WorldWideScience

Sample records for approaches current status

  1. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  2. Implementation of the RCM approach at EDF NPPs: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure safest possible operation and to get best overall economic performance of its Nuclear Power Plants, 10 years ago Electricite de France launched a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project to optimize the preventive maintenance programs. The principles underlying the RCM approach are based on common sense: failures must be prevented by preventive maintenance operations in all cases when the repercussions for the installation could be serious or critical in term of safety, availability or maintenance costs. The approach is a 3-phases process: 1. Evaluation of the functional consequences of failures 2. Evaluation of performances based on the analysis of experience feedback 3. Optimization of the preventive maintenance tasks The new preventive maintenance programs are presently almost completed and progressively implemented. Here and now, the implementation of the RCM approach allows to emphasize some benefits: 1. Same or increased level of safety 2. Same or increased level of plant availability 3. ALARA principles better taken into account 4. Cost control 5. Positive change in maintenance culture. Some new studies are in progress, such as the development of a 'Risk Based In Service Inspection' for passive components. (author)

  3. Review of Current Status and Research Approaches to Nitrogen Pollution in Farmlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Sheng-wei; GAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Yuan-quan; SUI Peng; A Egrinya Eneji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the history, current status, and research approaches to nitrogen pollution were reviewed using systems analysis and deductions. The seriousness of N pollution world-wide was highlighted and recommendations were made to address the situation. A new hypothesis based on phytoremediation, which means the use of plants to directly or indirectly degrade or remove contaminats from soil and water, was proposed.

  4. Current status and perspectives of neurobehavioral approaches in guideline—oriented animal testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TakaH

    2002-01-01

    This presentation aims to overview the current status and perspective of behavioral approaches used in guideline-oriented toxicological studies for agricultural chemicals.Guidelines revised recently (MAFF,OECD,EPA) require sytematic observation of non-learning behavior using defined scales.The observational endpoints are organized into a battery (e.g.functional observational battery,FOB) and inculde home-cage and open-field observation of behavior reactivity to various stimuli(e.g.auditory,tactile,visual),grip strength,and motor activity under a novel environment.The outline of FOB will be illustrated and discussed in the first half of the presentation.One social concern in neurotoxicology is the impact of chemical exposure on cnognitive functions such as learning and memory as well as non-learning behavior.Guidelines describe the necessity of learning and memory tests when other data suggest potential effects on brain function,even though little information regarding cognitive status other than brain pathology can be obtained with FOB.This discrepancy arises from the lack of a simple method compatible with regular studies.One candidate method is fear-induced freezing of rats conditioned to context and auditory cue(Kim & Fanselow,1992).In order to evaluate this paradigm as a screening method,the effects of trimethyltin chloride (TMT) have been studied.Prior to the study,it has been characterized that oral administration of TMT to rats produces excitatory clinical signs and massive neural cell death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions at lethal dose(8mg·kg-1),but not any abnormalities at sub-lethal doses (4mg·kg-1 or less).Oral administration of TMT at a sub-lethal dose produced a significant decrease in freezing time to the context (hippocampal-dependent measure),but not to the auditory cue.Administration of TMT at a sublethal dose significantly inhibited long-term potentiation in the CA1,but not in the dentate gyrus.These results suggest that the model can be

  5. A Critical Analysis of Approaches To Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldner, Matthew T.; Monson, Candice M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Although efforts to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have met with relatively limited success, theoretically driven preventive approaches with promising efficacy are emerging. The current article critically reviews investigations of PTSD prevention programs that target persons at risk for being exposed to a traumatic event or who have…

  6. Teleradiology - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tele-radiology is a term becoming increasingly popular in the medical literature. Nevertheless, terminological definitions in this particular field are still rather vague. The scope of applications extend from simple image presenting via analogue telephone lines to transmission of 3-D medical images through a satellite. It is a matter of standards highly differing in terms of data transmission rates, safety, technical demands on the systems and the like. In this article new information technologies, technical aspects, as well as some major applications of tele-radiology are discussed. The current status of tele-medicine/tele-radiology in this country is likewise briefly outlined

  7. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  8. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale-dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2014-01-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients $\\beta_i$ of the QCD $\\beta$-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all $\\beta_i$-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules $C^{\\rm Bjp}_{\\rm NS}(a_s)$ the $\\beta_i$-dependent...

  9. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale- dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients βi of the QCD β-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all βi-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules CBjpNS (as) the βi-dependent structure of the NNLO approximation for CBjpNS (as) is predicted in QCD with ngl-multiplet of gluino degrees of freedom, which appear in SUSY extension of QCD. The importance of performing the analytical calculation of the N3LO additional contributions of ngl gluino multiplet to CBjpNS (as) for checking the presented in the report NNLO prediction and for the studies of the possibility to determine the discussed β-expansion pattern of this sum rule at the O(a4s)-level is emphasised.

  10. Applying quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: Current status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure–toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure–toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes

  11. Applying quantitative structure-activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: current status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David A; Mombelli, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Tran, Lang; Worth, Andrew; Fadeel, Bengt; McCall, Maxine J

    2013-11-01

    The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure-toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure-toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes. PMID:23165187

  12. Pharmacological approaches to improving cognitive function in Down syndrome: current status and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner KJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Katheleen J Gardiner Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Human Medical Genetics and Genomics Program, Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Down syndrome (DS, also known as trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID. Although ID can be mild, the average intelligence quotient is in the range of 40–50. All individuals with DS will also develop the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by the age of 30–40 years, and approximately half will display an AD-like dementia by the age of 60 years. DS is caused by an extra copy of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 and the consequent elevated levels of expression, due to dosage, of trisomic genes. Despite a worldwide incidence of one in 700–1,000 live births, there are currently no pharmacological treatments available for ID or AD in DS. However, over the last several years, very promising results have been obtained with a mouse model of DS, the Ts65Dn. A diverse array of drugs has been shown to rescue, or partially rescue, DS-relevant deficits in learning and memory and abnormalities in cellular and electrophysiological features seen in the Ts65Dn. These results suggest that some level of amelioration or prevention of cognitive deficits in people with DS may be possible. Here, we review information from the preclinical evaluations in the Ts65Dn, how drugs were selected, how efficacy was judged, and how outcomes differ, or not, among studies. We also summarize the current state of human clinical trials for ID and AD in DS. Lastly, we describe the genetic limitations of the Ts65Dn as a model of DS, and in the preclinical testing of pharmacotherapeutics, and suggest additional targets to be considered for potential pharmacotherapies. Keywords: Ts65Dn, pharmacotherapy, clinical trials, Hsa21

  13. Current status and approaches to developing press-coated chronodelivery drug systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2012-02-10

    recent challenges for the press coating technique. We also provide a brief overview of press-coating approaches intended for chronotherapy. PMID:21968338

  14. [Overwork and its health effects--current status and future approach regarding Karoshi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu

    2003-09-01

    The word karoshi, i.e. death due to overwork, is not defined for medical diagnosis, but in Japan it means cases of compensation awarded by reason of fatal occupational diseases, particularly ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases which are recognized as caused by a heavy workload. Current studies have shown that 1) almost definitely there is evidence of an association between overwork and cardiovascular diseases and the risk factors were found, 2) no reports have been published on evidence of a causal relationship between overwork and fatal effects even though the possibility remains, and 3) the adverse health effects can vary according to workers' characteristics such as gender, age, stress coping and perception. Recently there has been an increase in the proportion of compensated cases versus claims from 3.1% in the 1988 fiscal year to 20.7% in the 2001 fiscal year. This may be related to the deregulation of criteria for compensation, or nintei-kijun. The period of determination of overwork for victims has been extended to a maximum of six months in the newest criteria set in 2001, up from only one week in the criteria set in 1987. According to sociological analysis, long working hours in Japan are related not only to the structure of the working-time system but also the sociocultural background of labor. In 2002, the Japanese government provided the first countermeasures for the prevention of karoshi for all employees stating that they should not work more than 45 h overtime per month and that government intervention in the form of administrative guidance to employees and their employers should be conducted if overtime exceeds 100 h per month. It is a population strategy targeting all workers equally, not just a high-risk strategy targeting only those with some risk factors, and is expected to provide more fruitful results with flexibility, i.e. differentially reinforced management for older workers and those working under highly stressful

  15. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online. PMID:25143877

  16. The bivariate current status model

    OpenAIRE

    Groeneboom, P.

    2013-01-01

    For the univariate current status and, more generally, the interval censoring model, distribution theory has been developed for the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and smoothed maximum likelihood estimator (SMLE) of the unknown distribution function, see, e.g., [12], [7], [4], [5], [6], [10], [11] and [8]. For the bivariate current status and interval censoring models distribution theory of this type is still absent and even the rate at which we can expect reasonable estimators to converge...

  17. Current Status of Graphene Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemme, Max. C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of graphene transistors as potential supplement to silicon CMOS technology. A short overview of graphene manufacturing and metrology methods is followed by an introduction of macroscopic graphene field effect transistors (FETs). The absence of an energy band gap is shown to result in severe shortcomings for logic applications. Possibilities to engineer a band gap in graphene FETs including quantum confinement in graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs) and electricall...

  18. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  19. Deep brain stimulation: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, applications of deep brain stimulation (DBS have expanded rapidly in the field of neurosciences. The most common indications for DBS are Parkinson′s disease, medically refractory seizures, essential tremors, and primary dystonia. This device has also been used as an investigational tool in patients having Tourette′s syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and refractory seizures. In the field of psychiatry, DBS has been used for the treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder and depression. The complications are mainly related to surgery, the device, and its stimulation. This article provides an overview of the current status and recent advances in the field of DBS.

  20. The OPERA experiment: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The neutrino flavour oscillations hypothesis has been confirmed by several experiments, all are based on the observation of the disappearance of a given neutrino flavour. The long baseline neutrino experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) aims to give the first direct proof of the tau neutrino appearance in a pure muon neutrino beam (CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam). The neutrino interactions in the detector are recorded by Emulsion Cloud Chambers (ECC), stacks of 57 nuclear emulsions interleaved with 1 mm thick lead plates. In 2008 the OPERA experiment has started full data taking in the CNGS beam and around 1700 interactions in the detector have been recorded. After a description of the experiment and the data taking procedure, a review of the current status and preliminary results from 2008 run will be presented. (author)

  1. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  2. Current status of transarterial radioembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, Andreas H

    2016-05-28

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: (90)Y-resin and (90)Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease. PMID:27247711

  3. Current status of converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasialasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of modern converter steelmaking and related with the evaluation of converter technology applied during the last decades and further to the future. The history of steelmaking has been briefly reviewed from bloomeries and early-steelmaking processes to the progress of modern converter process. The pneumatic converter processes were developed in the 1850`s and thereafter the basis for the rapid growth of steel industries was established for the next 100 years. The world production of steel has not continuously grown but fluctuating quite much. It reached 723 Mt in 1994. The production is believed to grow the forecast for the year 2003 being approximately 800 Mt. Electric arc furnace production is estimated to reach 280 Mt by 2003, and BOFIOH will reach 520 Mt by 2003. The current status of the converter steelmaking process is briefly described both on its theoretical bases and practical technological progresses. Developments which significantly improve the process are briefly discussed. Several more recent developments such as combined oxygen blowing process, increased scrap melting, post combustion and hot metal pretreatment are discussed. The future progress will be in further development of these process characteristics as well as in eventual emerging of the continuous converter process. (author)

  4. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-01

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  5. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  6. Current status of diuretic renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous antegrade perfusion studies constitute a valuable contribution to the investigation of obstructive uropathy. In 1978, the first report of application of diuretic renogram techniques to this problem appeared in the literature. This was the first systematic report of a standardized protocol to be applied to a specific surgical problem. The purpose of the procedure, as with perfusion pressure-flow studies, is to help distinguish between a dilated urinary tract that is obstructed and requires surgery and a nonobstructed system in which urographic dilation and stasis mimic obstruction, but no genuine impedance to urine flow exists, and surgery is not required. The technique provides dual information. It gives quantitative data on individual renal function that perfusion pressure-flow studies do not, and it gives time-activity curves reflecting the urodynamics through the individual upper urinary tracts at normal and high urinary flow rates. In the early days, this information was obtained from probe studies, but the procedure is now almost exclusively performed using the gamma camera, images from which give additional information on the site of any suspected obstruction. In some ways, the development of diuretic renography and that of perfusion pressure-flow studies have proceeded in a competitive fashion, both attempting to answer the same questions by different means. In practice, however, the two tests would be regarded as complementary, as will be shown later in this chapter. The following sections describe the technique of diuretic renography, its current clinical application and status in surgical and nuclear medicine practice, and its role in comparison with other available tests for management of the dilated upper urinary tract

  7. Tumor radiosensitizers - current status of development of various approaches: Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert; Bohm, Lothar; Margison, Geoffrey P.;

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those well-established in clinical practice, that operated through a variety of mechanisms to sensitize tumors to radiation and (2) to compare and...... contrast their tumor efficacy, normal tissue toxicity, and status of development regarding clinical application. The aim was to advise the IAEA as to which developing agent or class of agents would be worth promoting further, by supporting additional laboratory research or clinical trials, with the...... for clinical trials that would be suitable for industrialized countries, as well as trials that were considered more appropriate for developing countries.PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents...

  8. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  9. Tumor radiosensitizers-current status of development of various approaches: Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those well-established in clinical practice, that operated through a variety of mechanisms to sensitize tumors to radiation and (2) to compare and contrast their tumor efficacy, normal tissue toxicity, and status of development regarding clinical application. The aim was to advise the IAEA as to which developing agent or class of agents would be worth promoting further, by supporting additional laboratory research or clinical trials, with the eventual goal of improving cancer control rates using radiotherapy, in developing countries in particular. Results: The agents under discussion included a wide, but not complete, range of different types of drugs, and antibodies that interfered with molecules in cell signaling pathways. These were contrasted with new molecular antisense and gene therapy strategies. All the drugs discussed have previously been shown to act as tumor cell radiosensitizers or to kill hypoxic cells present in tumors. Conclusion: Specific recommendations were made for more preclinical studies with certain of the agents and for clinical trials that would be suitable for industrialized countries, as well as trials that were considered more appropriate for developing countries

  10. Current status and challenges of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear nonproliferation. Exploring various approaches for establishing new frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of six chapters such as 1) current status of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear nonproliferation, 2) exploring various approaches for establishing new frameworks, 3) the effects of nuclear experiment in India and the nuclear nonproliferation policy of Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States, about 30 years ago, 4) comparison of conditions between now and 30 years ago, 5) consideration points for new frameworks, and 6) summary. It is explained the problems of nuclear diffusion in India, Pakistan, Israel, North Korea, Iran, Iraq, Libya, South Africa, Brazil and Argentina. The fifth chapter contained six points: 1) limit of the sovereignty of state, 2) a useful step for Iran and North Korea, 3) decision-making methods, 4) problems of equality and inequality, 5) safeguards and nuclear security, and 6) nuclear nonproliferation of USA. (S.Y.)

  11. Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Mammography Using Content-Based Image Retrieval Approaches: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As the rapid advance of digital imaging technologies, the content-based image retrieval (CBIR has became one of the most vivid research areas in computer vision. In the last several years, developing computer-aided detection and/or diagnosis (CAD schemes that use CBIR to search for the clinically relevant and visually similar medical images (or regions depicting suspicious lesions has also been attracting research interest. CBIR-based CAD schemes have potential to provide radiologists with “visual aid” and increase their confidence in accepting CAD-cued results in the decision making. The CAD performance and reliability depends on a number of factors including the optimization of lesion segmentation, feature selection, reference database size, computational efficiency, and relationship between the clinical relevance and visual similarity of the CAD results. By presenting and comparing a number of approaches commonly used in previous studies, this article identifies and discusses the optimal approaches in developing CBIR-based CAD schemes and assessing their performance. Although preliminary studies have suggested that using CBIR-based CAD schemes might improve radiologists’ performance and/or increase their confidence in the decision making, this technology is still in the early development stage. Much research work is needed before the CBIR-based CAD schemes can be accepted in the clinical practice.

  12. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  13. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between ammonia stomatal compensation point and nitrogen metabolism in arable crops: Current status of knowledge and potential modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massad, Raia Silvia [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: massad@grignon.inra.fr; Loubet, Benjamin; Tuzet, Andree; Cellier, Pierre [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2008-08-15

    The ammonia stomatal compensation point of plants is determined by leaf temperature, ammonium concentration ([NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}) and pH of the apoplastic solution. The later two depend on the adjacent cells metabolism and on leaf inputs and outputs through the xylem and phloem. Until now only empirical models have been designed to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point, except the model of Riedo et al. (2002. Coupling soil-plant-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Ecological Modelling 158, 83-110), which represents the exchanges between the plant's nitrogen pools. The first step to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point is to adequately model [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}. This [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo} has been studied experimentally, but there are currently no process-based quantitative models describing its relation to plant metabolism and environmental conditions. This study summarizes the processes involved in determining the ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf scale and qualitatively evaluates the ability of existing whole plant N and C models to include a model for [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}. - A model for ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf level scale was developed.

  15. Relationship between ammonia stomatal compensation point and nitrogen metabolism in arable crops: Current status of knowledge and potential modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ammonia stomatal compensation point of plants is determined by leaf temperature, ammonium concentration ([NH4+]apo) and pH of the apoplastic solution. The later two depend on the adjacent cells metabolism and on leaf inputs and outputs through the xylem and phloem. Until now only empirical models have been designed to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point, except the model of Riedo et al. (2002. Coupling soil-plant-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Ecological Modelling 158, 83-110), which represents the exchanges between the plant's nitrogen pools. The first step to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point is to adequately model [NH4+]apo. This [NH4+]apo has been studied experimentally, but there are currently no process-based quantitative models describing its relation to plant metabolism and environmental conditions. This study summarizes the processes involved in determining the ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf scale and qualitatively evaluates the ability of existing whole plant N and C models to include a model for [NH4+]apo. - A model for ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf level scale was developed

  16. [Barodontology: current status. Dental aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, J M; Aguado, A; Romero, M A; Jimenez, A; Mombiedro, R; Ortiz, S

    1990-11-01

    We present a comprehensive review of barodontalgia, with reference to the several pathogenetic hypotheses, and insisting on the consideration of barodontalgia in the differential diagnosis of toothache. The odontologists approach to this increasing clinical problem is also discussed. PMID:2073442

  17. Status of current IPH applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a series of field tests since 1977 to gain operational experience in the application of solar energy to industrial process heat requirements. To date, 34 design studies or actual installations have been funded utilizing technologies ranging from flat plates to line-focus concentrators to central receiver industrial systems. The types of solar systems include hot air, hot water, and steam production applied to a broad spectrum of industrial processes. The program elements are identified and put in perspective relative to transport fluid, temperature level, and size of the solar field. The status of these programs ranges from design studies to operational systems. Solar enhanced oil recovery and repowering have been studied. The chronological history of each program is tabulated. (LEW)

  18. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed. PMID:19819318

  19. Current status of RENO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is completed in February of 2011, to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle θ13. Data-taking is expected to start from july 2011 after all the liquids are filled. It will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the centre of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 1280 and 115 per day in the near and far detectors, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.5%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin 22θ13 down to 0.02 in the 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, we report completion of detector construction and the status of liquid scintillator production.

  20. Current Status of RENO Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle θ13. The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin2(2θ13) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

  1. The Current Status of Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joe; Mamon, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

  2. Current status of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital imaging performance is limited primarily by the components constituting the imaging chain and by fundamental physical constraints implicit with X-ray transmission imaging. Undue attention too often is focused on the image processing gymnastics of which a particular system is capable. The greatest improvements in digital imaging performance will be affected either by improvements in the imaging chain or by a fundamentally different imaging approach. The author discusses the development of digital subtraction angiography. (Auth.)

  3. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  4. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

    2014-12-01

    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

  5. PET/CT - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From autoradiography to planar X rays, computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR), morphology and structure has been the mainstay of biological and medical imaging for over a century. While structural changes may suggest the presence of disease, functional changes are more sensitive indicators of early-stage pathology, and with cancer, early detection is the key to a favorable prognosis. Since molecular imaging offers the potential to quantitatively image functional changes in vivo, it is assuming an increasingly important role in the identification, staging and re-staging of human disease. Specifically, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are sensitive techniques to map human physiology non-invasively through the use of high-resolution imaging devices and appropriate radioactively-labeled biomarkers. However, such metabolic maps do not offer the structural detail associated with anatomical imaging techniques such as CT and MR and therefore dual modality devices such as PET/CT, SPECT/CT or PET/MR that combine both structural and functional information offer a more complete and accurate assessment of the status of disease. PET/CT instrumentation, for example, was first introduced into the clinic in 2001 and since then, progress has been rapid. Technological advances in each modality, CT and PET, have been consistently incorporated into the combined device ensuring state-of-the-art performance for PET/CT. Recent advances in CT include an increase in the number of detector rows or slices (from 1 to 64), a reduction in rotation times (to less than 0.5 s), and the emergence of the first CT scanner incorporating dual X ray sources. Paralleling these advances, PET instrumentation has witnessed the introduction of new faster scintillators, higher resolution detectors, increased sensitivity through extended axial coverage, and the resurgence of time-of-flight information to improve image signal-to-noise. A

  6. Current Research Status of Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JUNAEDI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of allelopathy refers to chemical interactions (inhibitory or stimulatory between plants, between plants and microorganisms, and between microorganisms. The wealth of information on the processes, procedures, and practices of allelopathy has contributed to understanding this field of science. Recently, researches of allelopathy have been conducted in laboratory, greenhouse, and field with multifaceted standpoint in some concerning area: (i allelochemicals identifications and screening test; (ii ecological and physiological aspects of allelopathy; (iii genetic studies and the possibilities of using plant breeding or genetic manipulation to enhance allelopathic varieties; (iv the use of allelopathic potential in the biological control, including as natural pesticide, of weeds and plant diseases as eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture scheme.

  7. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  8. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials.

  9. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  10. Current status of the AUSTRON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the AUSTRON spallation source project is described with reference to the need for neutrons in Europe and - due to a certain West-East imbalance of large research facilities - especially in Central Europe. A short overview about technical aspects of proton accelerator, rapid cycling synchrotron, storage ring, target and instrumentation is presented. (author)

  11. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  12. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...... of international providers of ATM in Europe are presented....

  13. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  14. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand, the current status of a new research reactor project at Ongkarak for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future as well as the organizational reformation of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). (author)

  15. Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Chip; Colvin, Alexander; Pearson, David; Pikalo, Oleksiy; Schlafer, John; Yeh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, which became fully operational in BBN's laboratory in October 2003, and has been continuously running in 6 nodes operating through telecommunications fiber between Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN since June 2004. The DARPA Quantum Network is the world's first quantum cryptography network, and perhaps also the first QKD systems providing continuous operation across a metropolitan area. Four more nodes are now be...

  16. Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, C; Pearson, D; Pikalo, O; Schlafer, J; Yeh, H; Elliott, Chip; Colvin, Alexander; Pearson, David; Pikalo, Oleksiy; Schlafer, John; Yeh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, which became fully operational in BBN's laboratory in October 2003, and has been continuously running in 6 nodes operating through telecommunications fiber between Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN since June 2004. The DARPA Quantum Network is the world's first quantum cryptography network, and perhaps also the first QKD systems providing continuous operation across a metropolitan area. Four more nodes are now being added to bring the total to 10 QKD nodes. This network supports a variety of QKD technologies, including phase-modulated lasers through fiber, entanglement through fiber, and freespace QKD. We provide a basic introduction and rational for this network, discuss the February 2005 status of the various QKD hardware suites and software systems in the network, and describe our operational experience with the DARPA Quantum Network to date. We conclude with a discussion of our ongoing work.

  17. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2016-01-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...

  18. Current status and installation of dental PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

  19. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bertulani, C.A.; Hussein, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the World. For this purpose we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last 9 decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data become available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such a...

  20. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampornrat, Pantip [Nuclear Material Sciences Section, Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-10-01

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  1. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jeremiah P Ostriker; Tarun Souradeep

    2004-10-01

    Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the past decade. Observations of the large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies, high red-shift supernova, have provided the required complementary information. We review the current status of cosmological parameter estimates from joint analysis of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) data. We also sound a note of caution on overstating the successes achieved thus far.

  2. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  3. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  4. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Karanikas, Michael; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Zervas, Vasilis; Kouroumichakis, Ioannis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Tsimogiannis, Konstantinos E

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%-15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one. PMID:22247619

  5. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  6. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research

  7. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the range of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need for restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research

  8. Current status of NDC fuel hot laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Youichirou; Matsuoka, Takanori; Shiraishi, Satoshi [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugano, Mitsuteru

    1999-09-01

    Nuclear Development Corporation (NDC) fuel hot laboratory was established to investigate the causes for leaked rods and to confirm the integrity of the precedence irradiation fuels, in 1986. After that, it obtained a license to conduct PIE of the structural materials, such as stainless steels, inside the reactor in addition to fuels. So far we have conducted PIE of fuels and metallic materials including fuel assembly components and reactor internal components irradiated in Japanese PWR plants or some test reactors. To meet these PIE needs, we are making efforts to improve facilities and to install high advanced equipments. This paper describes current status of the facilities and PIE techniques in NDC fuel hot laboratory. (author)

  9. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  10. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  11. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  12. [Evaluating the current status of anthropologic psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Degenhard, M

    1997-10-01

    Phenomenological psychiatry examines the variety of psychiatric diseases as regular modifications of human feeling tone experience and behaviour, which can be derived approximately from the nature of man as defined philosophically, Interdisciplinary self-conception of phenomenological psychiatry as a science calls for a constant critical dialogue with the philosophy of man and other disciplines of the humanities. The point of departure of phenomenological psychiatry is the mental or affective illness of the individual patient, with which the psychiatrist is acquainted, and reflects in interpersonal encounters in such a way that individual case studies are of central importance in this area of studies. From a methodological point of view two approaches are to be differentiated within the field of research in phenomenological psychiatry: 1. The phenomenological approach is concerned with the analysis of specific patterns of disturbance of the transcendental organisation of psychotic subjectivity. 2. The interpretative approaches are again divided into the so called "Daseinsanalyse" as a hermeneutic access to the inner biography and "Weltanschauung" of the psychiatric patient as well as the attempts of understanding the meaning of psychotic forms of experience. In this context a survey of the current fields of research of phenomenological psychiatry is given which aims at a deeper understanding of the situation of psychiatric patients and which claims to have a strong relevance for therapy. The relevance of such a phenomenological approach for current psychiatry lies in a broadening and sophistication of our experience in clinic and practice. Its main interest lies in the concentration on the patient as an individual and on the existential dimension of forms of mental and emotional diseases. PMID:9445840

  13. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the World. For this purpose we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last 9 decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data become available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as $^4$He, $^7$Li, $^9$Be etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei co...

  14. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  15. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro

    2013-10-15

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation. Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema, is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries. Today, blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy. The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia, arterial tension, lipids and renal status. The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries, but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs, the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME), can be valid as gold standard in many countries. The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs (ranibizumab and bevacizumab), are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME, but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies. The corticosteroids for diffuse DME, has a place in pseudophakic patients, but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients. Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients. PMID:24147200

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Current status of ITER EC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER-FEAT Electron Cyclotron System employs one equatorial launcher and three upper port launchers to inject 20 + 20 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz through slots in the plasma-facing neutron and radiation shield. The equatorial launcher includes 3 sets of toroidally steer-able mirrors, each collecting 8 RF beams from 24 circular cross-section corrugated wave-guides. In the upper-port launcher, eight beams, reflected in pairs by four toroidally angled (∼30 angle) and poloidally steer-able (∼ 10 angle) mirrors focus of the RF power on the plasma m = 2 and m = 3/2 plasma flux rational surfaces, for neo-classical tearing mode(s) (NTM) control. Conceptual studies of remote steering that would possibly allow removing the beam- steering equipment from the vacuum vessel and locating them in more protected positions have been carried out. All EC wave transmission is based on low losses circular cross section corrugated and evacuated wave guides each connected to a 170 GHz, 1 MW CW Gyrotron tube oscillator featuring an overall efficiency of ∼ 50%, obtained by depressed-collector energy recovery. In the paper, requirements, issues and the current status of the design is reviewed. (authors)

  18. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  19. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  20. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first double-axis neutron spectrometer in Thailand was installed at the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1) in 1968. It was about a decade that this diffractometer had supported a number of the magnetic materials researches. During 1975-1977, the reactor was modified into a TRIGA MARK III type with nominal power of 2 MW. Meanwhile the diffractometer was dismantled, since then neutron scattering activities had ceased for many years. As the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace recognized the important role of neutron scattering techniques in materials research, therefore in 1992, a spectrometer upgrade program has been setup in order to improve the performance of the obsolete diffractometer. At present, installation and alignment of the diffractometer have been completed. This report gives brief description about the past activities as well as current status of the upgraded diffractometer. Additionally, the Office of Atomic Energy is in process of establishing a new Nuclear Research Center. Its main facility is a multipurpose 10 MW TRIGA reactor. The reactor will be equipped with a High Resolution Powder Diffractometer. The HRPD is anticipated to be ready for operation soon after the commission of the reactor. Feature of the HRPD including its potential utilization are also presented in this report. (author)

  1. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, Chaiyut [Reactor Operation Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-10-01

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  2. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U3O8-Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  3. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  4. Current status of the SNO+ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina; Krosigk, Belina von; Krueger, Felix; Schrock, Philipp; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden, IKTP, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory plus scintillator) experiment is the follow up of the SNO experiment, replacing the heavy water volume with about 1000 tons of liquid scintillator (LAB) in order to shift the sensitive threshold to the low energy range. It is located in one of the mines near Sudbury at a depth of 6000 m.w.e., presently the deepest underground laboratory in the world. The natural rock shielding which reduces the cosmic muon flux to about 3 muon per hour, and the use of ultra-clean materials makes the detector suitable for neutrinos studies. The main physical goals are the detection of pep and CNO solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos originated from radioactivity in the earth, the possible observation of neutrinos from supernova, the study of reactor oscillation. Complementing this neutrino program, SNO+ will also search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In this phase the liquid scintillator will be loaded with 0.1% natural Neodymium allowing the study of {sup 150}Nd (5.6% abundance) neutrinoless double beta decay. A review of the general SNO+ setup, the physics goals and the current status will be presented.

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ1 receptors, and dopamine D2 or D4 receptors; (2) 99mTc- and 18F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ2 receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Current status of the SNO+ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory plus scintillator) experiment is the follow up of the SNO experiment, replacing the heavy water volume with about 1000 tons of liquid scintillator (LAB) in order to shift the sensitive threshold to the low energy range. It is located in one of the mines near Sudbury at a depth of 6000 m.w.e., presently the deepest underground laboratory in the world. The natural rock shielding which reduces the cosmic muon flux to about 3 muon per hour, and the use of ultra-clean materials makes the detector suitable for neutrinos studies. The main physical goals are the detection of pep and CNO solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos originated from radioactivity in the earth, the possible observation of neutrinos from supernova, the study of reactor oscillation. Complementing this neutrino program, SNO+ will also search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In this phase the liquid scintillator will be loaded with 0.1% natural Neodymium allowing the study of 150Nd (5.6% abundance) neutrinoless double beta decay. A review of the general SNO+ setup, the physics goals and the current status will be presented.

  7. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touzopoulos P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of

  8. Current status of JMTR refurbishment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x1018 m-2s-1. First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

  9. Counseling in Turkey: Current Status and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman Dogan

    1998-01-01

    In this article a special emphasis is placed on the current status and the future challenges of counseling in Turkey. A brief history of counseling in Turkey, current developments, and the basic issues in this field are pointed out. Finally, the future challenges and recommendations to improve the current status of counseling are discussed.

  10. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors

  11. Esophageal tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P

    2016-02-01

    Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. PMID:26711880

  12. Labour status approach to labour statistics.

    OpenAIRE

    Standing G

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper presenting a theoretical framework for an employment status approach to data collecting on labour force - discusses the definition of exploitation, underemployment, division of labour, occupation, skill, labour force, etc.; proposes a taxonomy of labour status including forced labour, feudalism, sharecropper, skilled worker, wages and family workers, peasant farmer, payment by result, apprentice, landowner and employer; and outlines forms of labour control. Refe...

  13. Current status of nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  14. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  15. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  16. Current status of laser applications in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Durek, C.; Jocham, Dieter

    1993-05-01

    The overall development of laser use in urology is recessing. The reasons are the refinement of methods of radical surgery and the continuing development of alternative technologies involving electric current. Taking the cost factor into account, are lasers still opportune in medicine? The answer is definitely yes. Cost reduction in medical practice without quality loss is only possible with effective methods of minimally invasive surgery. Continuing investigation of cutting, welding, coagulating and ablating instruments is justified. Competition of lasers to other technologies can only be beneficial to the cause. But where are the highlights of laser applications? The unsurpassed utilization of optical properties of lasers lie in the concept of photodynamic therapies and in optical feedback mechanisms for laser applications. The combination of lasers with three dimensional visualization of the treatment area by ultrasound (TULIP-procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia) is a novel approach in laser application. The further development of these treatment modalities will reveal the true benefit of laser technology in urological applications.

  17. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  18. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  19. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopicmanagement for Zenker diverticulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Aiolfi; Federica Scolari; Greta Saino; Luigi Bonavina

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment ofpharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the pastcentury. Developments in minimally invasive surgeryand new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigmchange. The concept of dividing the septum betweenthe esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting thepouch itself has been revisited during the last threedecades and new technologies have been investigatedto make the transoral operation safe and effective. Theinternal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum.

  20. [Headache. Current status of research and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, A; Gaul, C

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for German headache research and clinical education was the engagement of D. Soyka in the 1970s, which enabled the foundation of the German Headache Society (DMKG) on 28 June 1979 and, some years later, the founding congress of the International Headache Society (IHS) in Munich 1982. As a result of these activities, in 1988 the first international classification of headache disorders was published. This classification was one of the major milestones in the development of basic as well as clinical headache research. In the following years, epidemiological studies all over the world showed a 1-year prevalence for headache of approximately 60%, making headaches one of the most frequent medical complaints. Basic research showed an involvement of serotonergic mechanisms in migraine pain and triptans were one of the first drugs designed to influence these mechanisms. Functional brain imaging studies in migraine patients further showed a cyclic modulation of the activity of brainstem areas independent of the current pain state. Various research groups were involved in the clarification of the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine and cluster headache. A specific development in the German headache scene is the establishment of integrated headache centers and reflects the primarily multimodal treatment approach in Germany which contrasts with the settings in other countries. These successful developments are increasingly being undermined by the fact that the low financial support of headache research, for example, by the German science council is causing a decreasing interest in headache research, with the consequence that the clinical education of students as well as young medical doctors shows increasing deficits. The consequence for the future will be a deficit in the clinical care of the population. PMID:26264901

  1. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  2. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 9500. The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 10000C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  3. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  4. Current status of the RERTR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A.

    1980-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress which has been accomplished by the RERTR Program during the past year, the present status of the program, the activities which are now in progress, and the program plans for the coming years. The changes that have taken place in the overall program plan are, in themselves, not very significant. Some activities were found to be somewhat more difficult than expected and required a longer time to complete; others were found to be less difficult than expected and caused opposite readjustments of the program plan. These effects tend to balance each other when the program is considered as a whole.

  5. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampornrat, Pantip [Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-10-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  6. Current status of photovoltaic research at SERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S. K.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the Solar Energy Research Institute's photovoltaic cell development program is to conduct high risk, potentially high-payoff R&D leading to a more substantial knowledge base for exploitation by private concerns interested in the electrical energy market. Attention is presently given to the status of research and development for crystalline and amorphous silicon, polycrystalline CuInSe2 and CdTe thin-film, and high efficiency III-V compound solar cells. Comparative efficiencies and economies are presented in tabular form, together with schematics of promising solar cell layer structures.

  7. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Current Status and Future of Sports Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the need of the popularization of sports nutrition knowledge and promoting of our country sports nutrition needs, the study expounds the new concept of sports nutrition food, the development of sports nutrition food abroad, the prospect of the domestic market and the status quo of cultivate. Sports nutrition food system which has been basically in more than a decade in domestic is made a detailed elaboration and an introduction of product research and development has been made. The evolved industry standards, sports nutrition food industry, sports nutrition knowledge popularization, academic exchange domestic and overseas and sports nutrition training of our sport nutrition food industry in the past two years are all expounded in this study. These big good situations indicate the better future of our country's sports nutrition food market.

  9. Reconciling current approaches to blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, blindsight is still a mysterious and controversial topic in consciousness research. Currently, many researchers tend to think of it as an ideal phenomenon to investigate neural correlates of consciousness, whereas others believe that blindsight is in fact a kind of...

  10. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  11. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Sangariyavanich, Archara [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  13. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  14. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  15. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  16. Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2004-01-01

    The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other...

  17. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  18. Canadian hydrogen : current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of hydrogen technology and details of current production and use of hydrogen in Canada were presented. Future demand for hydrogen was discussed. The aim of the report was to enable readers to better understand the significant size of the hydrogen industry. Canada is the largest per capita producer of hydrogen in the OECD, with production currently at 3.09 million tonnes per year. The current hydrogen surplus was attributed to a combination of short-term reductions in demand and excess capacity built in anticipation of growing demand. Mechanical and chemical processes that create hydrogen were reviewed, and details of prospective emerging technologies in hydrogen production, purification, transportation and storage were presented. Technical opportunities for hydrogen were explored. A regionalized inventory of hydrogen production in Canada was provided. Projected demands for 3 scenarios of hydrogen production were presented: (1) a business as usual perspective with no dramatic political or climatic impacts; (2) a carbon conscious agenda where major disturbances due to climate change have resulted in a focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and fuel efficiency; and (3) a hydrogen priority path that promotes North American energy self-sufficiency and concerted actions by government to adopt the hydrogen economy. The production consequences of hydrogen demand under each scenario emphasized the potential size and location of Canada's hydrogen needs. It was concluded that Canadian companies and research facilities have established a strong technical and commercial presence in hydrogen production over the last 10 years. tabs., figs

  19. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  20. Anti-nicotine vaccine: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Prakash Giri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco abuse has an enormous impact on health. Nicotine is the main substance responsible for dependence on tobacco-containing products. The vast majority of cigarette smokers who try to quit ultimately fail because of high relapse rates. Clearly, novel approaches are needed for the treatment and prevention of nicotine addiction. Having an efficient vaccine that would generate antibodies to sequester the drug and prevent its access to the brain could go a long way toward helping a motivated addict quit an addiction. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1309-1313

  1. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  2. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance. PMID:22515454

  3. RBMK fuel assemblies: Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety enhancement measures implemented since 1986 have led to substantial burnup reduction in the RBMK fuel assemblies and consequently to economical losses. With the purpose to compensate the losses, computer analysis and experiments were performed during the last decade. The works were aimed at the RBMK fuel charge perfection to reduce void reactivity effect and to increase fuel burnup. The paper presents principle results of the studies which are currently under implementation or are supposed to be implemented in the nearest future. (author)

  4. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  5. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  6. Current status of the implantable LVAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Sagar; Moore, Ryan; Ambur, Vishnu; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2016-09-01

    With the ongoing shortage of available organs for heart transplantation, mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly utilized for managing acute and chronic heart failure that is refractory to medical therapy. In particular, the introduction of the left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has revolutionized the field. In this review, we will discuss a brief history of the LVAD, available devices, current indications, patient selection, complications, and outcomes. In addition, we will discuss recent outcomes and advancements in the field of noncardiac surgery in the LVAD patient. Finally, we will discuss several topics for surgical consideration during LVAD implantation. PMID:27270581

  7. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  8. Current status and trends of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology(RT) is more intimate than the other nuclear technologies and closely related to the public. The present conditions of radiation and radioisotope utilization and economic scales of radiation and radioisotope application in USA, Japan and Korea were examined, and the current trends and prospects of radiation technology were investigated. For planning of extended uses of the technology, the programs of the USA Office of Isotope for Medicine and Science, and the privatization activities of commercial isotopes of DOE were observed. The 2nd 'Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP)' of MOST includes utilization of radiation and radioisotopes, the suggestions for the practice of it were made

  9. Carious dentine removal: current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  10. Crohn's disease: current imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.)

  11. Environmental OMICS: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ge

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: OMICS technologies for identification of RNA, protein, and metabolic profiles and endpoints have already significantly improved our understanding of how environmental chemicals affect our ecosystem and human health. OMICS breakthroughs are empowering the fields of environmental toxicology, chemical toxicity characterization, and health risk assessment. However, environmental OMICS is still in the data generation and collection stage. Important data gaps in linking and/or integrating toxicity data with OMICS endpoints/profiles need to be filled to enable understanding of the potential impacts of chemicals on human health and the environment. It is expected that future environmental OMICS will focus more on real environmental issues and challenges such as the characterization of chemical mixture toxicity, the identification of environmental and health biomarkers, and the development of innovative environmental OMICS approaches and assays. These innovative approaches and assays will inform chemical toxicity testing and prediction, ecological and health risk monitoring and assessment, and natural resource utilization in ways that maintain human health and protects the environment in a sustainable manner.

  12. Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and 99mTc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of 18F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of 99mTc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of 123I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative 99mTc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various aerosolized, therapeutic drugs

  13. Current status of the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress which has been accomplished by the RERTR Program during the past year, the present status of the program, the activities which are now in progress, and the program plans for the coming years. The main program objectives have not changed during the past year. The primary goal of the RERTR Program is still to reduce the amount of HEU which is shipped and used around the world in research reactors and, with it, the nuclear proliferation potential which it creates. Also unchanged is the program objective to reduce HEU use without significant penalty to the reactors involved. This means that for every possible conversion, our technical goal is to achieve good experiment capabilities and the economic advantages that come from a long core lifetime and from relatively economical fuels. We also intend to limit as much as possible the modifications which may have to be made to the reactor in order to achieve conversion and, last but not least, we intend to avoid any significant problems that might appear in the safety and licensing areas. Other important goals are the sharing of information about reduced-enrichment technology and providing technical assistance to the U.S. Government on special problems that may affect implementation of its policies. The timetable of the RERTR Program has stretched slightly. At the time of the previous ANL Conference, a long range goal was set which was anticipated to require about five or six years. This happened in 1978 and, therefore, the long range goal was considered to be achievable by 1984. This final deadline, the time when the long term goal of technical convertibility of all research reactors can be achieved, has now been moved to 1986. In the meantime, good progress has been made towards the near-term goals. Much more detailed knowledge is available about what lies ahead from a technical point of view. In addition, the general level of confidence in the achievability of the

  14. Immunomonitoring in glioma immunotherapy: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamano, Jonathan B; Ampie, Leonel; Choy, Winward; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; DiDomenico, Joseph D; Oyon, Daniel E; Parsa, Andrew T; Bloch, Orin

    2016-03-01

    Given the continued poor clinical outcomes and refractory nature of glioblastoma multiforme to traditional interventions, immunotherapy is gaining traction due to its potential for specific tumor-targeting and long-term antitumor protective surveillance. Currently, development of glioma immunotherapy relies on overall survival as an endpoint in clinical trials. However, the identification of surrogate immunologic biomarkers can accelerate the development of successful immunotherapeutic strategies. Immunomonitoring techniques possess the potential to elucidate immunological mechanisms of antitumor responses, monitor disease progression, evaluate therapeutic effect, identify candidates for immunotherapy, and serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome. Current immunomonitoring assays assess delayed-type hypersensitivity, T cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function, cytokine secretion profiles, antibody titers, and lymphocyte phenotypes. Yet, no single immunomonitoring technique can reliably predict outcomes, relegating immunological markers to exploratory endpoints. In response, the most recent immunomonitoring assays are incorporating emerging technologies and novel analysis techniques to approach the goal of identifying a competent immunological biomarker which predicts therapy responsiveness and clinical outcome. This review addresses the current status of immunomonitoring in glioma vaccine clinical trials with emphasis on correlations with clinical response. PMID:26638171

  15. Current approaches to the management of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Yul'evna Demidova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review reflects the current status of the diabetic retinopathy treatment problem and describes the results of the largest trials on epidemiology, screening and the risk factors for complications. In addition, this article describes the current approaches and treatment options for diabetic retinopathy, including a description of fenofibroic acid with its mechanism of action and data from clinical trials. This article also contains information on antiangiogenic agents for intravitreal administration.

  16. Current approaches to the management of diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tat'yana Yul'evna Demidova; Yuliya Alexandrovna Trakhtenberg

    2014-01-01

    This review reflects the current status of the diabetic retinopathy treatment problem and describes the results of the largest trials on epidemiology, screening and the risk factors for complications. In addition, this article describes the current approaches and treatment options for diabetic retinopathy, including a description of fenofibroic acid with its mechanism of action and data from clinical trials. This article also contains information on antiangiogenic agents for intravitreal admi...

  17. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976

  18. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  19. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  20. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  1. Current status of optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Shigenobu; Wang, Zuoyan; Ming-Juan, Zhang; Takano, Masamichi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2011-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry that use near-infrared light in real-time, and allows cross-sectional in-situ visualization of the vessel wall at the microscopic level. OCT provides 10-fold higher resolution than intravascular ultrasound which is currently the most used modality for intra-coronary imaging. OCT offers the obvious advantages when characterizing precise plaque microstructure and distinguishing various type of plaques. OCT is also being assessed for its potential role in the understanding of neointimal coverage, vascular healing and the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vasculature after stenting on the micron scale. These unique capabilities could be helpful in guiding coronary management and interventions. Recent improvement in next generation OCT technology, such as frequency-domain OCT, will allow for a simple imaging procedure, providing more useful information and complementing other modalities on both clinical and research applications for the cardiologists. PMID:24122583

  2. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  3. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  4. Current Approach to Child Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Dag

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rights of children, legally or morally all over the world that children are born with; education, health, life, shelter; physical, psychological or sexual exploitation protection of such rights is universal concept used to describethemall. Rights of children is an issue that should be addressed in the concept of human rights. Today, there are many parts of the world that human rights violations, child-size and grew broader, more difficult to intervene in a way that is situated. The idea that children than in adults of different physical, physiological, behavioral and psychological characteristics that continuous growth and improve dawareness that the establishment of thecare of children a society where the problem is and scientific approach everyone with this responsibility should be installed is shaped in Geneva Declaration of Childrens Rights. Today, the international document related to childrens rights is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child adoptedand approved by 193 countries. Child policy in Turkey where 25 million children live is an issue that should be seriously considered. Thus, childrens rights, children working in coordination with the contract on the basis of a policy should be implemented fully. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 1-5

  5. Chemoprevention of gastric cancer: current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The development of gastric cancer is a multi-factor process. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors including smoking, low gastric acidity, excessive intake of salt or salty food and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables all contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Of particular interest, epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is causally linked to gastric cancer. Most studies using micronutrient supplementation have failed to demonstrate any preventive effect against the development of gastric cancer. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been consistently observed to protect against the development of gastric cancer. Recently, eradication of H. pylori infection by a chemopreventative approach is being studied in a number of trials. Studies using precancerous lesions as an end point of the treatment have produced conflicting and mostly negative results. Trials using cancer as an end point are being cautiously carried out in high-risk populations, and will provide the definitive answer to this important question. In the end, vaccination may be proven to be the optimal strategy in human for the management of H. pylori infection and prevention of gastric cancer.

  6. Palliative radiotherapy: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonam; Hertan, Lauren; Jones, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    For nearly 100 years, palliative radiotherapy has been a time-efficient, effective treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced cancer in any area where local tumors are causing symptoms. Short courses including a single fraction of radiotherapy may be effective for symptom relief with minimal side effects and maximization of convenience for patient and family. With recent advances in imaging, surgery, and other local therapies as well as systemic cancer therapies, palliative radiotherapy has been used frequently in patients who may not yet have symptoms of advanced or metastatic cancer. In this setting, more prolonged radiotherapy courses and advanced radiotherapy techniques including intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) may be useful in obtaining local control and durable palliative responses. This review will explore the use of radiotherapy across the spectrum of patients with advanced and metastatic cancer and delineate an updated, rational approach for the use of palliative radiotherapy that incorporates symptoms, prognosis, and other factors into the delivery of palliative radiotherapy. PMID:25499634

  7. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves, presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  8. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Photoacoustic imaging: current status and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Jiang, Jingying; Su, Yixiong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Jianquan

    2006-09-01

    Photo-acoustic tomography(PAT) is a new ultrasound-mediated biomedical imaging technology which combines the advantages of high optical contrast and high ultrasonic resolution. In theory, PAT can image object embedded several centimeters under the surface of sample with the resolution of tens of microns. In this paper, several representative image reconstruction algorithms are discussed. Because the PA signal is wide band signal, it is hard to get the whole frequency spectrum due to the tremendous calculation needed. Therefore, the most applicable reconstruction algorithms are all performed in time domain such as "delay-and-sum" and "back projection". The current research methods have been focused on optical detecting and piezoelectric detecting. The optical method has the advantage of high spatial sensitivity due to the short wavelength of the probe laser beam. PA signal detecting using piezoelectric sensor has two main modes i.e. using unfocused transducer or transducer array or using focused transducer array or linear transducer array. When a focused transducer array is used, the "delay-and-sum" method is often used for image reconstruction. The advantage of the method is that its data acquisition time can be reduced to several minutes or even several seconds by employing the phase control linear scan technique. The future development in PAT research and its potential clinic application is also presented.

  10. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900 C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950 C.

  11. Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

  12. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  13. Current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its interaction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data (P-C-T relations, activity coefficients, Sieverts' constants, plateau pressures, isotope effects, free energies of formation, phase boundaries etc.) are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the α-phase of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for removing these species by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys (e.g., Li--Al and Li--Pb), made using a new technique (the hydrogen titration method), have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium and that the P-C-T relationships for hydrogen in Li--M alloys can be estimated from lithium activity data for these alloys

  14. Current status of permanent total artificial hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P K; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Pierce, W S

    1989-01-01

    Pneumatic total artificial heats, although demonstrating utility as temporary mechanical circulatory support devices, have not demonstrated a great deal of promise as permanent cardiac replacements. The increasing number of patients who would be candidates for total heart replacement suggests a large role for a permanent implantable total artificial heart. To that end, the Pennsylvania State University is developing an electric motor-driven total artificial heart; the results with implants in calves are encouraging. In this device, a roller-screw mechanism is used to translate the rotation of a brushless direct-current motor into rectilinear motion of a pusher-plate assembly, which in turn empties the blood sacs. The total artificial heart of the future will function under automatic control without percutaneous leads, and this should provide the patient with a nearly normal life-style. Although further experimental efforts are necessary to prepare the device for clinical trials, the technology to provide a safe and reliable electric blood-pump system is at hand. PMID:2912392

  15. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  16. Superconductor Digital Electronics: -- Current Status, Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Two major applications of superconductor electronics: communications and supercomputing will be presented. These areas hold a significant promise of a large impact on electronics state-of-the-art for the defense and commercial markets stemming from the fundamental advantages of superconductivity: simultaneous high speed and low power, lossless interconnect, natural quantization, and high sensitivity. The availability of relatively small cryocoolers lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled superconductor electronic systems. These fundamental advantages enabled a novel Digital-RF architecture - a disruptive technological approach changing wireless communications, radar, and surveillance system architectures dramatically. Practical results were achieved for Digital-RF systems in which wide-band, multi-band radio frequency signals are directly digitized and digital domain is expanded throughout the entire system. Digital-RF systems combine digital and mixed signal integrated circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, superconductor analog filter circuits, and semiconductor post-processing circuits. The demonstrated cryocooled Digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals, enabling multi-net data links, and performing signal acquisition from HF to L-band with 30 GHz clock frequencies. In supercomputing, superconductivity leads to the highest energy efficiencies per operation. Superconductor technology based on manipulation and ballistic transfer of magnetic flux quanta provides a superior low-power alternative to CMOS and other charge-transfer based device technologies. The fundamental energy consumption in SFQ circuits defined by flux quanta energy 2 x 10-19 J. Recently, a novel energy-efficient zero-static-power SFQ technology, eSFQ/ERSFQ was invented, which retains all advantages of standard RSFQ circuits: high-speed, dc power, internal memory. The

  17. Current status of family intervention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G; Siqueland, L

    2001-07-01

    reductions of oppositional and antisocial behavior. Clinical programs that treat these populations without using a family-based intervention as at least a component of a treatment package are seriously ignoring the findings of contemporary intervention science. Programs of research by Henggeler, Szapocznik, and Liddle demonstrate similarly impressive results for substance abusing adolescents. Although preliminary results from the Dennis et al study suggest that various treatment approaches may benefit this population. Family interventions have had less success in reducing ADHD symptoms, yet these psychosocial treatments have been essential in reducing much of the family and school behavior problems associated with this disorder. Many investigators would agree that a combined medication and family treatment approach may be the treatment of choice for children with ADHD. In fact, many studies across various disorders suggest that patients respond best to comprehensive treatment packages, of which a family treatment is at least one component. Although the data are promising, many challenges lie ahead. Although collectively many family intervention studies exist, many disorders lack enough rigorous and large-scale investigations to make any strong conclusions. Kazdin argues that sample sizes of 150 are essential to detect significant differences between active treatments, and few of the reviewed studies include these kinds of patient numbers. Furthermore, not enough committed and sophisticated family treatment researchers have carried out some of the major studies. For example, the Brent study on depression and the Barkley study of ADHD, although testing family approaches, lacked well-developed and published treatment manuals, a demonstration of the necessary expertise to supervise these treatments, and data about training and adherence to these models. Although the absence of expertise limits investigator allegiance biases, treatment development and modification are essential

  18. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  19. Torque teno virus (TTV): current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Shigeo; Miyata, Hironori

    2007-01-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV), currently classified into the family Circoviridae, genus Anellovirus, was first found in a patient with non-A-E hepatitis. TTV has a single stranded circular DNA of approximately 3.8 kb. TTVs are extraordinarily diverse, spanning five groups including SANBAN and SEN viruses. Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) with approximately 2.9 kb genome also has wide variants. Recently, two related 2.2- and 2.6-kb species joined this community. Recombinations between variants are frequent. This extensive TTV diversity remains unexplained; it is unclear how TTVs could be viable, and why they require such genetic variation. An unequivocal culture system is still not available. TTVs are ubiquitous in > 90% of adults worldwide but no human pathogenicity of TTV has been fully established. Epidemiological surveys need to specify the variants being studied and clinical targets, and must calibrate the sensitivity of the assay used. Potentially interesting observations include a higher viral load in patients with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. Active replication was also found in infants with acute respiratory diseases. TTV/TTMV-related viruses were found in chimpanzees, apes, African monkeys and tupaias, and also in chickens, pigs, cows, sheep and dogs. Experimentally, rhesus monkeys were persistently infected by TTV, but only 1/53 chimpanzees. TTV transcribes three species of mRNAs, 3.0-, 1.2- and 1.0-kb in the ratio of 60:5:35. Recently, at least three mRNAs were shown in chicken anaemia virus. The genomic region -154/-76 contains a critical promoter. TTV seems to have at least three proteins; however, the definite functions of these proteins await further research work. PMID:17146841

  20. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  1. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3

  2. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  3. An overview of the current status of CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, R B

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the current status of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations, summarising the latest results obtained from CMB experiments, both in intensity and polarization, and the constraints imposed on the cosmological parameters. We also present a summary of current and future CMB experiments, with a special focus on the quest for the CMB B-mode polarization.

  4. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  5. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  6. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  7. Current Status of Pd- Reference Electrode Development Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate and stable in-core reference electrodes are needed in long-term corrosion potential measurements when water chemistry effects on corrosion of construction materials under radiation fields are studied. The experimental difficulties of measuring ECP inside the reactor pressure vessel are basically related to the high pressure, high temperature environments, which give significant problems connected with bringing electrochemical information across the pressure boundaries. Additionally, the sensors have to withstand exposure to high radiation and neutron flux. Currently, the most widely used in-core reference electrodes are either internal silver/silver chloride electrodes or zirconia membrane based pH sensors. A novel approach is to use a cathodically charged palladium (Pd) hydrogen electrode. This type of sensor is a suitable reference electrode for in-core corrosion potential measurements in constant pH solutions, because the potential determining components (H2,H+) are stable over the temperatures of interest and do not contaminate the measurement environment. In addition, the mechanisms of hydrogen reactions on palladium and platinum (Pt) surfaces have been extensively studied and are now reasonably well understood. A new Pd reference electrode has been tested in an out-of-core test loop in Halden. The electrode was installed into the flow through cell containing external pressure balanced silver/silver chloride reference electrodes, a high temperature conductivity sensor and a temperature probe. This report discusses the current status of the in-core Pd reference electrode development work being performed at the OECD Halden Project. (author)

  8. Current Status of Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Test at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Seung Jae; Shin, Yoon Taeg; Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The in-pile testing of HANARO demand of not only the reactor core and structure material but also the nuclear fuel is recently increased to verify its irradiation performance, some fuel irradiation tests were planned and conducted using the irradiation test capsule in OR irradiation hole at HANARO. In this paper, the current status of irradiation test for the nuclear fuels at HANARO is reported. The current status of nuclear fuel irradiation test was reported. The irradiation test for plate, particle, pellet and metallic fuel for the development of research reactor, VHTR, LWR, SFR was planned and conducted at HANARO.

  9. The JT-60SA Cryoplant Current Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Reynaud, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Maréchal, J. L.; Balaguer, D.; Roux, C.; Matsukawa, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of the ITER Broader Approach, CEA is carrying out the procurement of the Cryogenic System to the JA-EU Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which should be operated in Japan at JAEA, Naka in 2014. According to the Conceptual Design Report, JT-60SA is to operate for periods of at least 6 months per year, with major shutdown periods in between for maintenance and further installation upgrades. For this operation scenario, the cryoplant and the cryodistribution have to cope with different heat loads which depend on the different JT-60SA operating states. The cryoplant consists of one 4.5 K refrigerator and one 80 K helium loop, each pre-cooled by LN2. These cryogenic subsystems have to operate simultaneously in order to remove the heat loads from the superconducting magnets, 80 K shields and the divertor cryopumps. The first part of this study is based on the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and presents the current design status of the JT-60SA cryogenic system. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of the cryoplant normal operation modes including the regeneration mode of the divertor cryopumps. Thanks to this analysis, the architecture of the present PFD is proposed in order to match the technical specifications of the cryoplant with the JT-60SA operation requirements.

  10. Current status and scientific capabilities of the Rosetta lander payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Feuerbacher, B.; Rosenbauer, H.; Mugnuolo, R.; Moura, D.; Bibring, J. P.

    ESA's cornerstone mission "ROSETTA" to comet 46P/Wirtanen will bring a 100 kg Lander (provided by an international European consortium) with a scientific payload of about 27 kg to the surface of the comet's nucleus. After a first scientific sequence it will operate for a considerable fraction of the cometary orbit around the sun (between 3 AU and 2 AU). The Lander is an autonomous spacecraft, powered with solar cells and using the ROSETTA Orbiter as a telemetry relais to Earth. The main scientific objectives are the in-situ investigation of the chemical, elemental, isotopic and mineralogical composition of the comet, study of the physical properties of the surface material, analyze the internal structure of the nucleus, observe temporal variations (day/night cycle, approach to sun), study the relationship between the comet and the interplanetary matter and provide ground reference data for Orbiter instruments. Ten experiments with a number of sub-experiments are foreseen to fulfil these objectives. In this paper we present the current status of the instrumental development and the scientific capabilities of each of the experiments.

  11. The current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; O' Sullivan, P.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Heran, M.K.S.; Legiehn, G.M.; Munk, P.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: ejheffernan@eircom.net

    2008-04-15

    To provide an overview of the current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) practice in Canada, including the preprocedure work up operative technique and follow-up practice of physicians performing the procedure in this county. Questionnaires were emailed to 31 institutions performing percutaneous vertebroplasty across Canada. Twenty-three (74.2%) completed surveys were returned, representing data from 1,516 vertebroplasties performed by 66 radiologists and surgeons. Preoperative routine imaging and screening practice varies widely. The majority of respondents perform PVP under conscious sedation; however, an anaesthetist is present in only 22% of institutions. Biplane fluoroscopy is used in 43.5% of practices. The preference for unipedicular or bipedicular injection varies: in 7 institutions, a unipedicular approach is used in at least 80% of cases. Patients receive a follow-up by the screening physician in 65.2% of institutions. There were 4 complications requiring treatment. Venous and intradiscal extravasation rates were 20.8% and 25.3%, respectively; however, the vast majority of these were clinically insignificant. PVP complication rates reported in our Canadian survey compare favourably with those in the published literature. The number of PVPs performed annually in the institutions surveyed appears small, relative to the figures from the United States. The prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of vertebral compression fractures in Canada is increasing as the population ages, and demand for PVP is likely to rise significantly in the coming years. (author)

  12. Computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics: Current status and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajat; Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Choi, Young J.; Liu, Hang; Huang, H. Howie; Jain, Saurabh; Younes, Laurent; Abraham, Theodore; George, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of four-dimensional imaging technologies, increasing computational speeds, improved simulation algorithms, and the widespread availability of powerful computing platforms is enabling simulations of cardiac hemodynamics with unprecedented speed and fidelity. Since cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to cardiovascular hemodynamics, accurate assessment of the patient's hemodynamic state is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Unfortunately, while a variety of invasive and non-invasive approaches for measuring cardiac hemodynamics are in widespread use, they still only provide an incomplete picture of the hemodynamic state of a patient. In this context, computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics presents as a powerful non-invasive modality that can fill this information gap, and significantly impact the diagnosis as well as the treatment of cardiac disease. This article reviews the current status of this field as well as the emerging trends and challenges in cardiovascular health, computing, modeling and simulation and that are expected to play a key role in its future development. Some recent advances in modeling and simulations of cardiac flow are described by using examples from our own work as well as the research of other groups.

  13. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  14. Current status and future direction of the MONK software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

  15. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  16. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  17. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  18. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  19. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  20. Refugee Issues: Current Status and Directions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary; And Others

    A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…

  1. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  2. Current status and prospect of 125I production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I nuclide is widely applied in many fields such as medical and biological research, radioimmunoassay, brachytherapy of cancers, etc. The processes and current status of 125I production, domestic market demand, and the prospect of 125I nuclide production with the existing reactors in China were briefly introduced. (author)

  3. Current status and key issues of nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear liability regime has been established from the beginning of the nuclear power industry. The first nuclear accident with major transboundary consequences occurred at Chernobyl, and led to reexamination of the nuclear liability regime. Current status and key issues of the national and international nuclear liability regime are reviewed. (author)

  4. Colonography: current status, research directions and challenges. Update 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of multislice CT technology and faster gradients in MRI, CT and MR colonography are increasingly becoming attractive alternatives for colorectal mass screening. In this article we summarise the current status, research directions, and challenges in CT and MR colonography. (orig.)

  5. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  6. Current Status of the DPOSS Effort at Caltech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewahn, S. C.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss the current status of a three-color survey of fields of the digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). Eventually, the DPOSS catalogs will be released to the astronomical community. The final catalog will contain an estimated minimum of 50,000,000 (50 million) galaxies, and over 2,000,000,000 (2 billion) stars, down to the equivalent blue limiting magnitude of 22., and with star-galaxy classifications accurate to 90% or better down to the equivalent blue magnitude of 21. An important addition is a program to collect extensive CCD calibration data in the Gunn gri system with the Palomar 60". This represents a considerable advance over other, currently existing optical sky surveys based on large-format photographic plates. A great variety of scientific projects should become possible using this major data set, including the following: studies of galaxy clustering and of the large-scale structure in the low-redshift universe, as tests of structure formation models; galaxy counts at moderate depth, as a function of magnitudes, colors, and morphology, to be used in tests of galaxy evolution over the past few Gigayears; a search for high redshift (z > 4) quasars, and active galactic nuclei at lower redshifts; mass optical identifications of radio, IR, and x-ray sources; generation of objectively defined catalogs of clusters and groups of galaxies; a search for previously unknown sparse globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies; cataloging of low surface brightness galaxies; a search for objects with peculiar colors or variability; and many others. In particular, we review efforts to perform automatic galaxy classification using artificial neural network image classifiers. This powerful technique is used to map a multivariate photometric parameter space to the revised Hubble system of galaxy classification. We present a new morphological classification approach using Fourier image models to identify barred and ringed spiral systems.

  7. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  8. Acesso radial em intervenções coronarianas percutâneas: panorama atual brasileiro Acceso radial en intervenciones coronarias percutáneas: panorama actual brasileño Radial approach in percutaneous coronary interventions: current status in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beraldo de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    fue comparado al femoral (2,5% versus 3,6%, p BACKGROUND: Although the radial approach offers an unquestionable result in terms of reduction of vascular complications and occurrence of severe bleeding in comparison to the femoral approach, so far it has only been used in few centers which elected it as the preferential access. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current status of percutaneous coronary interventions in Brazil, as regards the use of the radial approach. METHODS: Analysis of data spontaneously recorded in Central Nacional de Intervenções Cardiovasculares - CENIC (National Center for Cardiovascular Interventions from 2005 to 2008, in a total of 83,376 procedures. RESULTS: The radial approach was used in 12.6% of the procedures performed, and the femoral approach, in 84.3%. The remaining 3.1% corresponded to brachial artery dissection or puncture. With a success rate of 97.5%, the choice of the radial approach was associated with a significant reduction of vascular complications in comparison to the femoral approach (2.5% versus 3.6 %, p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: The radial approach remains uncommonly used in Brazil, and this is possibly explained by the lack of training programs, uncertainties regarding the learning curve, and the lack of large-scale studies corroborating the benefits demonstrated to date.

  9. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  10. Corporate blended learning in Portugal: current status and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Marçal, J.; Caetano, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office – DGERT -) participated in this study. The results revealed that in 2007, although the predominant instructional format in Portugal was still face-to-face training (65%), e-learning at 15%...

  11. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: The current status

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Susan; Taneja, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In an era of increasing prostate cancer incidence and earlier detection, the assessment of clinical significance of prostate cancer is critical. Minimally invasive therapies are increasingly being investigated in localized prostate cancer. Methods and results In this review, we discuss the current status of magnetic resonance imaging targeted fusion prostate biopsy and focal therapy for prostate cancer, its rationale, and techniques. Conclusion Focal therapy offers a promising outlook...

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility : Benefit, Current Status and Future Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sarwar U.; Uchida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status and future trend of corporate social responsibility concept practiced by companies. In doing so, the term corporate social responsibility is defined with the regulations governing it. Then the benefits of performing such responsibilities are elaborated. Finally, the role of the public sector is discussed in assisting the business firms for practicing social responsibility. The examination of various available literatures revealed tha...

  13. Current Status of Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Joon Seong; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Dae Wook; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Cho, Jai Young; Koh, Yang-Seok; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Kim, Kyung Sik; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyung Chul; Chu, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Shik; Kim, Hong-Jin; Park, Sang Jae

    2012-01-01

    Since laparoscopic liver resection was first introduced in 2001, Korean surgeons have chosen a laparoscopic procedure as one of the treatment options for benign or malignant liver disease. We distributed and analyzed a nationwide questionnaire to members of the Korean Laparoscopic Liver Surgery Study Group (KLLSG) in order to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic liver resection in Korea. Questionnaires were sent to 24 centers of KLLSG. The questionnaire consisted of operative procedure...

  14. Oral Cancer Chernoprevention: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messadi, Diana V; Sato, Kazumichi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to review the current status of cancer chemoprevention and its effectiveness in treatment of oral premalignant lesions and prevention of their progression to oral cancer. The challenges encountered in the different oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials, including lack of surrogate endpoints, reversal of histologic premalignant changes as study endpoints, tobacco use, human papillomavirus, delivery system, adverse effects and risk of bias in clinical studies, are presented. PMID:26930753

  15. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  16. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  17. Current status of acupuncture and moxibustion in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Min Yee; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Baixiao; Ha, Lue

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion are more integrated in the Chinese healthcare system than in the national healthcare systems of other countries. Development of acupuncture and moxibustion in China is making progress in this field. For overseas researchers, this commentary offers perspectives on the current status of acupuncture and moxibustion in China and examines relevant opportunities and challenges in healthcare reforms. There has been a steady increase in the number of undergraduates and pos...

  18. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  19. Current Status of Deltabaculoviruses, Cypoviruses and Chloriridoviruses Pathogenic for Mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Becnel

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to three major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (DBVs) (Baculoviridae: Deltabaculovirus), cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This review presents an overview of the current status and recent advancements in understanding the biology and molecular features of mosquito pathogenic viruses.

  20. Current Status of Protein Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro E.M.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Summary The current status of classical force fields for proteins is reviewed. These include additive force fields as well as the latest developments in the Drude and AMOEBA polarizable force fields. Parametrization strategies developed specifically for the Drude force field are described and compared with the additive CHARMM36 force field. Results from molecular simulations of proteins and small peptides are summarized to illustrate the performance of the Drude and AMOEBA force fields. PMID:25330958

  1. Current Status of Protein Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Pedro E. M.; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    The current status of classical force fields for proteins is reviewed. These include additive force fields as well as the latest developments in the Drude and AMOEBA polarizable force fields. Parametrization strategies developed specifically for the Drude force field are described and compared with the additive CHARMM36 force field. Results from molecular simulations of proteins and small peptides are summarized to illustrate the performance of the Drude and AMOEBA force fields.

  2. Current status of protein force fields for molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro E M; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    The current status of classical force fields for proteins is reviewed. These include additive force fields as well as the latest developments in the Drude and AMOEBA polarizable force fields. Parametrization strategies developed specifically for the Drude force field are described and compared with the additive CHARMM36 force field. Results from molecular simulations of proteins and small peptides are summarized to illustrate the performance of the Drude and AMOEBA force fields. PMID:25330958

  3. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  4. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Lin, Zheng; Qiu-lin LIU

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China’s coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  5. Current research status of radioimmunotherapy monoclonal antibody drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was one of the most important progresses in the field of cancer therapy over the past 20 years. It has been successfully applied in the treatment of blood system tumors such as NHL. For the utilization of RIT in therapy of solid tumors, however, development of more effective monoclonal antibodies, labeling methods and so on are needed. The current status of radionuclides, monoclonal antibodies and drugs commonly used in the RIT were briefly reviewed. (authors)

  6. Current status of fire protection regulations for German nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating nuclear power plants in Germany have been designed and constructed in different plant generations resulting in differences in the design and layout of fire protection features. Thus, it was necessary to assess the current fire safety status of the NPP. The systematic assessment of existing plants regarding the adequacy of their implemented fire protection features has been performed by deterministic and probabilistic methods. (author)

  7. Current Status and Challenges of Cancer Clinical Trials in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Byoung Yong; Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Soonil; Kim, Jin-Soo; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer clinical trials in Korea have rapidly progressed in terms of quantity and quality during the last decade. This study evaluates the current status of cancer clinical trials in Korea and their associated problems. Materials and Methods We analyzed the clinical trials approved by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) between 2007 and 2013. A nationwide on-line survey containing 22 questions was also performed with several cooperative study groups and individual researchers...

  8. The lion in Ghana: its historical and current status

    OpenAIRE

    Angelici, F. M.; Mahama, A.; Rossi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the lion (Panthera leo) population in Ghana has been little studied and its status is poorly documented. Currently, after recent unsuccessful attempts to find signs of the presence of the species, many authors believe that the Ghanaian lion population is most likely extinct. In an attempt to gather more data, since 2005 we have been carrying out lion surveys in the most important parks and other protected areas of Ghana, mainly focusing on Mole National Park (MNP). We have also ...

  9. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. RESULTS: A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel. PMID:27336445

  10. Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations: Current status and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Y.; Bolotin, S.; Bolotina, O.; Khoda, O.; Medvedsky, M.; Sydorenko, G.; Stopkhay, Y.; Volvach, O.

    Current status and perspective of establishing the Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations (UKRGEONETWORK) is reviewed in connection with Integrated Space Geodetic Systems project. The UKRGEONETWORK consists of several stations which form GPS, SLR, and VLBI subnetworks as well as Gravimetry subsystem. Some information concerned with current activity of the UKRGEONETWORK in particular precise orbit determination in software complex Kiev-Geodynamic, ionospheric modelling in Klio program, and EOP determination on SteelBreeze software is given. Plan for upgrading the hardware of stations and for increasing the number of collocation sites is considered.

  11. Current status of percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-bo GE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for totally occluded coronary arteries.Chronic total occlusion is associated with 10%-20% of all PCI procedures.Results show that opening an occluded vessel,especially one supplying a considerable area of myocardium,may be beneficial for a patient's angina relief and heart function.We describe the devices used currently in re-canalization such as new wires,microcatheters (including Tonus and Cosair) and intravascular ultrasound guidance.Different techniques to improve the success rate and reduce complications are discussed in detail.

  12. The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chan Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

  13. Childhood obesity: Current and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Matthew A; Kiess, Wieland

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last fifty years by approximately 5% per decade, and approximately a quarter of all children are now either overweight or obese. These children have a significantly increased risk of many future health problems including adult obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Despite this relentless increase, common-sense approaches aimed at prevention and treatment have failed to solve the problem. Current approaches at prevention have faced major challenges with some progress in implementing smaller scale programs and social marketing, but little action on broad public policy approaches which often appears unpalatable to society or individual governments. Meanwhile, treatment approaches have mainly focused on lifestyle change, and novel approaches are urgently needed. Prevention needs to shift to improving maternal health prior to conception, with more research focussed on the impact of early years in programming offspring to future overweight/obesity. Likewise, treatment paradigms need to move from simply thinking that obesity can be solved by readdressing diet and activity levels. Novel approaches are needed which take into consideration the complex physiology which regulates early childhood growth and the development of obesity in susceptible individuals. PMID:26051294

  14. Current status of the PSG Monte Carlo neutron transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSG is a new Monte Carlo neutron transport code, developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The code is mainly intended for fuel assembly-level reactor physics calculations, such as group constant generation for deterministic reactor simulator codes. This paper presents the current status of the project and the essential capabilities of the code. Although the main application of PSG is in lattice calculations, the geometry is not restricted in two dimensions. This paper presents the validation of PSG against the experimental results of the three-dimensional MOX fuelled VENUS-2 reactor dosimetry benchmark. (authors)

  15. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  16. On the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi genome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLoehrer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the field of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow a more rapid access to genomes of non-model organisms at sinking costs. Accordingly, draft genomes of several economically important cereal rust fungi have been released in the last three years. Aside from the very recent flax rust and poplar rust draft assemblies there are no genomic data available for other dicot-infecting rust fungi. In this article we outline rust fungus sequencing efforts and comment on the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust genome sequencing.

  17. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  18. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  19. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  20. Current status of examinations and investigations in oxide-pyroprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide pyroprocess includes the treatment of the spent oxide fuels from LWR or FBR in high temperature molten salts using chlorine gas, followed by recovery of uranium and plutonium as the form of oxides by electro-deposition or precipitation methods. The process does not use water, this relaxing the criticality requirements resulting in compact equipment and low decontamination factor. Nuclear Power R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been working on oxide-pyroprocess these ten years in collaboration with RIAR for the development of the next generation reprocessing technology. The current status on the research will be presented. (S. Ohno)

  1. Current status and future of Mo-99 supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). AIPES Reactors and Isotopes Working Group

    2016-01-15

    The global supply of Mo-99 relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential as medical diagnostic imaging techniques using Tc-99m account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures worldwide. The short half-life's of the radioisotopes requires a continuous supply. Several severe disruptions have been experienced over the past decade. Fortunately, the situation encouraged the industry to develop new projects and new production routes. The current status of Mo-99 supply is described and the efforts made to achieve a reliable Tc-99m availability for nuclear medicine is summarized.

  2. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  3. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  4. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  5. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  6. DNA barcoding to fishes: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Manojit; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Patra, Bidhan Chandra; Sharma, Garima; Seo, Eun-Min; Nam, Ju-Suk; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2016-07-01

    DNA barcoding appears to be a promising approach for taxonomic identification, characterization, and discovery of newer species, facilitating biodiversity studies. It helps researchers to appreciate genetic and evolutionary associations by collection of molecular, morphological, and distributional data. Fish DNA barcoding, based on the sequencing of a uniform area of Cytochrome C Oxidase type I (COI) gene, has received significant interest as an accurate tool for species identification, authentication, and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this review article was to investigate recent global status, approaches, and future direction of DNA barcoding in fisheries sectors. We have tried to highlight its possible impacts, complications, and validation issues at species levels for biodiversity analysis. Moreover, an effort has been put forward to understand issues related to various marker genes associated with barcode process as primer sequences and have concluded barcode promotion as an indispensable tool of molecular biology for the development of taxonomic support systems. PMID:26057011

  7. MONK and MCBEND: Current status and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We describe recent developments to the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCBEND. • MONK is a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality and reactor physics analyses. • MCBEND is a Monte Carlo code for radiation shielding and dosimetry analyses. • Improvements include input; physics; scoring; variance reduction; and visualisation. • Parallelisation of MONK and multi-physics coupling are described. - Abstract: MONK® and MCBEND are Monte Carlo software packages for: nuclear criticality and reactor physics; and radiation shielding and dosimetry applications, respectively. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC’s ANSWERS® Software Service in line with the ANSWERS vision of providing easy-to-use software that meets the current and emerging needs of the user community. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package

  8. Review of the current status of linear hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review was made of the current status of linear fusion-fission hybrid reactor design studies in the USA. The linear hybrid reactor concepts reviewed include the linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor being studied at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, the electron beam-heated solenoid hybrid reactor under development at Physics International Co., the laser-heated solenoid hybrid reactor being investigated at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc., and the linear fusion waste burning reactor being studied at General Atomic Company. The discussion addresses confinement and heating mechanisms for each concept, as well as the hybrid blanket designs. The current state of the four reactor designs is summarized and the performance of the various concepts compared

  9. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

  10. Elementary particle physics and cosmology: current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of elementary particle physics can be briefly summarized as follows: the Standard Model of elementary particles is perfectly (at the level of radiation effects!) adequate in describing all the available experimental data except for the recent indications of neutrino oscillations. At the same time, much (and possibly most) of today's cosmology is not encompassed by the Standard Model - a fact which, together with intrinsic theoretical difficulties and the neutrino oscillation challenge, strongly indicates that the Standard Model is incomplete. It is expected that in the current decade a 'new physics', i.e. particles and interactions beyond the Standard Model, will emerge. Major advances in cosmology, both in terms of qualitatively improved observations and theoretical analysis of the structure and evolution of the Universe, are expected as well. (special issue)

  11. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  12. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  13. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  14. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    and drug regimens for anti-TB chemotherapy. There are a number of difficulties in drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with increased potential for antimycobacterial effects, excellent pharmacokinetics, and tolerability. It should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of chemotherapy of TB and MAC infections, especially that associated with HIV infection, is to develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized countries but also in developing countries, since the incidences of AIDS-associated intractable TB and MAC infections are rapidly increasing in the latter. We strongly wish a great advance of fundametal and practical studies in developing such kinds of new anti-TB drugs in the near future. 1. Prospects for non-clinical or clinical development of new antituberculous drugs in relation to corporate strategy: Kenji NAMBA (New Product Research Laboratories I, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest threats to public health. No new anti-TB drugs have been brought into the clinic in the past 40 years. Current non-clinical works with progressed technology and Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, a non-profit organization established in 2000, accelerate research and development of faster-acting anti-TB compounds. We reviewed the status of new types of compounds which are being developed as anti-TB drug, such as diarylquinoline (TMC 207), nitroimidazole (PA-824 and OPC-67683), and moxifloxacin (MFLX). We also discussed the best clinical development plans for new-TB drugs in relation to corporate strategy. 2. Exploring novel drug targets through the chemical genomics approach and its possible application to the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs: Yorimasa SUWA (Reverse Proteomics Research Institute Co., Ltd.), Yohji SUZUKI (Teijin Ltd.) Recently, chemical genomics approach has been focused as an emerging technology for the drug discovery. In advance to a very large scale

  15. [Current and future status of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegame, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell transplantation from HLA-haploidentical related donors (haploSCT) has been highlighted as an alternative donor source. The regimen consisting of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) has been highly prevalent in the US, Europe, and Japan. Considering the status overseas and the current status in Japan, we aim to show our efforts in haploSCT. We initially established the "haplo-full (original)" regimen, which was found to be excessively toxic for general use. Thus, we added ATG to diminish the GVH reaction (haplo-full with ATG). Unfortunately, "haplo-mini (original)" was found to be relatively weak against refractory diseases. Thus, we intensified the preconditioning regimen, which has enabled us to deal with refractory and post-transplant relapse (FAMC-T). One of the characteristics in haploSCT in Hyogo is the use of steroids from the beginning of SCT. The aim of this strategy is to diminish the inflammation affecting GVHD-target organs, and to suppress chemokine release. Since chemokines produced by the preconditioning regimen are well known to induce GVHD, chemokine suppression should effectively suppress GVHD development. The dependency of the GVL effect on chemokines is unclear, possibly serving as a therapeutic window to separate GVHD from the GVL effect. PMID:25876782

  16. Current status of severe acute respiratory syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.

  17. Current Soil Nutrient Status of Intensively Managed Greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yun-Cai; SONG Zhi-Wen; LU Wen-Long; C.POSCHENRIEDER; U.SCHMIDHALTER

    2012-01-01

    Nine districts covering the main greenhouse vegetable areas in Tianjin Municipality of the North China Plain were selected for the soil investigation in 2010 to survey the current soil nutrient status (soil available N,P and K),acidification and salinization due to excessive input of fertilizers in greenhouses in Tianjin. The study showed that,in particular,soil available P content increased with the age of greenhouses.In contrast,our results did not reveal higher K accumulation and lowered pH in the greenhouse soils compared with cultivation in open fields.Over-fertilization,causing high NO3- accumulation,most likely resulted in salinity problems in the greenhouses.Ninety percent of the investigated greenhouse soils had electrical conductivity values of saturated paste extracts of 2-10 d S m-1,which might affect the yields of vegetable crops like green bean,pepper,cabbage,carrot,eggplant,lettuce,spinach,celery,cucumber and tomato. The findings of our survey of the current fertility and salinity problems in greenhouse soils suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the farmers' practices and strategies in fertilization management in greenhouses of China.Because education and the agricultural technical extension services may play a more important role in avoiding overuse of fertilizers,we suggest that current nutrient management practices should be improved in the near future through training of local farmers in farmers' schools and through strengthening the agricultural extension services with practical techniques.

  18. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  19. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  20. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  1. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang ZHANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China’s coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China’s future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China’s marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  2. Current status of SK-Gd project and EGADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenyuan; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Supernova Relic Neutrino (SRN) has not been observed yet because of its low event rate and high background. By adding gadolinium into water Cherenkov detector, inverse beta decay will have two signals, the prompt one is positron signal and the delayed one is a ~8 MeV gamma cascade from neutron capture on gadolinium. By this way, background for SRN can be largely reduced by detecting prompt and delayed signals coincidently, and Super-K will also have the ability to distinguish neutrino and anti-neutrino. SK-Gd is a R&D project proposed to dissolve gadolinium into Super-K. As a part of it, EGADS, a 200 ton water Cherenkov detector was built in Kamioka mine. Current status of SK-Gd project and the physics work being performed in EGADS will be presented here.

  3. Development of Structural Materials for JSFR - Overview and Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarized the ongoing efforts regarding new core and structural materials that are to applied to the Japanese sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (JSFR) of which demonstration plant's operation is envisioned in around 2025. For core materials, oxide dispersed strengthened steel (ODS) and precipitation hardened (PH) ferritic steels will be applied. For structural materials, 316FR stainless steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel are applied. The current status alloy design, acquisition of data necessary to establish material strength standard, fabrication techniques to meet the requirements of the design of JSFR both in terms of quality and quantity, and codification of the material strength standards regarding the new materials are overviewed. Further described is path forward to the application of the materials to the JSFR. (author)

  4. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of informed consent. Descriptive statistics, the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The mean age was 8.55 ± 2 years (range: 5-12 years). Seventy-eight percent of the schoolchildren presented with a backpack overload that was greater than 10% of their body weight. No significant differences were found in relation to gender. Four out of every five schoolchildren presented with backpack overload, exposing them to a potential health problem. Education and public policy prevention strategies for this situation should be implemented in Mexico and other regions of the world with the same problem. PMID:26416767

  5. Current Status and Future Regulatory Direction on Sump Clogging Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant progress in resolving the sump clogging issue has been achieved since the USNRC Generic Letter 2004-01 was issued. In Korea, the issue was begun to be discussed in regulatory framework through safety review and plant inspection since 2005. KINS has performed the licensing review for several plants including Kori Unit 1 and SKN Units 3, 4, according to the technical requirement of USNRC. Due to the efforts from the industry side and regulatory side, the newly designed improved strainer can be installed at some plants. However, some challengeable concerns such as chemical effect and downstream effect still need a further research. The present paper is to discuss the current status of issue resolution and the related regulation based on the up-to-date achievements and review findings. Also the future regulatory direction on the new concerns related to the issue is discussed

  6. The Current Status of World Protection for Mangrove Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征云; 苏智先; 张桥英; 申爱英

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other non-forestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people.Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood products from the nangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world's mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world's mangrove forests.

  7. The current status of TRR-II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRR-II organization has been reorganized to enhance the project management and to minimize the interfaces among decommissioning, reactor reconstruction, and experimental facilities design. Several modifications suggested by the reviewing committee members to upgrade our reactor had been actualized in the present design. An extension of one year of the schedule due to the delay of old TRR removal engineering bid process was proposed by the project and approved by the authorities. The duration of the project will then be July 1998 - Dec. 2006. In the mean time, the project is able to spend more time exploring the design and construction techniques of reactor system, and training of personnel for neutron application research. The progresses of the project in the past 18 months and the current technical status of the project are described in the order of integral planning and management, TRR dismantling, TRR-II reconstruction, and TRR-II experimental facility. (orig.)

  8. Colorectal tissue engineering: prerequisites, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denost, Quentin; Adam, Jean-Philippe; Rullier, Eric; Bareille, Reine; Montembault, Alexandra; David, Laurent; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Gastrointestinal tissue engineering has emerged over the past 20 years and was often focused on esophagus, stomach or small intestine, whereas bioengineering researches of colorectal tissue are scarce. However, some promising results have been obtained in animal models. Refinements should be performed in scaffold and cell source selection to allow smooth muscle layer regeneration. Indeed, synthetic and natural polymers such as small intestinal submucosa and collagen sponge seeded with organoid units or smooth muscle cells did not allow smooth muscle regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue seeded on composite scaffold could represent an interesting way to achieve this goal. This article reviews potential indications, current status and perspectives of tissue engineering in the area of colorectal surgery. PMID:23895077

  9. The current status and future of granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of CoPtCr-SiO2 granular media is briefly reviewed, and challenges relative to media technology exceeding 1 Tb/in2 are discussed. It is effective to enhance grain isolation using oxide materials that easily precipitate at the grain boundary, and this technique is adopted in commercially available perpendicular recording media. Although some difficulties such as reduction of the grain size retaining the switching field remain, 1 Tb/in2 could be achieved by using granular exchange-coupled composite-type media or related technologies. Discrete track media could be used for more than 1 Tb/in2 recording. It could also take several years to further develop nano-processing technology and establish a cost-effective infrastructure. BPM offers great potential in achieving high recording density, although some necessary technologies are still too primitive to consider commercial production

  10. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  11. Running Vacuum in the Universe: current phenomenological status

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan

    2016-01-01

    I review the excellent phenomenological status of a class of dynamical vacuum models in which the vacuum energy density, $\\rho_{\\Lambda}=\\rho_{\\Lambda}(H)$, as a function of the Hubble rate, evolves through its interaction with dark matter and/or through the accompanying running of the gravitational coupling $G$, including the possibility of being self-conserved with a nontrivial effective equation of state. Some of these models have been used to incorporate into a single vacuum structure the rapid stage of inflation, followed by the standard radiation and cold dark matter epochs all the way down until the dark energy era. Remarkably, the running vacuum models (RVM's) render an outstanding phenomenological description of the main cosmological data at a level that is currently challenging the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model, thereby implying that present observations seem to point to a running vacuum rather than to a rigid cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in our Universe.

  12. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  13. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  14. Current research status, databases and application of single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, R; Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent form of DNA variation in the genome. SNPs are genetic markers which are bi-allelic in nature and grow at a very fast rate. Current genomic databases contain information on several million SNPs. More than 6 million SNPs have been identified and the information is publicly available through the efforts of the SNP Consortium and others data bases. The NCBI plays a major role in facillating the identification and cataloging of SNPs through creation and maintenance of the public SNP database (dbSNP) by the biomedical community worldwide and stimulate many areas of biological research including the identification of the genetic components of disease. In this review article, we are compiling the existing SNP databases, research status and their application. PMID:21717869

  15. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  16. Current Status of Gyroklystron Research at the University of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, E. S.; Lawson, W.; Hogan, B.; Bharathan, K.; Granatstein, V. L.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Maryland, we have been developing high-power coaxial gyroklystrons. Our present work is focused on the development of a 17.136 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron amplifier. This device will then be used to drive a high gradient linear accelerator structure recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. Our work has been afflicted by many technical challenges, most arising from thermal imperfections in the custom-made high current emitter of our electron gun. In our latest experimental run, instabilities were detected in the input cavity of our amplifier tube. These instabilities appear when the beam pitch ratio (α) is approximately 1, thus impeding our search of domains with higher α values (note that the circuit was designed to operate at α=1.4). In order to remedy this problem, we have radically redesigned the input cavity, changing both its geometry and Q factor. The new input cavity has been fabricated and cold-tested. It will soon undergo hot-test in the next run of experimental studies of the circuit, which will commence after an upgrade of our vacuum system. Here we present the current status of this research.

  17. Current Status of Gyroklystron Research at the University of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the University of Maryland, we have been developing high-power coaxial gyroklystrons. Our present work is focused on the development of a 17.136 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron amplifier. This device will then be used to drive a high gradient linear accelerator structure recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. Our work has been afflicted by many technical challenges, most arising from thermal imperfections in the custom-made high current emitter of our electron gun. In our latest experimental run, instabilities were detected in the input cavity of our amplifier tube. These instabilities appear when the beam pitch ratio (α) is approximately 1, thus impeding our search of domains with higher α values (note that the circuit was designed to operate at α=1.4). In order to remedy this problem, we have radically redesigned the input cavity, changing both its geometry and Q factor. The new input cavity has been fabricated and cold-tested. It will soon undergo hot-test in the next run of experimental studies of the circuit, which will commence after an upgrade of our vacuum system. Here we present the current status of this research

  18. Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed.

  19. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations. PMID:26855917

  20. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  1. Current status of Horonobe URL project in construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Horonobe URL project has been pursued by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) to establish and demonstrate site characterization methodologies, engineering technologies, and safety assessment methodologies for HLW geological disposal in relevant geological environment with sedimentary rock and saline groundwater distributing in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan. In the Horonobe URL project, surface-based investigation phase (Phase I) has already completed in the year 2005, and then construction phase (Phase II) has initiated in the same year. Currently, construction of the underground facilities such as shafts/galleries which were designed in Phase I, investigations of the geological environment in the excavated shafts/galleries and confirmation of applicability of engineering technologies has been alternately carried out as Phase II activities of the project. During the construction so far, monitoring for the construction safety such as convergence measurements, tunnel wall observation, sampling of groundwater and rock, investigations for evaluating excavation damaged/disturbed zone (EDZ/EdZ) along shafts/galleries were carried out. In addition, a shotcrete construction test and a grout injection test by using low alkaline cement material were carried in the horizontal galleries. In this paper, status of the URL construction and research activities mentioned above are outlined as the current achievement of the Horonobe URL project. (author)

  2. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  3. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  4. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a

  5. Recent developments and current status of air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -rays and since 1975 for medium-energy x-rays and 60Co-γ radiation the results represent an invaluable database which can be regarded as an indicator of the status of the air kerma standards operated worldwide. Consequently, this database and the reports of the NMIs to the CCRI(I) meetings which take place periodically every two years were used for the current status report as an essential source of information. Because different techniques are used to measure the air kerma rate of kilovoltage x-rays and 137Cs- and 60Co-γ radiation this status report is divided in this two parts. Undoubtedly, the most important new development was the re-evaluation of several correction factors required for cavity ionization chamber standards. However, there were also interesting developments using Monte Carlo techniques and spectrometry for the determination of x-ray quality dependent correction factors of FACs

  6. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  7. Solar Power – Current Status, Challenges and Policies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy is growing day by day in the whole world. The Conventional energy sources like coal and petroleum are limited. Renewable energy resources will play an important role in the future. India is situated in sunny belt India is endowed with vast solar energy potential. Government of India had launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM in 2009. The target was to start Grid connected Solar Projects of 20 GW by 2022. In May 2015 government increases the target to 100 GW by 2022. This paper provides an overview on solar energy in India. It reviews the current status of solar energy in terms of existing capacity, along with historical trends of solar energy. The paper also focuses on the technical and economical barriers and challenges for development and utilization of solar energy technology. The paper reviews existing government act and regulatory policies to support solar energy development in India. Indicating how these policies are helping in achieving their goals. Finally, a review based on of the future target of solarenergy supply has been presented.

  8. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  9. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting

  10. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

  11. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed. PMID:27520552

  12. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  13. Current Status of Manufacturing Hazardous Waste in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changqing; Zhang Jiangshan; Zhao Youcai

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to manage the manufacturing hazardous waste(MHW)whichis generated from a huge amount of complicated sources and causes very serious pollution.Therefore more and more attention has been paid to MHW pollution.shanghai,as an industrial and economic center and an intemational metropolis in China,has a vast industrial system spanning a multitude of sectors,which generates MHW not only in a huge magnitude but also in a large variety of types from complicated sourrces,resulting in severe pollution.In 2003,the production of MHW in Shanghai is about 3.96 x 10ton,involving 33 indices.Most of MHW in Shanghai is treated and disposed of,but a significant portion is not handled properly and effectively.This paper carries out in-field investigation on the current status of MHW production and treat ment in Shanghai,and puts forward scientific proposals that Shanghai should facilitate cleaner production and minimize haz ardous waste;strictly enforce hazardous waste registration system, strengthen monitoring the certified enterprises;strengthen intent disposal center construction and realize hazardous waste reclamation;accelerate establishing tlle technical criteria and the management policy,promote the research and development on the treatment and disposal technology,and strengthen information management,thus realizing integrated management on MHW pollution.

  14. Current status and prospects for development of thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with results of an analysis carried out at the VNIIM with the purpose to ascertain the current status of thermometry as well as to make an attempt to determine a line of development of this field of measurements in future. The analysis was based on a survey of 150 industrial enterprises and scientific organizations. The results of the survey showed that during two last decades the accuracy of measuring instruments used in science and industry was increased almost tenfold. However, advances in the improvement of temperature measuring instruments were achieved not owing to new principles of designing thermometers, but due to rapid development of electronics, which allowed to solve the problem of accurate measurements of resistance and electromotive force and automatize measurement information processing. In most cases the contemporary measuring instruments perfectly meet the requirements to the measurement accuracy claimed by the enterprises surveyed and are provided with a necessary metrological assurance. Although there is a general understanding of the necessity to use the thermodynamic scale rather than the conditional one, we have no objective evidence with regard to how close we have to bring the international scale used in our everyday practice to the thermodynamic scale and what will be a benefit for development of science and industry. Increasing the accuracy of national standards does not affect, as a rule, the accuracy of temperature measurements in industry and scientific research since the main contribution to a total measurement error is made by components caused by an improper measurement procedure

  15. Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

    This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

  16. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  17. The UPM high temperature solar collector current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature solar energy research at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) is an attempt to study the merits of the fixed aperture optics collector for the equatorial region using the concept of the fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF). The general objective is to look for an alternative source of clean energy and a practical method of converting this energy to usable form for the projected industrialisation program of the country. The FMDF uses a stationary hemisphere bowl to capture the solar irradiance. The UPM bowl has a rim angle of 120 0 with radius of curvature of 27.9 m. This corresponds to an aperture diameter of 48 m and submerges 5.1 m in the ground. The bowl will later be tiled with 2446 square meters of mirror to form a spherical shape. And therefore will be able to collect about 1 MW of solar irradiance at the conical focus formed along the direction of the radius (high concentrated region) which then can be harnessed by different means. In this paper, we will report the current status and future works of the project, under construction at the site. We anticipate that the project will be completed and operated by the year 2000. (Author)

  18. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  19. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  20. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  1. Radiation processing in India: Current status and future programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, six commercial Co-60 gamma irradiators and three commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 18.5x107 GBq Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/would dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  2. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  3. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  4. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, John; Constantinides, Steve

    1997-04-01

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at 3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed.

  5. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  6. The ALICE DAQ Current Status and Future Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Röhrich, D; Villalobos Baillie, O; Dénes, E; Eged, B; Sulyán, J; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Soos, C; Vissy, B; Tarján, D; Tóth, N; Novák, I; Csató, P; Rubin, G; Arregui, M; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Divià, R; Schossmaier, K; Van de Vyvre, P; Vascotto, Alessandro; Stock, Reinhard; Rademakers, F; Lindenstruth, V; Skaali, B

    2001-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for CHEP2000The ALICE DAQ system has been designed to support an aggregate eventr building bandwidth of up to 2.5 GByte/s and a storage capability o fup to 1.25 GByte/s to mass storage.A general framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system has been developed as a basis for prototyping the components of the DAQ. DATE supports a wide spectrum of configurations from simple systems to more complex systems with multiple detectors and multiple event builders.Prototypes of several key components of the ALICE DAQ have been developed and integrated with the DATE system, such as the ALICE Detector Data Link, the online data monitoring from ROOT and the interface to the Mass Storage systems. Combined tests of several of these components are pursued during the ALICE Data Challenges.The architecture of the ALICE DAQ system will be presented together with the current status of the different prototypes. The recent addition of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to ALICE h...

  7. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  8. The Current Status and Future Prospects for the GRACE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, Byron; Flechtner, Frank; Watkins, Michael; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Boening, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for over 13 years. The mission objectives are to sense the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The major cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequences which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. In 2012, the RLO5 solution, based on a complete reanalysis of the mission data, data release, was initiated. The monthly solutions from this effort were released in mid-2013 with the mean fields following in 2014 and 2015. The mission is entering the final phases of operations. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to achieve mission overlap with the GRACE Follow On Mission. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, summarize plans for the RL 06 data re-analysis, describe the issues that influence the operations philosophy and discuss the impact the operations may have on the scientific data products.

  9. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  10. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter GM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grace M Richter,1,2 Anne L Coleman11UCLA Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy; suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent; reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation; and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent. The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. Keywords: MIGS, microincisional glaucoma surgery, trabecular stent, Schlemm’s canal, suprachoroidal shunt, ab interno

  11. Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Billiard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michel BilliardDepartment of Neurology, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: The management of narcolepsy is presently at a turning point. Three main avenues are considered in this review: 1 Two tendencies characterize the conventional treatment of narcolepsy. Modafinil has replaced methylphenidate and amphetamine as the first-line treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and sleep attacks, based on randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of modafinil, but on no direct comparison of modafinil versus traditional stimulants. For cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, new antidepressants tend to replace tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in spite of a lack of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of these compounds; 2 The conventional treatment of narcolepsy is now challenged by sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of gammahydroxybutyrate, based on a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials and a long-term open label study. This treatment has a fairly good efficacy and is active on all symptoms of narcolepsy. Careful titration up to an adequate level is essential both to obtain positive results and avoid adverse effects; 3 A series of new treatments are currently being tested, either in animal models or in humans, They include novel stimulant and anticataplectic drugs, endocrine therapy, and, more attractively, totally new approaches based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy, hypocretine-based therapies, and immunotherapy.Keywords: narcolepsy, treatment, conventional drugs, modafinil, sodium oxybate, future treatments

  12. Linearized dynamical approach to current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the original motivations searching for a nonlinear chiral Lagrangian to replace the linear sigma model while manifesting all the successful properties of current algebra and partial conservation of axial currents (PCAC). (author). 26 refs

  13. Investigating Current Status of English for Academic Purposes (EAP in Iran; Revisiting ESP Specificity Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vosoughi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The EAP textbooks which are currently taught in Iranian universities don't seem to satisfy the necessary requirements current in new enquires of EAP research.  An EAP book sample from SAMT 1 publications for the students of medicine was chosen for a critical analysis on three criteria including: evaluating the objectives, reviewing the content, and evaluating the overall structure. The exploratory reviews showed that there must be major changes in EAP for medical students of SAMT to meet the specific needs of the target group above. In this article, the general status of ESP material development approaches is also depicted diachronically in order to evaluate the present situation in Iran against appropriate recent approaches towards EAP material development in the world. Recommended implications of some kind are presented throughout the various parts of the present survey.    Keywords: EAP materials, English for medical purposes (EMP, specificity continuum, material development 

  14. Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2009-07-01

    The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

  15. Current status of fast reactors and future plans in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Indian energy scenario projections for the future, the nuclear power through fast reactors is expected to play an important role of ∼ 20% of total installed capacity by 2052. Successful operation of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity Fast Breeder Test Reactor(FBTR) since 1985, strong R and D executed in multidisciplinary domain backed up by manufacturing technology and construction of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) based on indigenous design have provided high confidence on the success of sodium cooled fast reactor technology. PFBR is a pool type MoX fuelled reactor designed with 2 primary sodium pumps, 2 secondary loops, 8 single wall integrated once through steam generators, and a rectangular containment. PFBR is presently under advanced stage of construction. Beyond PFBR, it is planned to construct 6 more FBRs of 500 MWe capacity each. Towards this, a systematic road map has been drawn for improved economy and enhanced safety through a number of measures. Road map for necessary R and D and manufacturing technology has been well detailed. The major features incorporated are twin unit concept, plant life increased to 60 years in comparison to 40 years for PFBR, reduction in number of steam generators from 8 to 6, reduction in special steel specific weight requirements, integrated primary sodium purification, enhanced reliability of shutdown systems, enhanced diversity in decay heat removal systems, enhanced in-service inspection, and compact plant layout. Beyond 2025, a series of 1000 MWe capacity metallic fuel with higher breeding potential are planned. R and D activities have been systematically formulated for metallic fuel development of both sodium bonded and mechanical bonded design. The paper addresses the highlights of current operating experience of FBTR and its life extension, construction status of PFBR, and design features of future sodium cooled fast reactors in India. (author)

  16. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. PMID:26979804

  17. Analysis on Current Status and Plights of Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-wen; QIAN Feng

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine, which is a new concept appearing in the field of international medical health in the past three or four years, forms a discipline of the system medicine (including systematic pathology, diagnosis and comprehensive treatment as well as pharmacology, etc) synchronizing with personalized medicine and predictable medicine. It is a branch of medical research trying to build a better bridge between the basic studies and the clinical medical treatment. It can promote the predicative, prognostic and personalized medicines by the evaluation and application of molecular markers, the individual therapies based on molecular subtypes and the evaluation and predication of therapeutic responses and prognosis. And its purpose is to build a direct connection between basic research and clinical practice so as to transform the knowledge and achievements of basic research into new therapeutic methods in clinic, which can be used to serve the clinic and solve clinical problems. Nevertheless, the study on translational medicine is limited, and there are few review articles about the progress of translational medicine in English. With the development of innovative and new technology, the therapeutic methods become more accurate and diverse, and the translational medicine will make outstanding advances and provide more space for the future treatment of various diseases so as to better serve the clinical practices and the patients. In addition, except the outstanding achievements, there are still multiple plights in the translational medicine research. Therefore, this study aimed to review the current status and the present problems in translational medicine, hoping to expand the study outcomes in China to the whole world.

  18. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  19. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants. PMID:24649925

  20. Current status of the nuclear matter incompressibility coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the current status of the incompressibility coefficient of symmetric nuclear matter, Knm, as deduced from experimental data on excitation cross section, σ(E), of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) and the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR), by inelastic α-particle scattering, using the nonrelativistic and relativistic mean-field based random phase approximation (RPA). We will discuss the following problems: (1) Self-consistent (non-relativistic) Hartree-Fock (HF)-based RPA calculations and the need to carry out detailed and accurate calculations of the strength function distributions, S(E), and the transition densities, pt, of the isoscalar giant resonance within the HF-RPA theory. We will present results of our investigation concerning, (i) the consequences of violation of self-consistency in common applications of HF-based RPA on S(E) and p, of isoscalar giant resonances, and (ii) the effects of the spurious state mixing (SSM) on properties of the ISGDR. (2) The relation between the strength function S(E) and the excitation cross section a(E) of the isoscalar giant resonances (the ISGMR and the ISGDR, in particular) obtained by alpha-scattering. Here we present results of accurate microscopic calculations for S(E) and for σ(E), obtained within the folding-model distorted-wave-Born approximation with transition densities pt(r ) obtained from HF-RPA calculations. We provide an explanation for the discrepancy between theory and experiment concerning S(E) of the ISGDR. (3) The apparent discrepancy of about 20 % in the value of Knm as predicted by the relativistic and the non-relativistic models. Our investigation suggests that this discrepancy is mainly due to the different values of the symmetry energy coefficient employed in the relativistic and the non-relativistic models

  1. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  2. Current status and future of utilization in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In research reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), JRR-3 was upgraded (so called JRR-3M) with irradiation facilities and neutron beam experimental facilities. Particularly the new supply of cold neutrons brings to a great increase of fields of utilization in research reactors of JAERI. In JRR-4, it is planned to reduce the fuel enrichment and to renew several utilization facilities in several years. JRR-2 will be shut down also in several years because of its superannuation. On the other hand most research reactors of other institutes in Japan have faced with their superannuation and the difficulties of refurbishment or upgrading as well as new construction because of the changes of environmental condition such as urbanization of their surroundings. The research reactors in JAERI will play more important role for research and development using neutrons in future than past and present. Therefore the investigation was made in order to catch the needs for utilization of research reactors. The results of this investigation show that there are many research institutes which hope to utilize research reactors in accordance with the increase of available fields such as research of high polymer, biology, industrial materials and components, and contribution to environmental investigation by using neutron scattering, neutron radiography and activation analysis. This means that the research reactor utilization will be able to contribute to general scientific fields as well as utilization for research and development of nuclear energy which have been popular as utilization of research reactors. In this presentation, the current status of utilization of research reactors in JAERI and utilization fields of research reactors expected in future based on the investigation are described. It is also discussed what is important for the utilization to use effectively the research reactors in JAERI. (author)

  3. Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-DAN CHEN; LIN-HUA TANG; LONG-QI XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.

  4. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining currently... not counted as part of the 13-quarter period. We do not count as part of the 13-quarter period...

  5. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  6. Metagenomics and Bioinformatics in Microbial Ecology: Current Status and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Yang, Ching-chia; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches are now commonly used in microbial ecology to study microbial communities in more detail, including many strains that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory. Bioinformatic analyses make it possible to mine huge metagenomic datasets and discover general patterns that govern microbial ecosystems. However, the findings of typical metagenomic and bioinformatic analyses still do not completely describe the ecology and evolution of microbes in their environments. Most analyses still depend on straightforward sequence similarity searches against reference databases. We herein review the current state of metagenomics and bioinformatics in microbial ecology and discuss future directions for the field. New techniques will allow us to go beyond routine analyses and broaden our knowledge of microbial ecosystems. We need to enrich reference databases, promote platforms that enable meta- or comprehensive analyses of diverse metagenomic datasets, devise methods that utilize long-read sequence information, and develop more powerful bioinformatic methods to analyze data from diverse perspectives. PMID:27383682

  7. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques. PMID:27455927

  8. Current Status of Obstetric Anaesthesia: Improving Satisfaction and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sudharma Ranasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reported in 2003 that although the maternal mortal-ity rate has decreased by 99% since 1900, there has been no further decrease in the last two decades [1] . A more recent report indicates a rate of 11.8 per 100,000 live births [2] , although anaesthesia-related maternal mortality and morbidity has considerably decreased over the lastfew decades. Despite the growing complexity of problems and increasing challenges such as pre-existing maternal disease, obesity, and the increasing age of pregnant mothers, anaesthesia related maternal mortality is extremely rare in the developed world. The current safety has been achievedthrough changes in training, service, technical advances and multidisciplinary approach to care. The rates of general anaesthesia for cesarean delivery have decreased and neuraxial anaesthetics have become the most commonly used techniques. Neuraxial techniques are largely safe and effective, but potential complications, though rare, can be severe.

  9. Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Christopher J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With recent improvement in hardware and software techniques, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA has undergone significant changes in technique and approach. The advent of 3.0 T magnets has allowed reduction in exogenous contrast dose without compromising overall image quality. The use of novel intravascular contrast agents substantially increases the image windows and decreases contrast dose. Additionally, the lower risk and cost in non-contrast enhanced (NCE MRA has sparked renewed interest in these methods. This article discusses the current state of both contrast-enhanced (CE and NCE-MRA. New CE-MRA methods take advantage of dose reduction at 3.0 T, novel contrast agents, and parallel imaging methods. The risks of gadolinium-based contrast media, and the NCE-MRA methods of time-of-flight, steady-state free precession, and phase contrast are discussed.

  10. Current status of treatments for dyslexia: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ann W; Slinger-Constant, Anne-Marie

    2004-10-01

    The acquisition of reading is a complex neurobiologic process. Identifying the most effective instruction and remedial intervention methods for children at risk of developing reading problems and for those who are already struggling is equally complex. This article aims to provide the clinician with a review of more current findings on the prevention and remediation of reading problems in children, along with an approach to considering the diagnosis and treatment of a child with dyslexia. The first part of the review describes interventions targeted at preventing reading difficulties in the at-risk younger child. The second part of the review discusses the efficacy of approaches to treat the older, reading-disabled child ("intervention studies"). Factors that impact the response to treatment are also discussed, as are neuroimaging studies that offer insight into how the brain responds to treatment interventions. With appropriate instruction, at-risk readers can become both accurate and fluent readers. In contrast, although intensive, evidence-based remedial interventions can markedly improve reading accuracy in older, reading-disabled children, they have been significantly less effective in closing the fluency gap. Owing to the dynamic course of language development and the changes in language demands over time, even after a child has demonstrated a substantial response to treatment interventions, his or her subsequent progress should be carefully tracked to ensure optimal progress toward the development of functional reading and written language skills. PMID:15559890

  11. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  12. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  13. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  14. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  15. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  16. Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source: current status and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV/ soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1999. Indus-2 is designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA operation and is operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA since March 2010 in 24x7 mode and a beam lifetime of about 22 hrs has been achieved. Operation at 2.5 GeV and 100 mA has recently been demonstrated with the addition of in-house developed solid state RF amplifiers. Indus-2 can accommodate 21 bending magnet (BM) and 5 insertion device (ID) beamlines. Sixteen BM beamlines have been planned and six BM beamlines namely i) Angle Dispersive XRD ii) Energy dispersive XRD iii) Energy dispersive EXAFS iv) Soft and deep x-ray lithography v) X-ray fluorescence micro-probe and vi) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy beamlines have been commissioned. These are being used by researchers from different universities, national institutes and laboratories for carrying out several investigations. Two more beamlines namely 'Grazing incidence x-ray scattering' and 'Protein crystallography' are nearing commissioning. A number of materials research related problems have been investigated using these beamlines and several papers have already been published. Here we will report on the current status of the source, details of the beamlines already operational, beamlines to be commissioned soon and several up-gradation schemes that are being planned. Five IDs consisting of two soft x-ray planar undulators, one superconducting wavelength shifter / wiggler, one APPLE II soft x-ray helical undulator and one hard x-ray undulator will be installed during the next few years. Three new ID based beamli-nes for Atomic and Molecular physics, Angle integrated / Angle resolved PES and Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments will be commissioned.

  17. Current Status of the New Antiepileptic Drugs in Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Harpreet S.; Sadhotra, Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine, and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review, we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder should be

  18. Oilfield microseismic monitoring - current status, challenges and opportunties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, A.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last 5-10 years microearthquake (microseismic) imaging has become an important diagnostic technique in the hydrocarbons industry. It is most commonly used for the 3D time-lapse imaging of fracture system development during high-pressure and flowrate hydraulic-fracturing operations, where it is commonly referred to as "frac-mapping". The technique has also seen less wide-spread, but increasing, usage in the long-term monitoring of primary-recovery (ie pressure depletion), the injection of water/steam/gas for secondary-recovery and also for subsurface disposal/storage (eg water/drill-cuttings/H2S/CO2). A significant turning point for microseismic monitoring was the successful imaging of the complex fracturing resulting from the stimulation of the Barnet Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Microseismic imaging was quickly recognized as the only technology that could provide detailed spatial-temporal information on the fracturing process, and significantly aided the development of sophisticated horizontal well completions. The commercial value of microseismic derived fracture properties, such as growth direction, height and length, has subsequently been recognized in shale and coal-seam gas developments throughout North America, and the rest of the world. The initial uptake and early development of this geophysical technology is however somewhat unusual in that it was largely driven by reservoir engineers, and is typically applied in non-ideal geophysical (wellsite) conditions, and also necessitates near real-time processing and interpretation. The geophysical problems typically faced in frac-mapping include limited network geometry, relatively poor data quality (due to small event magnitudes and ambient noise), automated processing requirements, velocity model uncertainty and incomplete geomechanical understanding of the source mechanism. Nonetheless it is an important and widely used technique. The paper considers the current status of microseismic monitoring in

  19. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  20. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  1. DBS in tourette syndrome: rationale, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Vandewalle, V

    2007-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in early childhood and characterized by tics, often associated with behavioural abnormalities. Symptoms often disappear before or during adulthood. Treatment consists of psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. A small percentage of patients is treatment refractory. After the introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus as a new therapeutical approach in 1999, several other brain nuclei have been targeted in a small number of patients, like the globus pallidus internus, anteromedial and ventroposterolateral part, and the nucleus accumbens. In the published reports, a tic reduction rate of at least 66% is described. The effects of DBS on associated behavioural disorders are more variable. The number of treated patients is small and it is unclear whether the effects of DBS are dependent on the target nucleus. The pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome is not well understood. On the basis of our current knowledge of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, an explanation for the beneficial effects of DBS on tics is proposed. It is concluded that a meticulous evaluation of the electrode position, and a blinded assessment of the clinical effects on tics and behavioural disorders, is absolutely mandatory in order to identify the best target of DBS for Tourette syndrome. PMID:17691307

  2. Operational validation - current status and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of nuclear plant systems and operational practices is based on the application of multiple defenses to minimize the risk of occurrence of safety and production challenges and upsets. With such an approach, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of design and operational features in preventing upset challenges should be known. A longstanding industry concern is the adverse impact errors in human performance can have on plant safety and production. To minimize the risk of error occurrence, designers and operations staff routinely employ multiple design and operational defenses. However, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of defensive features in minimizing error occurrence are generally only known in a qualitative sense. More importantly, the margins to error or upset occurrence provided by combinations of design or operational features are generally not characterized during design or operational validation. This paper provides some observations and comments on current validation practice as it relates to operational human performance concerns. The paper also discusses opportunities for future improvement in validation practice in terms of the resilience of validation results to operating changes and characterization of margins to safety or production challenge. (author)

  3. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  4. Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Takafumi

    2009-02-01

    Standard definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer consists of whole pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). In Japan, high-dose-rate ICBT (HDR-ICBT) has been utilized in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Several randomized clinical trials demonstrated that HDR-ICBT achieved comparative outcomes, both for pelvic control and incidences of late complications, to low-dose-rate (LDR) ICBT. In addition, HDR-ICBT has some potential advantages over LDR-ICBT, leading to further improvement in treatment results. Prior to the current computer planning systems, some excellent treatment planning concepts were established. At present, systems modified from these concepts, or novel approaches, such as image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) are under investigation. One serious problem to be solved in HDR-ICBT for cervical cancer is that of the discrepancy in standard treatment schedules for combination HDR-ICBT and EBRT between the United States and Japan. Prospective studies are ongoing to assess the efficacy and toxicity of the Japanese schedule. PMID:19225920

  5. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All 7 panel members were present, together with 17 other individuals with various responsibilities and interests in the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN). Status reports were presented to the panel by the five US evaluation centers, located at Brookhaven (BNL), Idaho Falls (INEL), Berkeley (LBL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and the University of Pennsylvania. The reports from the centers outlined the status of their mass chain evaluations and of a number of other projects related to this work; these areas are discussed in more detail in this report

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. Current status of Russian Evaluated Neutron Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of Russian Evaluated Data Libraries is discussed. The last modifications of the BROND-2 files and their relations to the additional files of the FOND library and the ABBN-90 group constants are considered. The main characteristics of new libraries for the photoneutron data, dosimetry and activation reaction cross sections and transmutation cross sections for intermediate energies are described briefly. (author)

  12. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Elmberg, Johan; Fox, Anthony David; Holmqvist, Niklas; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindström, Åke; Nilsson, Leif; Pöysä, Hannu; Sigfússon, Arnór Þórir; Svenning, J.-C.

    Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find...

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  18. Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna; Magnusson, Kerstin;

    Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic....

  19. Current Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Koido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. As the vast majority of patients are diagnosed at advanced stage of the disease, only a small population is curative by surgical resection. Although gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is typically offered as standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 6 months. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Pancreatic cancer cells that develop gemcitabine resistance would still be suitable targets for immunotherapy. Therefore, one promising treatment approach may be immunotherapy that is designed to target pancreatic-cancer-associated antigens. In this paper, we detail recent work in immunotherapy and the advances in concept of combination therapy of immunotherapy and chemotherapy. We offer our perspective on how to increase the clinical efficacy of immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Current Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jianlin Gong; Shigeo Koido; Hisao Tajiri; Hideo Komita; Masaki Ito; Kan Uchiyama; Kenichi Satoh; Keisuke Nagatsuma; Hiroshi Matsudaira; Toyokazu Yukawa; Shunichi Odahara; Jimi Mitobe; Yoshihisa Namiki; Shintaro Tsukinaga; Akitaka Takahara

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. As the vast majority of patients are diagnosed at advanced stage of the disease, only a small population is curative by surgical resection. Although gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is typically offered as standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 6 months. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Pancreatic cancer cells that develop gemcitabine resistance would still be suitable targets for immuno...

  1. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  2. Low Back Pain: Current Surgical Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Santosh; Treon, Katrina; Craig, Niall John Angus

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a worldwide phenomenon. The UK studies place LBP as the largest single cause of absence from work; up to 80% of the population will experience LBP at least once in their lifetime. Most individuals do not seek medical care and are not disabled by their pain once it is managed by nonoperative measures. However, around 10% of patients go on to develop chronic pain. This review outlines the basics of the traditional approach to spinal surgery for chronic LBP secondary to os...

  3. Current approaches in atrial fibrillation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Sarı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. Its incidence increases with age. AF is classified into subtypes according to the duration and/or able to provide sinus rhytym. İnitially, patients should be evaluated for rhythm or rate control for appropriate treatment. Second stage of strategy aimed to investigate the feasibility of anticoagulation therapy. Recently, due to the progress made in treatment with rhythm control and anticoagulation therapy, either American or European guidelines have been renovated. These developments have taken place in the newly published guide. In this article, the current change in the management of AF is discussed.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  19. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  20. Review and current status of hepatobiliary imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review will outline aspects of the normal hepatobiliary anatomy and physiology relevant to an understanding of cholescintigraphy and discuss factors of hepatobiliary diseases which impact on the design of new hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals. The synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and structure-distribution relationship of the existing /sup 99m/Tc hepatobiliary agents will be compared, and the clinical status of present cholescintigraphic agents will be summarized. Future trends in the design and use of hepatobiliary tracers will be presented

  1. Current status of the near surface repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

  2. The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion's share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes

  3. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met on April 6, 1979, to review the present status of nuclear data compilations. The following topics are addressed in this report: A-chain situation; ENSDF, Nuclear Structure Reference Files, and Recent References; Handbook of the Nuclides; and charged particle nuclear data. The panel made 13 recommendations, probably the most forceful being its recommendation against the use of data from unreferenced journals in ENSDF. 1 table

  4. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  5. Tiagabine: efficacy and safety in partial seizures – current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Bauer, Déirdre Cooper-MahkornDepartment of Epileptology, Bonn University Hospital, GermanyAbstract: Tiagabine hydrochloride (TGB is a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA reuptake inhibitor. TGB is effective as an add-on medication in adults and children 12 years and older in the treatment of partial seizures. Results of nonrandomized add-on trials with TGB show treatment success with seizure reduction of at least 50% in 33% to 46% of patients. In newly diagnosed patients with partial epilepsy, TGB monotherapy was as effective as carbamazepine. Comedication with TGB elevates the risk of nonconvulsive status (7.8% vs 2.7% without TGB. The most common side effects include dizziness/lightheadedness, asthenia/lack of energy and somnolence. TGB has no negative effects on cognition; it does not increase the risk of fractures or rash. TGB may interfere with color perception. TGB presents an intermediate risk for depression in patients with epilepsy (approximately 4%. Regarding the risk of overdose, 96–680 mg TGB (mean 224 mg caused seizures or coma. TGB is an antiepileptic drug exhibiting a specific anticonvulsive mechanism of action, the efficacy of which is relatively low when used in comedication. Critical side effects, such as the induction of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, further limit its use.Keywords: epilepsy, tiagabine, antiepileptic drugs, status epilepticus, pharmacotherapy

  6. Current therapeutic approaches for plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicolò Martinelli, Carlo Bonifacini, Giovanni RomeoDepartment of Ankle and Foot Surgery, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Almost 1 million Americans are affected by plantar fasciitis (PF, which is the commonest cause of chronic heel pain. This condition is often managed conservatively, and many rehabilitation protocols, some with the aid of orthoses, have been adopted, with good-to-excellent clinical results. Although most cases of chronic PF can be successfully managed with a conservative approach, alternative treatments, including high-energy shock wave therapy and corticosteroid injections, are commonly accepted as second-line treatment when traditional conservative therapy fails. However, surgery is still an important mode of treatment. Recently, new minimally invasive surgical techniques that offer numerous advantages (faster recovery time, early weight-bearing, lower postoperative pain over standard surgical approaches have been proposed, with good results and low complication rates. The purpose of this review is to report new conservative and surgical techniques for the treatment of PF. A literature search for articles about plantar fasciitis was conducted on the PubMed database in order to identify publications addressing the treatments of PF. The literature suggests that, initially, traditional conservative treatments consisting of rest, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, foot orthotics, and stretching exercises can be tried for several weeks. In patients with chronic recalcitrant PF, extracorporeal shock wave therapy or corticosteroid injection can be considered. Surgery (minimally invasive techniques should be considered only after failure of the conservative treatments.Keywords: heel pain, surgery, plantar fasciosis

  7. Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça; de Sousa, Jacqueline Martins; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Belfort, Rubens

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye. PMID:25081064

  8. Current Approaches in Cardio-Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, burden of cardiac and kidney diseases throughout the world is increasing. Studies show that the coexistence of both diseases contributes to increased mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs. One of the major challenges facing health systems today is to prevent cardio-renal syndrome and provide quality health services to individuals with cardio-renal syndrome. The and #8220;cardio-renal syndrome and #8221; is a general term to describe different clinical conditions in which heart and kidney dysfunctions coexist. Although the incidence of cardio-renal syndrome is increasing, the evidences are limited about its pathophysiology and effective management. Severe problems may occur due to the interaction of neurohumoral, hemodynamic, and other less known factors in patients with cardio-renal syndrome. Therefore, the management of cardio-renal syndrome requires a multidisciplinary, mutifaceted and patient-centred approach. The most recent developments on the definition, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prevention and management strategies of cardio-renal syndrome are discussed in this revie. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 335-344

  9. CURRENT APPROACHES TO CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Choinzonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade malignant gliomas (WHO grade G III–IV account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. Despite aggressive treatment, survival rates are still very low with a median reported survival of no more than 1.5 years.Radiation therapy is an integral part of the combined treatment, but often does not influence lethally on resistant tumor cells. Thereby, in recent decades there has been an active search for novel approaches to the treatment of malignant gliomas (chemotherapeutic drugs, biological modifiers, local hyperthermia. Experimental data showed that the effect of high temperatures has both a direct damaging effect on tumor cells and a sensitizing effect. Significant advantages are achieved when the complex treatment of different malignant tumorsincludes local hyperthermia. However data on the treatment of patients with primary and recurrent gliomas G III–IV using local hyperthermia are scarce.The literature review is given in the article provides an overview of the existing treatment methods for brain tumors.

  10. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  11. Current status and prospects of U.S. nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the U.S. nuclear enterprise is considered followed by a summary of the advanced light water reactor program. Several selected national policy issues are discussed which include high level nuclear waste management, disposition of excess weapons plutonium, and economic deregulation and competition. A summary of the following three technical issues: (1) plant aging and license renewal, (2) regulatory guidance being developed for digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, and (3) risk-informed performance based regulation is provided. A rather philosophical perspective on the topic of safety and compliance is also provided

  12. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.;

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  13. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  14. The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

  15. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  16. Alloy 800 SG tubing: current status and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    probability that a corrosive environment could occur (electrochemical potential and pH), and how corrosive the environment might be in terms of corrosion current (corrosion rate). Laboratory studies have been carried out over a range of potential and pH, and it is possible to calculate crevice chemistries expected in operating SGs, for instance from SG blowdown chemistry or hideout return data. However, verification that these calculations are actually truly representative of in-service conditions inside SG crevices has not been possible, and SG-specific assumptions have to be made as to the range of pH and potential that could occur if a probabilistic approach is to be attempted. This paper briefly summarizes the operating history of Alloy 800 in SG service, some recent R and D knowledge to date, and linkage of this knowledge to the operating requirements, including risk management, for operation beyond the original design life. (author)

  17. Alloy 800 SG tubing: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L.; Lu, Y.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Pandey, M.D. [Univ. of Waterloo, Inst. for Risk Research, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    probability that a corrosive environment could occur (electrochemical potential and pH), and how corrosive the environment might be in terms of corrosion current (corrosion rate). Laboratory studies have been carried out over a range of potential and pH, and it is possible to calculate crevice chemistries expected in operating SGs, for instance from SG blowdown chemistry or hideout return data. However, verification that these calculations are actually truly representative of in-service conditions inside SG crevices has not been possible, and SG-specific assumptions have to be made as to the range of pH and potential that could occur if a probabilistic approach is to be attempted. This paper briefly summarizes the operating history of Alloy 800 in SG service, some recent R and D knowledge to date, and linkage of this knowledge to the operating requirements, including risk management, for operation beyond the original design life. (author)

  18. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  19. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL FOR PRIMARY ACL REPAIR

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    ACL rupture occurs in hundreds of thousands active adolescents and young adults each year. Despite current treatment, post-traumatic osteoarthritis following these injuries is commonplace within a decade of injury in these young patients. Thus, there is widespread clinical and scientific interest in improving patient outcomes and preventing osteoarthritis. The current emphasis on the removal of the torn ACL and subsequent replacement with a tendon graft (ACL reconstruction) stems from adheren...

  20. International tourism demand in Macedonia: Current status and estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to investigate current international tourism demand in Macedonia, as well as to make an attempt to forecast it in a short-term horizon by 2014. For this purpose, the past and current patterns are based on stylized facts obtained from secondary data spreading over a sample period from 2000-2011. Furthermore, the estimation of future trends is based on Box-Jenkins methodology. Several alternative specifications were introduced and upon the outcomes of standard indicators for accu...

  1. The MiMeS Project: Overview and Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Bohlender, D A; Bouret, J -C; Cohen, D; Duez, V; Gagné, M; Grunhut, J; Henrichs, H F; Hill, N; Kochukhov, O; Mathis, S; Neiner, C; Oksala, M; Owocki, S; Petit, V; Shultz, M; Rivinius, T; Townsend, R; Vink, J S

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among many of the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. At the time of writing, MiMeS Large Programs have acquired over 950 high-resolution polarised spectra of about 150 individual stars with spectral types from B5-O4, discovering new magnetic fields in a dozen hot, massive stars. The quality of this spectral and magnetic mat\\'eriel is very high, and the Collaboration is keen to connect with colleagues capable of exploiting the data in new or unforeseen ways. In this paper we review the structure of the MiMeS observing programs and report the status of observations, data modeling and development of related theory.

  2. Current Status of the GRACE Follow-On Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael; Flechtner, Frank; Webb, Frank; Landerer, Felix; Grunwald, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE Follow-On Mission has now advanced to the Assembly and Test Phase with the delivery of essentially all satellite subsystems and science instruments. As of the time of this abstract submission, the team continues to plan launch in 2017. The project team is conducting tests of satellite and instrument operation and performance and putting together updated simulations of expected performance on-orbit, including intersatellite ranging (both microwave and laser), accelerometer, thermal variability and deformation, and other errors. In addition, all required ground analysis software of the Science Data System is in development and testing at JPL, The UTCSR, and GFZ, in preparation for fully integrated end-to-end (international) testing from Level-1 through Level-3 data in the coming year. In this presentation, we will provide the detailed status of project integration and test, the latest simulations of science performance, and schedule for remaining project milestones.

  3. Current status of a low-energy photon transport benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattered-energy spectra of monochronized synchrotron-radiation photons toward 90 deg C by samples (C, Cu, Pb) were measured using high-purity Ge detectors. The incident photons were in a linearly polarised beam of 20, 30 and 40 keV. To investigate the validity of the EGS4 code regarding photon transport in the keV region, we performed systematic comparisons of measurements and EGS4. EGS4 calculations were performed in default status and with improvements of low-energy photon transport (linearly polarised photon scattering, Doppler broadening, L-X and K-X). The measurement and calculations were compared in absolute values. Both the intensity and the shape of the peaks were compared. EGS4 calculations with improvements in low-energy photon transport agreed well with the measurements. (authors)

  4. HappyFace - current status and future development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

  5. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations. PMID:20060268

  6. Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

  7. Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.)

  8. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  9. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  10. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  11. Current status of rabies and prospects for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Anthony R; Banyard, Ashley C; Horton, Daniel L; Johnson, Nicholas; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Jackson, Alan C

    2014-10-11

    Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case-fatality rate approaching 100%. The disease is established on all continents apart from Antarctica; most cases are reported in Africa and Asia, with thousands of deaths recorded annually. However, the estimated annual figure of almost 60,000 human rabies fatalities is probably an underestimate. Almost all cases of human rabies result from bites from infected dogs. Therefore, the most cost-effective approach to elimination of the global burden of human rabies is to control canine rabies rather than expansion of the availability of human prophylaxis. Mass vaccination campaigns with parenteral vaccines, and advances in oral vaccines for wildlife, have allowed the elimination of rabies in terrestrial carnivores in several countries worldwide. The subsequent reduction in cases of human rabies in such regions advocates the multidisciplinary One Health approach to rabies control through the mass vaccination of dogs and control of canine populations. PMID:24828901

  12. NN Interaction JISP16: Current Status and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur E.A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss realistic nonlocal NN interactions of a new type — J -matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP. In an ab exitu approach, these interactions are fitted to not only two-nucleon data (NN scattering data and deuteron properties but also to the properties of light nuclei without referring to three-nucleon forces. We discuss recent progress with the ab initio No-core Shell Model (NCSM approach and respective progress in developing ab exitu JISP-type NN -interactions together with plans of their forthcoming improvements.

  13. Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

  14. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-06-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  15. Efficient Estimation for Semiparametric Varying Coefficient Partially Linear Regression Models with Current Status Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Hu; Heng-jian Cui; Xing-wei Tong

    2009-01-01

    This article considers a semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear regression model with current status data. The semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear regression model which is a gen-eralization of the partially linear regression model and varying-coefficient regression model that allows one to explore the possibly nonlinear effect of a certain covariate on the response variable. A Sieve maximum likelihood estimation method is proposed and the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are discussed. Under some mild conditions, the estimators are shown to be strongly consistent. The convergence rate of the estima-tor for the unknown smooth function is obtained and the estimator for the unknown parameter is shown to be asymptotically efficient and normally distributed. Simulation studies are conducted to examine the small-sample properties of the proposed estimates and a real dataset is used to illustrate our approach.

  16. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  17. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  18. Current status of the hydrogeology for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems

  19. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties

  20. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  1. Current status of neutron therapy. The physical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, A.; Schmidt, R.

    1988-12-01

    Current methods of generating high-energy neutrons are explained as far as relevant for clinical radiotherapy. The neutron generator of the clinical center in Hamburg-Eppendorf is taken as an example to show the significance of physical parameters, measuring quantities and beam characteristics with regard to radiation therapy and irradiation planning.

  2. Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5α-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

  3. Current status of demonstration for stationary fuel cell in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.R. [Korea Gas Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of). Research and Development Div.

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the Korean Government launched the Residential Fuel Cell Monitoring Project to address the barriers to the widespread commercialization of fuel cells for residential power generation (RPG). This presentation reviewed the status on the development and dissemination of the residential fuel cell in Korea, with particular reference to a domestically developed proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell for RPG. The purpose of the project was to find a commercial product that is suitable to Korean life style and to solve reliability issues regarding grid connection. The paper showed that although residential fuel cell systems are available in Korea, their capital cost remains high and system durability is not sufficient. This large-scale demonstration test project for residential fuel cell systems was launched in an effort to reduce the cost to levels that are acceptable for wide scale use. A total of 210 unit were tested in order to evaluate the technical level and to investigate the problems that must be solved for mass market introduction.

  4. Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

  5. Current status of sentinel node biopsy in urological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedhelm Wawroschek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Like in most other malignancies the lymph node status is of outstanding prognostic relevance and an important tool for the determination of adjuvant strategies for urological tumor entities, too. Even in the era of PET/CT and MRI with iron oxid nano-particles the radiological imaging technology is strongly limited in cases of metastases smaller than 5 mm. Therefore only the operative lymph node exploration is suitable for an exact lymph node staging. The dilemma, however, is that the extended lymphadenectomy techniques feature a high morbidity and that any limitation of the dissection area results in a reduced detection rate of metastases in penile and prostate cancer. In contrast the sentinel- guided lymphadenectomy (SLND offers a short operation time and a low morbidity without the risk of a significantly reduced detection of lymph node positive patients. As a consequence of many published papers dealing with a few thousands of patients the European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines recommend the SLND in penile cancer (tumor stages ≥ T1G2 and as an option in prostate cancer. The latest studies of bladder, renal cell and testicular cancer promise the feasibility for these tumor entities, too. Up to which extend these thera- peutic concepts are able to replace or at least complement the default therapeutic procedures has to be shown in further studies.

  6. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. [Current status of dementia in admitions to national leprosariums nationwide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asako; Watanabe, Kyoko; Yoshimura, Tachiko; Date, Kayoko; Yamashita, Kiyomi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to get an overview of the following aspects of people admitted to 13 national leprosariums in Japan: the prevalence of dementia, medical and nursing systems, and facilities and equipment. Subjects included 1733 people admitted to wards for patients or disabled people in these leprosariums. Subjects were examined for cognitive function using Nishimura's behavioral rating scale for the mental states of the elderly (NMS), and for the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We also investigated medical and nursing systems, facilities and equipment, and status of nursing education. The results showed that, 288 subjects (16.6%) had a diagnosis of dementia. According to the NMS, 47.5% of the subjects were categorized as mild to severe dementia, while cognitive dysfunction was observed in 63.5% if borderline cases were included. Non-specialist physicians managed 30.8% of the subjects in 4 institutions, and there were no certified nurses specialized in dementia management. Results from this study suggest that there is need for the placement of dementia specialists', improvement of specialized medical services, and human resource development of specialized nurses in leprosariums where many elderly people live. PMID:25826850

  8. Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Its Prevention by Nrf2: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM, as one of the major cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is known to related with oxidative stress that is due to a severe imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS generation and their clearance by antioxidant defense systems. Transcription factor nuclear factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 plays an important role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. Diabetes may up-regulate several antioxidants in the heart as a compensative mechanism at early stage, but at late stage, diabetes not only generates extra ROS and/or RNS but also impairs antioxidant capacity in the heart, including Nrf2. In an early study, we have established that Nrf2 protect the cardiac cells and heart from high level of glucose in vitro and hyperglycemia in vivo, and in the following study demonstrated the significant down-regulation of cardiac Nrf2 expression in diabetic animals and patients. Using Nrf2-KO mice or Nrf2 inducers, blooming evidence has indicated the important protection by Nrf2 from cardiac pathogenesis in the diabetes. Therefore, this brief review summarizes the status of studies on Nrf2's role in preventing DCM and even other complications, the need for new and safe Nrf2 inducer screening and the precaution for the undesirable side of Nrf2 under certain conditions.

  9. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  10. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  11. Current status of LILW repository site selection process in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia, as a radioactive waste producer, needs a permanent solution for different types of radioactive waste. In the first place a repository for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) should be constructed. This is specially true because of the shortage of storage space in LILW storage at NPP in Krsko. It has been estimated that at the same rate of waste production the storage will be fully occupied in few years. By further improvements in waste treatment and reduction of waste it is expected to extend the storage operation and to gain some additional time for LILW repository construction. Therefore, the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) which was founded by the Slovenian Government with the assignment to provide conditions for final disposal of radioactive waste, decided to start with works for the LILW disposal. The most sensitive and delicate phase of the disposal project is the site selection. After the failure of first site selection for LILW repository performed between 1990 -1993 by using technical approach with 43 obligatory criteria, ARAO was urged to re-initiate siting based on new findings. The detail analysis of the experiences in the previous LILW repository siting showed that the main reason for the failure of the siting project was inadequate public participation. Information about the project was not sufficient, public participation in site selection process was not established and the representatives of local communities were not regularly informed about the results. Due to insufficient public involvement in the process which is one of the crucial elements of risk perceived projects, public acceptance was not achieved. A new approach to the site selection process known also as combined approach incorporates besides technical screening also negotiations with the host area/community and other elements of public participation which guarantee high public involvement. In the first phase cabinet investigations and rough technical screening of the

  12. Current status and burning issues in immunotoxicity testing of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides pathology endpoints, additional immune function endpoints have been included in the Note for Guidance on Repeated Dose Toxicity by the European Union (July 2001), which concern the analysis of antibody responses to a T-cell-dependent antigen. Guidance papers of other regulatory authorities are published as well. The main issue is the need for functional immunotoxicity testing to detect unintended immunosuppression. The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) has surveyed studies from the files of the pharmaceutical industry to find the proportion of compounds that can be detected by additional immunotoxicity testing. Preliminary analysis shows that 10-15% of the compounds in the survey only react positively to the additional tests. More data are requested from the pharmaceutical industry. The Expert Working Group of the ICH has decided to choose a cause-for-concern approach to immmunotoxicity rather than a routine-screening approach. The causes for concern are to be defined during ICH negotiations

  13. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Yan Gong; Tai eWang

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over...

  14. Current Status and Advances in Quantitative Proteomic Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie C. Wasinger; Zeng, Ming; Yau, Yunki

    2013-01-01

    The accurate quantitation of proteins and peptides in complex biological systems is one of the most challenging areas of proteomics. Mass spectrometry-based approaches have forged significant in-roads allowing accurate and sensitive quantitation and the ability to multiplex vastly complex samples through the application of robust bioinformatic tools. These relative and absolute quantitative measures using label-free, tags, or stable isotope labelling have their own strengths and limitations. ...

  15. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages ov...

  16. Chemopreventive Herbal Anti-Oxidants: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rachana; Garg, Rachana; Erande, Suvarna; B. Maru, Girish

    2007-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is fast becoming a lucrative approach for controlling cancer. Carcinogenesis being a complex multi-step, multi-factorial process, a number of chemopreventive interventions can be employed. These strategies are generally directed against two broad events of carcinogenesis viz., initiation and promotion/progression. Anti-initiation interventions principally involve inhibition of carcinogen activation, scavenging of free radicals and reactive carcinogen metabolites along w...

  17. Current Status of the AMOEBA Polarizable Force Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ponder, Jay W.; Wu, Chuanjie; Ren, Pengyu; Pande, Vijay S.; Chodera, John D.; Schnieders, Michael J; Haque, Imran; Mobley, David L.; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; DiStasio, Robert A.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Clark, Gary N. I.; Johnson, Margaret E.; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Molecular force fields have been approaching a generational transition over the past several years, moving away from well-established and well-tuned, but intrinsically limited, fixed point charge models towards more intricate and expensive polarizable models that should allow more accurate description of molecular properties. The recently introduced AMOEBA force field is a leading publicly available example of this next generation of theoretical model, but to date has only received relatively...

  18. Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    François Christopher J; Grist Thomas M; Hartung Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract With recent improvement in hardware and software techniques, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has undergone significant changes in technique and approach. The advent of 3.0 T magnets has allowed reduction in exogenous contrast dose without compromising overall image quality. The use of novel intravascular contrast agents substantially increases the image windows and decreases contrast dose. Additionally, the lower risk and cost in non-contrast enhanced (NCE) MRA has sparked renew...

  19. Current status of the recirculator project at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular ion induction accelerator designed to transport space charge dominated beams. Currently, the machine extends to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. Full current transport with acceptable emittance growth without acceleration has been achieved. Recently, a time stability measurement revealed a 2% energy change with time due to a source heating effect. Correcting for this and conducting steering experiments has ascertained the energy to an accuracy of 0.2%. In addition, the charge centroid is maintained to within 0.6-mm throughout the bend section. Initial studies of matches dependencies on beam quality indicate significant effects

  20. IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure

  1. The LHCf experiment at CERN: motivations and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  2. Nuclear-fueled circulatory support systems. XII. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our laboratories have been engaged in development and in vivo testing of nuclear-fueled circulatory support systems. These efforts have focused on 4 major areas: (1) evaluations of the biologic effects of chronic intracorporeal heat and radiation; (2) the development of efficient and reliable energy converters (engines); (3) evaluations of the biocompatibility of the various system components, and (4) investigations of the hemodynamic effectiveness of the system in vivo. Previous in vivo experiments have been reported. Three systems are currently under investigation; each has undergone a number of modifications to improve overall thermal-mechanical efficiencies or to decrease physiologic alterations resulting from system size, intracorporeal heat and interactions between the prostheses and experimental animals. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the current systems and describe recent in vivo experiments

  3. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND IN MACEDONIA: CURRENT STATUS AND ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate current international tourism demand in Macedonia, as well as to make an attempt to forecast it in a short-term horizon by 2014. For this purpose, the past and current patterns are based on stylized facts obtained from secondary data spreading over a sample period from 2000-2011. Furthermore, the estimation of future trends is based on Box-Jenkins methodology. Several alternative specifications were introduced and upon the outcomes of standard indicators for accuracy testing, the research identified the most appropriate one. According to projected values, moderate, but constant increase of international tourist arrivals is expected. The paper strongly recommends this empirical evidence in a line of mitigating the potential negative impacts as well as in preparation of tourism development plan in Macedonia. Finally, its contribution lies in the fact that it enriches poorly-developed empirical academic work within this scientific area in Macedonia.

  4. EMDR and the anxiety disorders: exploring the current status

    OpenAIRE

    de, Jongh, Petra; Broeke, ten, C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical evidence on the application of EMDR for the anxiety disorders spectrum other than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Reviewing the existing literature, it is disappointing to find that 20 years aft...

  5. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano eFreschi

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of plant responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degre...

  6. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Freschi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the...

  7. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a...... compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore...

  8. Current status of stereoscopic 3D LCD TV technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The year 2010 may be recorded as a first year of successful commercial 3D products. Among them, the 3D LCD TVs are expected to be the major one regarding the sales volume. In this paper, the principle of current stereoscopic 3D LCD TV techniques and the required flat panel display (FPD) technologies for the realization of them are reviewed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosi...

  10. [18F]FDG-PET in lung cancer: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Dobbs, H; Quint, Leslie Eisenbud; Miles, K A

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, evidence of safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is required to support funding of new diagnostic technologies. However, diagnostic imaging is a rapidly changing speciality with new data constantly being added to the evidence base. This article aims to review the evidence base for the application of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) in lung cancer and to identify areas in which the evidence base is evolving. Currently, there is strong evidenc...

  11. Current Status of Patients with Buerger Disease in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hida, Noriyuki; Ohta, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with Buerger disease (thromboangiitis obliterans: TAO) were analyzed based on the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) database in 2009. A total of 129 new patients and 3639 patients in follow-up were selected according to the clinical criteria of TAO. The current number of patients with TAO in Japan is estimated at about 4000. The clinical course is relatively favorable, and the rates of limb morbidity and mortality we...

  12. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the trea...

  13. Current status of radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.; Choi, Dongil

    2010-01-01

    Loco-regional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are important alternatives to curative transplantation or resection. Among them, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is accepted as the most popular technique showing excellent local tumor control and acceptable morbidity. The current role of RFA is well documented in the evidence-based practice guidelines of European Association of Study of Liver, American Association of Study of the Liver Disease and Japanese academic societies. Several ...

  14. Health and mobility: Current status and future paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Istepanian, RSH; Tachakra, S; Banitsas, KA

    2001-01-01

    The movement of telemedicine to the wireless and mobile Internetable applications is imminent in the next few years. This migration from the desktop platforms to the wireless and mobile configurations will have significant impact on the future health care delivery system and their globalisation. The recent telecommunications and biomedical computing advances will significantly enhance the current methodologies of telemedicine and telecare systems. This editorial will present some of the evolu...

  15. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  16. Current Status and Control Measures of Ecological Restoration in Karst Rocky Desertification Area of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the current status and control measures of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou.[Method] The current status and existing problems of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou were studied firstly,and main control measures were put forward according to existing problems.[Result] At present,Karst rocky desertification area in Guizhou has suitable ecological environment,obvious control results and rich control exper...

  17. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  18. Upper Extremity Injured Workers Stratified by Current Work Status: An Examination of Health Characteristics, Work Limitations and Work Instability

    OpenAIRE

    GRANT, H; D Pichora

    2010-01-01

    Background: Upper extremity injured workers are an under-studied population. A descriptive comparison of workers with shoulder, elbow and hand injuries reporting to a Canadian Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) clinic was undertaken.Objective: To determine if differences existed between injury groups stratified by current work status.Methods: All WSIB claimants reporting to our upper extremity clinic between 2003 and 2008 were approached to participate in this descriptive study. 314 ...

  19. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  1. Management of benign biliary strictures: current status and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffes, Arthur J

    2015-09-01

    Benign biliary strictures are common and occur either from hepato-biliary surgery or from diseases including chronic pancreatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others. The treatment of many such strictures is endoscopic with evolving new approaches especially with fully covered metal stents. The only classification system available is for postoperative strictures with the intention to guide surgical correction. There is no useful classification system to guide both assessment and management of benign biliary strictures. This proposed classification is relevant to patient care in assisting diagnosis and endoscopic management. PMID:26147976

  2. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  3. Current Status: Site-Specific Antibody Drug Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Hackenberger, Christian P R; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Helma, Jonas

    2016-05-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), a promising class of cancer biopharmaceuticals, combine the specificity of therapeutic antibodies with the pharmacological potency of chemical, cytotoxic drugs. Ever since the first ADCs on the market, a plethora of novel ADC technologies has emerged, covering as diverse aspects as antibody engineering, chemical linker optimization and novel conjugation strategies, together aiming at constantly widening the therapeutic window for ADCs. This review primarily focuses on novel chemical and biotechnological strategies for the site-directed attachment of drugs that are currently validated for 2nd generation ADCs to promote conjugate homogeneity and overall stability. PMID:27003914

  4. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ashok D. B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense oppo...

  5. Outpatient diabetes clinical decision support: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P J; Sperl-Hillen, J M; Fazio, C J; Averbeck, B M; Rank, B H; Margolis, K L

    2016-06-01

    Outpatient clinical decision support systems have had an inconsistent impact on key aspects of diabetes care. A principal barrier to success has been low use rates in many settings. Here, we identify key aspects of clinical decision support system design, content and implementation that are related to sustained high use rates and positive impacts on glucose, blood pressure and lipid management. Current diabetes clinical decision support systems may be improved by prioritizing care recommendations, improving communication of treatment-relevant information to patients, using such systems for care coordination and case management and integrating patient-reported information and data from remote devices into clinical decision algorithms and interfaces. PMID:27194173

  6. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  7. Current status of the SWISS-2DPAGE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, C; Sanchez, J C; Tonella, L; Bairoch, A; Hochstrasser, D F; Appel, R D

    1998-01-01

    The SWISS-2DPAGE database (http: //www.expasy.ch/ch2d/ch2d-top.html ) consists of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis images, as well as textual descriptions of the proteins that have been identified on them. The current release contains 15 reference maps from human biological samples, as well as from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum origin. These reference maps have 2088 identified spots, corresponding to 410 separate protein entries in the database, in addition to virtual entries for each SWISS-PROT sequence. PMID:9399867

  8. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  9. Current status of process monitoring for IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on literature survey, this report tries to answer some of the following questions on process monitoring for safeguards purposes of future large scale reprocessing plants: what is process monitoring, what are the basic elements of process monitoring, what kinds of process monitoring are there, what are the basic problems of process monitoring, what is the relationship between process monitoring and near-real-time materials accountancy, what are actual results of process monitoring tests and what should be studied in future. A brief description of Advanced Safeguards Approaches proposed by the four states (France, U.K., Japan and U.S.A.), the approach proposed by the U.S.A., the description of the process monitoring, the main part of the report published as a result of one of the U.S. Support Programmes for IAEA Safeguards and an article on process monitoring presented at an IAEA Symposium held in November 1986 are given in the annexes. 24 refs, 20 figs, tabs

  10. Current status of haploidentical stem cell transplantation for leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiao-jun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has made tremendous progress over the past 20 years and has become a feasible option for leukemia patients without a HLA identical sibling donor. The early complications of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, graft failure and delayed engraftment, as well as disease recurrence have limited the use of this approach. Newer strategies have been applied and overcome some of the problems, including the use of T-cell depleted graft, "mega" dose of stem cells, intensive post-transplant immunosuppression and manipulation of the graft. These have decreased the transplant related mortality and GVHD associated with haploidentical transplantation, however, the major problems of disease relapse and infection, which related to late immune reconstitution, limit the development of haploidentical HSCT. Future challenges remain in improving post-transplant immune reconstitution and finding the best approach to reduce the incidence and severity of GVHD, while preserving graft-versus-leukemia effect to prevent the recurrence of underlying malignancy.

  11. Current Status of the SANAEM RFQ Accelerator Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Yildiz, V; Mete, O; Oz, S; Ozbey, A; Yildiz, H; Yaman, F; Akgun, Y; Alacakir, A; Bolukdemir, S; Bozbey, A; Sahin, A; Unel, G; Erhan, S

    2015-01-01

    The design and production studies of the proton beamline of SPP, which aims to acquire know-how on proton accelerator technology thru development of man power and serves as particle accelerator technologies test bench, continue at TAEK-SANAEM as a multi-phase project. For the first phase, 20 keV protons will be accelerated to 1.3 MeV by a single piece RFQ. Currently, the beam current and stability tests are ongoing for the Inductively Coupled Plasma ion source. The measured magnetic field maps of the Low Energy Beam Transport solenoids are being used for matching various beam configurations of the ion source to the RFQ by computer simulations. The installation of the low energy diagnostics box was completed in Q1 of 2015. The production of the RFQ cavity was started with aluminum 7075-T6 which will be subsequently coated by Copper to reduce the RF (Ohmic) losses. On the RF side, the development of the hybrid power supply based on solid state and tetrode amplifiers continues. All RF transmission components hav...

  12. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Singarajah

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

  13. Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron – medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

  14. Current status of neonatal intensive care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik Nagesh, N; Razak, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Globally, newborn health is now considered as high-level national priority. The current neonatal and infant mortality rate in India is 29 per 1000 live births and 42 per 1000 live births, respectively. The last decade has seen a tremendous growth of neonatal intensive care in India. The proliferation of neonatal intensive care units, as also the infusion of newer technologies with availability of well-trained medical and nursing manpower, has led to good survival and intact outcomes. There is good care available for neonates whose parents can afford the high-end healthcare, but unfortunately, there is a deep divide and the poor rural population is still underserved with lack of even basic newborn care in few areas! There is increasing disparity where the 'well to do' and the 'increasingly affordable middle class' is able to get the most advanced care for their sick neonates. The underserved urban poor and those in rural areas still contribute to the overall high neonatal morbidity and mortality in India. The recent government initiative, the India Newborn Action Plan, is the step in the right direction to bridge this gap. A strong public-private partnership and prioritisation is needed to achieve this goal. This review highlights the current situation of neonatal intensive care in India with a suggested plan for the way forward to achieve better neonatal care. PMID:26944066

  15. The Current Status of Radiology in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  "n"nThe availability of multimodal imaging techniques enables the acquisition of both structural and functional information of the brain, and it opens a unique window for revealing the brain activity and connectivity in neuro-psychiatric disorders.  The current lecture will review some of the most often used imaging modalities, with particular emphasis on MRI, in the research field of major neuro-psychiatric disorders from the functional perspective. Diffused tension image shows the white matter in vivo and provides us with useful parameters such as FA and ADC to assess the brain tissue integrity. Perfusion MRI helps to assess the cerebral blood flow relevant to functional alteration. BOLD fMRI is readily available for the functional brain assessment in psychiatry with task and non-task design (i.e. resting-state fMRI. The topic of fMRI will be focused, and in particular, the resting-state fMRI which has recently attracted considerable attentions and has shown potentials in future clinical applications. The current lecture will specifically focuse on the recent advances of MR imaging research in epilepsy, schizophrenia and major depressive disorders.     

  16. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  17. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Gong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  18. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  19. Cytochrome P450-based cancer gene therapy: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, On; Kingsman, Susan; Naylor, Stuart

    2002-12-01

    Results from a number of preclinical studies have demonstrated that a P450-based gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy for the treatment of cancer is both safe and efficacious. This strategy has now moved forward into the clinic. At least two different approaches using different delivery methods (retroviral vector MetXia [Oxford BioMedica] and encapsulated P450 expressing cells), different cytochrome P450 isoforms (human CYP2B6 versus rat CYP2B1) and different prodrugs (cyclophosphamide [CPA] versus ifosfamide [IFA]) have concluded Phase I/II clinical trial with encouraging results. In the future, P450-based GDEPT can potentially be further enhanced by improved vectors for P450 gene delivery and disease-targeted promoters for focused gene expression at the target site. In addition, there is scope for developing synthetic P450s and their respective prodrugs to improve both enzyme kinetics and the profile of the active moiety. PMID:12517265

  20. Hantavirus Immunology of Rodent Reservoirs: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  1. Materials Data Science: Current Status and Future Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidindi, Surya R.; De Graef, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The field of materials science and engineering is on the cusp of a digital data revolution. After reviewing the nature of data science and Big Data, we discuss the features of materials data that distinguish them from data in other fields. We introduce the concept of process-structure-property (PSP) linkages and illustrate how the determination of PSPs is one of the main objectives of materials data science. Then we review a selection of materials databases, as well as important aspects of materials data management, such as storage hardware, archiving strategies, and data access strategies. We introduce the emerging field of materials data analytics, which focuses on data-driven approaches to extract and curate materials knowledge from available data sets. The critical need for materials e-collaboration platforms is highlighted, and we conclude the article with a number of suggestions regarding the near-term future of the materials data science field.

  2. Stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: current and future status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    High-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support has been an integral part of myeloma therapy for more than 25 years, either as salvage therapy or as consolidation of an initial remission. Although multiple phase 3 trials have demonstrated that this therapy results in higher response rates and longer remission times than conventional chemotherapy, the use of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib as induction therapy has limited the clinical relevance of these trials. Moreover, ongoing trials have shown that initial induction therapy may affect transplantation outcome, and that long-term disease control can be achieved in a substantial number of patients with a variety of posttransplantation maintenance therapies. This article summarizes the results of ongoing and recently published clinical trials and describes how they have affected current transplantation recommendations. PMID:22160033

  3. Current Status of Lead-Free Soldering and Conductive Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuakiSuganuma

    2003-01-01

    Lead-free soldering technology took offin the Japanese market during the year 2000, and as the year 2001-03 ushered in the 21 st century, a large number of products with lead-free soldering were already appearing on store shelves. Elsewhere, EU deliberation on the draft of the WEEE/RoHS directive finalized in February 2003 and be in force in July 2006. The course had been set for adopting lead-free solder for mounting processes of parts as well, bringing the possibility of lead-free solder mounting very close to achievement. This review will provide a view of the current state of technological progress in lead-free soldering, both in Japan and abroad, and will discuss future prospects.

  4. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Bernier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  5. The current status and future prospects in Japanese Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, 20 nuclear plants are now in operation, generating some 18,000 MW of electricity, or about 30% of the national electricity supply. Overall capacity factor is in excess of 90%, which is excellent indeed. I understand further that eight reactors, including innovative light water reactors developed with domestic Korean technology are either under construction or being planned. Having pursued an energetic program of nuclear development since the 1970s, Korea is now the world's sixth-ranked nuclear nation. In addition, it was revealed last year that the Korean government had selected a site for the medium- and low-level waste disposal facility - resolving another longstanding issue. I pay my deepest respects to all nuclear-related parties in Korea for their endeavors and for their results. Today, within my limited time. I will be speaking about Japan's nuclear industry in three respects: historical background, current situation and issues hereafter

  6. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

  7. [Rabies vaccines: Current status and prospects for development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, E S; Preobrazhenskaia, O V; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Yarygina, E I; Karpov, V L

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an infectious disease among humans and animals that remains incurable, despite its longstanding research history. The only way to prevent the disease is prompt treatment, including vaccination as an obligatory component and administration of antirabies immunoglobulin as a supplement. Since the first antirabies vaccination performed in the 19th century, a large number of different rabies vaccines have been developed. Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology enabled the development of effective and safe technologies of vaccine production. Currently, new-generation vaccines are being developed based on recombinant rabies virus strains or on the production of an individual recombinant rabies antigen-glycoprotein (G protein), either as a component of nonpathogenic viruses, or in plants, or in the form of DNA vaccines. In this review, the main modern trends in the development of rabies vaccines have been discussed. PMID:26299857

  8. Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-02-03

    While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

  9. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  10. Current status of new tuberculosis vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhao, Aihua; Cohen, Chad; Kang, Wanli; Lu, Jie; Wang, Guozhi; Zhao, Yanlin; Zheng, Suhua

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments. However, the limited data on protective efficacy in infants evaluated by clinical trials has been disappointing, an example being MVA85A. To date, no vaccine has been shown to be clinically safer and more effective than the presently licensed BCG vaccine. Hence, before a new vaccine is developed with more promising efficacy, we must reconsider how to better use the current BCG vaccine to maximize its effectiveness in children. PMID:27002369

  11. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchino, Sabrina; Abdouh, Mohamed [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Bernier, Gilbert, E-mail: gbernier.hmr@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2011-03-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  12. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  13. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential:A current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; Gaurav Gupta; Alok Semwal; G Jeyabalan

    2013-01-01

    Aphrodisiac is the word derived fromAphrodite, theGreek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent(food or drug) that arouses sexual desire.Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction.Ayurveda and otherIndian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments.India has about more than45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction.This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  14. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-11-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  15. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential:a current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.

  16. Anthropogenic SO2/NOx committee--current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current activities of the Anthropogenic SO2/NOx Committee center around the compilation of Version 1 of the GEIA inventories. These inventories will be based on the GEIA-specified 1 degrees by 1 degrees grid (lower left corner at 180 degrees W/90 degrees S, west to east and south to north), reflect 1985 emissions and consist of two data sets: Version 1A inventories with annual emissions at one level and Version 1B inventories with seasonal emissions, two vertical levels (defined at 100 m) and sectoral split information. The basic information used for both versions of the GEIA inventories will be identical; i.e., emissions totals across both inventories will be the same. Work is being carried out in two complementary working groups; Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA heads the work on the annual inventory, Eva Voldner, Atmospheric Environment Services, Canada and Trevor Scholtz, ORTECH International, Canada, head the work on the seasonal inventory

  17. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  18. The Current Status of Oral Contraceptives: Progress and Recent Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobof, Alexandra; Kiley, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Millions of women in the United States and abroad use oral contraceptive pills. These popular contraceptives are the most common reversible birth control method in the United States, and a wide variety of pills are available for prescription. Oral contraceptives provide safe and effective protection against pregnancy and offer several noncontraceptive benefits. Over the years, advances in the laboratory and knowledge gained through epidemiologic data promoted the development of new contraceptive preparations. Generations of oral contraceptives emerged over time, containing lower doses of estrogens and new and novel progestins. The current review discusses the clinical characteristics of oral contraceptives, with emphasis on basic pharmacology and the evolution of various contraceptive formulations and regimens. PMID:26960906

  19. [Current status in rehabilitation of burn injury in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyu, Jia; Xiaofang, Zou

    2015-06-01

    Along with the advance in national economy, modern concept of burn rehabilitation from major burn injury implies that measures should be taken to help the patients return to society with dignity. This article briefly reviews the development and achievement of burn rehabilitation in our country, as well as the current difficulties in carrying out rehabilitation measures such as outmoded ideology, lack of trained personnel, low rat of popularization, outdated techniques and methodology, and relatively low level in scientific research, etc. The future development of burn rehabilitation in our country needs more social support, popular attention, and multidisciplinary joint efforts to help burn patients return to society with dignity. In order to fulfill this goal, we still have a long way to go. PMID:26564559

  20. Flecainide: Current status and perspectives in arrhythmia management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; K; Andrikopoulos; Sokratis; Pastromas; Stylianos; Tzeis

    2015-01-01

    Flecainide acetate is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent and its clinical efficacy has been confirmed by the results of several clinical trials. Nowadays, flecainide is recommended as one of the first line therapies for pharmacological conversion as well as maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or supraventricular tachycardias. Based on the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial study results, flecainide is not recommended in patients with structural heart disease due to high proarrhythmic risk. Recent data support the role of flecainide in preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated both with ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin mutations. We herein review the current clinical data related to flecainide use in clinical practice and some concerns about its role in the management of patients with coronary artery disease.

  1. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings

  2. Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

  3. Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Woo; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Whung Whoe [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Maeng Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eerkens, Jeff W. [Isotope Technologies Inc., Woodland (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces {approx}40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO{sub 2} emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only {approx}40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process.

  4. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

  5. The current status of Bandung Triga Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor - Indonesia was started-up on October 10, 1964 and it has been operated at power level of 250 kw. The facility has been, operated for research, production of radioisotopes and training. In 1971, the reactor has been upgraded from 250 kw to 1000 kw. Since that time the facility has been safely operating at various power levels of a maximum 1000 kw until February 1996, even though the reactor tank is kept unchanged. For a highly reliable reactor that can back-up the Ga Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor - Jakarta, Indonesia, in producing sufficient radioisotopes, a higher power reactor is needed. This can be accomplished by increasing the thermal power of current TRIGA Mark II Bandung Reactor to 2000 kw as well as by enhancing the inherent and engineered safety features of the current reactor. The upgrading of reactor power shall ensure the increasing of neutron flux in the beam ports; hence the experiments such as neutron radiography, time of flight spectrometry and other nuclear physic experiments can be conducted better. For that the reactor tank, the number and configuration of fuel element, instrumentation and control rod, primary cooling system, secondary cooling system, water treatment system, shielding, etc. have been changed, and an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was added. One additional control rod, core configuration modification and enhancement of reactor shielding, shall increase the safety margin so that the reactor could be operated at a maximum power of 2000 kw. At the middle of May 2000 cold test (non-nuclear commissioning) was done, and continued to hot test (nuclear commissioning). Since June 24, 2000 the TRIGA Mark II Bandung has been operated at 2000 kw

  6. Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

  7. Current status of yoga in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area. PMID:27067548

  8. Melatonin: Current Status and Future Perspectives in Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad A; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong; Ahmed, Waqar; Reiter, Russel J; Niu, Mengliang; Hameed, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a ubiquitous molecule with pleiotropic actions in different organisms. It performs many important functions in human, animals, and plants; these range from regulating circadian rhythms in animals to controlling senescence in plants. In this review, we summarize the available information regarding the presence of melatonin in different plant species, along with highlighting its biosynthesis and mechanisms of action. We also collected the available information on the effects of melatonin application on commercially important crops to improve their growth and development. Additionally, we have identified many new aspects where melatonin may have possible roles in plants, for example, its function in improving the storage life and quality of fruits and vegetables, its role in vascular reconnection during the grafting process and nutrient uptake from roots by modifying root architecture. Another potentially important aspect is the production of melatonin-rich food crops (cereals, fruits, and vegetables) through combination of conventional and modern breeding approaches, to increase plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stress, leading to improved crop yields, and the nutraceutical value of produce to solve food security issues. PMID:26793210

  9. Current Status of Proteomic Studies on Defense Responses in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xifeng; Bhadauria, Vijai; Ma, Bojun

    2016-01-01

    Biotic stresses are constraints to plant growth and development negatively impacting crop production. To counter such stresses, plants have developed stress-specific adaptations as well as simultaneous responses. The efficacy and magnitude of inducible adaptive responses are dependent on activation of signaling pathways and intracellular networks by modulating expression, or abundance, and/or post-translational modification of proteins associated with defense mechanisms. Proteomics plays an important role in elucidating plant defense mechanisms by mining the differential regulation of proteins to various biotic stresses. Rice, one of the most widely cultivated food crops in world, is constantly challenged by a variety of biotic stresses, and high-throughput proteomics approaches have been employed to unravel the molecular mechanism of the biotic stresses-response in rice. In this review, we summarize the latest advances of proteomic studies on defense responses and discuss the potential relevance of the proteins identified by proteomic means in rice defense mechanism. Furthermore, we provide perspective for proteomics in unraveling the molecular mechanism of rice immunity. PMID:26364119

  10. MR urography in children: current status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal anatomy and many pathologies of the pediatric genitourinary system can be assessed with different imaging modalities. Most of them are based on the use of ionizing radiation and/or invasive techniques. The contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in this regard has opened new ways of approaching pathological conditions in this patient group. The addition of the newly developed rapid techniques has enhanced the superiority of MRI, and both morphological and functional evaluation of the genitourinary system can be achieved. There are different factors on which rely the optimization and the efficiency of magnetic resonance urography (MRU). Of importance is adequate patient immobilization and the use of optimal imaging sequences. The rapid technical development, including the advent of the post-processing respiratory navigator, allows acquisition of high-quality images independent of the patient's respiratory rate. In the future, it is expected that MRU, due to its non-use of ionizing radiation, will become the most important tool in the diagnostic work-up of genitourinary pathologies in infants and small children. (orig.)

  11. Current status and future developments in radiolabelled immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are used extensively in medical practice and their use in RIA or IRMA usually represent a small proportion of the total. Radiolabelled immunoassays based on 125I constitute a simple didactic, cost effective and robust technology which is still regarded as the reference method in many clinical applications. The IAEA has implemented many successful programmes using the ''bulk reagent'' approach, involving 68 countries in all the different regions. The main achievements have been in technology transfer with self sufficiency in production for some countries; training of large numbers of staff; quality control and quality assurance schemes; devolution of screening programmes for neonatal congenital hypothryoidism. Alternatives to the use of radioisotopic tracers are constrained by many factors and are often only available in restricted commercial packages. They are often not suitable for technology transfer programmes and often lack any didactic component in addition to a relative high cost. The production of radiolabels using 125I is both simple and adaptable. In addition expertise in their preparation and purification is widespread even in developing countries. Together with the ease of producing antibodies, the facts have made 125I-radiolabelled immunoassays ideal for investigative procedures for many research activities (30,31) particularly in the medical context where radioisotopes are commonly used. In conclusion, even a superficial examination of public health statistics for various countries throughout the continents indicates a need for a simple, inexpensive and robust analytical tool. In this light, there is a predicted continuing role for radiolabelled immunoassays. (author)

  12. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, R; Asimakopoulos, A; Da Silva, R; Bove, P; Jones, S; De La Rosette, J; Kim, F

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a relatively new and extremely attractive option of treatment for prostate cancer. It has been described as the "middle approach" between active surveillance and radical treatment, aiming to destroy the tumor itself or the region containing the tumor in order to preserve surrounding non-cancerous tissue. The goal is to maintain disease control at acceptable levels, while preserving erectile, urinary, and rectal function. While a lot of technologies have been described for delivering targeted therapy to the prostate, such as cryoablation, high intensity focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, irreversible electroporation and laser, the key point is the patient selection. Recent advances in mpMRI and the introduction of new biopsy techniques that use MR images as a guidance, have significantly improved localization of the tumor lesions and the detection rate, evolving prostate biopsy toward targeted rather than systematic biopsies. The future challenge to clinicians is to precisely risk-stratify patients to differentiate between those who would profit from focal treatment and who would not. Forthcoming research efforts should pursue to identify molecular, genetic, and imaging characteristics that distinguish aggressive prostate tumors from indolent lesions. PMID:26013953

  13. Current status of the AMOEBA polarizable force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Jay W; Wu, Chuanjie; Ren, Pengyu; Pande, Vijay S; Chodera, John D; Schnieders, Michael J; Haque, Imran; Mobley, David L; Lambrecht, Daniel S; DiStasio, Robert A; Head-Gordon, Martin; Clark, Gary N I; Johnson, Margaret E; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2010-03-01

    Molecular force fields have been approaching a generational transition over the past several years, moving away from well-established and well-tuned, but intrinsically limited, fixed point charge models toward more intricate and expensive polarizable models that should allow more accurate description of molecular properties. The recently introduced AMOEBA force field is a leading publicly available example of this next generation of theoretical model, but to date, it has only received relatively limited validation, which we address here. We show that the AMOEBA force field is in fact a significant improvement over fixed charge models for small molecule structural and thermodynamic observables in particular, although further fine-tuning is necessary to describe solvation free energies of drug-like small molecules, dynamical properties away from ambient conditions, and possible improvements in aromatic interactions. State of the art electronic structure calculations reveal generally very good agreement with AMOEBA for demanding problems such as relative conformational energies of the alanine tetrapeptide and isomers of water sulfate complexes. AMOEBA is shown to be especially successful on protein-ligand binding and computational X-ray crystallography where polarization and accurate electrostatics are critical. PMID:20136072

  14. Current Status of Minimally Invasive Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L

    2016-06-01

    Over the last three decades, the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has continuously risen, generally attributed to the increased use of cross-sectional imaging across all medical disciplines. Fortunately, despite this rising incidence, the estimated 5-year relative survival rate has improved. This survival improvement likely parallels the stage migration of the last two decades toward an increased incidence of small renal masses (SRMs). However, this survival improvement may be secondary to improved surgical techniques and medical therapies for these malignancies. The increased incidence of SRMs has led to an expected evolution in the treatment of RCC. Minimally invasive surgical applications for the treatment of RCC have gained widespread popularity, and now these approaches to renal malignancies have surpassed open techniques in frequency of utilization. Laparoscopic and robotic-assisted techniques have now been applied to both radical and partial nephrectomy procedures of varying complexity. Additionally, percutaneous ablative procedures have been applied to the treatment of some SRMs, increasing the urologist's armamentarium further. Below, we provide a review of these minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures for the treatment of RCC. PMID:27021911

  15. Imaging in primary penile cancer: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Rohit; Taylor, Ben [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sangar, Vijay [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in the developed world. Clinical assessment often results in inaccurate staging and radiological techniques have a key role in staging and postoperative assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts penile anatomy in detail and is the most accurate technique for local staging and postoperative follow-up. MRI and ultrasound (US), although helpful for assessment of lymph nodes, are not reliable enough for accurate nodal staging. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), however, remains a valuable tool to confirm metastases in suspicious inguinal nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy with dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a promising technique used to predict occult lymph node metastases. Novel imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and nanoparticle enhanced MRI have high sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases but their availability is limited and clinical utility is not fully established. The radiologist needs to be familiar with the normal penile anatomy, imaging appearances of pre- and post-treatment penile cancer, and the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques. This review highlights the above points and presents a systematic approach to make the best use of imaging in the management of patients with penile cancer. (orig.)

  16. Cranial stereotactic radiosurgery: current status of the initial paradigm shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jason P; Yen, Chun-Po; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Loeffler, Jay S

    2014-09-10

    The concept of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was first described by Lars Leksell in 1951. It was proposed as a noninvasive alternative to open neurosurgical approaches to manage a variety of conditions. In the following decades, SRS emerged as a unique discipline involving a collegial partnership among neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. SRS relies on the precisely guided delivery of high-dose ionizing radiation to an intracranial target. The focused convergence of multiple beams yields a potent therapeutic effect on the target and a steep dose fall-off to surrounding structures, thereby minimizing the risk of collateral damage. SRS is typically administered in a single session but can be given in as many as five sessions or fractions. By providing an ablative effect noninvasively, SRS has altered the treatment paradigms for benign and malignant intracranial tumors, functional disorders, and vascular malformations. Literature on extensive intracranial radiosurgery has unequivocally demonstrated the favorable benefit-to-risk profile that SRS affords for appropriately selected patients. In a departure from conventional radiotherapeutic strategies, radiosurgical principles have recently been extended to extracranial indications such as lung, spine, and liver tumors. The paradigm shift resulting from radiosurgery continues to alter the landscape of related fields. PMID:25113762

  17. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  18. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described. PMID:26979411

  19. Current status of methodologies for seismic probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of the methodology for conducting a seismic-probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) at a nuclear power station. The objective of this review is to provide an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the various sub-methodologies that comprise the overall seismic-PSA methodology for addressing the safety of nuclear power stations, plus an overview of the whole methodological picture. In preparing this review, the author has had in mind several categories of readers and users: policy-level decision-makers (such as managers of nuclear power stations and regulators of nuclear safety), seismic-PSA practitioners, and PSA practitioners more broadly. The review concentrates on evaluating the extent to which today's seismic-PSA methodology produces reliable and useful results and insights, at its current state-of-the-art level, for assessing nuclear-power-station safety. Also, this review paper deals exclusively with seismic-PSA for addressing nuclear-power-station safety. Because the author is based in the U.S., it is natural that this review will contain more emphasis on U.S. experience than on experience in other countries. However, significant experience elsewhere is a major part of the basis for this evaluation

  20. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...