discontinuity in permeability. Waterflood recovery to residual oil saturation (Sor is measured through glass micromodel (to aid visual observation, linear coreflood, and forced drainage-imbibition processes by ultracentrifuge. Six oil samples of low-to-medium viscosity and porous media of widely different permeability (darcy and millidarcy ranges were chosen for the study. The results showed that waterflood displacement efficiencies are consistent in both permeability ranges, namely, glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs. Interestingly, the experimental results show that the low permeability zones resulted in higher ultimate oil recovery compared to high permeability zones. At Sor microheterogeneity and fingering are attributed for this phenomenon. In light of the findings, conformance control is discussed for better sweep efficiency. This paper may be of help to field operators to gain more insight into microheterogeneity and fingering phenomena and their impact on waterflood recovery estimation.

  17. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  18. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-01-01

    A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports). From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potent...

  19. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  20. Deterministic approach of the decay heat uncertainty due to JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data uncertainties with the CYRUS tool and the DARWIN2.3 depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the decay heat value and its associated uncertainty is of paramount importance for safety concerns in nuclear power plants, storage and transport facilities. The CYRUS tool has been developed in order to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation on fuel inventories and decay heat due to the propagation of the variance and covariance data of all the nuclear data involved in the decay heat calculation (cross-sections, branching ratios, radioactive decay constants, fission yields, mean decay energies), for all kind of fuels and reactors. This tool works together with the reference depletion code DARWIN2.3 and is based on a deterministic method. In the meantime, the CEA/DEN also developed a probabilistic approach based on the URANIE uncertainty platform and the MENDEL depletion code. The purpose of this paper is to set up the bases of the deterministic method in CYRUS, to discuss the choice of the different physical correlation between the parameters, and to validate CYRUS by a numerical comparison with the probabilistic approach implemented in URANIE/MENDEL. Two preliminary applications of elementary fission bursts have been investigated: the thermal fission of 235U and the fast fission of 239Pu. All the nuclear data come from the JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation. Eventually, the comparison of the deterministic approach of CYRUS and the probabilistic approach reveals and agreement between the two methods. (author)

  1. Estimating the effects of Technology and Depletion on the Real Price of Copper in the U. S. Using a Cointegration Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.

    2001-07-01

    The effects of technology and depletion on U. S. copper scarcity- as measured by real price can be estimated explicitly using econometrics, rather than assuming the their combined effect is implicit in a quadratic trend. The two most relevant cost-decreasing technologies-black-caving and open-pit mining and leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW)-are proxied by their rate of diffusion. Depletion is proxied by average yield. Since these proxies and real price contain a unit root. Johansen's maximum-likelihood estimation procedure is used to test for the number of cointegrating relations, and estimate a vector autoregressive model from which a price equation in error-correction form is derived. A unique cointegrating relation without a trend is found, which supports the hypothesis that the real price of copper has no scarcity-rent component if we believe that this components should be modeled as a trend. The cointegrating relation loads into the price equation, and the convergence towards the long-run equilibrium is almost instantaneous. The estimated combined effect of physical depletion and technology on the U. S. real price of copper shows that the diffusion of block-caving and open-pit mining technologies off set the effect on price of the decline in average yield until the end of the thirties. From 1938 to 1976, the combined effect was slightly positive, and markedly and continuously negative thereafter, as a result of the introduction of leaching and SX-EW technologies, and the stabilization and even increase of average yield. (Author)

  2. Uses of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depleted uranium is that in which percentage of uranium-235 fission executable is less than 0.2% or 0.3%. It is usually caused by the process of reprocessing the nuclear fuel burning, and also mixed with some other radioactive elements such as uranium 236, 238 and plutonium 239. The good features of the depleted uranium are its high density, low price and easily mined. So, the specifications for depleted uranium make it one of the best materials in case you need to have objects small in size, but quite heavy regarding its size. Uses of deplet ed uranium were relatively increased in domestic industrial uses as well as some uses in nuclear industry in the last few years. So it has increased uses in many areas of military and peaceful means such as: in balancing the giant air crafts, ships and missiles and in the manufacture of some types of concrete with severe hardness. (author)

  3. Enhanced oil recovery by improved waterflooding. Fourth annual report, October 1980-September 1981. [Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. III; Passman, F.J.; Burtch, F.W.

    1982-05-01

    Energy Resourcs Co. Inc., and its subcontractor Elf Aquitaine Oil and Gas Company are conducting a 100-acre pilot polymer flood in the Storms Pool Field near Carmi, in White County, Illinois. The project is a cost-sharing venture with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Preparation for the polymer flood began in September 1977, and the project is scheduled for completion in December 1983. This report reviews progress during the fourth year of performance (October 1980 through September 1981). The Storms Pool, once highly productive, has yielded over 12 million barrels of oil from the Waltersburg formation since its discovery in 1939. The field has been waterflooded for over 20 years and is now largely in stripper production with high watercuts at most producing wells. Material balance and recent electric logs indicate, however, that there is a substantial volume of movable oil still in place, presumably bypassed by the inefficient waterflood. The polymer flood is intended to improve the sweep efficiency, showing that the engineering, management, and financial resources required for such tertiary techniques can be applied to similar fields that might otherwise be abandoned for lack of investment by parties knowledgeable in enhanced oil technology. Preflush injection and polymer injection were both initiated during this period with total polymer injection now standing at 179,453 barrels (or about 6% pore volume). Laboratory testing has continued throughout the year with the emphasis being on field support (troubleshooting field problems and monitoring the field injection and production systems). No evidence of polymer break-through has been detected at the production wells. Details of the interference testing program and the radiotracer study executed during this period are also presented.

  4. Antarctic ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antarctic ozone depletion is most severe during the southern hemisphere spring, when the local reduction in the column amount may be as much as 50 percent. The extent to which this ozone poor air contributes to the observed global ozone loss is a matter of debate, but there is some evidence that fragments of the 'ozone hole' can reach lower latitudes following its breakup in summer. Satellite data show the seasonal evolution of the ozone hole. A new dimension has been added to Antarctic ozone depletion with the advent of large volcanic eruptions such as that from Mount Pinatubo in 1991. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Gao; G. Q. Li; H. M. Tian; Y. S. Wang; Sun, H W; T. Ma

    2014-01-01

    In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated i...

  6. Effect of Pore-Scale Heterogeneity and Capillary-Viscous Fingering on Commingled Waterflood Oil Recovery in Stratified Porous Media

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shalabi, Emad W.; Ghosh, B

    2016-01-01

    Oil recovery prediction and field pilot implements require basic understanding and estimation of displacement efficiency. Corefloods and glass micromodels are two of the commonly used experimental methods to achieve this. In this paper, waterflood recovery is investigated using layered etched glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs with large permeability contrasts. This study focuses mainly on the effect of permeability (heterogeneity) in stratified porous media with no cross-flow. T...

  7. Willpower depletion and framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Thomas; van Veldhuizen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether depleting people's cognitive resources (or willpower) affects the degree to which they are susceptible to framing effects. Recent research in social psychology and economics has suggested that willpower is a resource that can be temporarily depleted and that a depleted level of willpower is associated with self-control problems in a variety of contexts. In this study, we extend the willpower depletion paradigm to framing effects and argue that willpower depletion should...

  8. Study about Interpretation Models and Algorithm of Water-Flooded Formation Based on Resistivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYinghui; TANDehui; WANGQiongfang; CAIHongjie

    2005-01-01

    Many oil fields are developed by water injection in the world, it's difficult to interpret by welllogging information. EPT and C/O identify residual oil saturation or moveable oil, but they are only fit for oil-reservoir with porosity over 20%, and not for borehole. Additionally, Archie model is not completely fit for dynamic but the static oil-reservoir. Therefore, it's more difficult for WF (Water-flooded) oil-zone (dynamic oil-reservoir) with LPP (Low porosity and low permeability) to be interpreted. Resistivity logging series are the dominating tools to WF formation, so it becomes significantly important to research new interpretation models and algorithm based on resistivity well-logging for WF oil-zone with LPP. A set of new interpretation models for WFZ (Water flooded zone) are established according to the “U” type curve from experimentation, as well as according to mathematics analysis. The notable Archie model is only one case of these new models under special conditions. It is most important that these new models are all fit from exploration stage to development stage in oil field. At last, algorithm process and application result of these models are described.

  9. Intrinsic Depletion or Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Bruun, Sara; Hansen, Søren;

    in between he polymer cushion and bulk water the layer was attributed to water of reduced density and was called "depletion layer".  Impurities or preparative artefacts were excluded as its origin. Later on, the formation of nanobubbles from this vapour-like water phase was initiated by tipping the......  The presence of a depletion layer of water along extended hydrophobic interfaces, and a possibly related formation of nanobubbles, is an ongoing discussion. The phenomenon was initially reported when we, years ago, chose thick films (~300-400Å) of polystyrene as cushions between a crystalline...... carrier and biomimetic membranes deposited thereupon and exposed to bulk water. While monitoring the sequential build-up of the sandwiched composite structure by continuous neutron reflectivity experiments the formation of an unexpected additional layer was detected (1). Located at the polystyrene surface...

  10. Depletion of intense fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Marklund, M; Bulanov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multi-photon nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude $a_0 \\sim 10^3$ and electron bunches with charges of the order of nC.

  11. Ozone depletion by hydrofluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Fleming, Eric L.; Newman, Paul A.; Li, Feng; Mlawer, Eli; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Bailey, Roshelle

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase considerably in the coming decades. Chemistry climate model simulations forced by current projections show that HFCs will impact the global atmosphere increasingly through 2050. As strong radiative forcers, HFCs increase tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures, thereby enhancing ozone-destroying catalytic cycles and modifying the atmospheric circulation. These changes lead to a weak depletion of stratospheric ozone. Simulations with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 2-D model show that HFC-125 is the most important contributor to HFC-related atmospheric change in 2050; its effects are comparable to the combined impacts of HFC-23, HFC-32, HFC-134a, and HFC-143a. Incorporating the interactions between chemistry, radiation, and dynamics, ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) for HFCs range from 0.39 × 10-3 to 30.0 × 10-3, approximately 100 times larger than previous ODP estimates which were based solely on chemical effects.

  12. Capital expenditure and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  13. EPRI depletion benchmark calculations using PARAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PARAGON depletion calculations are benchmarked against the EPRI reactivity decrement experiments. • Benchmarks cover a wide range of enrichments, burnups, cooling times, and burnable absorbers, and different depletion and storage conditions. • Results from PARAGON-SCALE scheme are more conservative relative to the benchmark data. • ENDF/B-VII based data reduces the excess conservatism and brings the predictions closer to benchmark reactivity decrement values. - Abstract: In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality analyses, code validation for both fresh and used fuel is required. Fresh fuel validation is typically done by modeling experiments from the “International Handbook.” A depletion validation can determine a bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of the isotopes not found in the fresh fuel critical experiments. Westinghouse’s burnup credit methodology uses PARAGON™ (Westinghouse 2-D lattice physics code) and its 70-group cross-section library, which have been benchmarked, qualified, and licensed both as a standalone transport code and as a nuclear data source for core design simulations. A bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of depletion isotopes, however, are not available for PARAGON. Instead, the 5% decrement approach for depletion uncertainty is used, as set forth in the Kopp memo. Recently, EPRI developed a set of benchmarks based on a large set of power distribution measurements to ascertain reactivity biases. The depletion reactivity has been used to create 11 benchmark cases for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 GWd/MTU and 3 cooling times 100 h, 5 years, and 15 years. These benchmark cases are analyzed with PARAGON and the SCALE package and sensitivity studies are performed using different cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII data to assess that the 5% decrement approach is conservative for determining depletion uncertainty

  14. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global...

  15. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  16. The 1988 Antarctic ozone depletion - Comparison with previous year depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 spring Antarctic ozone depletion was observed by TOMS to be substantially smaller than in recent years. The minimum polar total ozone values declined only 15 percent during September 1988, compared to nearly 50 percent during September 1987. At southern midlatitudes, exceptionally high total ozone values were recorded beginning in July 1988. The total integrated southern hemispheric ozone increased rapidly during the Austral spring, approaching 1980 levels during October. The high midlatitude total ozone values were associated with a substantial increase in eddy activity as indicated by the standard deviation in total ozone in the zonal band 30-60 deg S. Mechanisms through which the increased midlatitude eddy activity could disrupt the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole are briefly discussed.

  17. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  18. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of stratospheric ozone and the reduction of the ozone layer vary according to seasons and latitudes. At present total and vertical ozone is monitored over all Austria. The mean monthly ozone levels between 1994 and 2000 are presented. Data on stratospheric ozone and UV-B radiation are published daily on the home page http: www.lebesministerium.at. The use of ozone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is provided. Besides, the national measures taken to reduce their use. Figs. 2, Tables 2. (nevyjel)

  19. Discrimination between induced, triggered, and natural earthquakes close to hydrocarbon reservoirs: A probabilistic approach based on the modeling of depletion-induced stress changes and seismological source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Torsten; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebastian; Braun, Thomas; Krüger, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes occurring close to hydrocarbon fields under production are often under critical view of being induced or triggered. However, clear and testable rules to discriminate the different events have rarely been developed and tested. The unresolved scientific problem may lead to lengthy public disputes with unpredictable impact on the local acceptance of the exploitation and field operations. We propose a quantitative approach to discriminate induced, triggered, and natural earthquakes, which is based on testable input parameters. Maxima of occurrence probabilities are compared for the cases under question, and a single probability of being triggered or induced is reported. The uncertainties of earthquake location and other input parameters are considered in terms of the integration over probability density functions. The probability that events have been human triggered/induced is derived from the modeling of Coulomb stress changes and a rate and state-dependent seismicity model. In our case a 3-D boundary element method has been adapted for the nuclei of strain approach to estimate the stress changes outside the reservoir, which are related to pore pressure changes in the field formation. The predicted rate of natural earthquakes is either derived from the background seismicity or, in case of rare events, from an estimate of the tectonic stress rate. Instrumentally derived seismological information on the event location, source mechanism, and the size of the rupture plane is of advantage for the method. If the rupture plane has been estimated, the discrimination between induced or only triggered events is theoretically possible if probability functions are convolved with a rupture fault filter. We apply the approach to three recent main shock events: (1) the Mw 4.3 Ekofisk 2001, North Sea, earthquake close to the Ekofisk oil field; (2) the Mw 4.4 Rotenburg 2004, Northern Germany, earthquake in the vicinity of the Söhlingen gas field; and (3) the Mw 6

  20. SRP scientific meeting: depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting was organised by the SRP to review current research and discuss the use, dispersion into the environment and radiological impact of depleted uranium (DU) by the UK and US in recent military conflicts. In addition to other presentations, there were two short presentations by T Cabianca and P Danesi of the IAEA concerning investigations into the DU legacy in Kuwait and the IAEA contribution to environmental contamination assessments of DU in Kosovo. In Kuwait the on-going study is limited to an assessment of the potential radiological consequences of DU residues in three types of site: open desert where DU was fired, farmland where DU was fired and DU storage facilities. The Kuwaiti government has also requested the IAEA to formulate a structured approach to deal with remediating such sites and disposing of the resulting material. In Kosovo the study investigated sand and soil samples from areas where DU had been fired. DU particulates were found in sizes up to 40 μm, but generally much smaller, typically about 5 μm, with 5% less than 1.5 μm in size. These particles were found to contain 90% DU and 1% Ti. Plutonium was also detected, but this was attributed to the 1960s bomb testing programme. This was an informative, well attended meeting that stimulated varied debate between delegates. It revealed that there is still much to learn concerning the effects of depleted uranium in the human body and highlighted the limitations of conventional dose estimates made using ICRP models. A balance must be struck between the operational requirements of the armed forces and acceptable levels of environmental contamination arising from any conflict they are involved in. Most importantly, as a scientific consensus is developed, a clear and consistent approach to providing key information to the public should be adopted, to build confidence in the radiation protection profession

  1. Depletion of the nuclear Fermi sea

    CERN Document Server

    Rios, A; Dickhoff, W H

    2009-01-01

    The short-range and tensor components of the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction induce a sizeable depletion of low momenta in the ground state of a nuclear many-body system. The self-consistent Green's function method within the ladder approximation provides an \\textit{ab-initio} description of correlated nuclear systems that accounts properly for these effects. The momentum distribution predicted by this approach is analyzed in detail, with emphasis on the depletion of the lowest momentum state. The temperature, density, and nucleon asymmetry (isospin) dependence of the depletion of the Fermi sea is clarified. A connection is established between the momentum distribution and the time-ordered components of the self-energy, which allows for an improved interpretation of the results. The dependence on the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction provides quantitative estimates of the importance of short-range and tensor correlations in nuclear systems.

  2. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  3. Riddle of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is the waste product of uranium enrichment from the manufacturing of fuel rods for nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants and nuclear power ships. DU may also results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Potentially DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity with two important targets organs being the kidney and the lungs. DU is made into a metal and, due to its availability, low price, high specific weight, density and melting point as well as its pyrophoricity; it has a wide range of civilian and military applications. Due to the use of DU over the recent years, there appeared in some press on health hazards that are alleged to be due to DU. In these paper properties, applications, potential environmental and health effects of DU are briefly reviewed

  4. Investigations on the possibility of improved oil recovery from the emsland reservoirs and development of an improved method of waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefling, B.

    1965-12-01

    Literature studies have shown that oil recovery from the fields of Ruhlermoor and Bramberge, Emsland, Germany, can be improved by flooding, hot-water flooding, carbonated waterflooding, or in-situ combustion, but it is not economical to do so. The reservoirs being water-wet and containing viscous oil, it was investigated in the laboratory whether flooding with an emulsion stablized by an oil-soluble non-ionic surfactant is applicable. The experiments were conducted on sand packs with reservoir oil at formation temperature. It was found that a sufficiently large emulsion bank displaces most of the oil and the connate water without excessive water production. Best results were obtained with the higher viscosity oil, and when the system was first subjected to ordinary waterflooding. Piston-like oil displacement was achieved even in horizontally stratified systems, which is interesting because the natural reservoir also has permeability stratification. The data obtained, however, are not sufficient for a complete economical evaluation. (48 refs.)

  5. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  6. Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion.

  7. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.

  8. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field

  9. Depletable resources and the economy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the depletion of scarce resources. The main question to be answered is how to avoid future resource crises. After dealing with the complex relation between nature and economics, three important concepts in relation with resource depletion are discussed: steady state, ti

  10. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  11. Stratospheric ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, F Sherwood

    2006-05-29

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290-320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime-the 'Antarctic ozone hole'. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules. PMID:16627294

  12. Testing fully depleted CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.

  13. Theoretical eduction and numerical simulation researches on the relationship between resistivity and water saturation of waterflood oil zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the process of water displacing oil,the relationship between resistivity and water saturation is the fundament of the quantitative research on the waterflooded grade and the remaining oil saturation with well logging data. A large number of core analysis data and production data are cumulated in the process of oil field exploitation,which offers the basis for the above research. This paper educed two methods from the Archie equation and material balance theory to calculate the quantitative relationships between Rz and Sw,and between Rt and Sw. The relationships set up by the two methods are similar to those set up by the real core measurements. The results can be used to analyze influencing factors and determine saturation quantitatively.

  14. Depletable resources and the economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Heijman, W. J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the depletion of scarce resources. The main question to be answered is how to avoid future resource crises. After dealing with the complex relation between nature and economics, three important concepts in relation with resource depletion are discussed: steady state, time preference and efficiency.For the steady state, three variants are distinguished; the stationary state, the physical steady state and the state of steady growth. It is concluded that the so-call...

  15. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  16. CO depletion in ATLASGAL-selected high-mass clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Brand, J.; Csengeri, T.; Fontani, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Beuther, H.; Schuller, F.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    In the low-mass regime, it is found that the gas-phase abundances of C-bearing molecules in cold starless cores rapidly decrease with increasing density. Here the molecules tend to stick to the grains, forming ice mantles. We study CO depletion in the TOP100 sample of the ATLASGAL survey, and investigate its correlation with evolutionary stage and with the physical parameters of the sources. We use low-J emission lines of CO isotopologues and the dust continuum emission to infer the depletion factor fD. RATRAN one-dimensional models were also used to determine fD and to investigate the presence of depletion above a density threshold. The isotopic ratios and optical depth were derived with a Bayesian approach. We find a significant number of clumps with a large CO depletion, up to ˜20. Larger values are found for colder clumps, thus for earlier evolutionary phases. For massive clumps in the earliest stages of evolution we estimate the radius of the region where CO depletion is important to be a few tenths of a pc. CO depletion in high-mass clumps seems to behave as in the low-mass regime, with less evolved clumps showing larger values for the depletion than their more evolved counterparts, and increasing for denser sources.

  17. Nonlinear lower hybrid wave depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two numerical ray tracing codes with focusing are used to compute lower hybrid daughter wave amplification by quasi-mode parametric decay. The first code, LHPUMP provides a numerical pump model on a grid. This model is used by a second code, LHFQM which computes daughter wave amplification inside the pump extent and follows the rays until their energy is absorbed by the plasma. An analytic model is then used to estimate pump depletion based on the numerical results. Results for PLT indicate strong pump depletion at the plasma edge at high density operation for the 800 Mhz wave frequency, but weak depletion for the 2.45 Ghz experiment. This is proposed to be the mechanism responsible for the high density limit for current drive as well as for the difficulty to heat ions

  18. DOPAMINE DEPLETION SLOWS RETINAL TRANSMISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...

  19. Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

  20. Civil use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the civilian exploitation of depleted uranium is briefly reviewed. Different scenarios relevant to its use are discussed in terms of radiation exposure for workers and the general public. The case of the aircraft accident which occurred in Amsterdam in 1992 involving a fire, is discussed in terms of the radiological exposure to bystanders. All information given has been obtained on the basis of an extensive literature search and are not based on measurements performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements

  1. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  2. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980`s, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality.

  3. Ozone Depletion from Nearby Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, N; Jackman, C H; Cannizzo, J K; Mattson, B J; Chen, W; Gehrels, Neil; Laird, Claude M.; Jackman, Charles H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Mattson, Barbara J.; Chen, Wan

    2003-01-01

    Estimates made in the 1970's indicated that a supernova occurring within tens of parsecs of Earth could have significant effects on the ozone layer. Since that time, improved tools for detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry have been developed to calculate ozone depletion, and advances have been made in theoretical modeling of supernovae and of the resultant gamma-ray spectra. In addition, one now has better knowledge of the occurrence rate of supernovae in the galaxy, and of the spatial distribution of progenitors to core-collapse supernovae. We report here the results of two-dimensional atmospheric model calculations that take as input the spectral energy distribution of a supernova, adopting various distances from Earth and various latitude impact angles. In separate simulations we calculate the ozone depletion due to both gamma-rays and cosmic rays. We find that for the combined ozone depletion roughly to double the ``biologically active'' UV flux received at the surface of the Earth, the supernova mu...

  4. Ozone Depletion from Nearby Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Laird, Claude M.; Jackman, Charles H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Mattson, Barbara J.; Chen, Wan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimates made in the 1970's indicated that a supernova occurring within tens of parsecs of Earth could have significant effects on the ozone layer. Since that time improved tools for detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry have been developed to calculate ozone depletion, and advances have been made also in theoretical modeling of supernovae and of the resultant gamma ray spectra. In addition, one now has better knowledge of the occurrence rate of supernovae in the galaxy, and of the spatial distribution of progenitors to core-collapse supernovae. We report here the results of two-dimensional atmospheric model calculations that take as input the spectral energy distribution of a supernova, adopting various distances from Earth and various latitude impact angles. In separate simulations we calculate the ozone depletion due to both gamma rays and cosmic rays. We find that for the combined ozone depletion from these effects roughly to double the 'biologically active' UV flux received at the surface of the Earth, the supernova must occur at approximately or less than 8 parsecs.

  5. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  6. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Panikkar Bindu; Brugge Doug; Hindin Rita

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Depleted uranium is being used increasingly often as a component of munitions in military conflicts. Military personnel, civilians and the DU munitions producers are being exposed to the DU aerosols that are generated. Methods We reviewed toxicological data on both natural and depleted uranium. We included peer reviewed studies and gray literature on birth malformations due to natural and depleted uranium. Our approach was to assess the "weight of evidence" with respect to...

  7. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  8. Experimental design: application to the development of a treatment to inhibit the deposition of barium sulfate liable to be formed in enhanced oil recovery by waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoudene, N. (Sonatrach, Boumerdes (Algeria)); Puech-Costes, E.; Maurette, M.T. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)); Girou, A. (Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)); Roque, C. (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    For technical and economic reasons, waterflooding is the most widely-used method in enhanced oil recovery. In many situations, unfortunately, the formation water is incompatible with the injection water. The deposits and corrosion induced by the various reactions of this incompatibility cause irreversible damage, which is especially dangerous for the reservoir rock and the downhole and surface production facilities. This study is concerned exclusively with barium sulfate deposits liable to occur in surface production facilities by the mixing of injection water loaded with sulfate (1300 mg.l[sup -1]) with a formation water with a high barium concentration (1200 mg.l[sup -1]). 6 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, R.W.; Durham, E.N.; Watson, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    A conventional waterflood in the North Stanley Field, Osage County, Oklahoma, nearing the economic limit, was modified by substituting an aqueous solution of polyacrylamides for brine as the intected fluid. Remedial operations on existing facilities were performed before polymer injection began. Positive oil production response was achieved from this 1000-acre project, a maximum EOR production rate of about 200 barrels per day being achieved within 1-1/2 years after the start of polymer injection. Based on performance to January 1979, ultimate EOR recovery is estimated at 500,000 barrels.

  10. The Case of Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, W. Henry

    2005-01-01

    While the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is widely perceived as a space agency, since its inception NASA has had a mission dedicated to the home planet. Initially, this mission involved using space to better observe and predict weather and to enable worldwide communication. Meteorological and communication satellites showed the value of space for earthly endeavors in the 1960s. In 1972, NASA launched Landsat, and the era of earth-resource monitoring began. At the same time, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the environmental movement swept throughout the United States and most industrialized countries. The first Earth Day event took place in 1970, and the government generally began to pay much more attention to issues of environmental quality. Mitigating pollution became an overriding objective for many agencies. NASA's existing mission to observe planet Earth was augmented in these years and directed more toward environmental quality. In the 1980s, NASA sought to plan and establish a new environmental effort that eventuated in the 1990s with the Earth Observing System (EOS). The Agency was able to make its initial mark via atmospheric monitoring, specifically ozone depletion. An important policy stimulus in many respects, ozone depletion spawned the Montreal Protocol of 1987 (the most significant international environmental treaty then in existence). It also was an issue critical to NASA's history that served as a bridge linking NASA's weather and land-resource satellites to NASA s concern for the global changes affecting the home planet. Significantly, as a global environmental problem, ozone depletion underscored the importance of NASA's ability to observe Earth from space. Moreover, the NASA management team's ability to apply large-scale research efforts and mobilize the talents of other agencies and the private sector illuminated its role as a lead agency capable of crossing organizational boundaries as well as the science-policy divide.

  11. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  12. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, J M; Zhang, H F; Zuo, W

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  13. Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most circumstances, measurement of uranium excreted in urine at known times after exposure is potentially the most sensitive method for determining the amount of depleted uranium (DU) incorporated. The problems associated with this approach are that natural uranium is always present in urine because of the ingestion of natural uranium in food and drink, and that the uncertainties in the intakes as assessed from excretion measurements can be quite large, because many assumptions concerning the exposure characteristics (time pattern of exposure, route of intake, chemical form, solubility, biokinetics within the body) must be made. Applying currently available methods and instruments for the measurement of uranium in urine samples, DU incorporations of levels relevant with respect to potential health hazards can be detected reliably, even a long time after exposure. (author)

  14. Design optimization using depletion perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the fuel cycle performance of a reactor requires knowledge of the entire fuel burnup history. The optimal design depends upon the desired performance parameter or combination of parameters to be minimized (or maximized). The emphasis to date has been to use some combination of iterations involving a number of direct calculations, static perturbation theory, binary exchange methods, and empirical relationships. The object of this study is to demonstrate an approach to optimization based upon Depletion Perturbation Theory (DPT). The DPT equations directly couple the nuclide burnup equations and the neutron balance equations. The equations require the calculation of forward and adjoint solutions for the neutron flux and nuclide transmutations. The application is for analysis of a modular HTGR. The reactor has axially dependent fuel loadings in order to achieve an axial power shape that keeps fuel temperatures below a specified maximum

  15. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" : Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In thre

  16. Biomedical consequences of ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, Thomas P.

    1994-07-01

    It is widely agreed that a portion of the earth's protective stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted. The major effect of this ozone loss will be an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UV reaching the biosphere. This increase will be completely contained within the UVB (290nm - 320nm). It is imperative that assessments be made of the effects of this additional UVB on living organisms. This requires a detailed knowledge of the UVB photobiology of these life forms. One analytical technique to aid in the approximations is the construction of UV action spectra for such important biological end-points as human skin cancer, cataracts, immune suppression; plant photosynthesis and crop yields; and aquatic organism responses to UVB, especially the phytoplankton. Combining these action spectra with the known solar spectrum (and estimates for various ozone depletion scenarios) can give rise to a series of effectiveness spectra for these parameters. This manuscript gives a first approximation, rough estimate, for the effectiveness spectra for some of these bioresponses, and a series of crude temporary values for how a 10% ozone loss would affect the above end-points. These are not intended to masquerade as final answers, but rather, to serve as beginning attempts for a process which should be continually refined. It is hoped that these estimates will be of some limited use to agencies, such as government and industry, that have to plan now for changes in human activities that might alter future atmospheric chemistry in a beneficial manner.

  17. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of indigenous microbes as a method of profile control in waterfloods. It is expected that as the microbial population is induced to increase, that the expanded biomass will selectively block the more permeable zones of the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through the less permeable zones which will result in improved sweep efficiency. This increase in microbial population will be accomplished by injecting a nutrient solution into four injectors. Four other injectors will act as control wells. During Phase I, two wells will be cored through the zone of interest. The core will be subjected to special core analyses in order to arrive at the optimum nutrient formulation. During Phase II, nutrient injection will begin, the results monitored, and adjustments to the nutrient composition made, if necessary. Phase II also will include the drilling of three wells for post-mortem core analysis. Phase III will focus on technology transfer of the results. It should be pointed out that one expected outcome of this new technology will be a prolongation of economical waterflooding operations, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in the producing wells subjected to this selective plugging technique

  18. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Stephens, James O.; Vadie, Alex A.

    1999-11-03

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of indigenous microbes as a method of profile control in waterfloods. It is expected that as the microbial population is induced to increase, that the expanded biomass will selectively block the more permeable zones of the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through the less permeable zones which will result in improved sweep efficiency. This increase in microbial population will be accomplished by injecting a nutrient solution into four injectors. Four other injectors will act as control wells. During Phase I, two wells will be cored through the zone of interest. The core will be subjected to special core analyses in order to arrive at the optimum nutrient formulation. During Phase II, nutrient injection will begin, the results monitored, and adjustments to the nutrient composition made, if necessary. Phase II also will include the drilling of three wells for post-mortem core analysis. Phase III will focus on technology transfer of the results. It should be pointed out that one expected outcome of this new technology will be a prolongation of economical waterflooding operations, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in the producing wells subjected to this selective plugging technique.

  19. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however 39Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in 39Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO2 well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO2. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N2, and He mixture, from the CO2 through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N2 and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO2 facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  20. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  1. Depleted uranium. Nuclear related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) has found a military application in Golf War, in Bosnia and in Yugoslavia (Kosovo). In military sense it was very efficient. But the fact that some parts of that ammunition are manufactured from depleted uranium, low level radioactive waste, implies other aspects of this application like radiological, ecological, jurist, ethical and psychological. The subject of this paper is just physical aspect. There are several problems concerning this aspect: production of DU, total amount of DU in the world, 235U/238U relation, radioactivity of DU, measurements, and presence of other radionuclides like plutonium. DU is by product of nuclear technology and represents low-level nuclear waste. Therefore it should be stored. Total amount of DU in the world is about one million tons with an annual increase of 30 000 t. The content of 235U in DU can vary in the range 0.16-0.3%. The total radioactivity of DU is a consequence of 7 radionuclides and amounts 39.42 Bq/mg. This include alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity. Because of characteristics of this radioactivity it is difficult to prospect the terrain except at the site of action. During the impact of DU rods four types of DU particles could be produced: whole penetrators, penetrator parts, big aerosols (>10 μm) and small aerosols (<10 μm). Most of these particles fall locally, although some of them could be find several tens of kilometers away. All these problems have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of depletion-induced interactions for soft matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendruk, Tyler N., E-mail: tyler.shendruk@physics.ox.ac.uk [The Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Bertrand, Martin; Harden, James L.; Slater, Gary W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Haan, Hendrick W. de [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2014-12-28

    Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA)) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

  3. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macropha...

  4. Assessment of the depletion capability in MPACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the paper is to develop and demonstrate the depletion capability with pin resolved transport using the MPACT code. The first section of the paper provides a description of the depletion methodology and the algorithm used to solve the depletion equations in MPACT. A separate depletion library for MPACT is used based on the ORIGEN-S library to provide the basic decay constants and fission yields, as well as the 3-group cross-sections which are used for the isotopes not contained in the MPACT multi-group library. The cross sections for the depletion transmutation matrix were collapsed using the transport flux solution in MPACT based on either the 47 group HELIOS library based on ENDF-VI or a 56 group ORNL library based on ENDF-VII. The second section of this paper then describes the numerical verification of the depletion algorithm using two sets of benchmarks. The first is the JAERI LWR lattice benchmark which had participants from most of the lattice depletion codes currently used in the international nuclear community and the second benchmark is based on data from spent fuel of the Takahama-3 reactor. The results show that MPACT is generally in good agreement with the results of the other benchmark participants as well as the experimental data. Finally, a full core 2D model of CASL AMA benchmark was depleted based on the central plane of the Watts Bar reactor core which demonstrates the whole core depletion capability of MPACT. (author)

  5. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% 235U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a 235U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved

  6. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH3CCl3 and of CHF2Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  7. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  8. Rapid assessment of RNAi-mediated protein depletion by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Glukhova, Veronika A.; Tomazela, Daniela M.; Findlay, Geoffrey D.; Monnat, Raymond J.; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of a targeted proteomics approach, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry, to detect and assess RNAi-mediated depletion or ‘knockdown’ of specific proteins from human cells and from Drosophila flies. This label-free approach does not require any specific reagents to confirm the depletion of RNAi target protein(s) in unfractionated cell or whole organism extracts. The protocol described here is general, can be developed rapidly and can be multiplexed to detect...

  9. Consistent Cosmic Microwave Background Spectra from Quantum Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Casadio, Roberto; Kuhnel, Florian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Following a new quantum cosmological model proposed by Dvali and Gomez, we quantitatively investigate possible modifications to the Hubble parameter and following corrections to the cosmic microwave background spectrum. In this model, scalar and tensor perturbations are generated by the quantum depletion of the background inflaton and graviton condensate respectively. We show how the inflaton mass affects the power spectra and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Masses approaching the Planck scale wo...

  10. Evaluating ozone depletion from very short-lived halocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Seth C.; Hannegan, Bryan J; Zhu, Xin; Prather, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is needed for calculating the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of short-lived gases with mean lifetimes less than 100 days. Clearly, the ozone loss from such gases depends strongly on the location and season of emissions. It is proposed that delivery to the tropical tropopause is a surrogate for the amount of halogen entering the stratosphere. Thus 3-D global models, with accurate simulation of tropospheric chemistry and transport, can calculate the ODP specific to tropical sour...

  11. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  12. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose we

  13. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; Vet, De Emely; Ridder, De Denise T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  14. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  15. Oil depletion and terms of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia-Vladu, Marina; Thompson, Henry

    2007-01-01

    A model of the international oil market model with optimal depletion and offer curves suggests importers face a backward bending offer curve. An oil tariff would then raise oil imports and lower the price of oil including the tariff. Simulations of price and extraction paths for the coming century provide insight into the future of oil depletion and terms of trade.

  16. Deuterium - depleted water. Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium - depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. The research conducted at ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, regarding deuterium - depleted water were completed by the following patents: - technique and installation for deuterium - depleted water production; - distilled water with low deuterium content; - technique and installation for the production of distilled water with low deuterium content; - mineralized water with low deuterium content and technique to produce it. The gold and silver medals won at international salons for inventions confirmed the novelty of these inventions. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a big influence on living organisms, beginning with 1996, the ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, deuterium - depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effects' evaluation of deuterium - depleted water. The role of natural deuterium in living organisms was examined by using deuterium - depleted water instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: 1. deuterium - depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium - depleted water persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; -2. animals treated with deuterium - depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanism; 3, deuterium - depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; 4. investigations regarding artificial

  17. A method to estimate groundwater depletion from confining layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, L.F.; Neuzil, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although depletion of storage in low-permeability confining layers is the source of much of the groundwater produced from many confined aquifer systems, it is all too frequently overlooked or ignored. This makes effective management of groundwater resources difficult by masking how much water has been derived from storage and, in some cases, the total amount of water that has been extracted from an aquifer system. Analyzing confining layer storage is viewed as troublesome because of the additional computational burden and because the hydraulic properties of confining layers are poorly known. In this paper we propose a simplified method for computing estimates of confining layer depletion, as well as procedures for approximating confining layer hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) using geologic information. The latter makes the technique useful in developing countries and other settings where minimal data are available or when scoping calculations are needed. As such, our approach may be helpful for estimating the global transfer of groundwater to surface water. A test of the method on a synthetic system suggests that the computational errors will generally be small. Larger errors will probably result from inaccuracy in confining layer property estimates, but these may be no greater than errors in more sophisticated analyses. The technique is demonstrated by application to two aquifer systems: the Dakota artesian aquifer system in South Dakota and the coastal plain aquifer system in Virginia. In both cases, depletion from confining layers was substantially larger than depletion from the aquifers.

  18. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  19. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  20. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Byrnes, Martin J.; Stephens, James O.; Vadie, Alex A.

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate that a microbially enhanced oil recovery process (MEOR), developed in part under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-90BC14665, will increase oil recovery from fluvial dominated deltaic oil reservoirs. The process involves stimulating the in-situ indigenous microbial population in the reservoir to grow in the more permeable zones, thus diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the waterflood. This five and a half year project is divided into three phases, Phase I, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Phase II, Implementation (45 months), and Phase III, Technology Transfer (12 months). Phase I was completed and reported in the first annual report. This fifth annual report covers the completion of Phase II and the first six months of Phase III.

  1. Contribution of global groundwater depletion since 1900 to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Removal of water from terrestrial subsurface storage is a natural consequence of groundwater withdrawals, but global depletion is not well characterized. Cumulative groundwater depletion represents a transfer of mass from land to the oceans that contributes to sea-level rise. Depletion is directly calculated using calibrated groundwater models, analytical approaches, or volumetric budget analyses for multiple aquifer systems. Estimated global groundwater depletion during 1900–2008 totals ~4,500 km3, equivalent to a sea-level rise of 12.6 mm (>6% of the total). Furthermore, the rate of groundwater depletion has increased markedly since about 1950, with maximum rates occurring during the most recent period (2000–2008), when it averaged ~145 km3/yr (equivalent to 0.40 mm/yr of sea-level rise, or 13% of the reported rate of 3.1 mm/yr during this recent period).

  2. Oceanic bromoform emissions weighted by their ozone depletion potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Ziska, F.; Pisso, I.; Quack, B.; Velders, G. J. M.; Yang, X.; Krüger, K.

    2015-12-01

    At present, anthropogenic halogens and oceanic emissions of very short-lived substances (VSLSs) both contribute to the observed stratospheric ozone depletion. Emissions of the long-lived anthropogenic halogens have been reduced and are currently declining, whereas emissions of the biogenic VSLSs are expected to increase in future climate due to anthropogenic activities affecting oceanic production and emissions. Here, we introduce a new approach for assessing the impact of oceanic halocarbons on stratospheric ozone by calculating their ozone depletion potential (ODP)-weighted emissions. Seasonally and spatially dependent, global distributions are derived within a case-study framework for CHBr3 for the period 1999-2006. At present, ODP-weighted emissions of CHBr3 amount up to 50 % of ODP-weighted anthropogenic emissions of CFC-11 and to 9 % of all long-lived ozone depleting halogens. The ODP-weighted emissions are large where strong oceanic emissions coincide with high-reaching convective activity and show pronounced peaks at the Equator and the coasts with largest contributions from the Maritime Continent and western Pacific Ocean. Variations of tropical convective activity lead to seasonal shifts in the spatial distribution of the trajectory-derived ODP with the updraught mass flux, used as a proxy for trajectory-derived ODP, explaining 71 % of the variance of the ODP distribution. Future climate projections based on the RCP 8.5 scenario suggest a 31 % increase of the ODP-weighted CHBr3 emissions by 2100 compared to present values. This increase is related to a larger convective updraught mass flux in the upper troposphere and increasing emissions in a future climate. However, at the same time, it is reduced by less effective bromine-related ozone depletion due to declining stratospheric chlorine concentrations. The comparison of the ODP-weighted emissions of short- and long-lived halocarbons provides a new concept for assessing the overall impact of oceanic

  3. Evaluation of three high abundance protein depletion kits for umbilical cord serum proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Jing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High abundance protein depletion is a major challenge in the study of serum/plasma proteomics. Prior to this study, most commercially available kits for depletion of highly abundant proteins had only been tested and evaluated in adult serum/plasma, while the depletion efficiency on umbilical cord serum/plasma had not been clarified. Structural differences between some adult and fetal proteins (such as albumin make it likely that depletion approaches for adult and umbilical cord serum/plasma will be variable. Therefore, the primary purposes of the present study are to investigate the efficiencies of several commonly-used commercial kits during high abundance protein depletion from umbilical cord serum and to determine which kit yields the most effective and reproducible results for further proteomics research on umbilical cord serum. Results The immunoaffinity based kits (PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent displayed higher depletion efficiency than the immobilized dye based kit (PROTBA-Sigma in umbilical cord serum samples. Both the PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent kit maintained high depletion efficiency when used three consecutive times. Depletion by the PROTIA-Sigma Kit improved 2DE gel quality by reducing smeared bands produced by the presence of high abundance proteins and increasing the intensity of other protein spots. During image analysis using the identical detection parameters, 411 ± 18 spots were detected in crude serum gels, while 757 ± 43 spots were detected in depleted serum gels. Eight spots unique to depleted serum gels were identified by MALDI- TOF/TOF MS, seven of which were low abundance proteins. Conclusions The immunoaffinity based kits exceeded the immobilized dye based kit in high abundance protein depletion of umbilical cord serum samples and dramatically improved 2DE gel quality for detection of trace biomarkers.

  4. Possible ozone depletions following nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Turco, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of depletion of the ozone layer ensuing after delivery of strategic nuclear warheads (5000 and 10,000 Mton) due to production of nitrogen oxides is theoretically assessed. Strong depletions are calculated for 16-km and 26-km altitudes, peaking 1-2 months after detonation and lasting for three years, while a significant depletion at 36 km would peak after one year. Assuming the explosions occur between 30 and 70 deg N, these effects should be much more pronounced in this region than over the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. It is concluded that Hampson's concern on this matter (1974) is well-founded.-

  5. Online monitoring of immunoaffinity-based depletion of high-abundance blood proteins by UV spectrophotometry using enhanced green fluorescence protein and FITC-labeled human serum albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hyeong; Kim Byungwook; Kim Hyunsoo; Min Hophil; Yu Jiyoung; Kim Kyunggon; Kim Youngsoo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The removal of high-abundance proteins from plasma is an efficient approach to investigating flow-through proteins for biomarker discovery studies. Most depletion methods are based on multiple immunoaffinity methods available commercially including LC columns and spin columns. Despite its usefulness, high-abundance depletion has an intrinsic problem, the sponge effect, which should be assessed during depletion experiments. Concurrently, the yield of depletion of high-abund...

  6. Visualization of stratospheric ozone depletion and the polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, Lloyd A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct analysis of spacecraft observations of stratospheric ozone yields information about the morphology of annual austral depletion. Visual correlation of ozone with other atmospheric data illustrates the diurnal dynamics of the polar vortex and contributions from the upper troposphere, including the formation and breakup of the depletion region each spring. These data require care in their presentation to minimize the introduction of visualization artifacts that are erroneously interpreted as data features. Non geographically registered data of differing mesh structures can be visually correlated via cartographic warping of base geometries without interpolation. Because this approach is independent of the realization technique, it provides a framework for experimenting with many visualization strategies. This methodology preserves the fidelity of the original data sets in a coordinate system suitable for three-dimensional, dynamic examination of atmospheric phenomena.

  7. Real depletion in nodal diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel depletion is described by more than one hundred fuel isotopes in the advanced lattice codes like HELIOS, but only a few fuel isotopes are accounted for even in the advanced steady-state diffusion codes. The general assumption that the number densities of the majority of the fuel isotopes depend only on the fuel burnup is seriously in error if high burnup is considered. The real depletion conditions in the reactor core differ from the asymptotic ones at the stage of lattice depletion calculations. This study reveals which fuel isotopes should be explicitly accounted for in the diffusion codes in order to predict adequately the real depletion effects in the core. A somewhat strange conclusion is that if the real number densities of the main fissionable isotopes are not explicitly accounted for in the diffusion code, then Sm-149 should not be accounted for either, because the net error in k-inf is smaller (Authors)

  8. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  9. Polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of investigations into the correlation between the depletion of ozone and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Satellite measurements from Nimbus 7 showed that over the years the depletion from austral spring to austral spring has generally worsened. Approximately 70 percent of the ozone above Antarctica, which equals about 3 percent of the earth's ozone, is lost during September and October. Various hypotheses for ozone depletion are discussed including the theory suggesting that chlorine compounds might be responsible for the ozone hole, whereby chlorine enters the atmosphere as a component of chlorofluorocarbons produced by humans. The three types of PSCs, nitric acid trihydrate, slowly cooling water-ice, and rapidly cooling water-ice clouds act as important components of the Antarctic ozone depletion. It is indicated that destruction of the ozone will be more severe each year for the next few decades, leading to a doubling in area of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  10. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF6 mailing list

  11. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted 238U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  12. Depleted Uranium and Its Effects on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes contemporary scientific knowledge of depleted uranium effects on human health due to its use in military conflicts. The discussion covers cases of minimal risk due to external irradiation resulting from the storage and handling of depleted uranium ammunition and, in contrast, important toxicological and radio-toxicological risks of late effects resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of dust particles produced by the burning of the core of the anti-tank ammunition.

  13. Depleted Uranium and Its Effects on Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeněk Hon; Jan Österreicher; Leoš Navrátil

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes contemporary scientific knowledge of depleted uranium effects on human health due to its use in military conflicts. The discussion covers cases of minimal risk due to external irradiation resulting from the storage and handling of depleted uranium ammunition and, in contrast, important toxicological and radio-toxicological risks of late effects resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of dust particles produced by the burning of the core of the anti-tank ammunition.

  14. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Radiative characteristics of depleted uranium bomb and it is protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the developing process of depleted uranium bombs described in the first part, the radiative characteristics and mechanism of depleted uranium bombs are analyzed emphatically. The deeper discussion on protection of depleted uranium bombs is proceeded

  16. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. PMID:26321417

  17. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  18. Verification of the COCAGNE core code using cluster depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF/R and D is developing a new calculation scheme based on the transport- Simplified Pn (SPn) approach. The lattice code used is the deterministic code APOLLO2, developed at CEA with the support of EDF and AREVA-NP. The core code is the code COCAGNE, developed at EDF R and D. The latter can take advantage of a microscopic depletion solver which improves the treatment of spectral history effects. This solver can resort to a specific correction based on the use of the Pu239 concentration as a spectral indicator. In order to evaluate the improvements brought by this Pu239 correction model, one uses (3x3 assemblies) cluster depletion calculations as test-cases. UOX and UOX/MOX clusters are both considered. As a reference, APOLLO2 depletion calculations of these clusters, using a critical boron (CB) search scheme at each calculation step, are performed. This choice of methodology (using CB search instead of a fixed average CB) enables to highlight historical spectral effects related to the boron concentration. This methodology is also more consistent with the depletion calculation of real cores. Pin by pin COCAGNE calculations are performed and compared with the APOLLO2 results. The analysis of the results obtained shows that the boron concentration computed by COCAGNE gets more consistent with APOLLO2 when the Pu239 corrector is used, especially for UOX/MOX clusters. As for pin power distribution, the use of the Pu239 model also enables to reduce slightly the gap between APOLLO2 and COCAGNE. This work will be extended to clusters with gadolinium-poisoned fuel assemblies and reflector regions. (author)

  19. An approach to speed up simulation time of WAG-CO{sub 2} process; Uma abordagem para reducao do tempo de simulacao do processo WAG-CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, Eliana Luci [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The use of CO{sub 2} in EOR processes is an attractive alternative to increase oil recovery and, at the same time, to avoid the emission of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. The possibility of CO{sub 2} injections is not limited to depleted reservoirs or to reservoirs after waterflooding, but also to reservoirs in the initial phase of their lives. A possible manner to inject CO{sub 2} is through the WAG process that combines the advantages of the two injection processes. The rigorous simulation of the WAG process is executed by a compositional formulation instead the simplified Black-Oil formulation. The compositional formulation requires more computational time to run a simulation model. Also, the procedure to shut-in and shut-off the injector wells alternately, to change the injection fluid, will once again increase the computational time of the WAG process. For this reason, a numerical approach was investigated in order to reduce this computational time. In this approach, called Pseudo WAG, water and CO{sub 2} are simultaneously injected into the simulation model, maintaining the same quantity of injection fluid as in the WAG process. The possibility of the Pseudo WAG to adequately represent the physical phenomena resulting from WAG-CO{sub 2} was investigated using a commercial and compositional simulator. The simulation runs executed for light oil with dissolved CO{sub 2} indicated that the WAG-CO{sub 2} process was effective for oil recovery. For the studied cases, the Pseudo WAG was capable of adequately representing the WAG-CO{sub 2} process, thus validating the proposed approach, providing a significant reduction in the computational time.(author)

  20. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. PMID:27241617

  1. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  2. Depleted uranium and the Gulf War syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some military personnel involved in the 1991Gulf War have complained of continuing stress-like symptoms for which no obvious cause has been found. These symptoms have at times been attributed to the use of depleted uranium (DU) in shell casings which are believed to have caused toxic effects. Depleted uranium is natural uranium which is depleted in the rarer U-235 isotope. It is a heavy metal and in common with other heavy metals is chemically toxic. It is also slightly radioactive and could give rise to a radiological hazard if dispersed in finely divided form so that it was inhaled. In response to concerns, the possible effects of DU have been extensively studied along with other possible contributors to Gulf War sickness. This article looks at the results of some of the research that has been done on DU. (author)

  3. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  4. Depleted uranium speciation in the Bratoselce soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the air strikes in 1999, about thirteen hundred projectiles with depleted uranium were fired into the Bratoselce, South Serbia. A study providing insight into physical chemical behaviour of depleted uranium originated from dissolved 'material' of projectile penetrators in the contaminated soil have been conducted. Samples were treated according to Tarriers modified procedure of five-step sequential extraction. Suitable choice of solvents for sequential extraction simulated the real conditions in the environment. Fractions are further analysed by alpha spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry methods to determine the uranium isotopes and trace or major elements. The results indicated potential substrates for depleted uranium compounds in the investigated environment, with specific soil composition that is essential for prediction of its mobility and bioavailability in certain conditions. (author)

  5. Consistent Cosmic Microwave Background Spectra from Quantum Depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Following a new quantum cosmological model proposed by Dvali and Gomez, we quantitatively investigate possible modifications to the Hubble parameter and following corrections to the cosmic microwave background spectrum. In this model, scalar and tensor perturbations are generated by the quantum depletion of the background inflaton and graviton condensate respectively. We show how the inflaton mass affects the power spectra and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Masses approaching the Planck scale would lead to strong deviations, while standard spectra are recovered for an inflaton mass much smaller than the Planck mass.

  6. Consistent cosmic microwave background spectra from quantum depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Kühnel, Florian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    Following a new quantum cosmological model proposed by Dvali and Gomez, we quantitatively investigate possible modifications to the Hubble parameter and following corrections to the cosmic microwave background spectrum. In this model, scalar and tensor perturbations are generated by the quantum depletion of the background inflaton and graviton condensate respectively. We show how the inflaton mass affects the power spectra and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Masses approaching the Planck scale would lead to strong deviations, while standard spectra are recovered for an inflaton mass much smaller than the Planck mass.

  7. Department of Energy depleted uranium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its strategic supply of depleted uranium, the Department of Energy is studying reuse of the material in nuclear radiation shields, military hardware, and commercial applications. the study is expected to warrant a more detailed uranium recycle plan which would include consideration of a demonstration program and a program implementation decision. Such a program, if implemented, would become the largest nuclear material recycle program in the history of the Department of Energy. The bulk of the current inventory of depleted uranium is stored in 14-ton cylinders in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The radioactive 235U content has been reduced to a concentration of 0.2% to 0.4%. Present estimates indicate there are about 55,000 UF6-filled cylinders in inventory and planned operations will provide another 2,500 cylinders of depleted uranium each year. The United States government, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, considers the depleted uranium a highly-refined strategic resource of significant value. A possible utilization of a large portion of the depleted uranium inventory is as radiation shielding for spent reactor fuels and high-level radioactive waste. To this end, the Department of Energy study to-date has included a preliminary technical review to ascertain DOE chemical forms useful for commercial products. The presentation summarized the information including preliminary cost estimates. The status of commercial uranium processing is discussed. With a shrinking market, the number of chemical conversion and fabrication plants is reduced; however, the commercial capability does exist for chemical conversion of the UF6 to the metal form and for the fabrication of uranium radiation shields and other uranium products. Department of Energy facilities no longer possess a capability for depleted uranium chemical conversion

  8. Gammaspectrometric determination of depleted uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three years of monitoring the content of natural radionuclides as well as radionuclides of artificial origin in all samples in the south part of the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro indicated that there was widespread, low-level contamination by depleted uranium at this region. High activity of depleted uranium was found in the soil samples taken at the points where the penetrators were found. We used high resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, because of their simplicity and accuracy. Aims of the control were to asses the increase of radioactivity above the natural levels in the immediate and near vicinity of the bomb craters, to asses the corresponding effect of changed natural radioactivity on the health of the population living in these places and finding unexploded depleted uranium bullets. The collected soil samples were cleaned of plants and stones, dried at 105 deg. C - 110 deg. C till constant weight for 24-48 h. After this, the samples were ground, sieved, and measure in cylindrical geometry. Gamma activity was determined by gamma spectrometry measurements using HP Ge detector (ORTEC), with relative efficiency of 25% and energy resolution of 1.85 keV (1332.5 keV 60Co). The analyser system conducts a peak search, energy assignment, quantification and nuclide identification in acquired spectra. Time of measurement varied from 60000 s to 250000 s. Depleted uranium was found in the soil samples from Vranje region and cape Arza (Montenegro). There are four fenced areas in Vranje region (Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan) and one in the Montenegro (cape Arza) where we have found depleted uranium penetrators. The 238U and 235U specific activities and their isotopic composition correspond to depleted uranium (238U/235U ratio from 35 to 77). (author)

  9. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Sidney A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles....

  10. Toxicological issues after depleted uranium weapons attacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the uranium enrichment for producing nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon. DU is used in the military as an armor-piercing projectile due to its hardness, strength, and density. A lot of DU weapons were fired in the Gulf War, and bring about critical environmental and internal contamination. Therefore, DU becomes suddenly a hot issue. Some toxicological problems after DU weapons attacked have been reviewed, which include features of internal DU contamination. Hazard of wound contamination and inhalation with insoluble uranium, and other urgent toxicological issues. The healthy effects of implanted with depleted uranium pellets were illustrated in particular

  11. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burn-up matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths of the nuclide and search the paths automatically according to to problem description and precision restrictions should be sought. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to search and calculate the linear chains using Depth First Search (DFS) method. The depletion program can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The solution space and time complexity of the program were analyzed. The new developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-II to calculate the benchmark burn-up problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). The initial verification and validation of the program was performed by the calculation. (author)

  12. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  13. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burnup matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain then can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths and search the paths automatically according to the problem description and precision restrictions should be found. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to establish and calculate the linear chains in searching process using depth first search (DFS) method, forming an algorithm which can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The complexity of the solution space and time was analyzed by taking into account depletion process and the characteristics of the backtracking algorithm. The newly developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-Ⅱ to calculate the benchmark burnup problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the preliminary verification and validation of the program were performed. (authors)

  14. A worldwide view of groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.; van Kempen, C.; Reckman, J. W.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades, global water demand has increased two-fold due to increasing population, expanding irrigated area and economic development. Globally such demand can be met by surface water availability (i.e., water in rivers, lakes and reservoirs) but regional variations are large and the absence of sufficient rainfall and run-off increasingly encourages the use of groundwater resources, particularly in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Excessive abstraction for irrigation frequently leads to overexploitation, i.e. if groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge over extensive areas and prolonged times, persistent groundwater depletion may occur. Observations and various regional studies have revealed that groundwater depletion is a substantial issue in regions such as Northwest India, Northeast Pakistan, Central USA, Northeast China and Iran. Here we provide a global overview of groundwater depletion from the year 1960 to 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree by assessing groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and subtracting estimates of groundwater abstraction obtained from IGRAC-GGIS database. PCR-GLOBWB was forced by the CRU climate dataset downscaled to daily time steps using ERA40 re-analysis data. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily global groundwater recharge (0.5 degree) while considering sub-grid variability of each grid cell (e.g., short and tall vegetation, different soil types, fraction of saturated soil). Country statistics of groundwater abstraction were downscaled to 0.5 degree by using water demand (i.e., agriculture, industry and domestic) as a proxy. To limit problems related to increased capture of discharge and increased recharge due to groundwater pumping, we restricted our analysis to sub-humid to arid areas. The uncertainty in the resulting estimates was assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis of 100 realizations of groundwater recharge and 100 realizations of groundwater abstraction

  15. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  16. Elemental depletions in the Magellanic Clouds and the evolution of depletions with metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Seale, Jonathan; Fox, Andrew; Friedman, Scott D; Dwek, Eli; Galliano, Frédéric; Sembach, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the composition of gas and dust in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, together -- the MCs) as measured by UV absorption spectroscopy. We have measured P II and Fe II along 85 sightlines toward the MCs using archival FUSE observations. For 16 of those sightlines, we have measured Si II, Cr II, and Zn II from new HST COS observations. We have combined these measurements with H I and H$_2$ column densities and reference stellar abundances from the literature to derive gas-phase abundances, depletions, and gas-to-dust ratios (GDRs). 80 of our 84 P measurements and 13 of our 16 Zn measurements are depleted by more than 0.1 decades, suggesting that P and Zn abundances are not accurate metallicity indicators at and above the metallicity of the SMC. The maximum P and Zn depletions are the same in the MW, LMC, and SMC. Si, Cr, and Fe are systematically less depleted in the SMC than in the MW or LMC. The minimum Si depletion in the SMC is consistent with zero. Our depletion-derive...

  17. Copenhagen delegates advance phaseout of ozone depleters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As expected, delegates at the United Nations Ozone Layer Conference in Copenhagen sped up ozone depleter phaseouts from the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the 1990 London amendments. The changes bring the worldwide production phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleters in developed countries in line with U.S. and European plans announced earlier this year. Adjustments to the protocol, which are binding on the signatories, change the phaseout for CFC, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform production and consumption to January 1, 1996 from 2000. The 75% reduction of 1986 levels from CFCs by January 1, 1994 is a compromise between European pressure for an 85% cut and the US goal of 70%. Halon production is to end January 1, 1994, as anticipated. Developing countries continue to have a 10-year grace period. Friends of the Earth ozone campaign director Liz Cook counters that the phaseout dates were scheduled with concern for the chemical industry, not for the ozone layer

  18. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  19. Reactor fuel depletion benchmark of TINDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A reactor burnup benchmark of TINDER, coupling MCNP6 to CINDER2008, was performed. • TINDER is a poor candidate for fuel depletion calculations using its current libraries. • Data library modification is necessary if fuel depletion is desired from TINDER. - Abstract: Accurate burnup calculations are key to proper nuclear reactor design, fuel cycle modeling, and disposal estimations. The TINDER code, originally designed for activation analyses, has been modified to handle full burnup calculations, including the widely used predictor–corrector feature. In order to properly characterize the performance of TINDER for this application, a benchmark calculation was performed. Although the results followed the trends of past benchmarked codes for a UO2 PWR fuel sample from the Takahama-3 reactor, there were obvious deficiencies in the final result, likely in the nuclear data library that was used. Isotopic comparisons versus experiment and past code benchmarks are given, as well as hypothesized areas of deficiency and future work

  20. Improvements in EBR-2 core depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for accurate core depletion calculations in Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2) is discussed. Because of the unique physics characteristics of EBR-2, it is difficult to obtain accurate and computationally efficient multigroup flux predictions. This paper describes the effect of various conventional and higher order schemes for group constant generation and for flux computations; results indicate that higher-order methods are required, particularly in the outer regions (i.e. the radial blanket). A methodology based on Nodal Equivalence Theory (N.E.T.) is developed which allows retention of the accuracy of a higher order solution with the computational efficiency of a few group nodal diffusion solution. The application of this methodology to three-dimensional EBR-2 flux predictions is demonstrated; this improved methodology allows accurate core depletion calculations at reasonable cost. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  2. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  3. Educational software on the ozone layer Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Saridaki, Anna; Tampakis, Constantine (Konstantinos); Skordoulis, Constantine

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the formative evaluation of educational software concerning the ‘Depletion of the Ozone Layer’ designed for the students of the Faculty of Primary Education (pre-service teachers) of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The selection of the topic was based on: i) environmental criteria (importance of the phenomenon, complexity of the phenomenon), ii) societal criteria (local interest, human activities effects), iii) pedagogical cr...

  4. Effects of Streambed Conductance on Stream Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Lackey; Roseanna M. Neupauer; John Pitlick

    2015-01-01

    Stream depletion, which is the reduction in flow rate of a stream or river due to the extraction of groundwater in a hydraulically connected stream-aquifer system, is often estimated using numerical models. The accuracy of these models depends on the appropriate parameterization of aquifer and streambed hydraulic properties. Streambed conductance is a parameter that relates the head difference between the stream and aquifer to flow across the stream channel. It is a function of streambed hydr...

  5. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  6. Ecological and corrosion behavior of depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Mirjana D.; Lačnjevac Časlav M.; Mihajlović Marija L.; Petrović Marija V.; Šoštarić Tanja D.; Petrović Jelena T.; Lopičić Zorica R.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution with radionuclides, particularly uranium and its decay products is a serious global problem. The current scientific studies estimated that the contamination originating from TENORM, caused by nuclear and non-nuclear technologies, has significantly increased natural level of radioactivity in the last thirty years. During the last decades all the more were talking about the "new pollutant" - depleted uranium (DU), which has been used i...

  7. Depleted uranium during the Kosovo war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the depleted uranium (DU) in the war and civil aims is considered. There are characterized the head parts of projectiles (drifts) from DU, used during Balkan wars, are described. The uranium isotope activity and exposure dose rates from β, γ and photon radiation of the drifts are investigated. The content of uranium and plutonium isotopes in the soil samples are measured. It is concluded that DU cannot exercise the acute influence on the health of military man and civil population

  8. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  9. Depletion modeling of liquid dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, G.

    1984-06-01

    Depletion models for liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs are derived and presented. The depletion models are divided into two categories: confined and unconfined. For both cases depletion models with no recharge (or influx), and depletion models including recharge, are used to match field data from the Svartsengi high temperature geothermal field in Iceland. The influx models included with the mass and energy balances are adopted from the petroleum engineering literature. The match to production data from Svartsengi is improved when influx was included. The Schilthuis steady-state influx gives a satisfactory match. The finite aquifer method of Fetkovitch, and the unsteady state method of Hurst gave reasonable answers, but not as good. The best match is obtained using Hurst simplified solution when lambda = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} m{sup -1}. From the match the cross-sectional area of the aquifer was calculated as 3.6 km{sup 2}. The drawdown was predicted using the Hurst simplified method, and compared with predicted drawdown from a boiling model and an empirical log-log model. A large difference between the models was obtained. The predicted drawdown using the Hurst simplified method falls between the other two. Injection has been considered by defining the net rate as being the production rate minus the injection rate. No thermal of transient effects were taken into account. Prediction using three different net rates shows that the pressure can be maintained using the Hurst simplified method if there is significant fluid reinjection. 32 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ecological and corrosion behavior of depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with radionuclides, particularly uranium and its decay products is a serious global problem. The current scientific studies estimated that the contamination originating from TENORM, caused by nuclear and non-nuclear technologies, has significantly increased natural level of radioactivity in the last thirty years. During the last decades all the more were talking about the "new pollutant" - depleted uranium (DU, which has been used in anti-tank penetrators because of its high density, penetration and pyrophoric properties. It is estimated that during the Gulf War, the war in Bosnia and Yugoslavia and during the invasion of Iraq, 1.4 million missiles with depleted uranium was fired. During the NATO aggression against the ex Yugoslavia in 1999., 112 locations in Kosovo and Metohija, 12 locations in southern Serbia and two locations in Montenegro were bombed. On this occasion, approximately 10 tons of depleted uranium were entered into the environment, mainly on land, where the degree of contamination ranged from 200 Bq / kg to 235 000 Bq/kg, which is up to 1000 times higher than the natural level. Fourteen years ago there was very little information about the behavior of ecological systems damaged by DU penetrators fired. Today, unfortunately, we are increasingly faced with the ―invisible threat" of depleted uranium, which has a strong radioactive and hemotoxic impact on human health. Present paper provides a detailed overview of the current understanding of corrosion and corrosion behavior of DU and environmental factors that control corrosion, together with indicators of environmental impact in order to highlight areas that need further attention in developing remediation programs.

  11. Optical assessment of phytoplankton nutrient depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Richardson, Katherine; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of light absorption at 480 and 665 nm by 90% acetone extracts of marine phytoplankton pigments has been examined as a potential indicator of phytoplankton nutritional status in both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies demonstrated a clear relationship between nutritional......-replete and nutrient-depleted cells. The field data suggest that the absorption ratio may be a useful indicator of nutritional status of natural phytoplankton populations, and can be used to augment the interpretation of other data....

  12. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.

    2010-06-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processability with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Rapid recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to impressive 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Two distinct device architectures and operating mechanisms have been advanced. The first-the Schottky device-was optimized and explained in terms of a depletion region driving electron-hole pair separation on the semiconductor side of a junction between an opaque low-work-function metal and a p-type CQD film. The second-the excitonic device-employed a CQD layer atop a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and was explained in terms of diffusive exciton transport via energy transfer followed by exciton separation at the type-II heterointerface between the CQD film and the TCO. Here we fabricate CQD photovoltaic devices on TCOs and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation, and that they also exploit the large bandgap of the TCO to improve rectification and block undesired hole extraction. The resultant depletedheterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS CQDs, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. We report the highest opencircuit voltages observed in solid-state CQD solar cells to date, as well as fill factors approaching 60%, through the combination of efficient hole blocking (heterojunction) and very small minority carrier density (depletion) in the large-bandgap moiety. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al2O3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values

  14. Understanding the haling power depletion (HPD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pennsylvania State Univ. (PSU) is using the university version of the Studsvik Scandpower Code System (CMS) for research and education purposes. Preparations have been made to incorporate the CMS into the PSU Nuclear Engineering graduate class 'Nuclear Fuel Management' course. The information presented in this paper was developed during the preparation of the material for the course. The Haling Power Depletion (HPD) was presented in the course for the first time. The HPD method has been criticized as not valid by many in the field even though it has been successfully applied at PSU for the past 20 years. It was noticed that the radial power distribution (RPD) for low leakage cores during depletion remained similar to that of the HPD during most of the cycle. Thus, the Haling Power Depletion (HPD) may be used conveniently mainly for low leakage cores. Studies were then made to better understand the HPD and the results are presented in this paper. Many different core configurations can be computed quickly with the HPD without using Burnable Poisons (BP) to produce several excellent low leakage core configurations that are viable for power production. Once the HPD core configuration is chosen for further analysis, techniques are available for establishing the BP design to prevent violating any of the safety constraints in such HPD calculated cores. In summary, in this paper it has been shown that the HPD method can be used for guiding the design for the low leakage core. (authors)

  15. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polk, James E., E-mail: james.e.polk@jpl.nasa.gov; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Capece, Angela M. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values.

  16. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Capece, Angela M.; Katz, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al2O3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values.

  17. 3D geomodelling and flow simulation of the Late Devonian Bakken Formation in south-central Saskatchewan : case study : Smiley Buffalo heavy oil waterflood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, R.; Estrada, C.A.; Norrena, K. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The Smiley Buffalo field in southern Saskatchewan is a mature heavy oil reservoir where reservoir management has been challenged by complex geological features. The primary reservoir is the middle Bakken sandstone which was deposited as an offshore sand ridge in late Devonian to early Mississippian period. The greatest challenge is that the reservoir sits above a carbonate formation that was subjected to post depositional erosion and karstification. Conduits for out-of-zone water infiltration were created by fracture networks that were generated during the structural deformation. These features influence reservoir performance. A newly constructed geomodel was used to simulate flow and to identify areas of missed opportunity. The method used to characterize the reservoir and predict reservoir behaviour was presented in an effort to optimize a heavy oil waterflood project. The geological model was described followed by a geocellular model and flow simulation. A facies classification model was derived with fuzzy logic which used the core and log data along with the geologic model. Sequential indicator simulation was used to augment the structural model with facies information, while sequential Gaussian simulation was used to augment the petrophysical properties. Flow simulation and well location selection were determined from these representative models. The complexity of the 3 dimensional facies and property modeling in the flow simulation was reflected in the amount of changes needed to reach a history match. These changes included the oil-water contact in sinkholed areas within defined limits, relative permeability end points of facies 2, vertical to horizontal permeability ratios of the same rock type, and negative skin factor. The additional property modeling was justified by the excellent results obtained in the history matching process. The results are being used for reservoir management decisions. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 38 figs.

  18. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  19. Lithium Depletion in Fully Convective Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Matzner, C D; Ushomirsky, G; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Ushomirsky, Greg

    1996-01-01

    We present an analytic calculation of the thermonuclear depletion of lithium in contracting, fully convective, pre-main sequence stars of mass M 0.08 M_sun) and for constraining the masses of lithium depleted stars.

  20. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent...

  2. Children's Models of the Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    1996-01-01

    The views of 40 primary students on ozone and its depletion were recorded through individual, semi-structured interviews. The data analysis resulted in the formation of a limited number of models concerning the distribution and role of ozone in the atmosphere, the depletion process, and the consequences of ozone depletion. Identifies five target…

  3. Use of MCDancoff factor correction for multi-group fuel depletion analyses of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors (LSCRs) are high temperature reactors, cooled by liquid salt, with a TRISO-particle based fuel in a solid form (stationary fuel elements or circulating fuel pebbles); this paper is focusing on the former. In either case, due to the double heterogeneity, core physics analysis require different considerations with more complex approaches than LWRs core physics calculations. Additional challenges appear when using the multi-group approach. In this paper we examine the use of SCALE6.1.1. Double heterogeneity may be accounted for through the Dancoff factor, however, SCALE6.1.1 does not provide an automated method to calculate Dancoff Factors for fuel planks with TRISO fuel particles. Therefore, depletion with continuous energy Monte Carlo Transport (CE depletion) in SCALE6.2 beta was used to generate MC Dancoff factors for multi-group calculations. MCDancoff corrected multi-group depletion agrees with the results for CE depletion within ±100 pcm, and within ±2σ. Producing MCDancoff factors for multi-group (MG) depletion calculations is necessary to LSCR analysis because CE depletion runtime and memory requirements are prohibitive for routine use. MG depletion with MCDancoff provides significantly shorter runtime and lower memory requirements while providing results of acceptable accuracy. (author)

  4. Benchmark Specification for HTGR Fuel Element Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    explicitly represent the dynamics of neutron slowing down in a heterogeneous environment with randomised grain distributions, but traditional tracking simulations can be extremely slow, and the large number of grains in a fuel element may often represent an extreme burden on computational resources. A number of approximations or simplifying assumptions have been developed to simplify the computational process and reduce the effort. Multi-group (MG) methods, on the other hand, require special treatment of DH fuels in order to properly capture resonance effects, and generally cannot explicitly represent a random distribution of grains due to the excessive computational burden resulting from the spatial grain distribution. The effect of such approximations may be important and has potential to misrepresent the spectrum within a fuel grain. Depletion methods utilised in lattice calculations typically rely on point depletion methods, based on the isotopic inventory of fuel depleted, assuming a single localised neutron flux. This flux is generally determined using either a CE or MG transport solver. Hence, in application to DH fuels, the primary factor influencing the accuracy of a depletion calculation will be the accuracy of the local flux calculated within the transport solution and the cross-sections. The current lack of well-qualified experimental measurements for spent HGTR fuel elements limits the validation of advanced DH depletion method. Because of this shortage of data, this benchmark has been developed as the first, simplest phase in a planned series of increasingly complex set of code-to-code benchmarks. The intent of this benchmark is to encourage submission of a wide range of computational results for depletion calculations in a set of basic fuel cell models. Comparison of results using independent methods and data should provide insight into potential limitations in various modelling approximations. The benchmark seeks to provide the simplest possible models, in

  5. Simulation of polar ozone depletion: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Kinnison, Doug; Bandoro, Justin; Garcia, Rolando

    2015-08-01

    We evaluate polar ozone depletion chemistry using the specified dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model for the year 2011. We find that total ozone depletion in both hemispheres is dependent on cold temperatures (below 192 K) and associated heterogeneous chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles. Reactions limited to warmer temperatures above 192 K, or on binary liquid aerosols, yield little modeled polar ozone depletion in either hemisphere. An imposed factor of three enhancement in stratospheric sulfate increases ozone loss by up to 20 Dobson unit (DU) in the Antarctic and 15 DU in the Arctic in this model. Such enhanced sulfate loads are similar to those observed following recent relatively small volcanic eruptions since 2005 and imply impacts on the search for polar ozone recovery. Ozone losses are strongly sensitive to temperature, with a test case cooler by 2 K producing as much as 30 DU additional ozone loss in the Antarctic and 40 DU in the Arctic. A new finding of this paper is the use of the temporal behavior and variability of ClONO2 and HCl as indicators of the efficacy of heterogeneous chemistry. Transport of ClONO2 from the southern subpolar regions near 55-65°S to higher latitudes near 65-75°S provides a flux of NOx from more sunlit latitudes to the edge of the vortex and is important for ozone loss in this model. Comparisons between modeled and observed total column and profile ozone perturbations, ClONO2 abundances, and the rate of change of HCl bolster confidence in these conclusions.

  6. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  7. Depleted Uranium Penetrators : Hazards and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, S S; T. Balakrishna Bhat

    1997-01-01

    The depleted uranium (DU) alloy is a state-of-the-art material for kinetic energy penetrators due to its superior ballistic performance. Several countries use DU penetrators in their main battle tanks. There is no gamma radiation hazard to the crew members from stowage of DO rounds. Open air firing can result in environmental contamination and associated hazards due to airborne particles containing essentially U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ and UO/sub 2/. Inhalation of polluted air only through resp...

  8. Uranium: myths and realities the depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is an element whose name causes worry. The uranium properties are very unknown for people. However the element plays an important roll in the Earth as responsible of numerous natural phenomena, which are vital for life evolution. An example of the low knowledge about uranium has been the Balkan syndrome. A relation between cancers and the use of depleted uranium in ammunition in the Balkan War has been pretended to be established. From the beginning, this hypothesis could have been discarded as it has been confirmed and stated in recent reports of UNEP Commissions who have studied this matter. (Author)

  9. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past few years, there have been highly significant advances in the understanding of the impact of human activities on the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer and the influence of changes in chemical composition of the radiative balance of the climate system. Specifically, since the last international scientific review (1989), there have been five major advances: (1) global ozone decreases; (2) polar ozone; (3) ozone and industrial halocarbons; (4) ozone and climate relations; and (5) ozone depletion potentials (ODP's) and global warming potentials (GWP's). These topics and others are discussed.

  10. The Time of Shipbuilding Order Depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reporter Xing Dan

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, shipbuilding market is facing even colder weather. Depletion of orders, deals that can only ensure cost recovery ndustry which has already bankruptcy of ship yards one after another are also torturing this had many uncertainties. Some shipbuilding enterprises are trying to survive by cutting off parts of their business, some enterprises are leaving like the horses migrating on the African grassland, only those horses that have fights with crocodiles will reach the fertile land and enjoy the next warm spring. the business. It is survived the fierce

  11. Depletion of the AP-1 repressor JDP2 induces cell death similar to apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Dietrich, Nikolaj;

    2005-01-01

    JDP2 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that efficiently represses the activity of the transcription factor AP-1. Thus far, all studies of JDP2 function have relied on the ectopic expression of the protein. In this study, we use a different approach: depletion of JDP2 from cells. Specific...... depletion of JDP2 resulted in p53-independent cell death that resembles apoptosis and was evident at 72 h. The death mechanism was caspase dependent as the cells could be rescued by treatment with caspase inhibitor zVAD. Our studies suggest that JDP2 functions as a general survival protein, not only...

  12. Depleted CMOS pixels for LHC proton-proton experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermes, N.

    2016-07-01

    While so far monolithic pixel detectors have remained in the realm of comparatively low rate and radiation applications outside LHC, new developments exploiting high resistivity substrates with three or four well CMOS process options allow reasonably large depletion depths and full CMOS circuitry in a monolithic structure. This opens up the possibility to target CMOS pixel detectors also for high radiation pp-experiments at the LHC upgrade, either in a hybrid-type fashion or even fully monolithic. Several pixel matrices have been prototyped with high ohmic substrates, high voltage options, and full CMOS electronics. They were characterized in the lab and in test beams. An overview of the necessary development steps and different approaches as well as prototype results are presented in this paper.

  13. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding microbial nutrients to the injection water. Work on the project is divided into three phases, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the third year of work on the project. During Phase I, two wells were drilled in an area of the field where approximately twenty feet of Carter sand were found and appeared to contain oil bypassed by the existing waterflood. Cores from one well were obtained and used in laboratory core flood experiments. The schedule and amounts of nutrients to be employed in the field were formulated on the basis of the results from laboratory core flood experiments.

  14. Equatorial airglow depletions induced by thermospheric winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriwether J.W. Jr.; Biondi, M.A.; Anderson, D.N.

    1985-08-01

    Interferometric observations of the 630.0 nm nightglow brightness at the equatorial station of Arequipa. Peru (16.2/sup 0/S, 71.4/sup 0/W geographic, 3.2/sup 0/S dip latitude) have revealed widespread areas of airglow depletion, with reductions in intensity as large as factors of 3 or 4. These depletions correlated closely with large increases of the equatorward (northward) wind and the 630.0 nm kinetic temperature. On occasion, the usually small meridonal wind reached a velocity of 100 m/s near 22/sup h/ LT lasting for 1 or 2 hours. The temperature increases of 10 K or more existed only in the poleward (southward) direction. Comparisons with modeling calculations suggest that this effect results from an upward movement of the ionosphere along the inclined magnetic field lines, driven by the equatorward neutral wind. The airglow column integrated emission rate is consequently decreased by the slower rate of formation and subsequent dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions within the higher F-layer. We conclude that the transient period of equatorward wind is a result of the passage of the midnight pressure bulge.

  15. Equatorial airglow depletions induced by thermospheric winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriwether, J.W.; Biondi, M.A.; Anderson, D.N.

    1985-08-01

    Interferometric observations on the 630.0 nm nightglow brightness at the equatorial station at Arequipa, Peru (16.2 S, 71.4 W geographic, 3.2 S dip latitude) have revealed widespread areas of airglow depletion, with reductions in intensity as large as factors of 3 or 4. These depletions correlated closely with large increases of the equatorward (northward) wind and the 630.0 nm kinetic temperature. On occasion, the usually small meridional wind reached a velocity of 100 m/s near 22h LT lasting for 1 to 2 hours. The temperature increases of 100K or more existed only in the poleware (southward) direction. Comparisons with modeling calculations suggest that this effect results from an upward movement of the ionosphere along the inclined magnetic field lines, driven by the equatorward neutral wind. The airglow column integrated emission rate is consequently decreased by the slower rate of formation and subsequent dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions within the higher F-layer. We conclude that the transient period of equatorward wind is a result of the passage of the midnight pressure bulge. (Author)

  16. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, W. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)]|[Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7200 (United States); Haydon, P.G. [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  17. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111InCl3;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111InCl3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111InCl3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  18. Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

  19. Convective Polymer Depletion on Pair Particle Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tai-Hsi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tuinier, Remco

    2011-11-01

    Understanding transport, reaction, aggregation, and viscoelastic properties of colloid-polymer mixture is of great importance in food, biomedical, and pharmaceutical sciences. In non-adsorbing polymer solutions, colloidal particles tend to aggregate due to the depletion-induced osmotic or entropic force. Our early development for the relative mobility of pair particles assumed that polymer reorganization around the particles is much faster than particle's diffusive time, so that the coupling of diffusive and convective effects can be neglected. Here we present a nonequilibrium two-fluid (polymer and solvent) model to resolve the convective depletion effect. The theoretical framework is based on ground state approximation and accounts for the coupling of fluid flow and polymer transport to better describe pair particle interactions. The momentum and polymer transport, chemical potential, and local viscosity and osmotic pressure are simultaneously solved by numerical approximation. This investigation is essential for predicting the demixing kinetics in the pairwise regime for colloid-polymer mixtures. This work is supported by NSF CMMI 0952646.

  20. TURTLE 24.0 diffusion depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURTLE is a two-group, two-dimensional (x-y, x-z, r-z) neutron diffusion code featuring a direct treatment of the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy, and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. TURTLE was written for the study of azimuthal xenon oscillations, but the code is useful for general analysis. The input is simple, fuel management is handled directly, and a boron criticality search is allowed. Ten thousand space points are allowed (over 20,000 with diagonal symmetry). TURTLE is written in FORTRAN IV and is tailored for the present CDC-6600. The program is core-contained. Provision is made to save data on tape for future reference. (auth)

  1. Vacancy Formation Enthalpy in Polycrystalline Depleted Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K. R.; Lynn, K. G.; Weber, M. H.; Okuniewski, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy was performed as a function of temperature and beam energy on polycrystalline depleted uranium (DU) foil. Samples were run with varying heat profiles all starting at room temperature. While collecting Doppler-Broadening data, the temperature of the sample was cycled several times. The first heat cycle shows an increasing S-parameter near temperatures of 400K to 500K much lower than the first phase transition of 941K indicating increasing vacancies possibly due to oxygen diffusion from the bulk to the surface. Vacancy formation enthalpies were calculated fitting a model to the data to be 1.6± 0.16 eV. Results are compared to previous work [3,4].

  2. Depleted Uranium Penetrators : Hazards and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Rao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The depleted uranium (DU alloy is a state-of-the-art material for kinetic energy penetrators due to its superior ballistic performance. Several countries use DU penetrators in their main battle tanks. There is no gamma radiation hazard to the crew members from stowage of DO rounds. Open air firing can result in environmental contamination and associated hazards due to airborne particles containing essentially U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ and UO/sub 2/. Inhalation of polluted air only through respirators or nose masks and refraining form ingestion of water or food materials from contaminated environment are safety measures for avoiding exposure to uranium and its toxicity. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate helps in urinary excretion of uranium that may have entered the body.

  3. Arctic Ozone Depletion from UARS MLS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone during four Arctic winters are compared. The evolution of ozone in the lower stratosphere is related to temperature, chlorine monoxide (also measured by MLS), and the evolution of the polar vortex. Lagrangian transport calculations using winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation system are used to estimate to what extent the evolution of lower stratospheric ozone is controlled by dynamics. Observations, along with calculations of the expected dynamical behavior, show evidence for chemical ozone depletion throughout most of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during the 1992-93 middle and late winter, and during all of the 1994-95 winter that was observed by MLS. Both of these winters were unusually cold and had unusually cold and had unusually strong Arctic polar vortices compared to meteorological data over the past 17 years.

  4. Depleted Reactor Analysis With MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo neutronics calculations are mostly done for fresh reactor cores. There is today an ongoing activity in the development of Monte Carlo plus burnup code systems made possible by the fast gains in computer processor speeds. In this work we investigate the use of MCNP-4B for the calculation of a depleted core of the Soreq reactor (IRR-1). The number densities as function of burnup were taken from the WIMS-D/4 cell code calculations. This particular code coupling has been implemented before. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B calculates the coupled transport of neutrons and photons for complicated geometries. We have done neutronics calculations of the IRR-1 core with the WIMS and CITATION codes in the past Also, we have developed an MCNP model of the IRR-1 standard fuel for a criticality safety calculation of a spent fuel storage pool

  5. Depleted uranium waste assay at AWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has recently conducted a Best Practical Means (BPM) study, for solid Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay, in order to satisfy key stakeholders that AWE is applying best practice. This study has identified portable passive High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS), combined with an analytical software package called Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform (SNAP), as the preferred option with the best balance between performance and costs. HRGS/SNAP performance has been assessed by monitoring 200 l DU waste drum standards and also heterogeneous, high density drums from DU firing trials. Accuracy was usually within 30 % with Detection Limits (DL) in the region of 10 g DU for short count times. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations have been used to confirm the shape of the calibration curve generated by the SNAP software procured from Eberline Services Inc. (authors)

  6. Depletion suspends the comparator mechanism in monitoring: The role of chronic self-consciousness in sequential self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lile; Hirt, Edward R

    2016-08-01

    In 4 studies, we accumulated support for the prediction that depletion suspends the comparator mechanism of self-regulatory monitoring. We adopted an individual difference approach and designated chronic self-consciousness as a signature variable for the comparator mechanism. In the nondepletion condition, we found that self-consciousness predicted self-regulation by itself (Study 1), or by interacting synergistically with other motivational factors such as online goal focus (Study 2) and task motivation (Study 3). In the depletion condition, self-consciousness ceased to predict task performance, which suggested that the self-focused comparator mechanism is suspended by depletion. Instead, depleted participants' self-control was predicted by their implicit goal to rest (Study 3), indicating that depletion does not indiscriminately suspend all self-regulatory processes. In Study 4, we showed that when an effective comparator mechanism is counterproductive to task performance, depletion can actually increase task performance. Implications of our findings for the underlying process of depletion as well as models positing ultimate explanations for sequential self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442767

  7. The MOD depleted uranium program independent review board : closure report

    OpenAIRE

    B. Smith

    2007-01-01

    This closure report was prepared by the MOD’s Depleted Uranium Independent Review Board (IRB; see Appendix A for membership) and summarises the review board’s general observations in respect of MOD’s depleted uranium research programme and the associated independent review process. The report starts by providing an introduction to MOD’s research programme on the health and environmental consequences of depleted uranium (DU), membership of the IRB, the operation of the review...

  8. Control of Single Molecule Fluorescence Dynamics by Stimulated Emission Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R J; Osborne, M A; Bain, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of manipulating the single molecule absorption-emission cycle using picosecond stimulated emission depletion (STED) is investigated using a stochastic computer simulation. In the simulation the molecule is subjected to repeated excitation and depletion events using time delayed pairs of excitation (PUMP) and depletion (DUMP) pulses derived from a high repetition rate pulsed laser system. The model is used to demonstrate that a significant and even substantial reduction in the ...

  9. A Novel Depletion-Mode MOS Gated Emitter Shorted Thyristor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹤鸣; 戴显英; 张义门; 马晓华; 林大松

    2000-01-01

    A Novel MOS-gated thyristor, depletion-mode MOS gated emitter shorted thyristor (DMST),and its two structures are proposed. In DMST,the channel of depletion-mode MOS makes the thyristor emitter-based junction inherently short. The operation of the device is controlled by the interruption and recovery of the depletion-mode MOS P channel. The perfect properties have been demonstrated by 2-D numerical simulations and the tests on the fabricated chips.

  10. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric interaction. We studied the interactions in the atmosphere between the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion from the point of view of past and future emissions of the anthropogenic com...

  11. Development of heavy concrete mixed with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressive strength and shielding performance tests of heavy weight concrete mixed with depleted Uranium (Depleted Uranium Concrete) were carried out. The depleted uranium pellets (φ 8 mm, height 9.5 mm) were mixed into cement paste instead of coarse aggregate. Specimens with nominal specific gravity of 3.2 - 5.4 were manufactured. The results of the compression strength test showed that compressive strength of more than 30 MPa was obtained with the specimens having the nominal specific gravity of more than 5 and it was confirmed from the shielding performance tests that Depleted Uranium Concrete has shielding corresponding to its nominal specific gravity. (author)

  12. Research on using depleted uranium as nuclear fuel for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our work is to find a way for application of depleted uranium in CANDU reactor by using MOX nuclear fuel of depleted U and Pu instead of natural uranium. From preliminary evaluation and calculation, it was shown that MOX nuclear fuel consisting of depleted uranium enrichment tailings (0.25% 235U) and plutonium (their ratio 99.5%:0.5%) could replace natural uranium in CANDU reactor to sustain chain reaction. The prospects of application of depleted uranium in nuclear energy field are also discussed

  13. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Roth; P-M König

    2005-06-01

    We study the behavior of the depletion potential in binary mixtures of hard particles in one, two, and three dimensions within the framework of a general theory for depletion potential using density functional theory. By doing so we extend earlier studies of the depletion potential in three dimensions to the cases of = 1 and 2 about which little is known, despite their importance for experiments. We also verify scaling relations between depletion potentials in sphere–sphere and wall–sphere geometries in = 3 and in disk–disk and wall–disk geometries in = 2, which originate from geometrical considerations.

  14. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret. PMID:24940811

  15. Observed and simulated depletion layers with southward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present observations from the Polar satellite that confirm the existence of two types of depletion layers predicted under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The first depletion type occurs along the stagnation line when IMF BX and/or dipole tilt are/is present. Magnetic merging occurred away from the equator (Maynard et al., 2003 and flux pile-ups developed while the field lines drape to the high-latitude merging sites. This high-shear type of depletion is consistent with the depletion layer model suggested by Zwan and Wolf (1976 for low-shear northward IMF conditions. Expected sites for depletion layers are associated with places where IMF tubes of force first impinge upon the magnetopause. The second depletion type develops poleward of the cusp. Under strongly driven conditions, magnetic fields from Region 1 current closure over the lobes (Siscoe et al., 2002c cause the high-latitude magnetopause to bulge outward, creating a shoulder above the cusp. These shoulders present the initial obstacle with which the IMF interacts. Flow is impeded, causing local flux pile-ups and low-shear depletion layers to form poleward of the cusps. Merging at the high-shear dayside magnetopause is consequently delayed. In both low- and high-shear cases, we show that the depletion layer structure is part of a slow mode wave standing in front of the magnetopause. As suggested by Southwood and Kivelson (1995, the depletions are rarefactions on the magnetopause side of slow-mode density compressions. While highly sheared magnetic fields are often used as proxies for ongoing local magnetic merging, depletion layers are prohibited at merging locations. Therefore, the existence of a depletion layer is evidence that the location of merging must be remote relative to the observation.

  16. Decommissioning plan depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee, Inc. (Aerojet) is decommissioning its California depleted uranium (DU) manufacturing facility. Aerojet has conducted manufacturing and research and development activities at the facility since 1977 under a State of California Source Materials License. The decontamination is being performed by a contractor selector for technical competence through competitive bid. Since the facility will be released for uncontrolled use it will be decontaminated to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In order to fully apply the principles of ALARA, and ensure the decontamination is in full compliance with appropriate guides, Aerojet has retained Rogers and Associaties Engineering Corporation (RAE) to assist in the decommissioning. RAE has assisted in characterizing the facility and preparing contract bid documents and technical specifications to obtain a qualified decontamination contractor. RAE will monitor the decontamination work effort to assure the contractor's performance complies with the contract specifications and the decontamination plan. The specifications require a thorough cleaning and decontamination of the facility, not just sufficient cleaning to meet the numeric cleanup criteria

  17. Nitrogen chemistry and depletion in starless cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hily-Blant, Pierre; forêts, G Pineau Des; Flower, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of nitrogen--containing species, principally isotopomers of CN, HCN, and HNC, in a sample of pre-protostellar cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to measure the emission in rotational and hyperfine transitions of CN, HCN, 13CN, H13CN, HN13C, and HC15N, in L 1544, L 183, Oph D, L 1517B, L 310. The observations were made along axial cuts through the dust emission peak, at a number of regularly--spaced offset positions. The observations were reduced and analyzed to obtain the column densities, using the measurements of the less abundant isotopic variants in order to minimize the consequences of finite optical depths in the lines. The observations were compared with the predictions of a free--fall gravitational collapse model, which incorporates a non-equilibrium treatment of the relevant chemistry. We found that CN, HCN, and HNC remain present in the gas phase at densities well above that at which CO depletes on to grains. The CN:HCN and the HNC:HCN abundance ratios are larger th...

  18. Levels of depleted uranium in Kosovo soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations Environment Programme has performed a field survey at 11 sites located in Kosovo, where depleted uranium (DU) ammunitions were used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) during the last Balkans conflict (1999). Soil sampling was performed to assess the spread of DU ground contamination around and within the NATO target sites and the migration of DU along the soil profile. The 234U/238U and 235U/238U activity concentration ratios have been used as an indicator of natural against anthropogenic sources of uranium. The results show that levels of 238U activity concentrations in soils above 100 Bq.kg-1 can be considered a 'tracer' of the presence of DU in soils. The results also indicate that detectable ground surface contamination by DU is limited to areas within a few metres from localised points of concentrated contamination caused by penetrator impacts. Vertical distribution of DU along the soil profile is measurable up to a depth of 10-20 cm. This latter aspect is of particular relevance for the potential risk of future contamination of groundwater. (author)

  19. Supercontinuum Stimulated Emission Depletion Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoine, Michael; Bose, Sayantan; Petrich, Jacob; Smith, Emily

    2012-06-13

    Supercontinuum (SC) stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence lifetime imaging is demonstrated by using time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) detection. The spatial resolution of the developed STED instrument was measured by imaging monodispersed 40-nm fluorescent beads and then determining their fwhm, and was 36 ± 9 and 40 ± 10 nm in the X and Y coordinates, respectively. The same beads measured by confocal microscopy were 450 ± 50 and 430 ± 30 nm, which is larger than the diffraction limit of light due to underfilling the microscope objective. Underfilling the objective and time gating the signal were necessary to achieve the stated STED spatial resolution. The same fluorescence lifetime (2.0 ± 0.1 ns) was measured for the fluorescent beads by using confocal or STED lifetime imaging. The instrument has been applied to study Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled F-actin-rich projections with dimensions smaller than the diffraction limit of light in cultured cells. Fluorescence lifetimes of the actin-rich projections range from 2.2 to 2.9 ns as measured by STED lifetime imaging.

  20. Levels of depleted uranium in Kosovo soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, U.; Stellato, L.; Jia, G.; Rosamilia, S.; Gaudino, S.; Barbizzi, S.; Belli, M

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme has performed a field survey at 11 sites located in Kosovo, where depleted uranium (DU) ammunitions were used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) during the last Balkans conflict (1999). Soil sampling was performed to assess the spread of DU ground contamination around and within the NATO target sites and the migration of DU along the soil profile. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U activity concentration ratios have been used as an indicator of natural against anthropogenic sources of uranium. The results show that levels of {sup 238}U activity concentrations in soils above 100 Bq.kg{sup -1} can be considered a 'tracer' of the presence of DU in soils. The results also indicate that detectable ground surface contamination by DU is limited to areas within a few metres from localised points of concentrated contamination caused by penetrator impacts. Vertical distribution of DU along the soil profile is measurable up to a depth of 10-20 cm. This latter aspect is of particular relevance for the potential risk of future contamination of groundwater. (author)

  1. Siemens PWR burnup credit criticality analysis methodology: Depletion code and verification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of burnup credit requires knowledge of the reactivity state of the irradiated fuel for which burnup credit is taken. The isotopic inventory of the irradiated fuel has to be calculated, therefore, by means of depletion codes. Siemens performs depletion calculations for PWR fuel burnup credit applications with the aid of the code package SAV. This code package is based on the first principles approach, i.e., avoids cycle or reactor specific fitting or adjustment parameters. This approach requires a general and comprehensive qualification of SAV by comparing experimental with calculational results. In the paper on hand the attention is focused mainly on the evaluation of chemical assay data received from different experimental programmes. (author)

  2. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  3. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding, Class 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, James O.; Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex

    2000-02-02

    The objectives of this project were (1) to demonstrate the in situ microbial population in a fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir could be induced to proliferate to such an extent that they will selectively restrict flow in the more porous zones in the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through previously unswept areas thus improving the sweep efficiency of the waterflood and (2) to obtain scientific validation that microorganisms are indeed responsible for the increased oil recovery. One expected outcome of this new technology was the prolongation of economical life of the reservoir, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in areas of the reservoir subjected to the MPPM technology than it would if it followed its historic trend.

  4. Antiandrogens and androgen depleting therapies in prostate cancer: novel agents for an established target

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu; Clegg, Nicola J.; Scher, Howard I.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor is critical for prostate cancer growth at all points in the illness. Currently therapies targeting the androgen receptor, including androgen depletion approaches and antiandrogens, do not completely inhibit androgen receptor activity. Prostate cancer cells develop resistance to castration by acquiring changes such as AR overexpression that result in reactivation of the receptor. Based on understanding of these resistance mechanisms and androgen synthesis pa...

  5. Lithium depletion is a strong test of core-envelope recoupling

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc. H.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a prime candidate for explaining the gradual depletion of lithium from the photospheres of cool stars during the main sequence. However, previous mixing calculations have relied primarily on treatments of angular momentum transport in stellar interiors incompatible with solar and stellar data, in the sense that they overestimate internal differential rotation. Instead, recent studies suggest that stars are strongly differentially rotating at young ages, but approach solid...

  6. Use, effects and legal standing of depleted uranium munitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides a brief description of depleted uranium and its use in weapons. Several exposure scenarios are described, and examples of the use of DU ammunition in training, testing, and combat are provided. A summary of depleted uranium's health and environmental effects follows, and the paper concludes with a brief analysis of the legal standing of DU munitions under international humanitarian law

  7. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric i

  8. Surface depletion in the vacuum distillation of metals from bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface depletion was investigated in laboratory- and plant-scale distillation units with mixing by natural convection or by mechanical surface agitation. A model was developed for predicting the degree of surface depletion during the distillation of metals from bismuth as a function of temperature, still pot dimensions, and degree of agitation. This paper discusses those findings

  9. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  10. Toxicity of Depleted Uranium Dust Particles: Results of a New Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is mostly composed of U-238, a naturally radioactive isotope. Concerning chemical toxicity, uranium, being a heavy metal, is known to have toxic effects on specific organs in the body, the kidneys in particular. Its effects are similar to those of other heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. Scientific evidence resulting both from in vitro and in vivo analyses shows that current models of the mechanisms of toxicity of uranium dust are not fully satisfactory. They should be refined in order to obtain more effective responses and predictions regarding health effects. In particular, radiotoxicity potential of Depleted Uranium dust originated by military use of this material for ammunition must be re-evaluated taking into account the bystander effect, the dose enhancing effect and other minor phenomena. Uranium dust has both chemical and radiological toxicity: the synergistic aspect of the two effects has to be accounted for, in order to arrive to a complete description of the phenomenon. The combination of the two different toxicities (chemical and radiological) of depleted uranium is attempted here for the first time, approaching the long-term effects of Depleted Uranium, and in particular the carcinogenetic effects. A case study (Balkan war, 1999) is discussed. (Author)

  11. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikkar Bindu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depleted uranium is being used increasingly often as a component of munitions in military conflicts. Military personnel, civilians and the DU munitions producers are being exposed to the DU aerosols that are generated. Methods We reviewed toxicological data on both natural and depleted uranium. We included peer reviewed studies and gray literature on birth malformations due to natural and depleted uranium. Our approach was to assess the "weight of evidence" with respect to teratogenicity of depleted uranium. Results Animal studies firmly support the possibility that DU is a teratogen. While the detailed pathways by which environmental DU can be internalized and reach reproductive cells are not yet fully elucidated, again, the evidence supports plausibility. To date, human epidemiological data include case examples, disease registry records, a case-control study and prospective longitudinal studies. Discussion The two most significant challenges to establishing a causal pathway between (human parental DU exposure and the birth of offspring with defects are: i distinguishing the role of DU from that of exposure to other potential teratogens; ii documentation on the individual level of extent of parental DU exposure. Studies that use biomarkers, none yet reported, can help address the latter challenge. Thoughtful triangulation of the results of multiple studies (epidemiological and other of DU teratogenicity contributes to disentangling the roles of various potentially teratogenic parental exposures. This paper is just such an endeavor. Conclusion In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU.

  12. Mineralized water depleted in deuterium and production technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralized water depleted in deuterium is similar to natural water but has an isotopic content of 30-120 ppm D/(D+H). One can obtain mineralized water depleted in deuterium both in continuous and in discontinuous way by mixing deuterium depleted water with strong mineralized water obtained by vacuum distillation at atmospheric pressure of natural water. The mixture is saturated with oxygen by bubbling dry air into it at ambient temperature. This invention allows obtaining a product depleted in deuterium similar to natural water with biostimulating properties that can be used as developing medium for living organisms or for human use. The invention has the following qualities: allows the production of deuterium depleted water with chemical composition similar to natural water; allows the precise control of deuterium content in the product. (authors)

  13. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  14. Ozone depletion during solar proton events in solar cycle 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Jackman, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Ozone profile data from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Instrument on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to the present and clear cases of ozone destruction associated with five sudden proton events (SPEs) on June 7, 1979, August 21, 1979, October 13-14, 1981, July 13, 1982, and December 8, 1982 are found. During the SPE on July 13, 1982, the largest of this solar cycle, no depletion at all at 45 km is observed, but there is a 15 percent ozone depletion at 50 km increasing to 27 percent at 55 km, all at a solar zenith angle of 85 deg. A strong variation of the observed depletion with solar zenith angle is found, with maximum depletion occurring at the largest zenith angles (near 85 deg) decreasing to near zero for angles below about 70 deg. The observed depletion is short lived, disappearing within hours of the end of the SPE.

  15. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquais, J. M.; Poret, F.; le Doze, R.; Ricaud, J. L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-06-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK).

  16. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  17. Regulation of new depleted uranium uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates how the existing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory structure and pending modifications would affect full deployment into radiologically uncontrolled areas of certain new depleted uranium (DU) uses being studied as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's DU uses research and development program. Such new DU uses include as catalysts (for destroying volatile organic compounds in off-gases from industrial processes and for hydrodesulfurization [HDS] of petroleum fuels), semiconductors (for fabricating integrated circuits, solar cells, or thermoelectric devices, especially if such articles are expected to have service in hostile environments), and electrodes (for service in solid oxide fuel cells, in photoelectrochemical cells used to produce hydrogen, and in batteries). The report describes each new DU use and provides a detailed analysis of whether any existing NRC licensing exemption or general license would be available to users of products and devices manufactured to deploy the new use. Although one existing licensing exemption was found to be possibly available for catalysts used for HDS of petroleum fuels and one general license was found to be possibly available for catalysts, semiconductors, and electrodes used in hydrogen production or batteries, existing regulations would require most users of products and devices deploying new DU uses to obtain specific source material licenses from the NRC or an Agreement State. This situation would not be improved by pending regulatory modifications. Thus, deployment of new DU uses may be limited because persons having no previous experience with NRC or Agreement State regulations may be hesitant to incur the costs and inconvenience of regulatory compliance, unless using a DU-containing product or device offers a substantial economic benefit over nonradioactive alternatives. Accordingly, estimating the risk of deploying new DU-containing products and devices in certain

  18. Depletion of ozone layer in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is a minor and naturally produced component in the stratosphere which encircles the earth some 15 to 45 Km above its surface. It is not an abundant chemical in the atmosphere but it is highly significant due to its property of shielding the earth from much of the potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. Should ozone disappear, the earth would become uninhabitable for most forms of life. Due to this property, ozone depletion in the stratosphere is now recognized as a major environmental problem with potentially catastrophic effects. Approximately 90% of ozone is found in the stratosphere where its peak concentrations are about 300 ppb. The altitude of peak concentrations varies from about 25 Km near the equator to approximately 15 Km in the polar region (Botkin and Keller, 1995). Ozone concentration is measured in Dobson Units (D.U.) One D.U. is equivalent to a concentration of 1 ppb of ozone. If brought to normal pressure at sea level, all of the existing atmospheric ozone would form a band of no more than 3 mm thick around the earth. (Kemp. 1994). Concentrations of ozone in the stratosphere have been measured for more than 70 years. Today there is nearly a 30-years record of ozone concentrations available from more than 30 locations around the world. It was found that in the Antarctic zone, the ozone concentrations, taken each year in October, decreased from 300 D.U. in 1970 to 200 D.U. in 1984 and a low of about 90 D.U. in 1993. The records indicate that the ozone concentrations in the stratosphere have been decreasing since mid 1960s. (Botkin and Keller, 1995). The concentration of ozone in Polar Regions is more than that near equator. In fact much of ozone is produced near the equator but moves from equator towards poles with global circulation patterns which are not well understood. (author)

  19. Deuterium depleted water. Present applications and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuterium depleted water, DDW, is distilled, microbiologically pure water with an isotopic concentration D/(D+H) under 145 ppm, the natural water value. At ICSI Rm Valcea a procedure was developed and a patent was recorded for the method and installation for obtaining DDW. The procedure consists in vacuum distillation of natural water on columns equipped with highly performing ordered packing. The system allows obtaining DDW at isotopic concentration within the range 20-120 ppm. Biological studies showed that treatment with this DDW reduced significantly the high rate in L929 linear fibroblast cells and annihilated the tumoral growth in xenotransplant. It was suggested that the deuterium occurring naturally has an essential in converting the signals regulating the cellular cycling. A vast program based on collaborations of ICSI with different specialized research institutes in Romania was initiated and important results already obtained among which one can mention: - DDW determines an increase of vascular reactivity seemingly endotelio-dependent and implying radical species (superoxides, nitric oxides); - immunity defense reaction represented by the opsonic, bactericide and phagocytic capacity are stimulated; - animals pre-treated with DDW present an increased resistance to both sub-lethal and lethal doses of gamma radiations, suggesting a radioprotective property; - study of artificial fecundation in fishes with fecundating solution containing an 1:1 mixture of DDW and distilled water showed the beneficent effects both in embryonal development and growth in alevins; - an increase of metabolism rate in aquatic macrophytes following the dilution of spectral energy of sea water mixed with DDW was observed; - studies on three genotypes of Zea mays showed significant effects on coleoptile growth. At present programs for studying prevention and treatment of tumors and various cancer forms are underway

  20. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  1. Removal of depleted uranium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of soil and water with depleted uranium (DU) has increased public health concerns due to the chemical toxicity of DU at elevated dosages. For this reason, there is great interest in developing methods for DU removal from contaminated sources. Two DU laden soils, taken from U.S. Army sites, were characterized for particle size distribution, total uranium concentration and removable uranium. Soil A was found to be a well graded sand containing a total of 3210 mg/kg DU (3.99 x 104 Bq/kg, where a Becquerel (Bq) is a unit of radiation). About 83% of the DU in the fines fraction (particle diameter 4 Bq/kg)) was associated with the carbonate, iron and manganese oxide and organic matter fractions of the material. Soil B was classified as a sandy silt with total DU of 1560 mg/kg (1.94 x 104 Bq/kg). The DU content in the fines fraction was 5171 mg/kg (6.43 x 104 Bq/kg). Sequential extraction of the Soil B fines fraction indicated that 64% of the DU was present either as soluble U(VI) minerals or as insoluble U(IV). Citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide were used in batch experiments to extract DU from the fines fraction of both soils. Citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were relatively successful for Soil A (50-60% DU removal), but not for Soil B (20-35% DU removal). Hydrogen peroxide was found to significantly increase DU extraction from both soils, attaining removals up to 60-80%

  2. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  3. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  4. Determination of depleted uranium in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process for nuclear fuel. According to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, a confirmatory method for the quantification of DU in freeze-dried fish was developed by isotope ratio dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IR-DRC-ICP-MS). A preliminary study was performed to determine the following parameters: instrumental detection limit (IDL), isotopic ratio measurement limit (IRML), percentage of DU (PDU) in presence of natural uranium (NU) and limit of quantification (LoQDU). The analyses were carried out by means of IR-DRC-ICP-MS. Ammonia was the reaction gas used for the dynamic reaction cell. In addition, a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS) was employed to calculate the within-laboratory reproducibility. For the confirmatory method the following parameters were determined: (a) trueness; (b) precision; (c) critical concentrations alpha and beta (CCα, CCβ); (d) specificity; (e) stability. Trueness was assessed by using the recovery tests. The recovery and within-laboratory reproducibility were determined by fortifying the blank digested solution of dogfish tissue: six aliquots were fortified at 1, 1.5 and 2 times the LOQDU with 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0 ng L-1 or 4.16, 6.24, 8.32 μg kg-1 with a recovery of -8.2, +9.5 and +9.6%, respectively and a within-laboratory reproducibility (three analytical run) of 15.5, 8.0 and 11.0%, respectively. The results for the decision limit and the detection capability were: CCα = 11.69 ng L-1 and CCβ = 19.8 ng L-1. The digested solutions resulted to be stable during testing time (60 days) and the method can be considered highly specific as well

  5. Impact of ozone depletion on immune function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeevan, A.; Kripke, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Immunology)

    1993-06-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone is expected to lead to an increase in the amount of UV-B radiation present in sunlight. In addition to its well known ability to cause skin cancer, UV-B radiation has been shown to alter the immune system. The immune system is the body's primary defense mechanism against infectious diseases and protects against the development of certain types of cancer. Any impairment of immune function may jeopardize health by increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases, increasing the severity of infections, or delaying recovery for infections. In addition, impaired immune function can increase the incidence of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the skin. Research carried out with laboratory animals over the past 15 years has demonstrated that exposure of the skin to UV-B radiation can suppress certain types of immune responses. These include rejection of UV-induced skin cancers and melanomas, contact allergy reactions to chemicals, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to microbial and other antigens, and phagocytosis and elimination of certain bacteria from lymphoid tissues. Recent studies with mycobacterial infection of mice demonstrated that exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the delayed hypersensitivity response to mycobacterial antigens and increased the severity of infection. In humans, UV-B radiation has also been shown to impair the contact allergy response. These studies demonstrate that UV radiation can decrease immune responses in humans and laboratory and raise the possibility that increased exposure to UV-B radiation could adversely affect human health by increasing the incidence or severity of certain infectious diseases.

  6. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  7. Cost estimate report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a cost analysis of the long-term storage of depleted uranium in the form of uranium metal. Three options are considered for storage of the depleted uranium. These options are aboveground buildings, partly underground vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are presented. In the first case, all the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) generated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) prior to July 1993 would be stored at the storage facility (100% Case). In the second case, half the depleted uranium metal would be stored at this storage facility (50% Case). In the third case, one-quarter of the depleted uranium metal would be stored at the storage facility (25% Case). The technical basis for the cost analysis presented in this report is principally found in the companion report, ANL/EAD/TM-100, ''Engineering Analysis Report for the Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride: Storage of Depleted Uranium Metal'', prepared by Argonne National Laboratory

  8. Adjoint-based uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis for reactor depletion calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Hayes Franklin

    Depletion calculations for nuclear reactors model the dynamic coupling between the material composition and neutron flux and help predict reactor performance and safety characteristics. In order to be trusted as reliable predictive tools and inputs to licensing and operational decisions, the simulations must include an accurate and holistic quantification of errors and uncertainties in its outputs. Uncertainty quantification is a formidable challenge in large, realistic reactor models because of the large number of unknowns and myriad sources of uncertainty and error. We present a framework for performing efficient uncertainty quantification in depletion problems using an adjoint approach, with emphasis on high-fidelity calculations using advanced massively parallel computing architectures. This approach calls for a solution to two systems of equations: (a) the forward, engineering system that models the reactor, and (b) the adjoint system, which is mathematically related to but different from the forward system. We use the solutions of these systems to produce sensitivity and error estimates at a cost that does not grow rapidly with the number of uncertain inputs. We present the framework in a general fashion and apply it to both the source-driven and k-eigenvalue forms of the depletion equations. We describe the implementation and verification of solvers for the forward and ad- joint equations in the PDT code, and we test the algorithms on realistic reactor analysis problems. We demonstrate a new approach for reducing the memory and I/O demands on the host machine, which can be overwhelming for typical adjoint algorithms. Our conclusion is that adjoint depletion calculations using full transport solutions are not only computationally tractable, they are the most attractive option for performing uncertainty quantification on high-fidelity reactor analysis problems.

  9. Deuterium depleted water. Current and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium depleted water (DDW) is distilled, microbiologically pure water with a D/(D+H) isotopic content lower than the value 145 ppm of natural water. It is practically unnoxious, with a toxic potential pT 50 > 0.01 mol/kg c.m. At ICSI a procedure was worked out and patented and a facility was achieved for obtaining DDW. The procedure consists in continuous vacuum distillation of natural water on columns with highly performing ordered packings. DDW of controlled isotopic concentration D/(D+H) within the range 20-120 ppm, of quality similar to distilled water can be currently produced. Many studies were reported in literature evidencing the active biological properties of DDW. DDW lowered significantly the high division rate of the L929 linear fibroblast cell and blocked the tumoral growth in xenotransplants. It was suggested that the naturally occurring deuterium plays a prominent role in converting the signal implied in cellular cycle mechanism. Having in view the high significance of the experiments in this field, ICSI has promoted a programme of collaborations with Romanian institutes of various specialties to evaluate the biological effects of DDW with a D/(D+H) concentration of about 30 ppm. The following results obtained so far obtained should be highlighted: - DDW causes an increase of vascular reactivity both in rings isolated from thorax aorta and in vivo upon arterial pressure. The reactivity increase seems to be endothelium-depended and is achieved with participation of the radical species (superoxides, nitric oxide); - DDW stimulates the immunodefence reaction, as represented by the opsonic, bactericide and phagocytic capacity of the immunity system as well as by the increase of the number of polymorphonucleates; - animals pre-treated with DDW exhibit an increased resistance both to sublethal and lethal γ radiation doses, what suggests a radioprotective effect; - studies on artificial fecundation in fishes with fecundant solutions containing a 1

  10. Observations of TEC Depletions in South and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Sheehan, R. E.; Pradipta, R.

    2014-12-01

    TEC values gathered with several networks of GPS receivers, which operated in South and Central America and the Caribbean region between 2010 and 2013, have been used to investigate the characteristics and morphology of TEC depletions that develop at these locations. In South America the TEC depletions are associated with low-latitude plasma bubbles. In Central America and the Caribbean region, we found that TEC depletions that occur during magnetically active conditions (Kp > 5o), persist for very long periods and sometimes remain even during afternoon hours. During quiet magnetic conditions, TEC depletions occur around the June solstice in Central America and during the December solstice in the Southern part of South America. We have also studied possible links between mid-latitude depletions and the formation of plasma bubbles at low latitudes. In addition, TEC measurements from North America have been utilized to determine the poleward extension of the mid-latitude depletions. These depletions do not appear to be related to auroral plasma processes or to storm enhanced densities (SED). We are studying the possibility that their initiation process is associated with the disturbance dynamo or the prompt penetrating electric field that develop during storm conditions.

  11. Comparison of Nitrogen Depletion and Repletion on Lipid Production in Yeast and Fungal Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui; Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-09-01

    Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on lipid production

  12. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunie Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI, a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  13. Development of the point-depletion code DEPTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The DEPTH code has been developed for the large-scale depletion system. ► DEPTH uses the data library which is convenient to couple with MC codes. ► TTA and matrix exponential methods are implemented and compared. ► DEPTH is able to calculate integral quantities based on the matrix inverse. ► Code-to-code comparisons prove the accuracy and efficiency of DEPTH. -- Abstract: The burnup analysis is an important aspect in reactor physics, which is generally done by coupling of transport calculations and point-depletion calculations. DEPTH is a newly-developed point-depletion code of handling large burnup depletion systems and detailed depletion chains. For better coupling with Monte Carlo transport codes, DEPTH uses data libraries based on the combination of ORIGEN-2 and ORIGEN-S and allows users to assign problem-dependent libraries for each depletion step. DEPTH implements various algorithms of treating the stiff depletion systems, including the Transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), the Quadrature-based Rational Approximation Method (QRAM) and the Laguerre Polynomial Approximation Method (LPAM). Three different modes are supported by DEPTH to execute the decay, constant flux and constant power calculations. In addition to obtaining the instantaneous quantities of the radioactivity, decay heats and reaction rates, DEPTH is able to calculate the integral quantities by a time-integrated solver. Through calculations compared with ORIGEN-2, the validity of DEPTH in point-depletion calculations is proved. The accuracy and efficiency of depletion algorithms are also discussed. In addition, an actual pin-cell burnup case is calculated to illustrate the DEPTH code performance in coupling with the RMC Monte Carlo code

  14. Gadolinium depletion event in a CANDU® moderator - causes and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium nitrate is added to the moderator of CANDU units to maintain the reactor in a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS). In April 2008, after being in stable GSS for over 30 hours, one of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering-B units showed a gradual depletion of the dissolved gadolinium, despite purification being isolated. Further additions of gadolinium stabilized the moderator gadolinium concentration, however, since the root cause of the depletion was not immediately identified, the unit was placed in the drained shutdown state, per established procedures. The cumulative gadolinium depletion amounted to about 3200 grams, the equivalent of about 12 ppm. Analysis showed the presence of oxalate in the moderator water. It is well-known that gadolinium forms a very insoluble oxalate (log Ksp = -29.1). Although sub-micron filtration of water samples did not show the presence of gadolinium particulate, the measured levels of oxalate, 1.2 to 2 ppm, were sufficient to react with 1.4 to 2.4 ppm of gadolinium. The source of oxalate was traced to radiolysis of dissolved CO2 species. This unit had been experiencing chronic low-level ingress of CO2 from the Annulus Gas System. Free oxalate ion is normally susceptible to radiolytic breakdown back to CO2, but Gd3+ provides a stable sink for radiogenic oxalate, 2 Gd3+ + 3 C2O42- → Gd2(C2O4)3. Subsequent testing confirmed that gadolinium oxalate is quite stable with respect to gamma irradiation. Inspections showed well-crystallized gadolinium oxalate deposited on moderator system surfaces. Estimates indicated that about 1200 grams of gadolinium could have deposited on in-core surfaces, including the outside of the calandria tubes. That amount of negative reactivity was a concern, since it would prevent re-start of the unit. OPG, with support from AECL-Chalk River and Kinectrics, embarked on a two-pronged chemistry recovery program aimed at 1) developing solvents for dissolution of the gadolinium oxalate deposits and 2

  15. Solution of depletion chain equations using nonsingular Bateman coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact solution of the depletion chain equations for arbitrary values of depletion constants is obtained. New nonsingular coefficients are introduced, and recurrence formulas that provide an efficient and accurate method of calculation are derived. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating depletion chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain, such as the s-process chain in studies of nucleosynthesis by neutron capture. The method can also be used to check the validity of approximate solutions

  16. Iron Depletion into Dust Grains in Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, G

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of an analysis of the iron depletion factor into dust grains for a sample of 20 planetary nebulae (PNe) from the Galactic bulge. We compare these results with the ones we obtained in a prior analysis of 28 Galactic disk PNe and 8 Galactic H II regions. We derive high depletion factors in all the objects, suggesting that more than 80% of their iron atoms are condensed into dust grains. The range of iron depletions in the sample PNe covers about two orders of magnitude, and we explore here if the differences are related to the PN morphology. However, we do not find any significant correlation.

  17. Online monitoring of immunoaffinity-based depletion of high-abundance blood proteins by UV spectrophotometry using enhanced green fluorescence protein and FITC-labeled human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hyeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The removal of high-abundance proteins from plasma is an efficient approach to investigating flow-through proteins for biomarker discovery studies. Most depletion methods are based on multiple immunoaffinity methods available commercially including LC columns and spin columns. Despite its usefulness, high-abundance depletion has an intrinsic problem, the sponge effect, which should be assessed during depletion experiments. Concurrently, the yield of depletion of high-abundance proteins must be monitored during the use of the depletion column. To date, there is no reasonable technique for measuring the recovery of flow-through proteins after depletion and assessing the capacity for capture of high-abundance proteins. Results In this study, we developed a method of measuring recovery yields of a multiple affinity removal system column easily and rapidly using enhanced green fluorescence protein as an indicator of flow-through proteins. Also, we monitored the capture efficiency through depletion of a high-abundance protein, albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Conclusion This simple method can be applied easily to common high-abundance protein depletion methods, effectively reducing experimental variations in biomarker discovery studies.

  18. What Could Be Causing Global Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    1990-01-01

    The reported decline trend in global ozone between 1970 and 1986 may be in part an artifact of the analysis; the trend value appears to depend on the time interval selected for analysis--in relation to the 11-year solar cycle. If so, then the decline should diminish as one approaches solar maximum and includes data from 1987 to 1990. If the decline is real, its cause could be the result of natural and human factors other than just chlorofluorocarbons.

  19. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoaki Natsume

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function.

  20. Cleanup of buried depleted uranium from Trench 1 at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes was conducted in the summer of 1998 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site at Trench 1. Extensive and rigorous planning, which included following the principles of the Integrated Safety Management System and enhanced work planning, was carried out to ensure that the remedial action was conducted safely. This approach relied predominantly on the involvement of workers, technical support groups and the project staff. Feedback throughout the project and incorporation of lessons learned were also essential in resolving issues in an effective and efficient manner. Because of the high levels of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls found in the drums of depleted uranium wastes, the material could not be shipped to the treatment subcontractor for recycling as originally planned. (author)

  1. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Saga, Yumiko; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-04-01

    Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID) technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function. PMID:27052166

  2. A SAS2H/KENO-V Methodology for 3D Full Core depletion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a SAS2H/KENO-V methodology for 3D full core depletion analysis and illustrates its capabilities by applying it to burnup analysis of the IRIS core benchmarks. This new SAS2H/KENO-V sequence combines a 3D Monte Carlo full core calculation of node power distribution and a 1D Wigner-Seitz equivalent cell transport method for independent depletion calculation of each of the nodes. This approach reduces by more than an order of magnitude the time required for getting comparable results using the MOCUP code system. The SAS2H/KENO-V results for the asymmetric IRIS core benchmark are in good agreement with the results of the ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC code system. (author)

  3. Lithium depletion is a strong test of core-envelope recoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Somers, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a prime candidate for explaining the gradual depletion of lithium from the photospheres of cool stars during the main sequence. However, previous mixing calculations have relied primarily on treatments of angular momentum transport in stellar interiors incompatible with solar and stellar data, in the sense that they overestimate internal differential rotation. Instead, recent studies suggest that stars are strongly differentially rotating at young ages, but approach solid body rotation during their lifetimes. We modify our rotating stellar evolution code to include an additional source of angular momentum transport, a necessary ingredient for explaining the open cluster rotation pattern, and examine the consequences for mixing. We confirm that core-envelope recoupling with a $\\sim$20 Myr timescale is required to explain the evolution of the mean solar-mass rotation pattern along the main sequence, and demonstrate that it also provides a more accurate description of the Li depletion patter...

  4. Groundwater depletion in the United States (1900-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A natural consequence of groundwater withdrawals is the removal of water from subsurface storage, but the overall rates and magnitude of groundwater depletion in...

  5. The Role of Gluon Depletion in J/$\\psi$ Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C; Pisútová, N

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of gluons as the parton flux traverses a nucleus in a heavy-ion collision can influence the production rate of heavy-quark states. Thus the suppression of $J/\\psi$ can be due to gluon depletion in the initial state in addition to nuclear and hadronic absorption in the final state. A formalism is developed to describe the depletion effect. It is shown that, without constraints from other experimental facts beside the $J/\\psi$ suppression data in $pA$ and $AB$ collisions, it is not possible to determine the relative importance of depletion vs absorption. Possible relevance to the enhanced suppression seen in the $Pb - Pb$ data is mentioned but not studied.

  6. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND RESIDUE DEPLETION OF OXYTETRACYCLINE IN THE RABBIT

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, R.; Cagnardi, P; Bacchetta, P.; Sonzogni, O.; Faustini, M.; Carli, S.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract not available. Villa, R.; Cagnardi, P.; Bacchetta, P.; Sonzogni, O.; Faustini, M.; Carli, S. (2001). TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND RESIDUE DEPLETION OF OXYTETRACYCLINE IN THE RABBIT. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10016.

  7. Verification of Depleted Uranium in non-Nuclear use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes a system for the verification of depleted uranium-being recognized by the International Atomic Energy as a Nuclear which should be accounted for and put under Nuclear Safeguards even if it is used for non-nuclear applications such as in shielding against gamma radiation in Radiotherapy facilities, industrial radiography systems or as counterweights in air craft. Measurement of depleted uranium is performed by employing Non-Destructive Assay techniques, which use a gamma-ray spectrometer system and/or a neutron coincidence counter system. Results show that the used techniques can detect the presence of depleted uranium in the investigated materials. Also, quantitative values of U-235 enrichment and mass content of the assayed material could be obtained with a precision of better than 7%. This work would find important applications for the verification and control of depleted uranium for the purposes of Nuclear Safeguards

  8. Mass measurement of depleted uranium components with coincidence neutron count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of the mass measurement of depleted uranium components was studied with active and passive coincidence neutron count. A well neutron coincidence counter was used to measure the coincidence neutron counts of the depleted uranium components with various mass. Am-Be source was selected as the external neutron source for induced fission in the active measurement, and a shield was optimized to reduce the accidental coincidence counts. In the active measurement, the maximum relative deviation of the linear fit mass from the nominal mass of the depleted uranium components is 11.71%, compared to 4.05% in the passive measurement. It is proved that because of the weakening of the shape influence, the passive method is more accurate and reliable to measure the mass of depleted uranium components than the active method. (authors)

  9. Prediction Method of Safety Mud Density in Depleted Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jun-Liang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, many oilfields were placed in the middle and late development period and the reservoir pressure depleted usually, resulting in more serious differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage both in the reservoir and cap rock. In view of this situation, a systematic prediction method of safety mud density in depleted oilfields was established. The influence of reservoir depletion on stress and strength in reservoir and cap formation were both studied and taken into the prediction of safety mud density. The research showed that the risk of differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage in reservoir and cap formation were both increased and they were the main prevention object in depleted oilfields drilling. The research results were used to guide the practice drilling work, the whole progress gone smoothly.

  10. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70oS. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  11. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  12. Net depletion determination for Hankin Wetland Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum contains the analysis and the data used to produce the net depletion that would occur as a result of the Hankin Wetland Development Project.

  13. Nondestructive testing of 105mm depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an information update concerning the nondestructive testing (NDT) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) for depleted uranium penetrator (XM774, XM833) quality inspection and evaluation. This report covers NDT activities from August to November, 1979

  14. Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons in Contemporary Military Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor-Yarwood, Ifesinachi Marybenedette

    2014-01-01

    This research note examines the use of depleted uranium weapons in contemporarymilitary interventions and the hazardous effects of their use. It also demonstratesattempts made by the United States and the United Kingdom to block anyinternational efforts to ban the use of these weapons. Although there is no laboratory evidence, experiential evidence from Iraq indicates that depleted uranium weapons are dangerous to human health and the environment. This research note argues that the United Nat...

  15. Depletion models can predict shorebird distribution at different spatial scales.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, J. A.; Sutherland, W. J.; Norris, K.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting the impact of habitat change on populations requires an understanding of the number of animals that a given area can support. Depletion models enable predictions of the numbers of individuals an area can support from prey density and predator searching efficiency and handling time. Depletion models have been successfully employed to predict patterns of abundance over small spatial scales, but most environmental change occurs over large spatial scales. We test the ability of depleti...

  16. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  18. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB)

  19. Predicting the variability in the wavelength structures of the incoming radiation due to ozone layer depletion at Arabian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this communication we have investigated the variability in the wavelength structures of the radiation due to ozone layer depletion (OLD) using empirical modeling approach. A model has been developed for evaluating sea surface temperature using stratospheric ozone filter. This filter has been formulated taking into account of the ozone layer depletion (OLD) strategy for Pakistan atmospheric regions. For making predictions of various wavelength, stochastic analysis is implemented here for observing future prospects of the coming radiation. These predictions are useful for public, private and government organizations. (author)

  20. Contribution to fuel depletion study in PWR type reactors, reactor core with three and four regions of enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main methods for calculation of fuel depletion are studied and some approaches to do it are mentioned; the LEOPARD Code is described and full details are given for each subroutine, flow charts are included; the method given by the code for calculation of fuel depletion is described; some imperfections from the IPR's version are listed, and corrected, for instance: the method for burn-up calculation of heavy isotopes; the results of calculations for a reference reactor based on data of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for Angra I Nuclear Power Plant are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Variations of the isotopic ratios of uranium in environmental samples containing traces of depleted uranium: theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using conventional analysis, such as γ spectrometry and a spectrometry, for the detection of traces of depleted uranium (DU) in environmental samples has been investigated. The expected values have been compared with the experimental results obtained by using mollusc samples gathered in the Adriatic Sea. The analysis has shown that it is possible to detect DU, if the percentage composition is about 20% depleted uranium and 80% natural uranium, for a sample containing 10 Bq.kg-1 of 238U. The possibility of extending this approach to samples with any given uranium concentration is investigated. (author)

  2. Mathematical modeling of nanoscale MOS capacitance in the presence of depletion and energy quantization in a poly-silicon gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model has been developed to study the effect of depletion and energy quantization at the poly-silicon/oxide interface on the behavior of a nanometer scale n-MOSFET. A model of inversion charge density, including the inversion layer quantization using the variation approach in the substrate, has also been produced. Using the exact calculations of the polygate potential under the depletion and quantization conditions, a C-V model has been developed. All the results have been compared with the numerical models reported in existing literature and they show good agreement.

  3. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF6 is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings

  4. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting...

  5. Depletion of nonlinearity in the pressure force driving Navier-Stokes flows : nonlinear depletion in NS flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Chuong Van; Yu, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of the velocity norms ||u||Lq for q ≥ 3, in Navier-Stokes flows is studied. The pressure term that drives this dynamics has a high degree of nonlinear depletion, which owes its origin to a genuine negative correlation between |u| and |∇|u||, among other things. Under viscous effects, such depletion may give rise to mild growth of ||u||Lq. We explore the possibility of non-singular growth of ||u||Lq.

  6. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU), especially on the battlefield. The RoyaI Society therefore convened an independent expert Working Group to review the present state of scientific knowledge about the health and environmental effects of DU, in order to inform public debate. This is the first of two reports. It deals with the amounts of DU to which soldiers could be exposed on the battlefield, the risks from radiation, and what we know from epidemiological studies. We consider past and potential future exposures, the most likely exposures and the 'worst-case' exposures that cannot be excluded. Our second report, to be published later this year, will address the risks from toxic poisoning and environmental issues including risks to civilian populations. The group has consulted widely. It has focused on what is known scientifically about aspects that are relevant to health and has not considered the merits of using DU in munitions. Nor does this report analyse Gulf War syndrome, which has been the subject of other reports. DU is a toxic and weakly radioactive heavy metal that may have adverse consequences to human health, particularly if it enters the body through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. On the battlefield it is used in kinetic energy weapons designed to penetrate the armour of tanks and other vehicles. On impact substantial amounts of DU may be dispersed as particles that can be inhaled and as shrapnel. Our approach has been to estimate the typical levels of exposure on the battlefield over a wide range of scenarios, and the worst-case exposures that individuals are unlikely to exceed. From these we calculate the potential health risks from radiation. We have also considered epidemiological studies of occupational exposures to uranium in other situations as an independent source of information on the risks of inhaling DU particles, although we recognise that the parallels may

  7. Ganglioside GM3 synthase depletion reverses neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diet-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Nirupa D; Wilson, Heather M; Ren, Dongjun; Flood, Kelsey; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Shum, Andrew; Miller, Richard J; Paller, Amy S

    2016-01-01

    Background Small fiber neuropathy is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to be responsible for both neuropathic pain and impaired wound healing. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that ganglioside GM3 depletion by knockdown of GM3 synthase fully reverses impaired wound healing in diabetic mice. However, the role of GM3 in neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diabetes is unknown. Purpose Determine whether GM3 depletion is able to reverse neuropathic pain and small fibers neuropathy and the mechanism of the reversal. Results We demonstrate that GM3 synthase knockout and the resultant GM3 depletion rescues the denervation in mouse footpad skin and fully reverses the neuropathic pain in diet-induced obese diabetic mice. In cultured dorsal root ganglia from diet-induced diabetic mice, GM3 depletion protects against increased intracellular calcium influx in vitro. Conclusions These studies establish ganglioside GM3 as a new candidate responsible for neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diabetes. Moreover, these observations indicate that systemic or topically applied interventions aimed at depleting GM3 may improve both the painful neuropathy and the wound healing impairment in diabetes by protecting against nerve end terminal degeneration, providing a disease-modifying approach to this common, currently intractable medical issue. PMID:27590073

  8. LePix—A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 μm to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back-processing the chip and collecting the charge from the full substrate it is hence possible to efficiently detect soft X-rays up to 10 keV. Test results from first successfully processed detectors will be presented and discussed

  9. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  10. The changing ozone depletion potential of N2O in a future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, L. E.; Tummon, F.; Salawitch, R. J.; Stenke, A.; Peter, T.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), which decomposes in the stratosphere to form nitrogen oxides (NOx), is currently the dominant anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance emitted. Ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) of specific compounds, commonly evaluated for present-day conditions, were developed for long-lived halocarbons and are used by policymakers to inform decision-making around protection of the ozone layer. However, the effect of N2O on ozone will evolve in the future due to changes in stratospheric dynamics and chemistry induced by rising levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the fact that NOx-induced ozone loss slows with increasing concentrations of CO2 and CH4, we show that ODPN2O for year 2100 varies under different scenarios and is mostly larger than ODPN2O for year 2000. This occurs because the traditional ODP approach is tied to ozone depletion induced by CFC-11, which is also sensitive to CO2 and CH4. We therefore suggest that a single ODP for N2O is of limited use.

  11. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  12. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Fruekilde, Palle; Poglitsch, Marko; Szijarto, István; Gollasch, Maik; Peters, Joerg; Muller, Dominik N; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Dechend, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P<0......, hREN, and rRen were increased by vitamin D depletion. Regulatory T cells in the spleen and in the circulation were not affected. Ang metabolites, including Ang II and the counter-regulatory breakdown product Ang 1 to 7, were significantly up-regulated in the vitamin D-depleted groups, while ACE-1...

  13. Antarctic winter mercury and ozone depletion events over sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Jourdain, B.; Abrahamsson, K.; Granfors, A.; Ahnoff, M.; Dommergue, A.; Méjean, G.; Jacobi, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    During atmospheric mercury and ozone depletion events in the springtime in polar regions gaseous elemental mercury and ozone undergo rapid declines. Mercury is quickly transformed into oxidation products, which are subsequently removed by deposition. Here we show that such events also occur during Antarctic winter over sea ice areas, leading to additional deposition of mercury. Over four months in the Weddell Sea we measured gaseous elemental, oxidized, and particulate-bound mercury, as well as ozone in the troposphere and total and elemental mercury concentrations in snow, demonstrating a series of depletion and deposition events between July and September. The winter depletions in July were characterized by stronger correlations between mercury and ozone and larger formation of particulate-bound mercury in air compared to later spring events. It appears that light at large solar zenith angles is sufficient to initiate the photolytic formation of halogen radicals. We also propose a dark mechanism that could explain observed events in air masses coming from dark regions. Br2 that could be the main actor in dark conditions was possibly formed in high concentrations in the marine boundary layer in the dark. These high concentrations may also have caused the formation of high concentrations of CHBr3 and CH2I2 in the top layers of the Antarctic sea ice observed during winter. These new findings show that the extent of depletion events is larger than previously believed and that winter depletions result in additional deposition of mercury that could be transferred to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Effect of cholesterol depletion on the pore dilation of TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Erik T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The TRPV1 ion channel is expressed in nociceptors, where pharmacological modulation of its function may offer a means of alleviating pain and neurogenic inflammation processes in the human body. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cholesterol depletion of the cell on ion-permeability of the TRPV1 ion channel. The ion-permeability properties of TRPV1 were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp and YO-PRO uptake rate studies on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line expressing this ion channel. Prolonged capsaicin-induced activation of TRPV1 with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG as the sole extracellular cation, generated a biphasic current which included an initial outward current followed by an inward current. Similarly, prolonged proton-activation (pH 5.5 of TRPV1 under hypocalcemic conditions also generated a biphasic current including a fast initial current peak followed by a larger second one. Patch-clamp recordings of reversal potentials of TRPV1 revealed an increase of the ion-permeability for NMDG during prolonged activation of this ion channel under hypocalcemic conditions. Our findings show that cholesterol depletion inhibited both the second current, and the increase in ion-permeability of the TRPV1 channel, resulting from sustained agonist-activation with capsaicin and protons (pH 5.5. These results were confirmed with YO-PRO uptake rate studies using laser scanning confocal microscopy, where cholesterol depletion was found to decrease TRPV1 mediated uptake rates of YO-PRO. Hence, these results propose a novel mechanism by which cellular cholesterol depletion modulates the function of TRPV1, which may constitute a novel approach for treatment of neurogenic pain.

  15. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in Depletion Calculations Using Cross Section Uncertainties in One-group or Multi-group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, C. J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed in last decades to tackle nuclear data uncertainty propagation problems of burn-up calculations. One approach proposed was the Hybrid Method, where uncertainties in nuclear data are propagated only on the depletion part of a burn-up problem. Because only depletion is addressed, only one-group cross sections are necessary, and hence, their collapsed one-group uncertainties. This approach has been applied successfully in several advanced reactor systems like EFIT (ADS-like reactor) or ESFR (Sodium fast reactor) to assess uncertainties on the isotopic composition. However, a comparison with using multi-group energy structures was not carried out, and has to be performed in order to analyse the limitations of using one-group uncertainties.

  16. Resource depletion does not influence prospective memory in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jill Talley; Cahill, Michael J; Mullet, Hillary G; Scullin, Michael K; Einstein, Gilles O; McDaniel, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports an experiment designed to investigate the potential influence of prior acts of self-control on subsequent prospective memory performance. College undergraduates (n=146) performed either a cognitively depleting initial task (e.g., mostly incongruent Stroop task) or a less resource-consuming version of that task (e.g., all congruent Stroop task). Subsequently, participants completed a prospective memory task that required attentionally demanding monitoring processes. The results demonstrated that prior acts of self-control do not impair the ability to execute a future intention in college-aged adults. We conceptually replicated these results in three additional depletion and prospective memory experiments. This research extends a growing number of studies demonstrating the boundary conditions of the resource depletion effect in cognitive tasks. PMID:24021851

  17. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  18. Observations of ozone depletion associated with solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Jackman, C. H.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Ozone profiles from the solar proton events (SPE) of January and September 1971 and August 1972 were obtained after the backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) measured radiances were corrected for the direct effects of protons on the instrument. The SPE of August 1972 produced an ozone depletion of 15% at 42 km that persisted for one month in both northern and southern polar regions. This long recovery time indicates that NO(x) was produced in a quantity sufficient to alter the ozone chemistry. The two SPE in 1971 were of moderate size, but produced ozone depletions of 10-30% at 50 km with a 36 hour recovery time. This rapid recovery is consistent with the assumption that HO(x) is responsible for altering the ozone chemistry (Weeks et al., 1972). The magnitude of the observed depletion, however, exceeds that predicted by the chemical models.

  19. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  20. Depletion induced clustering of red blood cells in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Podgorski, Thomas; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    The flow properties of blood are determined by the physical properties of its main constituents, the red blood cells (RBC's). At low shear rates RBC's form aggregates, so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates can break them up and the viscosity of blood shows a shear thinning behavior. The physical origin of the rouleaux formation is not yet fully resolved and there are two competing models available. One predicts that the adhesion is induced by bridging of the plasma (macromolecular) proteins in-between two RBC's. The other is based on the depletion effect and thus predicts the absence of macromolecules in-between the cells of a rouleaux. Recent single cell force measurements by use of an AFM support strongly the depletion model. By varying the concentration of Dextran at different molecular weights we can control the adhesions strength. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the depletion induced adhesion strength.

  1. All-optical depletion of dark excitons from a semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered to be the leading venue for fabricating on-demand sources of single photons. However, the generation of long-lived dark excitons imposes significant limits on the efficiency of these sources. We demonstrate a technique that optically pumps the dark exciton population and converts it to a bright exciton population, using intermediate excited biexciton states. We show experimentally that our method considerably reduces the dark exciton population while doubling the triggered bright exciton emission, approaching thereby near-unit fidelity of quantum dot depletion

  2. Modeling Groundwater Depletion at Regional and Global Scales: Present State and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-03-01

    Except for frozen water in ice and glaciers, groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this paper, the most recent advances quantifying groundwater depletion (GWD) are comprehensively reviewed. This paper critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches estimating GWD at regional and global scales, and the evidence of feedbacks to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with GWD. Finally, critical challenges and opportunities in the use of groundwater are identified for the adaption to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  3. Theory of carrier depletion and light amplification in active slow light photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Using a perturbative approach, we perform a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguide. The impact of slow-light propagation on the carrier-depletion-induced nonlinear gain saturation of the...... device is investigated. An effective rate-equation-based model is presented. It is shown that it well accounts for the three-dimensional simulation results. Simulations indicate that a slow-light-enhanced photonic crystal traveling-wave amplifier has a high small-signal modal gain and low saturation...

  4. Econometric Modelling of World Oil Supplies: Terminal Price and the Time to Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddes, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach by which to identify the price of oil at the time of depletion; the so-called terminal price of oil. It is shown that while the terminal price is independent of both GDP growth and the price elasticity of energy demand, it is dependent on the world real interest rate and the total life-time stock of oil resources, as well as on the marginal extraction and scarcity cost parameters. The theoretical predictions of this model are evaluated using data on the co...

  5. Plasma depletion layer: Magnetosheath flow structure and forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Wang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasma depletion layer (PDL is a layer on the sunward side of the magnetopause with lower plasma density and higher magnetic field compared to the corresponding upstream magnetosheath values. In a previous study, we have validated the UCLA global (MHD model in studying the formation of the PDL by comparing model results, using spacecraft solar wind observations as the driver, with in situ PDL observations. In this study, we extend our previous work and examine the detailed MHD forces responsible for the PDL formation. We argue that MHD models, instead of gasdynamic models, should be used to study the PDL, because gasdynamic models cannot produce the PDL on the sunward side of the magnetopause. For northward (IMF, flux tube depletion occurs in almost all the subsolar magnetosheath. However, the streamlines closest to the magnetopause and the stagnation line show the greatest depletion. The relative strength of the various MHD forces changes along these streamlines. Forces along a flux tube at different stages of its depletion in the magnetosheath are analyzed. We find that a strong plasma pressure gradient force along the magnetic field at the bow shock and a pressure gradient force along the flux tube within the magnetosheath usually exist pushing plasma away from the equatorial plane to deplete the flux tube. More complex force structures along the flux tube are found close to the magnetopause. This new, more detailed description of flux tube depletion is compared with the results of Zwan and Wolf (1976 and differences are found. Near the magnetopause, the pressure gradient force along the flux tube either drives plasma away from the equatorial plane or pushes plasma toward the equatorial plane. As a result, a slow mode structure is seen along the flux tube which might be responsible for the observed two-layered slow mode structures.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. Space

  6. Monte Carlo solver for UWB1 nuclear fuel depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new Monte Carlo solver was developed in order to speed-up depletion calculations. • For LWR model, UWB1 Monte Carlo solver is on average 10 times faster than MCNP6. • The UWB1 code will allow faster calculation analysis of BA parameters in fuel design. - Abstract: Recent nuclear reactor burnable absorber research tries to introduce new materials in the nuclear fuel. As a part of this effort, a fast computational tool is being developed for the advanced nuclear fuel. The first version of the newly developed UWB1 fast nuclear fuel depletion code significantly reduced calculation time by omitting the solution step for the Boltzmann transport equation. However, estimation of neutron multiplication factor during depletion was not sufficiently calculated. Therefore, at least one transport calculation for fuel depletion is necessary. This paper presents a new Monte Carlo solver that is implemented into the UWB1 code. The UWB1 Monte Carlo solver calculates neutron multiplication factor and neutron flux in the fuel for collapsed cross sections. Accuracy of the solver is supported by using current nuclear data stored in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Speed of the solver is the product of development focusing on minimization of CPU utilization at the expense of RAM demands. The UWB1 Monte Carlo solver is approximately 14 times faster than the MCNP6 reference code when one transport equation solution within fuel depletion is compared. Another speed-up can be achieved by employing advanced depletion scheme in the coupled transport and burnup equations. The resulting faster code will be used in optimization studies for ideal burnable absorber material selection where many various materials and concentrations will be evaluated

  7. Primary Ion Depletion Kinetics (PIDK Studies as a New Tool for Investigating Chemical Ionization Fragmentation Reactions with PTR-MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Schuhfried

    Full Text Available We report on a new approach for studying fragmentation channels in Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS, which we name primary ion depletion kinetics (PIDK. PTR-MS is a chemical ionization mass spectrometric (CIMS technique deploying hydronium ions for the chemical ionization. Induced by extremely high concentrations of analyte M, depletion of the primary ions in the drift tube occurs. This is observed as quasi zero concentration of the primary ion H3O(+, and constant MH(+. Under these non-standard conditions, we find an overall changed fragmentation. We offer two explanations. Either the changed fragmentation pattern is the result of secondary proton transfer reactions. Or, alternatively, the fast depletion of H3O(+ leads to reduced heating of H3O(+ in the drift field, and consequently changed fragmentation following protonation of the analyte M. In any case, we use the observed changes in fragmentation as a successful new approach to fragmentation studies, and term it primary ion depletion kinetics, PIDK. PIDK easily yields an abundance of continuous data points with little deviation, because they are obtained in one experimental run, even for low abundant fragments. This is an advantage over traditional internal kinetic energy variation studies (electric field per number density (E/N variation studies. Also, some interpretation on the underlying fragmentation reaction mechanisms can be gleamed. We measure low occurring fragmentation (<2% of MH(+ of the compounds dimethyl sulfide, DMS, a compound that reportedly does not fragment, diethyl sulfide DES, and dipropyl sulfide DPS. And we confirm and complement the results with traditional E/N studies. Summing up, the new approach of primary ion depletion kinetics allows for the identification of dehydrogenation [MH(+ -H2] and adduct formation (RMH(+ as low abundant fragmentation channels in monosulfides.

  8. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  9. Depletion of the ozone layer and its biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high concentration of ozone in the stratosphere serves as a protective shield against the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The increase in human activities is the main cause of the depletion of this ozone layer. The continued depletion of ozone layer will result in an increased exposure ultraviolet radiation which will have serve biological consequences. In this paper a detailed review of ozone, its production and decomposition alongwith its main depletors chlorofluoro-carbons is presented. The ozone data for Quetta Valley for the period 1960-90 is analysed. The biological consequences of increased ultraviolet radiation due to reduction in ozone layer are also discussed. (author)

  10. Enhanced J/$\\psi$ suppression due to gluon depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C; Pisútová, N

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear effect of gluon depletion in the collision of large nuclei can be large. It is due to multiple scatterings among comoving partons initiated by primary scattering of partons in the colliding nuclei. The effect can give rise to substantial suppression of $J/\\psi$ production in very large nuclei, even if the linear depletion effect is insignificant for the collisions of nuclei of smaller sizes. This mechanism offers a natural explanation of the enhanced suppression in the Pb-Pb data recently observed by NA50.

  11. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented

  12. Towards a complete propagation uncertainties in depletion calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.S. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Zwermann, W.; Gallner, L.; Puente-Espel, Federico; Velkov, K.; Hannstein, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Cabellos, O. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties to calculated values is interesting for design purposes and libraries evaluation. XSUSA, developed at GRS, propagates cross section uncertainties to nuclear calculations. In depletion simulations, fission yields and decay data are also involved and are a possible source of uncertainty that should be taken into account. We have developed tools to generate varied fission yields and decay libraries and to propagate uncertainties through depletion in order to complete the XSUSA uncertainty assessment capabilities. A generic test to probe the methodology is defined and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, T.; Havranek, M.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Kishishita, T.; Krüger, H.; Marinas, C.; Wermes, N.

    2015-03-01

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented.

  14. Simulating distinguish enriched uranium from depleted uranium by activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting uranium material is an important work in arms control Active detection is an efficient method for uranium material. The paper focuses on the feasibility that can distinguish the enriched uranium and the depleted uranium by MCNP program. It can distinguish the enriched uranium and the depleted uranium by the curve of relationship between fission rate of uranium material and thickness of moderator.Advantages of 252Cf and 14 MeV neutron sources are discussed in detecting uranium material through calculation. The results show that 252Cf neutron source is better than 14 MeV one. Delayed neutrons are more easily detected than delayed gamma ray at measurement aspect. (authors)

  15. Long-term management and use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The products resulting from the process of enrichment of natural uranium, or reprocessed uranium, are enriched uranium products as the light fraction and depleted uranium (uranium tails) as the heavy fraction. If the source material is natural uranium, the mass ratios of uranium products and uranium tails can be derived relatively easily from the required enrichment level of the uranium product (product assay (% of U-235)) and the selected depletion level of the uranium tails (tails assay (% of U-235)). The paper discusses among other aspects the dependence of the tails mass on the required enrichment level of the relevant uranium product, for various tails assays. (orig./CB)

  16. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  17. UV radiation below an Arctic vortex with severe ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The erythemally weighted (UV irradiance below the severely depleted Arctic vortices in spring 1996 and 1997 were substantially elevated. On average the UV increased 36 and 33% relative to the 1979-1981 mean assuming clear skies from day 80-100 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. On clear sky days large regions of the Arctic experienced maximum UV increases exceeding 70 and 50% on single days in 1996 and 1997, respectively. A minor fraction of these increases are not anthropogenic and have a dynamical origin as seen by comparison to 1982, when hardly any ozone depletion is expected.

  18. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  19. Ozone depletion over the polar caps caused by solar protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic solar protons are a natural source of ozone depletion due to nitric oxides they produce in the earth's atmosphere. In March 1989, following a period of intense solar activity, the TOMS instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite recorded very similar ozone losses over both polar caps for areas extending from 90 degrees to 70 degrees. Ozone depletions of 7.4 x 109 kg for the south polar cap and 8.0 x 109 kg for the north polar cap indicate the degree of symmetry over the polar caps. 11 refs., 6 figs

  20. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR FORMED PROJECTILE OF DEPLETED URANIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋顺成; 高平; 才鸿年

    2003-01-01

    The numerical simulation for forming projectile of depleted uranium alloy with the SPH ( Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic ) algorithm was presented. In the computations the artificial pressures of detonation were used, i. e. , the spatial distribution and time distribution were given artificially. To describe the deformed behaviors of the depleted uranium alloy under high pressure and high strain rate, the Johnson-Cook model of materials was introduced. From the numerical simulation the formed projectile velocity,projectile geometry and the minimum of the height of detonation are obtained.

  2. Depletion GPT-Free sensitivity analysis of the TMI reactor eigenvalue model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For reactor design calculations, generalized perturbation theory (GPT) has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach to performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, i.e. the majority of reactor design problems during at least one component of the design phase. Most of these design problems are multi-component models where one or more of the codes lack GPT functionality. Additionally, stochastic Monte Carlo codes may not have a well-understood GPT formulation that can be implemented into the software. Without GPT support, the computationally efficient approach to performing a sensitivity analyses is unavailable or computationally infeasible. The sensitivity analysis is a critical step in determining a preferred solution or propagating uncertainties through a series of design codes. This paper uses a fundamental adjoint algorithm, denoted GPT-Free, that emulates depletion perturbation theory (DPT) without the need to set up or solve the GPT equations. Specifically, this algorithm constructs a reduced order model (ROM) by developing a subspace from the set of response sensitivity profiles formed using perturbation theory. This algorithm determines a ROM that is independent of the number of responses and is instead dependent on the rank or complexity of the underlying physical model. This paper demonstrates the GPT-Free algorithm for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using a TMI 9 assembly mini-core model. The reactor, which is depleted to 8.1 GWd, is used to evaluate the algorithm's ROM reduction error with the κ-metric. The algorithms results are then benchmarked against forward sensitivities. (author)

  3. Large attractive depletion interactions in soft repulsive-sphere binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinacchi, Giorgio; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Mederos, Luis; Navascués, Guillermo; Tani, Alessandro; Velasco, Enrique

    2007-12-01

    We consider binary mixtures of soft repulsive spherical particles and calculate the depletion interaction between two big spheres mediated by the fluid of small spheres, using different theoretical and simulation methods. The validity of the theoretical approach, a virial expansion in terms of the density of the small spheres, is checked against simulation results. Attention is given to the approach toward the hard-sphere limit and to the effect of density and temperature on the strength of the depletion potential. Our results indicate, surprisingly, that even a modest degree of softness in the pair potential governing the direct interactions between the particles may lead to a significantly more attractive total effective potential for the big spheres than in the hard-sphere case. This might lead to significant differences in phase behavior, structure, and dynamics of a binary mixture of soft repulsive spheres. In particular, a perturbative scheme is applied to predict the phase diagram of an effective system of big spheres interacting via depletion forces for a size ratio of small and big spheres of 0.2; this diagram includes the usual fluid-solid transition but, in the soft-sphere case, the metastable fluid-fluid transition, which is probably absent in hard-sphere mixtures, is close to being stable with respect to direct fluid-solid coexistence. From these results, the interesting possibility arises that, for sufficiently soft repulsive particles, this phase transition could become stable. Possible implications for the phase behavior of real colloidal dispersions are discussed. PMID:18067358

  4. Initial PVO Evidence of Electron Depletion Signatures Downstream of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, D. S.; Hartle, R. E.; Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    This first analysis of Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) plasma analyzer electron measurements obtained in early 1992 during the PVO entry phase of the mission indicates the presence downstream from the terminator of a depletion or "bite out" of energetic ionosheath electrons similar to that observed on Mariner 10. There is more than one possible explanation for this energetic electron depletion. If it is due to atmospheric scattering, the electrons traveling along draped magnetic flux tubes that thread through the Venus neutral atmosphere would lose energy from impact ionization with oxygen. The cross-section for such electron impact ionization of oxygen has a peak near 100 eV, and it remains high above this energy, so atmospheric loss could provide a natural process for electrons at these energies to be selectively removed. In this case, our results are consistent with the Kar et al. (1994) study of PVO atmospheric entry ion mass spectrometer data which indicates that electron impact plays a significant role in maintaining the nightside ionosphere. Although it is appealing to interpret the energetic electron depletion in terms of direct atmospheric scattering, alternatively it could result from strong draping which connects the depletion region magnetically to the weak downstream bow shock and thereby reduces the electron source strength.

  5. Depleting methyl bromide residues in soil by reaction with bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite generally being considered the most effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide (MeBr) use is being phased out because its emissions from soil can lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, a large amount is still currently used due to Critical Use Exemptions. As strategies for reducing the...

  6. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WEAK DEPLETION FORCE BETWEEN TWO SURFACES*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-jun Gong; Xiao-chen Xing; Xiao-ling Wei; To Ngai

    2011-01-01

    In a mixture of colloidal particles and polymer molecules, the particles may experience an attractive “depletion force” if the size of the polymer molecule is larger than the interparticle separation. This is because individual polymer molecules experience less conformational entropy if they stay between the particles than they escape the inter-particle space,which results in an osmotic pressure imbalance inside and outside the gap and leads to interparticle attraction. This depletion force has been the subject of several studies since the 1980s, but the direct measurement of this force is still experimentally challenging as it requires the detection of energy variations of the order of kBT and beyond. We present here our results for applying total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) to directly measure the interaction between a free-moving particle and a flat surface in solutions consisting of small water-soluble organic molecules or polymeric surfactants. Our results indicate that stable nanobubbles (ca. 150 nm) exist free in the above aqueous solutions. More importantly, the existence of such nanobubbles induces an attraction between the spherical particle and flat surface. Using TIRM, we are able to directly measure such weak interaction with a range up to 100 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that by employing thermo-sensitive microgel particles as a depleting agent, we are able to quantitatively measure and reversibly control kBT-scale depletion attraction as function of solution pH.

  7. Optimal reload and depletion method for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed to automatically reload and deplete a PWR so that both the enriched inventory requirements during the reactor cycle and the cost of reloading the core are minimized. This is achieved through four stepwise optimization calculations: 1) determination of the minimum fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel assemblies for each of the three regions to minimize the cost of the fresh reload fuel, 3) optimal placement of fuel assemblies to conserve regionwise optimal conditions and 4) optimal control through poison management to deplete individual fuel assemblies to maximize EOC k/sub eff/. Optimizing the fuel cost of reloading and depleting a PWR reactor cycle requires solutions to two separate optimization calculations. One of these minimizes the enriched fuel inventory in the core by optimizing the EOC k/sub eff/. The other minimizes the cost of the fresh reload cost. Both of these optimization calculations have now been combined to provide a new method for performing an automatic optimal reload of PWR's. The new method differs from previous methods in that the optimization process performs all tasks required to reload and deplete a PWR

  8. B-cell depletion in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jon W; Jayne, David R W

    2012-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is clinically heterogeneous and affects multiple organs. Lupus nephritis is the most frequent severe manifestation of SLE. Conventional immunosuppressive therapy has increased the life expectancy of patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis, but only 70-80% of patients respond to this treatment and its adverse effects are considerable. B cells are central to the pathogenesis of SLE and are, therefore, an attractive therapeutic target. B-cell depletion has been used successfully to treat other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, and many case reports and small nonrandomized trials of B-cell-depleting agents in patients with lupus nephritis have reported positive results. By contrast, two large placebo-controlled trials designed to investigate the efficacy of the B-cell-depleting agents rituximab and ocrelizumab as a treatment for lupus nephritis, failed to meet their primary efficacy end points (LUNAR and BELONG, respectively). This Review discusses the current evidence on the use of B-cell depletion in the treatment of lupus nephritis, which is derived from case studies and clinical trials including a total of over 800 patients. PMID:22801948

  9. DURABILITY OF DEPLETED URANIUM AGGREGATES (DUAGG) IN DUCRETE SHIELDING APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, Catherine H.; Dole, Leslie R.

    2003-02-27

    The depleted uranium (DU) inventory in the United States exceeds 500,000 metric tonnes. To evaluate the possibilities for reuse of this stockpile of DU, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has created a research and development program to address the disposition of its DU(1). One potential use for this stockpile material is in the fabrication of nuclear shielding casks for the storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuels. The use of the DU-based shielding would reduce the size and weight of the casks while allowing a level of protection from neutrons and gamma rays comparable to that afforded by steel and concrete. DUAGG (depleted uranium aggregate) is formed of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) sintered with a synthetic-basalt-based binder. This study was designed to investigate possible deleterious reactions that could occur between the cement paste and the DUAGG. After 13 months of exposure to a cement pore solution, no deleterious expansive mineral phases were observed to form either with the DUO2 or with the simulated-basalt sintering phases. In the early stages of these exposure tests, Oak Ridge National Laboratory preliminary results confirm that the surface reactions of this aggregate proceed more slowly than expected. This finding may indicate that DUAGG/DUCRETE (depleted uranium concrete) casks could have service lives sufficient to meet the projected needs of DOE and the commercial nuclear power industry.

  10. Efficiency-Inducing Taxation for a Monopolistically Supplied Depletable Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted; Cross, John; Porter, Dick

    1981-01-01

    We show that for a depletable resource, if the competitive time path of prices is known, and if the profit function is concave, then there is an easily described time path of taxes and/or subsidies that would induce a monopolist to follow an efficient time path of extraction.

  11. Phosphorus resources, their depletion and conservation, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2014-01-01

    Yearly, about 22 × 1012 g phosphorus (P) from mined fossil phosphate resources are added to the world economy. The size of remaining fossil phosphate resources is uncertain but practically finite. Thus, fossil P resources may become depleted by ongoing mining. Despite calls for resource conservation

  12. Fully depleted, thick, monolithic CMOS pixels with high quantum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) has an active programme of evaluating and designing Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors with high quantum efficiency, for applications in near-infrared and X-ray photon detection. This paper describes the performance characterisation of CMOS devices made on a high resistivity 50 μ m thick p-type substrate with a particular focus on determining the depletion depth and the quantum efficiency. The test devices contain 8 × 8 pixel arrays using CCD-style charge collection, which are manufactured in a low voltage CMOS process by ESPROS Photonics Corporation (EPC). Measurements include determining under which operating conditions the devices become fully depleted. By projecting a spot using a microscope optic and a LED and biasing the devices over a range of voltages, the depletion depth will change, causing the amount of charge collected in the projected spot to change. We determine if the device is fully depleted by measuring the signal collected from the projected spot. The analysis of spot size and shape is still under development

  13. Monte Carlo simulation in UWB1 depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UWB1 depletion code is being developed as a fast computational tool for the study of burnable absorbers in the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic. In order to achieve higher precision, the newly developed code was extended by adding a Monte Carlo solver. Research of fuel depletion aims at development and introduction of advanced types of burnable absorbers in nuclear fuel. Burnable absorbers (BA) allow the compensation of the initial reactivity excess of nuclear fuel and result in an increase of fuel cycles lengths with higher enriched fuels. The paper describes the depletion calculations of VVER nuclear fuel doped with rare earth oxides as burnable absorber based on performed depletion calculations, rare earth oxides are divided into two equally numerous groups, suitable burnable absorbers and poisoning absorbers. According to residual poisoning and BA reactivity worth, rare earth oxides marked as suitable burnable absorbers are Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, while poisoning absorbers include Sc, La, Lu, Y, Ce, Pr and Tb. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  14. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activa

  15. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T;

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  16. Engineering analysis for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and evaluates options for disposing of depleted uranium in the chemical form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). Two depleted uranium inventories are considered. One results from the original U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of 560,000 metric tons (te) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6); the other inventory is the original DOE inventory augmented by 145,000 te of depleted UF6 from the United States Enrichment Corporation. Preconceptual designs are included for three disposal options: disposal in a vault, disposal in an engineered trench, and disposal in a deep mine cavity. The disposal container is taken to be either a 30-gallon drum or a 55-gallon drum. Descriptions of the facilities associated with the three disposal options are provided. Staffing estimates for the construction and operation of the facilities are also provided. Wastes and emissions from the facilities during construction, operation, and maintenance have been estimated. Parametric studies have also been performed on the basis of 25% and 50% of the original inventory

  17. C18O Depletion in Starless Cores in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Amanda Brady

    2011-01-01

    We present here findings for C18O depletion in eight starless cores in Taurus: TMC-2, L1498, L1512, L1489, L1517B, L1521E, L1495A-S, and L1544. We compare observations of the C18O J=2-1 transition taken with the ALMA prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope to results of radiative transfer modeling using RATRAN. We use temperature and density profiles calculated from dust continuum radiative transfer models to model the C18O emission. We present modeling of three cores, TMC-2, L1489, and L1495A-S, which have not been modeled before and compare our results for the five cores with published models. We find that all of the cores but one, L1521E, are substantially depleted. We also find that varying the temperature profiles of these model cores has a discernable effect, and varying the central density has an even larger effect. We find no trends with depletion radius or depletion fraction with the density or temperature of these cores, suggesting that the physical structure alone is insuff...

  18. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A penicillin G procaine residue depletion study was conducted in heavy sows to estimate the pre-slaughter withdrawal periods necessary to clear penicillin from kidney and muscle. Heavy sows (n = 126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intra...

  19. Development of depletion perturbation theory for a reactor nodal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized depletion perturbation (DPT) theory formulation for light water reactor (LWR) depletion problems is developed and implemented into the three-dimensional LWR nodal code SIMULATE. This development applies the principles of the original derivation by M.L. Williams to the nodal equations solved by SIMULATE. The present formulation is first described in detail, and the nodal coupling methodology in SIMULATE is used to determine partial derivatives of the coupling coefficients. The modifications to the original code and the new DPT options available to the user are discussed. Finally, the accuracy and the applicability of the new DPT capability to LWR design analysis are examined for several LWR depletion test cases. The cases range from simple static cases to a realistic PWR model for an entire fuel cycle. Responses of interest included K/sub eff/, nodal peaking, and peak nodal exposure. The nonlinear behavior of responses with respect to perturbations of the various types of cross sections was also investigated. The time-dependence of the sensitivity coefficients for different responses was examined and compared. Comparison of DPT results for these examples to direct calculations reveals the limited applicability of depletion perturbation theory to LWR design calculations at the present. The reasons for these restrictions are discussed, and several methods which might improve the computational accuracy of DPT are proposed for future research

  20. Seasonal oxygen depletion in the North Sea, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, H D; Brockmann, U H

    2015-10-15

    Seasonal mean oxygen depletion in offshore and coastal North Sea bottom waters was shown to range between 0.9 and 1.8 mg/L, corresponding to 95-83% saturation, between July and October over a 30-year assessment period (1980-2010). The magnitude of oxygen depletion was controlled by thermal stratification, modulated by water depth and nitrogen availability. Analyses were based on about 19,000 combined data sets. Eutrophication problem areas were identified mainly in coastal waters by oxygen minima, the lower 10th percentile of oxygen concentrations, and deviations of oxygen depletion from correlated stratification values. Connections between oxygen consumption and nitrogen sources and conversion, including denitrification, were indicated by correlations. Mean oxygen consumption reflected a minimum seasonal turnover of 3.1 g N/m(2) in the south-eastern North Sea, including denitrification of 1 g N/m(2). Oxygen depletion was underestimated in shallow coastal waters due to repeated erosion of stratification as indicated by local high variability. PMID:26234616

  1. 5.0. Depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    SCALE’s general depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms analysis capabilities are enabled through a family of modules related to the main ORIGEN depletion/irradiation/decay solver. The nuclide tracking in ORIGEN is based on the principle of explicitly modeling all available nuclides and transitions in the current fundamental nuclear data for decay and neutron-induced transmutation and relies on fundamental cross section and decay data in ENDF/B VII. Cross section data for materials and reaction processes not available in ENDF/B-VII are obtained from the JEFF-3.0/A special purpose European activation library containing 774 materials and 23 reaction channels with 12,617 neutron-induced reactions below 20 MeV. Resonance cross section corrections in the resolved and unresolved range are performed using a continuous-energy treatment by data modules in SCALE. All nuclear decay data, fission product yields, and gamma-ray emission data are developed from ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations. Decay data include all ground and metastable state nuclides with half-lives greater than 1 millisecond. Using these data sources, ORIGEN currently tracks 174 actinides, 1149 fission products, and 974 activation products. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the stand-alone capabilities and underlying methodology of ORIGEN—as opposed to the integrated depletion capability it provides in all coupled neutron transport/depletion sequences in SCALE, as described in other chapters.

  2. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mulder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a rainfall–runoff model for five tributaries of the Tigris River, based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM observations, and potential evaporation from GLDAS model parameters. Our model includes a representation of the karstified aquifers that cause large natural groundwater variations in this region. Observed river discharges were used to calibrate our model. In order to get the total mass variations, we corrected for lake mass variations derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in combination with satellite altimetry and some in-situ data. Our rainfall–runoff model confirms that Northern Iraq suffered a drought between 2007 and 2009 and is consistent with the mass loss observed by GRACE over that period. Also, GRACE observed the annual cycle predicted by the rainfall–runoff model. The total mass depletion seen by GRACE between 2007 and 2009 is mainly explained by a lake mass depletion of 74 ± 4 mm and a natural groundwater depletion of 37 ± 6 mm. Our findings indicate that man-made groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region while depletion of lake mass and geology play a key role.

  3. Compared studies of natural and artificial deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological influence of the deuterium on animals was studied insensitively in the last years. When animal cell cultures were analyzed it turned out an inhibition of the development, due to the reduced deuterium concentration. In the in vivo experiments a decreasing of the number of tumoral cells was pointed out when performing the depleted water treatment. It is obvious that the presence of deuterium in water is necessary for the development, especially for the tumoral cell proliferation. The aim of this work was to establish influence of the natural and artificial deuterium depleted water on the vegetal organisms development. For this purpose, the developmental stages of Lactuca sativa L. growth were followed. The experimental data were compared with the data obtained with distilled water. The birch, wine sap and some fruit juices are considered 'natural depleted' water sources because their deuterium content is smaller in comparison to natural water (D2=150 ppm). The effect of artificial deuterium depleted water (29 ppm D2) was analyzed in comparison to three types of wine saps, which also have a reduced deuterium concentration (125-130 ppm D2). If the deuterium depleted water was used, the germination percent and the root and shoot length were higher compared to control in the first stages. In wine sap it had a negative effect on germination and development. After three days the plants were transferred to soil and their development was followed. The foliage area was larger for all of the experimental variants compared to control. The differences were without significance when deuterium depleted water was tested but they were high and very significant in case of wine sap. The experiment pointed out a stimulative effect of the artificial deuterium depleted water. In case of wine sap the effect was negative when the contact was direct, but the growth was stimulated after the stress cessation. The first ontogenetic stages were represented by direct action on

  4. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. → Verification and validation results for MCOR. → Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations

  5. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  6. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. > Verification and validation results for MCOR. > Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations. Additionally

  7. Global Storm-Time Depletion of the Outer Electron Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Millan, R. M.; Kress, B. T.; Fennell, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (≳0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where its magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scale. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the depletions: fully adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere due to pitch-angle scattering by plasma waves (e.g., EMIC and whistler waves), and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the magnetopause losses to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of March 17, 2013 storm. The intensities of > 1 MeV electrons were depleted by more that an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 hours after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test-particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with the inductive electric field. The comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the MagEIS experiment shows that the magnetopause losses in the model accounts for most of the observed depletion. The individual electron motion the process is non-adiabatic; the third invariant is violated by global variations of the inner magnetospheric fields caused by the magnetopause compressions and the buildup of ring current, while the second invariant is violated at drift orbit bifurcations. The analysis shows that the observed deep depletion of radiation belt intensities is enabled by the change in the global configuration of magnetic

  8. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  9. Improved radiochemical assay analyses using TRITON depletion sequences in SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the release of TRITON in SCALE 5.0, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made available a rigorous two-dimensional (2D) depletion sequence based on the arbitrary-geometry 2D discrete ordinates transport solver NEWT. TRITON has recently been further enhanced by the addition of depletion sequences that use KENO V.a and KENO-VI for three-dimensional (3D) transport solutions. The Monte Carlo-based depletion sequences add stochastic uncertainty issues to the solution, but also provide a means to perform direct 3D depletion that can capture the effect of leakage near the ends of fuel assemblies. Additionally, improved resonance processing capabilities are available to TRITON using CENTRM. CENTRM provides lattice-weighted cross sections using a continuous energy solution that directly treats the resonance overlap effects that become more important in high-burnup fuel. And beginning with the release of SCALE 5.1 in the summer of 2006, point data and fine-structure multigroup libraries derived from ENDF/B-VI evaluations will be available. The combination of rigorous 2D and 3D capabilities with improved cross section processing capabilities and data will provide a powerful and accurate means for the characterization of spent fuel, making it possible to analyze a broad range of assembly designs and assay data. This in turn will reduce biases and uncertainties associated with the preduction of spent fuel isotopic compositions. This paper describes advanced capabilities of the TRITON sequence for depletion calculations and the results of analyses performed to date for radiochemical assay data. (author)

  10. Depletion of compounds from thin oil films in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When oil is spilled on water, the oil compounds distribute between droplets and water-soluble phases in the water column. Some small organic acids, phenols, BTEX, and aromatic compounds will dissolve completely, but larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanes will remain in the droplet fraction. The biodegradation of droplets occurs at the oil-water interface. A method for immobilizing the oil films onto hydrophobic surfaces was developed in order to obtain a stable oil surface during the biodegradation period. A test system was also established to determine the depletion of oil compounds from the oil phase, including both abiotic and biotic processes. Three North Sea oils were used in the study. Two were paraffinic oils rich in n-alkanes and aromatic compounds, and one was asphalthenic which was richer in branched alkanes and PAH. The biodegradation period was 2 months at 13 degrees C. Samples from the water and thin film on the fabric was analyzed for carbon 10 and carbon 36 by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Semi-volatile organic compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the depletion process for alkanes was completely caused by biodegradation, while aromatic compounds were depleted by abiotic dissolution as well as by biodegradation. The system has potential for determining oil depletion processes under controlled surface-to-volume conditions, such as thin oil films and dispersed oil droplets. In addition, the system can be used to determine the depletion process in flow-through systems. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  11. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  12. Iron depletion enhances the effect of sorafenib in hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Shinichi; Ohara, Toshiaki; Noma, Kazuhiro; Katsube, Ryoichi; Ninomiya, Takayuki; Tomono, Yasuko; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Fumiaki; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    ABSTACT Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to have a poor prognosis. Sorafenib, a molecular targeted drug, is most commonly used for HCC treatment. However, its effect on HCC is limited in clinical use and therefore new strategies regarding sorafenib treatment are required. Iron overload is known to be associated with progression of chronic hepatitis and increased risk of HCC. We previously reported that iron depletion inhibited cancer cell proliferation and conversely induced angiogenesis. Indeed iron depletion therapy including iron chelator needs to be combined with anti-angiogenic drug for its anti-cancer effect. Since sorafenib has an anti-angiogenic effect by its inhibitory targeting VEGFR, we hypothesized that sorafenib could complement the anti-cancer effect of iron depletion. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the efficacy of sorafenib and serum iron-related markers in clinical HCC patients. In clinical cases, overall survival was prolonged in total iron binding capacity (TIBC) high- and ferritin low-patients. This result suggested that the low iron-pooled patients, who could have a potential of more angiogenic properties in/around HCC tumors, could be adequate for sorafenib treatment. We determined the effect of sorafenib (Nexavar®) and/or deferasirox (EXJADE®) on cancer cell viability, and on cell signaling of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 and HLE cells. Both iron depletion by deferasirox and sorafenib revealed insufficient cytotoxic effect by each monotherapy, however, on the basis of increased angiogenesis by iron depletion, the addition of deferasirox enhanced anti-proliferative effect of sorafenib. Deferasirox was confirmed to increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion into cellular supernatants by ELISA analysis. In in vivo study sorafenib combined with deferasirox also enhanced sorafenib-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that sorafenib combined with deferasirox could be a novel combination

  13. Ovarian ageing, follicle depletion, and cancer: a hypothesis for the aetiology of epithelial ovarian cancer involving follicle depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The association between ovarian cancer risk and reproductive factors has been well established, and two main theories, incessant ovulation and gonadotropin stimulation, have been proposed to explain the mechanism. Recent studies using animal models of ovarian tumorigenesis, and analysis of ovarian tissues from prophylactic oophorectomies, suggest that depletion of ovarian follicles might underlie the epidemiological findings linking reproductive history and ovarian cancer risk.

  14. Variable Long-Term Trends in Mineral Prices: The Ongoing Tug-of-War between Exploration, Depletion, and Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddington, John T; Grant Nülle

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of low-frequency band-pass filters for describing long-run trends in real mineral commodity prices. This approach has the advantage of allowing long-run trends rate to evolve gradually over time, rather than assuming that they are constant (perhaps with occasional structural breaks) over time. This is a flexible way of capturing the ongoing `tug of war' between exploration, depletion, and technological change. Over 100 mineral and commodities, stretching back to th...

  15. Evaluating groundwater depletion as computed by a global water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Carina; Doell, Petra; Mueller Schmied, Hannes; Portmann, Felix

    2013-04-01

    When groundwater abstraction occurs faster than its replenishment over a long time and in a large area, the result is an overexploitation or depletion of groundwater. The problem is aggravated in areas where a growing population relies on freshwater resources for an intensive irrigation agriculture that is meant to guarantee food security. Especially in semi-arid and arid regions, the dominant use for groundwater is irrigation, reaching more than 95% of total water use. Therefore, the hot spots for groundwater depletion are the world's major irrigation areas like the central United States, north-western India and north China. Groundwater depletion presents a major threat to securing agricultural productivity and domestic water supply in these parts of the world. Besides, the environmental consequences that accompany the abstraction of groundwater are severe. Within the scientific community there is a common understanding that high-quality data on globally existing groundwater resources are deficient. In order to allow a sustainable management of the world's available groundwater resources, especially in areas under current water stress, the quantification of groundwater depletion is of high importance. WaterGAP (Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis) is a global model of water availability and water use which can serve to estimate the impact of groundwater and surface water withdrawals on groundwater storage. The new WaterGAP version 2.2a was modified to allow for an improved analysis of groundwater storage changes in semi-arid and arid regions. Now, groundwater recharge from surface water bodies is simulated in semi-arid and arid areas. Estimation of net groundwater abstractions was modified with respect of irrigation water use efficiency for groundwater and return flow fractions. In addition, irrigation consumptive use has been set to 70% of optimal irrigation consumptive use, assuming deficit irrigation to prevail in these parts of the world. Based on time

  16. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.O.

    1998-12-01

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones of the reservoir, thereby diverting flow to other areas thus increasing the efficiency of the waterflood. The project is divided into three phases: Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the fourth year of work on the project. Twenty-two months after the injection of nutrients into the reservoir began, three wells were drilled and cores taken therefrom were analyzed. Oil production volumes and water:oil ratios (WOR) of produced fluids have shown clearly that the MEOR treatment being demonstrated in this project is improving oil recovery. Of the 15 producer wells in the test patterns, seven have responded positively to the injection of microbial nutrients into the reservoir, while all eight of the producer wells only in control patterns have continued their natural decline in oil production, although one well did have some improvement in oil production due to increased water injection into a nearby injector well. In light of these positive findings and with DOE`s approval, the scope of the field demonstration was expanded in July 1997 to include six new injector wells. Of interest has been the performance of two wells in what was formerly a control pattern. Since the injector in this pattern (formerly Control Pattern 2) began receiving nutrients, two of the wells in the pattern have shown improved oil production for the last three months. While it would be premature to definitely characterize these two wells as yielding a positive response, these early results are certainly encouraging.

  17. Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil Using Alkali, Surfactant and Polymer Slugs in Radial Cores Récupération d'huile résiduelle par injection d'eau améliorée de produits alcalins, de tensio-actifs et de polymères dans des carottes radiales

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.; Hawkins B. F.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to examine mobilization and recovery of waterflood residual oil in radial cores. Alkali, surfactant, and polymer slugs of various compositions, sizes and sequences were tested. Core flood experiments were conducted with unfired radial Berea sandstone disks at a flow rate of 8 cm3/h. David Lloydminster crude oil (total acid number of 0. 45 mg KOH/g oil) was used. The results of the present work showed that the composition and sequence of the injected ch...

  18. Depletion modeling of integral burnable absorbers containing enriched boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion modeling of fuel assembly with different integral fuel burnable absorber loadings containing enriched boron has been performed by WIMSD transport code. Equivalent boron concentration that represents depletion of the integral fuel burnable absorbers containing enriched boron has been calculated using modified PSU/LEOPARD code. The calculated equivalent boron concentrations have been introduced into FUMACS computer code package master files, upgrading the code package with new global calculation feature for core modeling with different integral fuel burnable absorber loadings containing enriched boron. This new feature of FUMACS/FEEC2001 code package has been verified and validated on 12-month and 18-month operating cycle core loading patterns of NPP Krsko.(author)

  19. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  20. Cytotoxicity and glutathione depletion studies using CHOK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosensitization characteristics of newly synthesized isoindole-4, 7-diones have been established in the authors' laboratories. Cytotoxicity studies of isoindole-4, 7-diones on chinese hamster ovary cell (CHOK) have been carried out. The effects that different concentrations of isoindole-4, 7-diones have on cell growth as a function of time after treatment on both systems (oxic and hypoxic) have been determined. Most of isoindole-4, 7-diones used in these studies show more cytotoxic effect under hypoxic conditions. Gluthathione depletion was also measured in both systems. Most of the quinones studied deplete the concentration of glutathione in the CHOK cells. The results will be compared with similar studies carried out with the well known radiosensitizers misonidazole. It is hoped that the isoindole-r, 7-diones are a new family of chemical radiosensitizers

  1. High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2016-04-01

    Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. This work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.

  2. Is depleted uranium a threat to health and the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue has come to the fore in recent years now that Norwegian military personnel have been sent to regions of the world where ammunition made of depleted uranium has been used. A number of surveys have been conducted in the Balkans, so far indicating no health hazards to people present in these areas. However, the latest international surveys show that contamination may be long-lasting. Tonje Sekse represented the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority at the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) inspection tour to Serbia and Montenegro in the autumn of 2001. The report, entitled ''Depleted uranium in Serbia and Montenegro - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia'' was published by UNEP in March 2002.(author)

  3. Characteristics of depleted uranium for the storage of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics for the hydrogen storage was investigated using depleted uranium that was the waste of nuclear fuel manufacturing. Activation process was conducted to heat the experimental vessel to 450 .deg. C under vacuum and the reaction temperature was room temperature. The absorption reaction between hydrogen and depleted uranium was very fast with rapid increasing of temperature and reached to the saturated state within 10 minutes. The ratio of hydrogen to uranium was 2.95 and the amounts of absorbed hydrogen were 3.5 liter after one hour of reaction. The experimental results of reproducibility showed the similar tendencies after third reaction. The reaction of hydrogen and deuterium showed similar tendencies and the initial reaction rate of deuterium was slower than that of hydrogen. The desorption of absorbed hydrogen started around 250 .deg. C. It was confirmed that the almost absorbed hydrogen was desorbed by heating to 450 .deg. C

  4. Detecting Grain-Boundary Chromium Depletion in Inconel 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. P.; Vaia, A. R.; Pessall, N.; Aspden, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    Techniques to evaluate grain-boundary chromium depletion in Inconel Alloy 600 were investigated. Procedures studied were a modified Huey test, reactivation polarization, magnetic permeability measurements, and eddy current measurements. Results from these tests were correlated with susceptibility to stress-assisted intergranular cracking in polythionic acid. Thermally treated Inconel Alloy 600 steam generator tubing was the principal source of material evaluated, but experimental heats of Ni-Cr-Fe alloys with 8-18 wt.% Cr were prepared to determine the critical chromium level below which stress-assisted intergranular cracking occurs; this critical chromium content was found to be between 9.8 and 11.7 wt.%. All four techniques were considered suitable to evaluate grain-boundary chromium depletion; the modified Huey test and reactivation polarization technique showed a greater sensitivity than the magnetic permeability and eddy current measurements.

  5. Lower hybrid wave phenomena associated with density depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid description of lower hybrid, whistler and magnetosonic waves is applied to study wave phenomena near the lower hybrid resonance associated with plasma density depletions. The goal is to understand the nature of lower hybrid cavitons and spikelets often associated with transverse ion acceleration events in the auroral ionosphere. Three-dimensional simulations show the ponderomotive force leads to the formation of a density cavity (caviton) in which lower hybrid wave energy is concentrated (spikelet) resulting in a three-dimensional collapse of the configuration. Plasma density depletions of the order of a few percent are shown to greatly modify the homogeneous linear properties of lower hybrid waves and account for many of the observed features of lower hybrid spikelets.

  6. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere: extent, causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to present knowledge the causes of depleting the stratospheric ozone layer are exclusively anthropogenic. CFC's and (to smaller extent) halons enter the chain mechanisms of photochemical ozone loss with the result that its steady state concentration is reduced. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere has a number of consequences for the chemistry and the dynamics of the stratosphere. More severe, however, is its potential consequence to humans, animals and plants due to an increase in UV-B intensity near the surface. Current model studies predict, that the observed ozone change in mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere should have resulted in a change of the UV-B-dose by as much as +7%/decade. (orig./DG)

  7. Effect of temperature coupling on ozone depletion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Butler, D. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of chlorine perturbations on both the temperature and the ozone distribution in the stratosphere have been studied using a simplified radiative-photochemical model. The model solves the hydrostatic equation for total density in a self-consistent manner as the temperature is changed. Radiative coupling is found to have a significant effect on both the thermal structure and the ozone distribution, particularly in the 35-50-km region. By increasing the ClX mixing ratio by 5.0 ppbv, the temperature in this region is decreased by 5 to 10 K with a slight increase below 30 km. The local ozone depletion around 40 km due to added ClX is smaller compared with the estimate made by keeping the temperature fixed to the ambient condition. However, the integrated effect of radiative coupling is to increase the calculated column ozone depletion by 15% to 25% in this model.

  8. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo;

    2013-01-01

    overexpressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes, group 1 (n=18) received vitamin D depleted chow; group 2 (n=15) standard chow and intraperitoneal paricalcitol at 800ng/kg thrice weekly; and group 3 (n=15) standard chow and vehicle injections. Blood pressure (tail cuff) and 24-h albuminuria were......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...... determined once weekly. After three weeks, animals were sacrificed. Heart tissue was examined for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vitamin D depleted group had higher blood pressure at week 1 (mean difference 23.4mmHg, 95% CI 9.1-37.7) and tended to...

  9. Processing of depleted uranium for sub-atomic particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 1000 metric tons of Depleted Uranium (DU) is being used in three advanced detectors at CERN (UA-1), Fermilab (DZero), and DESY (Zeus). Nearly all of the approximately 25,000 precision DU Sheet metal components assembled into these detectors have been produced at Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MSC) of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the manufacturing procedures used to make these components and offers suggestions to help reduce cost of future detectors

  10. Macrophage Depletion in Hypertensive Rats Accelerates Development of Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen, H.R.; Sharma, U.C.; S. Gupta; Verjans, J.W.H.; Borne, van den, J.J.G.C.; S Pokharel; Brakel, T.; Duijvestijn, A; Rooijen, van, J.; Maessen, J.G.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Pinto, Y.; Narula, J.; Hofstra, L

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the process of ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial injury. To investigate the role of macrophages in the chronic process of cardiac remodeling, they were selectively depleted by intravenous administration of liposomal clodronate in heart failure-prone hypertensive Ren-2 rats from the age of 7 until 13 weeks. plain liposomes were used for comparison. Liposomal clodronate treatment reduced the number of blood monocytes and decreased the number of macrophage...

  11. Helpful Self-Control: Autonomy Support, Vitality, and Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Muraven, Mark; Gagné, Marylène; Rosman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Why someone exerts self-control may influence how depleting a task is. Feeling compelled to exert self-control require more self-control strength than exerting self-control for more autonomous reasons. Across three experiments, individuals whose autonomy was supported while exerting self-control performed better on a subsequent test of self-control as compared to individuals who had more pressure placed upon them while exerting self-control. The differences in self-control performance were no...

  12. Identification of biological microparticles using ultrafast depletion spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Courvoisier, François; Bonacina, Luigi; Boutou, Véronique; Guyon, Laurent; Bonnet, Christophe; Thuillier, Benoit; Extermann, Jérôme; Roth, Matthias; Rabitz, Herschel; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    We show how an ultrafast pump–pump excitation induces strong fluorescence depletion in biological samples, such as bacteria-containing droplets, in contrast with fluorescent interferents, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds, despite similar spectroscopic properties. Application to the optical remote discrimination of biotic versus non-biotic particles is proposed. Further improvement is required to allow the discrimination of one pathogenic among other non-pathogenic micro-organisms. This i...

  13. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J.; Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental differences in observed ozone depletion between the Arctic and the Antarctic are shown, clarifying distinctions between both average and extreme ozone decreases in the two hemispheres. Balloon-borne and satellite measurements in the heart of the ozone layer near 18−24 km altitude show that extreme ozone decreases often observed in the Antarctic ozone hole region have not yet been measured in the Arctic in any year, including the unusually cold Arctic spring of 2011. The data provi...

  14. Residue depletion of colistin in swine after intramuscular administration

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Tang; Gong, L. J.; J.K. He; Jin, X; X.L. Xiao

    2009-01-01

    A newly formulated colistin sulphate solution was prepared in a previous study as a potential agent for intramuscular injection and its effectiveness, toxicity and pharmacokinetics were investigated. In order to provide more information to establish scientific guidance for safe use of this preparation, its residue depletion in swine tissues following intramuscular administration was investigated in this experiment. Fifty healthy cross-bred piglets (13.3 ± 0.9 kg) were used in this study. Five...

  15. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Application of depletion perturbation theory to fuel cycle burnup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years static perturbation theory methods have been increasingly used for reactor analysis in lieu of more detailed and costly direct computations. Recently, perturbation methods incorporating time dependence have also received attention, and several authors have demonstrated their applicability to fuel burnup analysis. The objective of the work described here is to demonstrate that a time-dependent perturbation method can be easily and accurately applied to realistic depletion problems

  17. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  18. Uranium and the use of depleted uranium in weaponry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brief report the author shows that the use of shells involving a load of depleted uranium might lead to lasting hazards to civil population and environment. These hazards come from the part of the shell that has been dispersed as contaminating radioactive dusts. The author describes some features of radioactivity and highlights the role of Uranium-238 as a provider of energy to the planet. (A.C.)

  19. Population Exposure to Depleted Uranium in the Han Pijesak Region

    OpenAIRE

    Zora S. Žunić; Rodoljub Simović; Zoran Ćurguz; Olivera Čuknić; Jerzy Mietelski; Predrag Ujić; Igor Čeliković; Predrag Kolarž; Branko Predojević

    2011-01-01

    In September 1995 the Han Pijesak area of Republic of Srpska was heavily attacked by Depleted Uranium (DU) ammunition. In this area, from 2003 to 2004, during one year, the components of natural ionizing radiation sources like radon, thoron, and gamma radiation were measured. In addition, during the same period, the samples of soil, moss, and lichen were collected in order to identify the content of technologically enhanced natural radionuclides in them and particularly their isotopic ratios,...

  20. Uranio impoverito: perch'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    CERN Document Server

    D'Abramo, G

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of the author of understanding the reasons of the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  1. Depleted uranium report from the Health Council of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Council of the Netherlands, which is an independent scientific advisory body established in 1902 to advise the government and Parliament on the current level of knowledge with respect to public health issues', has recently published an overview report on depleted uranium. The title of the report is Health risks of exposure to depleted uranium' and it is freely available in both English and the original Dutch language. A brief summary of the report that was published on 16 May 2001 is presented here. The use of ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) in Kosovo and elsewhere in the Balkans has provoked disquiet in Europe. In the Netherlands, concern over the release of this material had already been aroused previously following the crash of the El-Al airliner in the Bijlmermeer district of Amsterdam in 1992. It was against this background that the President of the Health Council decided to set up a Committee charged with the task of reviewing the health risks of exposure to DU and the preventive measures required for individuals present in areas where DU has been released into the environment. After reviewing the properties of uranium in general and depleted uranium in particular, and presenting data on the occurrence of the element in the environment and biological tissues, the committee assessed the chemical and radiological health effect of uranium and uranium compounds. The Health Council Committee concludes that radioactive contamination of the lungs is the principal health risk to be considered in connection with exposure to slightly soluble uranium compounds in the atmosphere. For soluble compounds, the chemical toxic effect in the kidneys is the primary consideration. The toxicological effects are to some extent concordant with those of other heavy metals. For relevant exposure scenarios the Committee does not anticipate that exposure to DU will result in a demonstrable increased risk of diseases and symptoms among exposed individuals as a

  2. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Depleted Uranium: Protection by Beta-Glucan

    OpenAIRE

    Shaki, Fatemeh; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the toxicity of uranyl acetate (UA), a soluble salt of depleted uranium (DU). We examined the ability of the two antioxidants, beta-glucan and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), to prevent UA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction using rat-isolated kidney mitochondria. Beta-glucan (150 nM) and BHT (20 nM) attenuated UA-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidat...

  3. Uranio impoverito: perch\\'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    OpenAIRE

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of understanding the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  4. Military use of depleted uranium: assessment of prolonged population exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Giannardi, C.; Dominici, D.

    2001-01-01

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposu...

  5. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Perko; Anđelić Tomislav; Zekić Ranko; Kovačević Milojko S.; Vasić Vladimir; Savić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  6. Depleted uranium exposure and health effects in Gulf War veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Squibb, Katherine S.; McDiarmid, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Health effects stemming from depleted uranium (DU) exposure in a cohort of Gulf War veterans who were in or on US Army vehicles hit by friendly fire involving DU munitions are being carefully monitored through the Baltimore Veterans Affairs (VA) DU Follow-Up Program initiated in 1993. DU exposure in this cohort has been directly measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) isotopic analysis for DU in urine specimens. Soldiers with embedded DU fragments continue to excr...

  7. The health effects of depleted uranium munitions: a summary

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, B.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. In response to this concern the Royal Society set up an independent, expert working group to investigate the health effects of DU munitions. The Royal Society has now produced two reports, and this summary covering the key conclusions and recommendations from both reports. The part I report considered the increased risks of radiation-induced cancer from exposures to DU...

  8. MEASURING Be DEPLETION IN COOL STARS WITH EXOPLANETS

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Elisa Delgado; Israelian, Garik; Hernández, Jonay I. González; Santos, Nuno C.; Rebolo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    We present new UVES spectra of a sample of 14 mostly cool unevolved stars with planetary companions with the aim of studying possible differences in Be abundance with respect to stars without detected planets. We determine Be abundances for these stars that show an increase in Be depletion as we move to lower temperatures. We carry out a differential analysis of spectra of analog stars with and without planets to establish a possible difference in Be content. While for hot stars no measurable...

  9. Response: Depletion and degradation are not the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article responses to the Case against Environmental Taxes for Sustainable Forestry. The author points out that in the previous article the implications of continuity of ownership and associate responsibilities are obscured by not clearly distinguishing timber-related depletion costs from nontimber environmental costs. Because the environmental effects of tropical logging are externalities, some type of public policy is neccessary to ensure that private actions coincide with socially optimal behavior. Environmental taxes may not be the only policy action available though

  10. Huntington's disease: effect of cysteamine, a somatostatin-depleting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, C; Steardo, L; Barone, P; Mohr, E; Juncos, J; Serrati, C; Fedio, P; Tamminga, C A; Chase, T N

    1986-08-01

    Somatostatin levels in the basal ganglia are elevated in Huntington's disease. A controlled therapeutic trial of the somatostatin-depleting agent, cysteamine, was therefore conducted in five patients, including one with the rigid-akinetic form. Maximum tolerated dosage for 2 weeks produced no consistent change in extrapyramidal or dementia scores. Somatostatin concentrations were not significantly altered in plasma or CSF. Growth hormone levels, on the other hand, more than doubled, suggesting a functionally significant decrease in central somatostatin levels. PMID:2874527

  11. EZH2 depletion blocks the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Fussbroich

    Full Text Available The Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2 protein has been reported to stimulate cell growth in some cancers and is therefore considered to represent an interesting new target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated a possible role of EZH2 for the growth control of colon cancer cells. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated intracellular EZH2 depletion led to cell cycle arrest of colon carcinoma cells at the G1/S transition. This was associated with a reduction of cell numbers upon transient transfection of synthetic EZH2-targeting siRNAs and with inhibition of their colony formation capacity upon stable expression of vector-borne siRNAs. We furthermore tested whether EZH2 may repress the growth-inhibitory p27 gene, as reported for pancreatic cancer. However, expression analyses of colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer biopsies did not reveal a consistent correlation between EZH2 and p27 levels. Moreover, EZH2 depletion did not re-induce p27 expression in colon cancer cells, indicating that p27 repression by EZH2 may be cell- or tissue-specific. Whole genome transcriptome analyses identified cellular genes affected by EZH2 depletion in colon cancer cell lines. They included several cancer-associated genes linked to cellular proliferation or invasion, such as Dag1, MageD1, SDC1, Timp2, and Tob1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EZH2 depletion blocks the growth of colon cancer cells. These findings might provide benefits for the treatment of colon cancer.

  12. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  14. A search for relativistic electron induced stratospheric ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Possible ozone changes at 1 mb associated with the time variation and precipitation of relativistic electrons are investigated by examining the NIMBUS 7 SBUV ozone data set and corresponding temperatures derived from NMC data. No ozone depletion was observed in high-latitude summer when temperature fluctuations are small. In winter more variation in ozone occurs, but large temperature changes make it difficult to identify specific ozone decreases as being the result of relativistic electron precipitation.

  15. Motif depletion in bacteriophages infecting hosts with CRISPR systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kupczok, Anne; Bollback, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Background CRISPR is a microbial immune system likely to be involved in host-parasite coevolution. It functions using target sequences encoded by the bacterial genome, which interfere with invading nucleic acids using a homology-dependent system. The system also requires protospacer associated motifs (PAMs), short motifs close to the target sequence that are required for interference in CRISPR types I and II. Here, we investigate whether PAMs are depleted in phage genomes due to selection pre...

  16. Resource depletion does not influence prospective memory in college students

    OpenAIRE

    Talley Shelton, Jill; Cahill, Michael J.; Mullet, Hillary G.; Scullin, Michael K.; Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment designed to investigate the potential influence of prior acts of self-control on subsequent prospective memory performance. College undergraduates (n = 146) performed either a cognitively depleting initial task (e.g., mostly incongruent Stroop task) or a less resource-consuming version of that task (e.g., all congruent Stroop task). Subsequently, participants completed a prospective memory task that required attentionally demanding monitoring processes. The re...

  17. The relationship between skin cancers, solar radiation and ozone depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Moan, J.; Dahlback, A.

    1992-01-01

    During the period 1957-1984 the annual age-adjusted incidence rate of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) increased by 350% for men and 440% for women in Norway. The annual exposure to carcinogenic sunlight in Norway, calculated by use of measured ozone levels, showed no increasing trend during the same period. Thus, ozone depletion is not a cause of the increasing trend of the incidence rates of skin cancers. The incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) ...

  18. Seasonal Storage of Hydrogen in a Depleted Natural Gas Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Mignard, Dimitri; Wilkinson, Mark; Amid, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen storage in a depleted gas reservoir or in an aquifer offers the potential for the seasonal storage of inherently variable renewable energy, by the electrolysis of water during periods of excess energy production. Here we investigate whether such storage is technically feasible. We compared the respective capacities and deliverabilities of hydrogen to established natural gas in a seasonal storage facility, on the basis of an estimated total volumetric capacity of 48MMm3, delivery pres...

  19. Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rodell, M.; Velicogna, I; Famiglietti, JS

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a primary source of fresh water in many parts of the world. Some regions are becoming overly dependent on it, consuming groundwater faster than it is naturally replenished and causing water tables to decline unremittingly. Indirect evidence suggests that this is the case in northwest India, but there has been no regional assessment of the rate of groundwater depletion. Here we use terrestrial water storage-change observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experimen...

  20. The Lithium Depletion Boundary as a Clock and Thermometer

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffries, R. D.; T. Naylor

    2000-01-01

    We take a critical look at the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) technique that has recently been used to derive the ages of open clusters. We identify the sources of experimental and systematic error and show that the probable errors are larger by approximately a factor two than presently claimed in the literature. We then use the Pleiades LDB age and photometry in combination with evolutionary models to define empirical colour-T_eff relations that can be applied to younger clusters. We find ...

  1. Effects of deuterium depleted water on reproduction of Rainbow fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to an isotopic composition used to prepare fecundating solutions for artificial reproduction of fish. The solution is constituted as a mixture of deuterium depleted water and natural water (whose isotopic concentration is of 85-90 ppm D/(D+H)) in which we can add activating and energizing substances. This fecundating solution ensures an improved fecundating level of fish roe, increase life index in the next growth up stages and increase fish resistance at special medium conditions. (authors)

  2. Contamination with radionuclides and depleted uranium as a result of NATO aggression against Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It appears that the amount of depleted uranium (DU) is approaching 106 tons at world level. Depleted uranium is a by-product in uranium enrichment process. As such, and at the same time being low radioactive, DU has legal status of low-level radioactive waste. On the other hand, DU is natural present in nature. This is the reason why many claim that it cannot produce major damage if discharged in the environment and that it can be used for ammunition construction material. To regret, DU due to its remarkable physical and mechanical properties has been widely used for the military purposes only. Nowadays many armies have it as a part of standard ammunition stock. To much less extend, it has been used as a shield for various types of armored vehicles. So far, DU has been extensively used on a large scale at several locations on the globe. The most important ones are the test area in Mohave Desert, USA, Gulf War, Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and most recently NATO aggression on Yugoslavia. As a result of extensive DU use, there are many pro and contras regarding DU harmful effects on the environment and life in general. On the subject expert opinion strongly disagree, while public opinion is very much against its use, in particular for military purpose.From the existing experience on the DU impact on the life and environment it is evident that DU can create harmful effects. So far, humans were of prime importance and most of the observations, results and discussions refer to humans, but also there is a growing concern for the biota in general. This paper summarizes some of the known facts regarding depleted uranium, its use as a material for ammunition manufacturing and possible harmful affects in connection with it. Paper also suggests some of the measures that could be considered to follow and remedy the current DU contamination of Kosovo and Metohija, and some other spots in FR Yugoslavia. (author)

  3. A comparative analysis of the morphology and evolution of permanent sperm depletion in spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    Full Text Available Once thought to be energetically cheap and easy to produce, empirical work has shown that sperm is a costly and limited resource for males. In some spider species, there is behavioral evidence that sperm are permanently depleted after a single mating. This extreme degree of mating investment appears to co-occur with other reproductive strategies common to spiders, e.g. genital mutilation and sexual cannibalism. Here we corroborate that sperm depletion in the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes is permanent by uncovering its mechanistic basis using light and electron microscopy. In addition, we use a phylogeny-based statistical analysis to test the evolutionary relationships between permanent sperm depletion (PSD and other reproductive strategies in spiders. Male testes do not produce sperm during adulthood, which is unusual in spiders. Instead, spermatogenesis is nearly synchronous and ends before the maturation molt. Testis size decreases as males approach their maturation molt and reaches its lowest point after sperm is transferred into the male copulatory organs (pedipalps. As a consequence, the amount of sperm available to males for mating is limited to the sperm contained in the pedipalps, and once it is used, males lose their ability to fertilize eggs. Our data suggest that PSD has evolved independently at least three times within web-building spiders and is significantly correlated with the evolution of other mating strategies that limit males to monogamy, including genital mutilation and sexual cannibalism. We conclude that PSD may be an energy-saving adaptation in species where males are limited to monogamy. This could be particularly important in web-building spiders where extreme sexual size dimorphism results in large, sedentary females and small, searching males who rarely feed as adults and are vulnerable to starvation. Future work will explore possible energetic benefits and the evolutionary lability of PSD relative to other

  4. Inhomogeneous depletion of oxygen ions in metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhodets, Vladimir B.; Jarvis, Emily A. A.; Kurennykh, Tatiana E.; Beketov, Igor V.; Obukhov, Sviatoslav I.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Medvedev, Anatoly I.; Davletshin, Andrey E.; Whyte, Travis H.

    2016-02-01

    Zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have multiple uses, including catalysis, fuel cells, dental applications, and thermal coatings. We employ nuclear reaction analysis to determine elemental composition of YSZ nanoparticles synthesized by laser evaporation including 18O studies to distinguish between oxide and adsorbed oxygen content as a function of surface area. We see dramatic deviation from stoichiometry that can be traced to loss of oxygen from the oxide near the surface of these nanopowders. Density functional calculations are coupled with these experimental studies to explore the electronic structure of nonstoichiometric surfaces achieved through depletion of oxygen. Our results show oxygen-depleted surfaces present under oxygen potentials where stoichiometric, oxygen-terminated surfaces would be favored thermodynamically for crystalline systems. Oxygen depletion at nanopowder surfaces can create effective two-dimensional surface metallic states while maintaining stoichiometry in the underlying nanoparticle core. This insight into nanopowder surfaces applies to dissimilar oxides of aluminum and zirconium indicating synthesis conditions may be more influential than the inherent oxide properties and displaying need for distinct models for nanopowders of these important engineering materials where surface chemistry dominates performance.

  5. Alignment of gold nanorods by angular photothermal depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Adam B.; Chow, Timothy T. Y.; Chon, James W. M., E-mail: jchon@swin.edu.au [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, 3122 VIC (Australia)

    2014-02-24

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a high degree of alignment can be imposed upon randomly oriented gold nanorod films by angular photothermal depletion with linearly polarized laser irradiation. The photothermal reshaping of gold nanorods is observed to follow quadratic melting model rather than the threshold melting model, which distorts the angular and spectral hole created on 2D distribution map of nanorods to be an open crater shape. We have accounted these observations to the alignment procedures and demonstrated good agreement between experiment and simulations. The use of multiple laser depletion wavelengths allowed alignment criteria over a large range of aspect ratios, achieving 80% of the rods in the target angular range. We extend the technique to demonstrate post-alignment in a multilayer of randomly oriented gold nanorod films, with arbitrary control of alignment shown across the layers. Photothermal angular depletion alignment of gold nanorods is a simple, promising post-alignment method for creating future 3D or multilayer plasmonic nanorod based devices and structures.

  6. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  7. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  8. Radioprotective and Immunostimulating Effects of Deuterium-Depleted Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mice fed during 15 days with Deuterium-Depleted Water (30 ppm deuterium) had a statistically significant increased survival compared with control groups fed with normal distilled water (150 ppm deuterium) after 8.5 Gy irradiation (61% survival in test group towards 25% in control group). Hematological picture showed maintaining of the normal WBC, RBC and platelet count in test groups. Immunological parameters (serum opsonic and bactericidal capacity, bactericidal capacity of the peritoneal macrophages) showed a marked increase in test groups compared to a severe decrease in the control groups. Auxiliary tests using chemical radiomimetics (hydrochloric embihine) and immunosupressors (cyclophosphamide) showed a strong protective effect of deuterium-depleted water against the decrease of the leukocyte counts and other immunologic parameters. In conditions of experimental inflammation with subcutaneous-implanted pellets, deuterium-depleted water feeding statistically significant increased inflammatory response, obviated by increased percentages of PMN and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and increased phagocytic capacity of the peripheral blood PMN. Experimental infections with K. pneumoniae 506 and S. pneumoniae 558 in mice irradiated or treated with cyclophosphamide showed increased non-specific immunity parameters. All results show a marked intensification of the immune defenses and increased proliferation of the peripheral blood cells, probably accounting for the radioprotective effects. (author)

  9. Alteration of bleomycin cytotoxicity by glutathione depletion or elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part, some of the cytotoxicity of bleomycin may be lessened or enhanced by modulation of glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Enhancement of bleomycin cytotoxicity was observed when GSH levels were low and protection was observed when GSH levels were elevated. Since H2O2 is one of the reactive species produced by bleomycin catalyzed oxygen activation, the authors studied the effects of H2O2 exposure after GSH depletion. H2O2, like bleomycin, shows enhanced cytotoxicity in GSH depleted cells. It has been proposed that bleomycin cytotoxicity requires reducing equivalents from non-protein bound thiols (such as GSH) to activate the bleomycin-metal complex, which in turn reacts with oxygen to generate free radicals and peroxides. The data suggest that either GSH is not required to cycle reducing equivalents to the oxidized bleomycin-metal complex, or the low levels of depleted GSH attained (less than 5% of control) were still sufficient to effect reduction. Further, the data shows that GSH in fact provides a means of protection and detoxification from the cytotoxic effects of bleomycin

  10. MEASURING Be DEPLETION IN COOL STARS WITH EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new UVES spectra of a sample of 14 mostly cool unevolved stars with planetary companions with the aim of studying possible differences in Be abundance with respect to stars without detected planets. We determine Be abundances for these stars that show an increase in Be depletion as we move to lower temperatures. We carry out a differential analysis of spectra of analog stars with and without planets to establish a possible difference in Be content. While for hot stars no measurable difference is found in Be, for the only cool (Teff∼ 5000 K) planet-host star with several analogs in the sample we find enhanced Be depletion by 0.25 dex. This is a first indication that the extra-depletion of Li in solar-type stars with planets may also happen for Be, but shifted toward lower temperatures (Teff < 5500 K) due to the depth of the convective envelopes. The processes that take place in the formation of planetary systems may affect the mixing of material inside their host stars and hence the abundances of light elements.

  11. CO depletion --- An evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of Planck satellite with the molecular data of $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 14 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion and CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores (ECC) sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 6.2$\\times10^{-5}$ and 9.1$\\times10^{-5}$, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 2.8 and 1.4, respectively. The median value of $X_{CO-to-H_{2}}$ for the whole sample is $3.3\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$km$^{-1}$ s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor and CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor seems to be strongly correlated to other physical parameters (e.g. dust temperature, dust emissivity spectra index and column density). CO gas severely freeze out in colde...

  12. Rhizosphere effect of different aquatic plants on phosphorus depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyu WANG; Shengfang WEN; Baoshan XING; Dongmei GAO; Fengmin LI

    2008-01-01

    A series of pot experiments with Alternanthera philoxeroides, Typha latifolia, Sagittaria sagittifolia and Phragmites communis were conducted to assess the phos-phorus depletion effect in the rhizosphere. The ratio of root to shoot, root morphology, phosphorus uptake efficiency and phosphorus utilization efficiency were analyzed. An obvious variation in phosphorus concentrations between the rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil was observed. The water-soluble P contents in the rhizosphere soil of A. philoxeroides, T. latifolia, S. sagittifolia and P. communis were reduced by 81%, 42%, 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with that in the non-rhizosphere soil. A. philox-eroides had the highest phosphorus uptake efficiency (1.32 mg/m), while T. latifolia achieved the effective phos-phorus depletion by the strong rooting system and the high phosphorus uptake efficiency (0.52 mg/m). T. latifolia not only used phosphorus to produce biomass economically, but also adjusted carbon allocation to the roots to explore the soil for more available phosphorus. A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia were more effective in depleting phosphorus in the rhizosphere than S. sagittifolia and P. communis.

  13. Valence bands offset between depleted semiconductors measured by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified method to measure the valence bands offset by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) between low doped and depleted semiconductors have been used. The surface photovoltage (SPV) and the charging effects modify the PES spectra of depleted semiconductors. The valence bands offset at the heterojunction of depleted ZnSe film and doped GaAs substrate have been measured. These samples were prepared by the laser ablation technique. The shift of PES spectra of ZnSe by about 6 eV has been observed due to the charging and SPV effects. The charging and SPV effects on PES spectra, have been reduced to negligible values in the presence of excess plasma (due to absorption from a secondary white light source) density of the order of 1018 cm-3. The effect of the charging and SPV is very small on the value of the valence bands offset measured in the presence of the excess plasma. This method to measure the valence bands offset is useful for samples prepared in ex situ conditions and with film thickness of the order of 100 nm

  14. Ionospheric heating, upwelling, and depletions in auroral current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Semeter, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    This research investigates aspects of ionospheric dynamics relevant to magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in auroral arc current systems. Auroral electric fields and particle precipitation deposit energy in the ionosphere, often resulting in enhanced ion or electron temperatures. This heating has a wide variety of consequences for the ionosphere. High ion temperatures alter chemical balance in the lower F-region, resulting in conversion to a molecular ion plasma, faster recombination, and plasma depletions. Pressure enhancements resulting from both ion and electron heating are capable of generating intense ion upflows. Ion upflow and depletion processes redistribute and structure the auroral plasma in ways that are likely of consequence to wave coupling of the magnetosphere and ionosphere. These implications are examined through the use of a fluid-kinetic model of the auroral ionosphere and new incoherent scatter radar data analysis techniques. Results indicate that enhanced recombination of molecular ions in auroral downward current regions may work in concert with well-known electrodynamic depletion processes, in the F-region ionosphere. Furthermore, ionospheric upflows in auroral upward and downward current regions may be quite different in terms of intensity and types of upflowing ions.

  15. [Biomedical and economic consequences of stratosphere ozone depletion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzhizhovskiĭ, A D

    1998-01-01

    Information on possible human health-changes associated with stratosphere ozone depletion and amplification factor (% increase of the stick rate by 1% decrease of ozone) values for acute (erythema, keratitis, cataract, immunosuppression) and chronic (skin cancer, cataract) effects of natural UV-radiation was analysed. Amplification factor (AF) values for acute UV-effects increase with degree of ozone depletion. For degrees less than 12.5% they are independent of latitude and equal to 1.9 for erythema, 1.3-1.5 for keratitis, 1.7-2.3 for cataract and 0.9-1.1 for immunosuppression. AF values for incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer are independent of age, higher in males than females, and higher for squamous cell carcinoma, than for basal cell carcinoma. Their optimal estimations for whites equal to 2.7 for basal cell and 4.6 for squamous cell carcinoma. AF values for incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma range between 1 and 2, for melanoma mortality--between 0.3 and 2. AF values for incidence of cataract range between 0.3 and 1.2 with optimal estimations between 0.6 and 0.8. Prognosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and cataract incidences, melanoma mortality and economic loss for different scenarios of stratosphere ozone depletion are presented. PMID:9633627

  16. Measurement of camera image sensor depletion thickness with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, J; Bravo, S; Jensen, K; Karn, P; Meehan, M; Peacock, J; Plewa, M; Ruggles, T; Santander, M; Schultz, D; Simons, A L; Tosi, D

    2015-01-01

    Camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. In particular, cosmic-ray muons are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of cosmic-ray muon tracks recorded by the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a commercial smart phone, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution prefers a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution over an isotropic distribution. Allowing either distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be between 13.9~$\\mu$m and 27.7~$\\mu$m. The same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with ...

  17. Russian roulette. [Problem of USSR production offsetting depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-15

    The world's largest producer of crude oil is the Soviet Union, lifting about 11.6 million barrels per day (bpd). Next is Saudi Arabia at about 9.5 million bpd, followed by the US at 8.5 million bpd. What if the Soviet Union should, like the US before it, cross over from a net exporter to net importer of oil. Since 1977 the US Central Intelligence Agency has been warning of just such a crossover. For just about as long, analysts within the US oil industry have been dismissing the CIA's warnings as unduly alarmist. This year's numbers - reported by the Soviets themselves - tend to confirm the CIA's case. The heart of the problem is the Soviet Union's enormous production rate, 11.6 million bpd and headed for 12 million to 13 million. Producing these oceanic amounts depletes reservoirs fast. As old ones decline, they must be offset with new finds. The current five-year plan calls for a depletion offset of 7.8 million bpd. They must bring in new production not much less than the US' total annual production just to stay even. Think of it as two Irans. A depletion offset that big and growing, the CIA believes, will become unachievable.

  18. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  19. DEPLETION POTENTIAL OF COLLOIDS:A DIRECT SIMULATION STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wei-hua(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Asakura S, Oosawa F. Surface tension of high-poly-mer solution [J]. J Chem Phys, 1954, 22: 1255~ 1255.[2]Ye X, Narayanan T, Tong P, et al. Depletion interactions in colloid-polymer mixtures [J]. Phys Rev E, 1996, 54: 6500~6510.[3]Kaplan P D, Faucheux L P, Libchaber A J. Direct observation of the entropic potential in a binary suspension [J]. Phys Rev Lett, 1994, 73: 2793~2796.[4]Ohshima Y N, Sakagami H, Okumoto K, et al. Direct measurement of infinite simal depletion force in a colloid-polymer mixture by laser radiation pressure [J]. Phys Rev Lett, 1997, 78: 3963~3966.[5]Dinsmore A D, Yodh A G, Pine D J. Entropic control particle motion using passive surface microstructures [J]. Nature (London), 1996, 383: 239~242.[6]Dinsmore A D, Wong D T, Nelson P, et al. Hard spheres in vecicles: curvature-induced forces and particle-induced curvature [J]. Phys Rev Lett, 1998, 80: 409~412.[7]Gtzelmann B, Evans R, Dietrich S. Depletion forces in fluids [J]. Phys Rev E, 1998, 57: 6785~6800.[8]Miao Y, Cates M E, Lekkerkerker H N W. Depletion force in colloidal systems [J]. Physica A, 1995, 222: 10~24.[9]Biben J, Bladon P, Frenkel D. Depletion effects in binary hard-sphere fluids [J]. J Phys: Condens Matter, 1996, 8: 10799~10821.[10]Dickman R, Attard P, Simonian V. Entropic forces in binary hard sphere mixture: Theory and simulation [J]. J Chem Phys, 1997, 107: 205~213.[11]Bennett C H. Efficient estimation of free energy differences from Monte Carlo data [J]. J Comput Phys, 1976, 22: 245~268; see also Allen M P, Tildesley D J. Computer Simulation of Liquids (Chap.7) [M]. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1994.

  20. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 109 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 235U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 238U, (0.2 - 0.3) % of 235U, 0.001 % of 234U, and only traces of 234Th, 234Pa and 231Th. If traces of the isotopes 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 106 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 238U and its decay products 234Th and 234Pa which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 106 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 235U and 231Th (0.16 · 106 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  1. Numerical analysis of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of ozone depletion and halogen release in the polar troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the role of halogen species (e.g. Br, Cl in the troposphere of polar regions is investigated after the discovery of their importance for boundary layer ozone destruction in the polar spring. Halogen species take part in an auto-catalytic chemical cycle including key self reactions. In this study, several chemical reaction schemes are investigated, and the importance of specific reactions and their rate constants is identified by a sensitivity analysis. A category of heterogeneous reactions related to HOBr activate halogen ions from sea salt aerosols, fresh sea ice or snow pack, driving the "bromine explosion". In the Arctic, a small amount of NOx may exist, which comes from nitrate contained in the snow, and this NOx may have a strong impact on ozone depletion. The heterogeneous reaction rates are parameterized by considering the aerodynamic resistance, a reactive surface ratio, β, i.e. ratio of reactive surface area to total ground surface area, and the boundary layer height, Lmix. It is found that for β = 1, the ozone depletion process starts after five days and lasts for 40 h for Lmix = 200 m. Ozone depletion duration becomes independent of the height of the boundary layer for about β≥20, and it approaches a value of two days for β=100. The role of nitrogen and chlorine containing species on the ozone depletion rate is studied. The calculation of the time integrated bromine and chlorine atom concentrations suggests a value in the order of 103 for the [Br] / [Cl] ratio, which reveals that atomic chlorine radicals have minor direct influence on the ozone depletion. The NOx concentrations are influenced by different chemical cycles over different time periods. During ozone depletion, the reaction cycle involving the BrONO2 hydrolysis is dominant. A critical value of 0.002 of the uptake coefficient of the BrONO2 hydrolysis reaction at the aerosol and saline surfaces is identified, beyond which the existence of NOx species

  2. 77 FR 53236 - Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion... International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion Plant (INIS) in Lea County, New Mexico. On December 30, 2009, International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc. (IIFP), a...

  3. Evidence of localized resource depletion following a natural colonization event by a large marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Carey E; Baker, Jason D; Towell, Rodney G; Ream, Rolf R

    2014-09-01

    For central place foragers, forming colonies can lead to extensive competition for prey around breeding areas and a zone of local prey depletion. As populations grow, this area of reduced prey can expand impacting foraging success and forcing animals to alter foraging behaviour. Here, we examine a population of marine predators, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), which colonized a recently formed volcanic island, and assess changes in foraging behaviour associated with increasing population density. Specifically, we measured pup production and adult foraging behaviour over a 15-year period, during which the population increased 4-fold. Using measures of at-sea movements and dive behaviour, we found clear evidence that as the population expanded, animals were required to allot increasing effort to obtain resources. These changes in behaviour included longer duration foraging trips, farther distances travelled, a larger foraging range surrounding the island and deeper maximum dives. Our results suggest that as the northern fur seal population increased, local prey resources were depleted as a result of increased intraspecific competition. In addition, the recent slowing of population growth indicates that this population may be approaching carrying capacity just 31 years after a natural colonization event. Our study offers insight into the dynamics of population growth and impacts of increasing population density on a large marine predator. Such data could be vital for understanding future population fluctuations that occur in response to the dynamic environment, as natural and anthropogenic factors continue to modify marine habitats. PMID:24450364

  4. Emptiness and depletion formation probability in spin models with inverse square interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the Emptiness Formation Probability (EFP) in the spin-Calogero Model (sCM) and Haldane-Shastry Model (HSM) using their hydrodynamic description. The EFP is the probability that a region of space is completely void of particles in the ground state of a quantum many body system. We calculate this probability in an instanton approach, by considering the more general problem of an arbitrary depletion of particles (DFP). In the limit of large size of depletion region the probability is dominated by a classical configuration in imaginary time that satisfies a set of boundary conditions and the action calculated on such solution gives the EFP/DFP with exponential accuracy. We show that the calculation for sCM can be elegantly performed by representing the gradientless hydrodynamics of spin particles as a sum of two spin-less Calogero collective field theories in auxiliary variables. Interestingly, the result we find for the EFP can be casted in a form reminiscing of spin-charge separation, which should be violated for a non-linear effect such as this. We also highlight the connections between sCM, HSM and λ=2 spin-less Calogero model from a EFP/DFP perspective.

  5. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: → Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 μg/L. → Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. → DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 μg DU/L. → The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  6. Depletion induced isotropic-isotropic phase separation in suspensions of rod-like colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, S; Tuinier, R; Binder, K; Schilling, T

    2007-12-28

    When non-adsorbing polymers are added to an isotropic suspension of rod-like colloids, the colloids effectively attract each other via depletion forces. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the phase diagram of such rod-polymer mixture. The colloidal rods were modeled as hard spherocylinders; the polymers were described as spheres of the same diameter as the rods. The polymers may overlap with no energy cost, while the overlap of polymers and rods is forbidden. Large amounts of depletant cause phase separation of the mixture. We estimated the phase boundaries of isotropic-isotropic coexistence both in the bulk and in confinement. To determine the phase boundaries we applied the grand canonical ensemble using successive umbrella sampling [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10925 (2004)], and we performed a finite size scaling analysis to estimate the location of the critical point. The results are compared with predictions of the free volume theory developed by Lekkerkerker and Stroobants [Nuovo Cimento D 16, 949 (1994)]. We also give estimates for the interfacial tension between the coexisting isotropic phases and analyze its power-law behavior on the approach of the critical point. PMID:18163708

  7. Biological effects of embedded depleted uranium (DU). Summary of Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Persian Gulf War resulted in injuries of US Coalition personnel by fragments of depleted uranium (DU). Fragments not immediately threatening the health of the individuals were allowed to remain in place, based on long-standing treatment protocols designed for other kinds of metal shrapnel injuries. However, questions were soon raised as to whether this approach is appropriate for a metal with the unique radiological and toxicological properties of DU. The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is investigating health effects of embedded fragments of DU to determine whether current surgical fragment removal policies remain appropriate for this metal. These studies employ rodents implanted with DU pellets as well as cultured human cells exposed to DU compounds. Results indicate uranium from implanted DU fragments distributed to tissues far-removed from implantation sites, including bone, kidney, muscle, and liver. Despite levels of uranium in the kidney that were nephrotoxic after acute exposure, no histological or functional kidney toxicity was observed. However, results suggest the need for further studies of long-term health impact, since DU was found to be mutagenic, and it transformed human osteoblast cells to a tumorigenic phenotype. It also altered neurophysiological parameters in rat hippocampus, crossed the placental barrier, and entered fetal tissue. This report summarizes AFRRI's depleted uranium research to date

  8. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Palluel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.palluel@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.porcher@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.f [Universite de Lyon, INRA, EFPA-SA, Environmental Science Laboratory (LSE), ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 {mu}g/L. Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 {mu}g DU/L. The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  9. Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S R; Solomon, K R; Tang, X

    2007-03-01

    It is well-understood that reductions in air quality play a significant role in both environmental and human health. Interactions between ozone depletion and global climate change will significantly alter atmospheric chemistry which, in turn, will cause changes in concentrations of natural and human-made gases and aerosols. Models predict that tropospheric ozone near the surface will increase globally by up to 10 to 30 ppbv (33 to 100% increase) during the period 2000 to 2100. With the increase in the amount of the stratospheric ozone, increased transport from the stratosphere to the troposphere will result in different responses in polluted and unpolluted areas. In contrast, global changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) are not predicted to be large, except where influenced by the presence of oxidizable organic matter, such as from large-scale forest fires. Recent measurements in a relatively clean location over 5 years showed that OH concentrations can be predicted by the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation. If this relationship is confirmed by further observations, this approach could be used to simplify assessments of air quality. Analysis of surface-level ozone observations in Antarctica suggests that there has been a significant change in the chemistry of the boundary layer of the atmosphere in this region as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. The oxidation potential of the Antarctic boundary layer is estimated to be greater now than before the development of the ozone hole. Recent modeling studies have suggested that iodine and iodine-containing substances from natural sources, such as the ocean, may increase stratospheric ozone depletion significantly in polar regions during spring. Given the uncertainty of the fate of iodine in the stratosphere, the results may also be relevant for stratospheric ozone depletion and measurements of the influence of these substances on ozone depletion should be considered in the future. In agreement with

  10. Fighting self-control failure: overcoming ego depletion by increasing self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Alberts, Hugo J. E. M.; Martijn, Carolien; de Vries, Nanne K

    2010-01-01

    International audience According to the limited strength model (Muraven, Tice, & Baumeister, 1998), exerting self-control causes ego depletion: a depletion of cognitive resources resulting in poorer performance on later self-control tasks. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive effect of self-awareness on self-control performance. The present study examined whether the occurrence of ego depletion can be circumvented by increasing self-awareness. Initially depleted participants who r...

  11. The consequences and hazards of depleted uranium weapons used by US army since gulf war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Military equipment and development of depleted uranium weapon in USA, the depleted uranium weapon used in gulf war by USA army, personnel irradiation in the gulf war, and the protection in the gulf war are introduced. The radioactivity, radioactive characteristics, chemical toxicity and hazard of the depleted uranium are also introduced

  12. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF6. The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed

  13. Cholesterol depletion disorganizes oocyte membrane rafts altering mouse fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Drastic membrane reorganization occurs when mammalian sperm binds to and fuses with the oocyte membrane. Two oocyte protein families are essential for fertilization, tetraspanins and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. The firsts are associated to tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and the seconds to lipid rafts. Here we report membrane raft involvement in mouse fertilization assessed by cholesterol modulation using methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Cholesterol removal induced: (1 a decrease of the fertilization rate and index; and (2 a delay in the extrusion of the second polar body. Cholesterol repletion recovered the fertilization ability of cholesterol-depleted oocytes, indicating reversibility of these effects. In vivo time-lapse analyses using fluorescent cholesterol permitted to identify the time-point at which the probe is mainly located at the plasma membrane enabling the estimation of the extent of the cholesterol depletion. We confirmed that the mouse oocyte is rich in rafts according to the presence of the raft marker lipid, ganglioside GM1 on the membrane of living oocytes and we identified the coexistence of two types of microdomains, planar rafts and caveolae-like structures, by terms of two differential rafts markers, flotillin-2 and caveolin-1, respectively. Moreover, this is the first report that shows characteristic caveolae-like invaginations in the mouse oocyte identified by electron microscopy. Raft disruption by cholesterol depletion disturbed the subcellular localization of the signal molecule c-Src and the inhibition of Src kinase proteins prevented second polar body extrusion, consistent with a role of Src-related kinases in fertilization via signaling complexes. Our data highlight the functional importance of intact membrane rafts for mouse fertilization and its dependence on cholesterol.

  14. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression

  15. L-Tryptophan depletion bioreactor, a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer therapeutic strategies knownto date are not adequate for all cancer patients. Most of them are followed by a high rate of side effects and complications. The L-tryptophan depletion bioreactor is described as a possible new method of cancer therapy. L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid which has been recognized as an important cancer nutrient and its removal can lead to destruction of the tumour. Normal human cells or tumor cells cannot synthesize L-tryptophan and therefore tumor resistance is unlikely to develop. L-tryptophan is also a constituent for different bio-molecules such as Serotonin, Melatonin, and is needed for other synthesis processes in the cell growth. L-tryptophan degrading enzymes with 3 iso-enzymes called tryptophan side chain oxydase (TSO I, II, III were isolated. The 3 iso-enzymes can be differentiated by tryptic digestion. They have different molecular weights with different effectivenesses. All the TSO enzymes have heme that can catalyze essentially similar reactions involving L-tryptophan as a substrate. The most effective TSO is the type TSO III. A column which contained TSO as a bioreactor was integrated in a plasmapheresis unit and tested it in different animals. In sheep and rabbits L-tryptophan depletion in plasma was shown at 95% and 100% rates respectively by a single pass through the bioreactor. The results in immune supprimized rats with tumors were impressive, too. In 20 different tumor cell lines there were different efficacies. Brest cancer and medulloblastoma showed the greatest efficacy of L-tryptophan degrading. The gene technology of TSO production from Pseudomonas is associated with formation of endotoxins. This disadvantage can be prevented by different washing procedures or by using fungal sources for the TSO production. TSO III is developed to treat cancer diseases successfully, and has low side effects. A combination of L-tryptophan depletion with all available cancer therapies is

  16. Transient T cell depletion causes regression of melanoma metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lear Sheron C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognate immunity against neoplastic cells depends on a balance between effector T cells and regulatory T (Treg cells. Treg cells prevent immune attack against normal and neoplastic cells by directly suppressing the activation of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We postulated that a recombinant interleukin 2/diphtheria toxin conjugate (DAB/IL2; Denileukin Diftitox; Ontak may serve as a useful strategy to deplete Treg cells and break tolerance against neoplastic tumors in humans. Methods We administered DAB/IL2 (12 μg/kg; four daily doses; 21 day cycles to 16 patients with metastatic melanoma and measured the effects on the peripheral blood concentration of several T cell subsets and on tumor burden. Results We found that DAB/IL2 caused a transient depletion of Treg cells as well as total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (de novo appearance of melanoma antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in several patients as determined by flow cytometry using tetrameric MART-1, tyrosinase and gp100 peptide/MHC conjugates. Sixteen patients received at least one cycle of DAB/IL2 and five of these patients experienced regressions of melanoma metastases as measured by CT and/or PET imaging. One patient experienced a near complete response with the regression of several hepatic and pulmonary metastases coupled to the de novo appearance of MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells. A single metastatic tumor remained in this patient and, after surgical resection, immunohistochemical analysis revealed MART1+ melanoma cells surrounded by CD8+ T cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that transient depletion of T cells in cancer patients may disrupt the homeostatic control of cognate immunity and allow for the expansion of effector T cells with specificity against neoplastic cells. Several T cell depleting agents are clinically available and this study provides strong rationale for an examination of their efficacy in cancer patients. Trial registration NCT00299689

  17. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options)

  18. Effect of acrolein and glutathione depleting agents on thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrolein is a widespread environmental pollutant that reacts rapidly with nucleophiles, especially cellular thiols. In addition to glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) contain thiol groups and may react with electrophiles. In the present study, A549 cells treated with 5-25 μM acrolein for 30 min lost cellular Trx activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 90% of Trx activity was lost at concentrations of 25 μM or greater. In contrast, Trx protein content, as assessed by western blotting, was not altered immediately after the 30 min acrolein treatment. Both Trx activity and protein levels increased 4 h after the acrolein treatment. However, Trx activity remained below control levels at 24 h. A similar dose-response relationship was seen with TR in A549 cells exposed to acrolein. There was, however, a rapid recovery of TR activity such that it attained normal levels by 4 h after doses ≤75 μM acrolein. Diethyl maleate (DEM), a common but not highly specific, agent used to deplete GSH, also inactivated Trx. A 2 h exposure of A549 cells to 1 mM DEM depleted cellular GSH by ∼50% and diminished Trx activity by over 67%. Lower DEM doses (0.125 mM and 0.25 mM) for 1 h had no significant effect on GSH but significantly decreased Trx activity 12 and 23%, respectively. Similar to immediately after acrolein exposure, DEM did not affect Trx protein levels. A Trx-1-GFP fusion protein was transfected into A549 cells. While the fusion protein was expressed, the Trx component was inactive by the insulin reducing assay. In summary, Trx and TR are inactivated by acrolein. In addition, the GSH depleting agent DEM inactivates Trx somewhat more effectively than it depletes GSH. The Trx-1-GFP fusion protein, while readily expressed, appears to have little or no activity, perhaps because the small size of Trx-1 (12 kDa) is affected by the larger GFP

  19. Acid gelation of colloidal calcium phosphate-depleted preheated milk

    OpenAIRE

    Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Gauvin, Géraldine; Paquet, Denis; Brulé, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract – This study aimed at understanding the role of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in acid gelation of milk. Milks were depleted in Calcium (Ca) by dialysis against milk permeate containing a cation-exchange resin. Dialysed milks were then heated (90 °C-10 min) and acidgelled at 42 °C with a yoghurt culture. Minerals, total and soluble protein contents, pH and optical density were measured in unheated and heated dialysed milk, together with diameters and ζ-potentials of particles. Dia...

  20. Depleted-Uranium Weapons: the Whys and Wherefores

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform present-day tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10%, and it disappears when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform DU alloys, enabling the production of ...

  1. Upscaling of gas relative permeability during pressure depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Grepstad, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Pressure depletion of an oil reservoir will result in release of dissolved gas when the bubble point of the oil is reached in the reservoir. This liberated gas will segregate upwards in the reservoir with low mobility until a vertical flow barrier is met by the gas. Liberated gas will accumulate below this barrier and create thin "layers" with high gas saturation, where the mobility of gas becomes high. These thin layers with high mobility will result in a relatively quick production of the l...

  2. Serotonin 2A Receptors, Citalopram and Tryptophan-Depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca;

    2013-01-01

    neural correlates of inhibition using intravenous citalopram and acute tryptophan depletion during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We adapted the NoGo paradigm to isolate effects on inhibition per se as opposed to other aspects of the NoGo paradigm. Successful NoGo inhibition was associated with...... greater activation of the right IFG compared to control trials with alternative responses, indicating that the IFG is activated with inhibition in NoGo trials rather than other aspects of invoked cognitive control. Activation of the left IFG during NoGo trials was greater with citalopram than acute...

  3. Interstellar abundance and depletion studies along Galactic sightlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, U.; Murthy, Jayant; Sofia, Ulysses

    2016-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has enhanced our understanding many aspects of interstellar medium of our galaxy. The wavelength coverage of FUSE and HST is of great astrophysical importance. We use FUSE and HST data for interstellar abundances studies of some important atomic species, such as sulphur and silicon. We report the newly derived column densities by measuring the equivalent widths of several ultraviolet absorption lines. Comparisons of observed depletions and grain properties with existing dust models will be discussed.

  4. Relativistic nuclear physics: symmetry and the correlation depletion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's view on the role of symmetry in fundamental physics is presented. The concept of the 'symmetry of solutions' is analyzed. It is stressed that it is impossible to deduce the basic laws of relativistic nuclear physics from the QCD Lagrangians without recourse to additional hypotheses about the symmetry of solutions (Green functions). The test of these hypotheses is the major prospect of the study of hadron and nuclear collisions. Special importance is given to the Correlation Depletions Principle that makes it possible to construct mathematical models of relativistic nuclear physics, and analyze, by using simple terms, topologically complicated events of nucleus-nucleus collisions. 15 refs., 4 figs

  5. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture.

  6. Human Health Effects of Ozone Depletion From Stratospheric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents EPA's initial response to NASA's request to advise on potential environmental policy issues associated with the future development of supersonic flight technologies. Consistent with the scope of the study to which NASA and EPA agreed, EPA has evaluated only the environmental concerns related to the stratospheric ozone impacts of a hypothetical HSCT fleet, although recent research indicates that a fleet of HSCT is predicted to contribute to climate warming as well. This report also briefly describes the international and domestic institutional frameworks established to address stratospheric ozone depletion, as well as those established to control pollution from aircraft engine exhaust emissions.

  7. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  8. Depleting the curriculum: teaching digital platforms and curricular impoverishment

    OpenAIRE

    Fino, Carlos Manuel Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at showing how curricular complexity tends to be depleted by the use of digital platforms based on the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard, which was created with the main purpose of recycling content as it is supposed to be independent both from the context of learning and the supporting technology also deemed to be neutral, all surrounded by a rhetoric of innovation and “pedagogical” innovation. The starting point of the discussion is García Perez’s mo...

  9. Depletion effect of oxide semiconductor analyzed by Hall effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    This letter discusses the tunneling behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) analyzed through the observation of its Hall effects. The properties of the a-IGZO changed from those of a majority carrier to those of a minority carrier after the annealing process as a result of the electron-hole recombination due to the thermal activation energy and the formation of a depletion layer with a high-potential Schottky barrier. Therefore, the diffusion current of these minority charge carriers caused ambipolar transfer characteristics, a tunneling behavior, in the metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor. PMID:25971008

  10. Reducing the use of ozone depleting chemicals: The Irvine, California ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage of an ordinance in 1989 restricting the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODCs), including chlorofluorocarbons, in Irvine, California was hailed as an effective approach in hastening the repair of the earth's protective ozone layer. Administration of the ordinance has emphasized education and technical assistance over enforcement. Although some companies began reducing ODC use and emissions prior to passage of the ordinance, further reductions in use and a 36 percent reduction in emissions occurred in 1990, the year the ordinance went into effect. Critics of the ordinance contended that the City's action was premature, likely to have adverse consequences on local business, and unenforceable. Evidence is not available to indicate that substantial harm to business occurred. Irvine's experience demonstrates that it is possible for local governments to encourage greater reductions than would otherwise occur with national and international controls

  11. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.;

    2007-01-01

    -driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis......CD4(+) T cells, in activated or malignant form, are involved in a number of diseases including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, and T cell lymphomas such as the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Targeting CD4 with an antibody that inhibits and/or eliminates disease...... xenograft mouse model. Zanolimumab treatment was shown to induce a significant reduction in the numbers of inflammatory mononuclear cells in upper dermis. This reduction in inflammatory mononuclear cells in situ was primarily due to a significant reduction in the numbers of skin-infiltrating CD4(+), but not...

  12. High-Performance Layered DT Capsule Implosions in Depleted Uranium Hohlraums on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Tilo; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Benedetti, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Fittinghoff, D.; Haan, S.; Hinkel, D.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Izumi, N.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Pak, A.; Patel, P.; Robey, H.; Remington, B.; Salmonson, J.; Springer, P.; Widmann, K.; Merrill, F.; Wilde, C.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the first layered DT capsule implosions in depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums driven with a high-foot pulse shape. High-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to hydrodynamic instabilities. [Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. DU hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to 25 TW extra laser power at the peak of the drive compared to Au hohlraums. Additionally, we observe an improved implosion shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. As a result, these first high-foot DU experiments achieved total neutron yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Application of scale-4 depletion/criticality sequences in burnup credit analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of allowing reactivity credit for the transmuted state of spent fuel complicates the criticality analysis by requiring the specification of the fuel mixture to potentially include large numbers of isotopes representative of the fuel conditions. These conditions include the initial enrichment, local or average burnup conditions depending on the analysis approach, and the post-shutdown cooling time. In the development of an analysis methodology to evaluate spent fuel shipping and transport casks (flasks) based on this burnup credit, commercial reactor critical configurations were evaluated as potential experimental spent fuel criticals. This paper describes how the SCALE-4 depletion sequences (SAS2H), the cross-section processing sequence (CSASN), and the criticality module (KENO V.a) were used to evaluate these reactor criticals. A description of a newly developed sequence for linking SAS2H calculated burnup-dependent isotopics to KENO V.a mixing tables [SAS2H Nuclide Inventories for KENO Runs (SNIKR)] is also included

  14. Three-dimensional direct laser writing inspired by stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional direct laser writing has become a well established, versatile, widespread, and even readily commercially available "workhorse" of nano- and micro-technology. However, its lateral and axial spatial resolution is inherently governed by Abbe's diffraction limitation - analogous to optical microscopy. In microscopy, stimulated-emission-depletion approaches have lately circumvented Abbe's barrier and lateral resolutions down to 5.6 nm using visible light have been achieved. In this paper, after very briefly reviewing our previous efforts with respect to translating this success in optical microscopy to optical lithography, we present our latest results regarding resolution improvement in the lateral as well as in the much more relevant axial direction. The structures presented in this paper set a new resolution-benchmark for next-generation direct-laser-writing optical lithography. In particular, we break the lateral and the axial Abbe criterion for the first time.

  15. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  16. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies. PMID:27016940

  17. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial: Dominated deltaic reservoir. First quarterly technical progress report, Fiscal year 1994, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-15

    Production from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} project was initiated on December 6, 1993 after having been shut-in since the start of CO{sub 2} injection on September 22, 1993 to allow reservoir pressure to build. Rates were established at 236 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) from two wells in the 235 acre waterflood project area, which before project initiation had produced only 80 BOPD from the entire area. These wells are flowing large amounts of fluid due to the high reservoir pressure and their oil percentages are increasing as a result of the CO{sub 2} contacting the residual oil. One well, the H. J. Kuhn No. 15-R is flowing 217 BOPD, 1139 BWPD, and 2500 MCFPD of CO{sub 2} at a flowing tubing pressure (FTP) of 890 psi. The other producing well, the H. J. Kuhn No. 33, is currently flowing 19 BOPD, 614 BWPD, and 15 MCFPD at a FTP of 400 psi. Unexpectedly high rates of CO{sub 2} production are being made from Well No. 15-R and from the W. R. Stark ``B`` No. 8. This No. 8 well produced 7 BOPD, 697 BWPD, and 15 MCFPD prior to being shut-in during September to allow for the reservoir pressure to build by injecting CO{sub 2}, but when opened on December 6, the well flowed dry CO{sub 2} at a rate of 400 MCFPD for a two day test period. More sustained production tests will be obtained after all wells are tied into the new production facility. Many difficulties occurred in the drilling of the horizontal CO{sub 2} injection well but a successful completion across 2501 of sand has finally been accomplished. A formation dip of 11--14 degrees in the area where the well was being drilled made the proposed 1500{prime} horizontal sand section too difficult to accomplish. The shale section directly above the sand caused sticking problems on two separate occasions resulting in two sidetracks of the well around stuck pipe. The well will be tied into the facility and CO{sub 2} injection into the well will begin before February 1, 1994.

  18. Neutron spectra in thorium and depleted uranium-plutonium-loaded light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical feasibility of using plutonium mixed with natural uranium in one-third of the cores of light water reactors (LWRs) has been sufficiently demonstrated. A number of reactors in Europe are currently operated with one-third mixed-oxide cores. If the option of burning excess plutonium in conventional LWR reactors in this country is selected, it has been estimated that the long-term disposition of the excess plutonium would take many decades. This time can be significantly reduced if the plutonium is burned in a fast breeder reactor. However, in the present economic and political climate, such an approach is difficult to implement. On the other hand, if the neutron spectrum in an LWR core is hardened, the well-developed and well-understood LWR can accomplish the goal of effectively burning excess plutonium to convert to proliferation-resistive fuel such as 233U. The authors present some fundamental characteristics of thorium and depleted uranium-plutonium-fueled LWRs. High fuel burnup levels can be achieved by tightening the lattice of an LWR loaded with thorium and depleted uranium and plutonium (nitride or oxide) and increasing the plutonium content. The neutron spectrum in such a reactor is very hard and tends to approach that of a Na-cooled fast reactor. Instead of Zircaloy, stainless steel can be used as fuel cladding and structural material since it has a low fast neutron capture cross section. Supercritical steam, generated at high pressures, can be used as coolant. If the cladding and structural materials used in this reactor can withstand corrosion in water under high-irradiation conditions, high conversion ratios of thermal heat to electricity will be possible

  19. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Wang

    Full Text Available Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  20. Chromium depletion from stainless steels during vacuum annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of chromium during selective evaporation by high temperature vacuum annealing has been investigated by means of energy dispersive X-ray analysis and by neutron activation analysis. It was established that the rate of chromium loss from austenitic stainless steels 316 and 321 is controlled by chromium inter-diffusion rather than tracer diffusion in the alloy. Two important parameters in selective removal of chromium from alloy steels are the variation in the chromium surface concentration with time and the depletion profile in the alloy. The present work gives support for the model in which loss of chromium is dependent on its diffusivity in the alloy and on an interface transfer coefficient. The results showed that the surface concentration of chromium decreased with increasing vacuum annealing time. The chromium depletion profile in the metal was in accord with the previous derived model, apart from an anomalous near surface region. Here the higher resolution of a neutron activation technique indicated a region within approximately 2 microns of the surface where the chromium concentration decreased more steeply than expected. (author)