Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose
The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544
Full Text Available The article represents so called engineering approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into engineering form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.
Marjan Lep; Beno Mesarec
The article represents so called engineering approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL) of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into engineering form, which comprises transport engine...
A. Hartmann; Ling, F. Y. Y.
Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic management activities for the contribution of road infrastructure to the value-creation process of road users is investigated. Road agencies facilitate the value creation of road users by maintaining, up...
In 1968, Robert Brehme wrote a carefully crafted paper on "The Advantage of Teaching Relativity with Four-Vectors." In his abstract he points out that "the emphasis on relativistic mass is both undeserved and misleading." Our approach is to find the best way to teach introductory physics in a way that includes modern physics. We have found that by…
Hartmann, A.; Ling, F.Y.Y.
Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic manage
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows the roads within and near Delaware Water Gap NRA taken from 1:4800 scale mapping that was done for the original land acquisition period (1967)...
Hall, Thomas; Tarko, Andrew
Rural roads are well-documented as having a greater traffic fatality rate than urban roads. For medium- and high-volume rural roads with a considerable crash history, previous studies have focused on the identification of high-crash locations. The majority of rural roads in Indiana are low-volume county roads. However, the methods for identifying safety problems on medium- and high-volume roads are often not suitable for county roads. Such methods may result in improper allocation of resource...
Kane, Malal; Do, Minh Tan
The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...
Full Text Available At unsignalized intersections, left-turning vehicles from minor road approach are more likely to be involved in traffic conflicts and traffic crashes and are one of the most leading factors impacting traffic efficiency and capacity. The authors of the paper observed that some drivers behaved illegally and dangerously while performing left turns from minor road approach, resulting in abnormal trajectories at unsignalized intersections. By applying binary logistic analysis, a probability prediction model was developed to explore various factors affecting probability of normal path taken by drivers while turning left from minor road approach. Based upon the model, measures such as lowering running speeds of vehicles on major road or minor road and adding more lanes on minor road can be used to encourage more drivers to take normal vehicle paths, which is helpful for the improvement of traffic safety, efficiency, and capacity. Results of the paper can be used for the guidance of design and management of unsignalized intersections.
Full Text Available Road transport is considered to be one of the cost effective and preferred modes oftransport for both freight and passengers. India has an extensive road network of 4.24million km– the second largest in the world (MoRTH, 2005. The National Highways havea total length of 70,934 km and serve as the arterial road network of the country. It isestimated that more than 70 per cent of freight and 85 per cent of passenger traffic in thecountry is being handled by roads. While Highways/ Expressways constitute only about 2% of the length of all roads, rest are state highway, major district road , district roads andrural and other road which is consider as low volume road.Growing public awareness of climate change requires transportation professionals tointegrate green concepts into the transportation planning, design, construction, andoperation processes.Green highways are a relatively new concept although the implementation of technologiesinvolved in green highway design has been encouraged for many years. A green road maynot look like normal road at first glance, but with closer inspection a driver will noticesubtle difference. More plant life grows along the shoulder, and more trees are planted aswildlife buffers and ridding quality. In towns, highways become more aestheticallypleasing, and in rural areas highways become a more natural part of the environment agreen highway can be defined by five broad topics such as Conservation and EcosystemManagement, Water Shed Driven Strong Water Management, Life Cycle Energy andEmissions Reduction, Recycles Reuse And Renewable, Overall Societal Benefits.This paper describes the factor affecting of green road and construction process ofwearing course of pavement through Microsurfacing which reduce the both direct andindirect cost. Microsurfacing is environmental friendly which reduce the greenhouse gasand fuel consummation.
T.L Ryntathiang; D.D Amar; Rajiv Kumar; G. AppaRoa
Road transport is considered to be one of the cost effective and preferred modes oftransport for both freight and passengers. India has an extensive road network of 4.24million km– the second largest in the world (MoRTH, 2005). The National Highways havea total length of 70,934 km and serve as the arterial road network of the country. It isestimated that more than 70 per cent of freight and 85 per cent of passenger traffic in thecountry is being handled by roads. While Highways/ Expressways c...
Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen
This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. PMID:27372441
Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.
We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.
Crundall, Elizabeth; Stedmon, Alex W; Saikayasit, Rossukorn; Crundall, David
The most common form of motorcycle collision in the UK occurs when another road user fails to give way and pulls out from a side road in front of an oncoming motorcyclist. While research has considered these collisions from the car driver's perspective, no research to date has addressed how motorcyclists approach these potential hazards. This study conducted a detailed analysis of motorcyclist speed and road position on approach to side-roads in a simulated suburban setting. Novice, Experienced and Advanced riders rode two laps of a simulated route, encountering five side-roads on each lap. On the second lap, a car emerged from the first side-road in a typical 'looked but failed to see' accident scenario. Three Experienced riders and one Novice rider collided with the hazard. The Advanced rider group adopted the safest strategy when approaching side-roads, with a lane position closer to the centre of the road and slower speeds. In contrast, Experienced riders chose faster speeds, often over the speed limit, especially when approaching junctions with good visibility. Rider behaviour at non-hazard junctions was compared between laps, to investigate if riders modified their behaviour after experiencing the hazard. Whilst all riders were generally more cautious after the hazard, the Advanced riders modified their behaviour more than the other groups after the hazard vehicle had pulled out. The results suggest that advanced training can lead to safer riding styles that are not acquired by experience alone. PMID:23182782
Manojlović Aleksandar V.; Papić Vladimir D.; Filipović Snežana M.; Jovanović Vojkan D.
With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail...
Mohd I. Hasmadi
Full Text Available There are various models for establishing the efficient forest road allocation and evaluating optimum density of forest roads network for the transport of timber commodity. Most of them are based on the calculation of common timber transport costs and costs for forest roads. Today, forest road design from traditional method continues to be transformed by remote sensing technology and advancement of GIS. It is now possible for a forester to analyze many different road location alternatives over a large geographic area in a minimal amount of time. A computer programming using GIS, digital terrain data and sensitivity analysis for locating optimal forest road access in a hill area is presented. The optimal access road location specifies destination (starting point and target (ending point of the desired path. These paths were allocated by calculated each individual criteria by given weights placed on each cell. Therefore, the objective of this work is to describe an attempt to compute the optimal allocation of forest road corridor in hilly area of Peninsular Malaysia using GIS approach and sensitivity analysis to satisfy the result. Finally, the model minimizes total cost of construction and forest environmental impacts resulting from a specific access road. Sensitivity analysis should be explored further to understand the effects of uncertainty in derivation of model parameter on model outputs. It is concluded that the location of optimal access path were established in the area can reduce the cost and environmental impact to the forest ecosystem.
Brown, K. R.; McGuire, K. J.; Aust, W. M.
Forested watersheds are typically associated with high quality water yield, yet forest roads and trails can adversely impact water quality draining forested watersheds. Increased stream sedimentation from forest road stream crossings often represents the most significant water quality threat associated with forestry operations. Quantification of sediment delivery rates is essential for the prescription of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that adequately address forest road stormwater runoff. Two different field experiments were implemented in the Virginia Piedmont to achieve the objectives of quantifying sediment delivery from forest roads where the road meets the stream (the road approach) and evaluating the sediment reduction efficacy of partially graveling road approaches. A forest operational experiment that included sediment traps and differential leveling was used to measure sediment delivery from five bare and four fully graveled road approaches for one year (August 2011 through July 2012). Rainfall simulation experiments were performed on six additional approaches to measure stormwater runoff volume, infiltration, and sediment delivery for 10 to 50-minute rain events with rainfall recurrence intervals of sediment trap study provides annual sediment delivery rates for bare and fully graveled road approaches. The rainfall simulation experiments characterize sediment delivery during storm events and provide an evaluation of different levels of Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation (i.e. ¼ to full gravel coverage) to minimize sediment inputs from road approaches. Sediment delivery from both experiments was related to rainfall amount, timing, and intensity, as well as road approach characteristics such as length, slope, and percentage of bare soil through stepwise multiple regression analysis. We found that the most important explanatory variables of sediment delivery over time are rainfall amount and approach length. Sediment delivery rates from the
Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de, F.R.
In the Structural Dynamics and Acoustics group at the University of Twente, we aim to develop a quantitative tyre/road noise model. An essential part of this model is an accurate contact algorithm which is fast enough to simulate tyre vibrations up to the acoustic frequencies. In this paper we present a contact algorithm, describing the contact between a tyre and a road surface, which has the potential to be made very fast using the multigrid techniques developed in the field of elasto-hydrod...
Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Bijleveld, F.D.
In this paper we provide a global description in quantitative terms, of the developments in road safety research from the early 1900’s until 2010. To this end, electronic databases have been searched and papers matching search criteria were selected for analysis. Word and co-word frequencies of key-words in all the titles and abstracts of these publications were collected and analysed. In this study, we explored the possibility to identify historical trends in road safety research topics. Fur...
Wagner, Peter; Brockfeld, Elmar; Gartner, Nathan; Sohr, Alexander
Fundamental diagrams of traffic flow variables have been quite useful in determining freeway operations quality. However, they are usually not used for that purpose on urban roads. This work is an approach towards utilizing the fundamental diagram on urban roads, too. Based on a host of empirical as well as simulation work, the first steps towards a routine application of the fundamental diagram are sketched. In addition, two approaches are compared, one that uses a traditional fundamental di...
Guoqiang Zhang; Yuli Qi; Jun Chen
At unsignalized intersections, left-turning vehicles from minor road approach are more likely to be involved in traffic conflicts and traffic crashes and are one of the most leading factors impacting traffic efficiency and capacity. The authors of the paper observed that some drivers behaved illegally and dangerously while performing left turns from minor road approach, resulting in abnormal trajectories at unsignalized intersections. By applying binary logistic analysis, a probability predic...
Qi, Hongsheng; Liu, Meiqi; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Dianhai
Urban road congestions change both temporally and spatially. They are essentially caused by network bottlenecks. Therefore, understanding bottleneck dynamics is critical in the goal of reasonably allocating transportation resources. In general, a typical bottleneck experiences the stages of formation, propagation and dispersion. In order to understand the three stages of a bottle neck and how the bottleneck moves on a road network, traffic flow data can be used to reconstruct these dynamics. However, raw traffic flow data is usually flawed in many ways. For instance some portion of data may be missing due to the failure of data collection devices, or some random factors in the data make it hard to identify real bottlenecks. In this paper a “user voting method” is proposed to deal with such raw-data-related issues. In this method, road links are ranked according to the weighed sum of certain performance measures and the links that are ranked relatively high are regarded as recurrent bottlenecks in a network, and several bottlenecks form a bottleneck area. A series of bottleneck parameters can be defined based on the identified bottleneck areas, such as bottleneck coverage, bottleneck link length, etc. Identifying bottleneck areas and calculating the bottleneck parameters for each time interval can reflect the evolution of the bottlenecks and also help trace how the bottlenecks move. PMID:27228150
Qi, Hongsheng; Liu, Meiqi; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Dianhai
Urban road congestions change both temporally and spatially. They are essentially caused by network bottlenecks. Therefore, understanding bottleneck dynamics is critical in the goal of reasonably allocating transportation resources. In general, a typical bottleneck experiences the stages of formation, propagation and dispersion. In order to understand the three stages of a bottle neck and how the bottleneck moves on a road network, traffic flow data can be used to reconstruct these dynamics. However, raw traffic flow data is usually flawed in many ways. For instance some portion of data may be missing due to the failure of data collection devices, or some random factors in the data make it hard to identify real bottlenecks. In this paper a "user voting method" is proposed to deal with such raw-data-related issues. In this method, road links are ranked according to the weighed sum of certain performance measures and the links that are ranked relatively high are regarded as recurrent bottlenecks in a network, and several bottlenecks form a bottleneck area. A series of bottleneck parameters can be defined based on the identified bottleneck areas, such as bottleneck coverage, bottleneck link length, etc. Identifying bottleneck areas and calculating the bottleneck parameters for each time interval can reflect the evolution of the bottlenecks and also help trace how the bottlenecks move. PMID:27228150
Kurzhanskiy, Alex A; Varaiya, Pravin
Active traffic management (ATM) is the ability to dynamically manage recurrent and non-recurrent congestion based on prevailing traffic conditions in order to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of road networks. It is a continuous process of (i) obtaining and analysing traffic measurement data, (ii) operations planning, i.e. simulating various scenarios and control strategies, (iii) implementing the most promising control strategies in the field, and (iv) maintaining a real-time decision support system that filters current traffic measurements to predict the traffic state in the near future, and to suggest the best available control strategy for the predicted situation. ATM relies on a fast and trusted traffic simulator for the rapid quantitative assessment of a large number of control strategies for the road network under various scenarios, in a matter of minutes. The open-source macrosimulation tool Aurora ROAD NETWORK MODELER is a good candidate for this purpose. The paper describes the underlying dynamical traffic model and what it takes to prepare the model for simulation; covers the traffic performance measures and evaluation of scenarios as part of operations planning; introduces the framework within which the control strategies are modelled and evaluated; and presents the algorithm for real-time traffic state estimation and short-term prediction. PMID:20819824
Full Text Available Urban road congestions change both temporally and spatially. They are essentially caused by network bottlenecks. Therefore, understanding bottleneck dynamics is critical in the goal of reasonably allocating transportation resources. In general, a typical bottleneck experiences the stages of formation, propagation and dispersion. In order to understand the three stages of a bottle neck and how the bottleneck moves on a road network, traffic flow data can be used to reconstruct these dynamics. However, raw traffic flow data is usually flawed in many ways. For instance some portion of data may be missing due to the failure of data collection devices, or some random factors in the data make it hard to identify real bottlenecks. In this paper a "user voting method" is proposed to deal with such raw-data-related issues. In this method, road links are ranked according to the weighed sum of certain performance measures and the links that are ranked relatively high are regarded as recurrent bottlenecks in a network, and several bottlenecks form a bottleneck area. A series of bottleneck parameters can be defined based on the identified bottleneck areas, such as bottleneck coverage, bottleneck link length, etc. Identifying bottleneck areas and calculating the bottleneck parameters for each time interval can reflect the evolution of the bottlenecks and also help trace how the bottlenecks move.
Li, Qingquan; Zeng, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Li, Jonathan; Wu, Zhongheng
Optimal paths computed by conventional path-planning algorithms are usually not "optimal" since realistic traffic information and local road network characteristics are not considered. We present a new experiential approach that computes optimal paths based on the experience of taxi drivers by mining a huge number of floating car trajectories. The approach consists of three steps. First, routes are recovered from original taxi trajectories. Second, an experiential road hierarchy is constructed using travel frequency and speed information for road segments. Third, experiential optimal paths are planned based on the experiential road hierarchy. Compared with conventional path-planning methods, the proposed method provides better experiential optimal path identification. Experiments demonstrate that the travel time is less for these experiential paths than for paths planned by conventional methods. Results obtained for a case study in the city of Wuhan, China, demonstrate that experiential optimal paths can be flexibly obtained in different time intervals, particularly during peak hours.
Batra, A. K.; Bhatacharjee, Sudip; Chilvery, A. K.
Thermal energy in the environment is a potential and possible source of electric energy for low-power electronics. The ambient temperature variation can be converted into electrical current or voltage via pyroelectric effect. The possibility of the utilizing pyroelectric materials in energy harvesting from roads warrants systematic exploration to take advantage of heat absorbed by the pavements. In terms of voltage generated, the simulated performances, of a few important pyroelectric materials, including fabricated in our laboratory, shall be described by employing real pavement temperature data obtained from climatic database of MEPDG.
Manojlović Aleksandar V.
Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.
A cointegration framework is used to examine the short-run and long-run characteristics of energy demand in the Australian road transport sector. A lagged endogenous equation based on a partial adjustment process is proposed and estimated. Results indicate that energy demand, output and real energy prices are integrated of order 1 and cointegrated. The long-run output and price elasticities of energy demand are estimated to be 0.52 and -0.12 respectively. Causality tests reveal a bidirectional causality path between output and energy demand and a unidirectional path from energy consumption to prices. No other causality paths between output, prices and energy demand are detected. The short-run output elasticity of energy demand is estimated to be 0.25 based on an error-correction model. The short-run price elasticity is found to be insignificant. The inertia parameter is 0.48 corresponding to 95% of the demand adjustment occurring after five periods. The results are compared with previous findings and the variations are partially attributed to the structural changes in the road transport sector in the 1980s, some of which are discussed. (author)
Deublein, Markus; Schubert, Matthias; Adey, Bryan T.;
-lognormal regression analysis taking into account correlations amongst multiple dependent model response variables and effects of discrete accident count data e.g. over-dispersion, and (3) Bayesian inference algorithms, which are applied by means of data mining techniques supported by Bayesian Probabilistic Networks...... in order to represent non-linearity between risk indicating and model response variables, as well as different types of uncertainties which might be present in the development of the specific models.Prior Bayesian Probabilistic Networks are first established by means of multivariate regression analysis...... of the observed frequencies of the model response variables, e.g. the occurrence of an accident, and observed values of the risk indicating variables, e.g. degree of road curvature. Subsequently, parameter learning is done using updating algorithms, to determine the posterior predictive probability distributions...
Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet
Shynkarenko, V.; Legkyi, S.
The existing approaches to fixing the fare of transport service using marketing approach have been analyzed; their advantages and disadvantages have been identified. The improved marketing approach to fixing the fare of road transport services is presented. It takes into account all essential market factors, discloses the mechanism of conciliation of consumers and producers' interests, and establishes its connection with market mechanism; determines the place and importance of consumer value ...
Wu, Xun; Zhang, Hong; Lan, Tian; Cao, Weiwei; He, Jing
The measure of map information has been one of the key issues in assessing cartographic quality and map generalization algorithms. It is also important for developing efficient approaches to transfer geospatial information. Road network is the most common linear object in real world. Approximately describe road network information will benefit road map generalization, navigation map production and urban planning. Most of current approaches focused on node diversities and supposed that all the edges are the same, which is inconsistent to real-life condition, and thus show limitations in measuring network information. As real-life traffic flow are directed and of different quantities, the original undirected vector road map was first converted to a directed topographic connectivity map. Then in consideration of preferential attachment in complex network study and rich-club phenomenon in social network, the from and to weights of each edge are assigned. The from weight of a given edge is defined as the connectivity of its end node to the sum of the connectivities of all the neighbors of the from nodes of the edge. After getting the from and to weights of each edge, edge information, node information and the whole network structure information entropies could be obtained based on information theory. The approach has been applied to several 1 square mile road network samples. Results show that information entropies based on edge diversities could successfully describe the structural differences of road networks. This approach is a complementarity to current map information measurements, and can be extended to measure other kinds of geographical objects.
Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy
Full Text Available As open source volunteered geographic information continues to gain popularity, the user community and data contributions are expected to grow, e.g., CloudMade, Apple, and Ushahidi now provide OpenStreetMap© (OSM as a base layer for some of their mapping applications. This, coupled with the lack of cartographic standards and the expectation to one day be able to use this vector data for more geopositionally sensitive applications, like GPS navigation, leaves potential users and researchers to question the accuracy of the database. This research takes a photogrammetric approach to determining the positional accuracy of OSM road features using stereo imagery and a vector adjustment model. The method applies rigorous analytical measurement principles to compute accurate real world geolocations of OSM road vectors. The proposed approach was tested on several urban gridded city streets from the OSM database with the results showing that the post adjusted shape points improved positionally by 86%. Furthermore, the vector adjustment was able to recover 95% of the actual positional displacement present in the database. To demonstrate a practical application, a head-to-head positional accuracy assessment between OSM, the USGS National Map (TNM, and United States Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding Referencing (TIGER 2007 roads was conducted.
Full Text Available A soil and rock slope assessment survey was conducted along Bireun – Takengon main road in Aceh Province, Indonesia. The slope assessment survey was carried out to determine the geological condition, verify and identify the potential areas of slope failure and to study what type of slope stability and protection method could be applied to the road. Several research methodologies were conducted in the field such as rock and soil identification, and slope assessment. The survey was conducted in four selected areas along Bireun – Takengon main road. In study area I, soil creep occurred because of a presence of montmorillonite clay. The mitigation methods to reduce soil creeping in this area are building a retaining wall and pile. The shotcrete, wire mesh, net rock bolting, and rock removal method is suitable to apply in study area II. The shotcrete and soil nails were used because the type of rocks in those areas is sedimentary rock such as shale, sandstone, siltstone, and a boulder of a volcanic rock. The same approach shall be applied in study area IV. study area III was the best spot to learn about the mitigation approach for slope stability and provides many lessons learned. Aceh Province experience active tectonic movement, high intensity of rain, geological structures, a high degree of weathering, and high intensity of earthquake,as primary factors which trigger landslides. The techonology of slope stabilizing and protection methods can be applied to mitigate landslides.
Douville, Hugo; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice
The reduction of the structure-borne road noise generated inside the cabin of an automobile is investigated using an Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) approach. First, a laboratory test bench consisting of a wheel/suspension/lower suspension A-arm assembly has been developed in order to identify the vibroacoustic transfer paths (up to 250 Hz) for realistic road noise excitation of the wheel. Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements between the excitation/control actuators and each suspension/chassis linkage are used to characterize the different transfer paths that transmit energy through the chassis of the car. Second, a FE/BE model (Finite/Boundary Elements) was developed to simulate the acoustic field of an automobile cab interior. This model is used to predict the acoustic field inside the cabin as a response to the measured forces applied on the suspension/chassis linkages. Finally, an experimental implementation of ASAC is presented. The control approach relies on the use of inertial actuators to modify the vibration behavior of the suspension and the automotive chassis such that its noise radiation efficiency is decreased. The implemented algorithm consists of a MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) feedforward configuration with a filtered-X LMS algorithm using an advanced reference signal (width FIR filters) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for control prototyping.
M. Rouhani, Omid
This paper offers a general overview of the road pricing concept. It first examines the common objectives used in road pricing, namely (a) congestion reduction; (b) raising profits; (c) social welfare maximization; etc. Then, it explores various types of road pricing, including two major ones: (1) road tolls and (2) congestion pricing charges. Next, general modeling approaches used for estimating the impacts of road pricing are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with a checklist explaini...
Kane, Malal; Do, Minh Tan
Water on road surfaces significantly degrades the available skid resistance. Indeed, 25% of injury accidents occur on wet roads in France due to lack of skid resistance. Some research results advocate an exponential decrease in skid resistance with increase in water depth. The above conclusions show the importance of knowing the water depth present on road surfaces during and after rainfall events in order to evaluate the available skid resistance for driver safety. In this paper, a predictio...
Dubois, Guillaume; Cesbron, Julien; YIN, Hai Ping; Anfosso Ledee, Fabienne
The interaction between the tyre and the road surface is responsible for many physical problems such as skid resistance, rolling resistance or noise generation. This paper deals with the numerical study of tyre/road contact. A two-scale iterative method is used for solving the contact problem between a multi-asperity road surface and an elastic half-space. This method has been used successfully for idealized rough surfaces. However, for efficient applications to real surfaces, an appropriate ...
This paper analyses the performance of ferries operating along the Norwegian road networks. These ferries are of critical importance to the trunk road system, as they act as links in the road system by transporting vehicles across fjords. However, ferries are subsidised by the government because they operate at a loss. It is therefore important for governmental agencies to assess the performance in order to understand the potential for efficiency and productivity improvements (eg, by implemen...
Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit
The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers. PMID:19540960
Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.
Full Text Available Road information is fundamental not only in the military field but also common daily living. Automatic road extraction from a remote sensing images can provide references for city planning as well as transportation database and map updating. However, owing to the spectral similarity between roads and impervious structures, the current methods solely using spectral characteristics are often ineffective. By contrast, the detailed information discernible from the high-resolution aerial images enables road extraction with spatial texture features. In this study, a knowledge-based method is established and proposed; this method incorporates the spatial texture feature into urban road extraction. The spatial texture feature is initially extracted by the local Moran’s I, and the derived texture is added to the spectral bands of image for image segmentation. Subsequently, features like brightness, standard deviation, rectangularity, aspect ratio, and area are selected to form the hypothesis and verification model based on road knowledge. Finally, roads are extracted by applying the hypothesis and verification model and are post-processed based on the mathematical morphology. The newly proposed method is evaluated by conducting two experiments. Results show that the completeness, correctness, and quality of the results could reach approximately 94%, 90% and 86% respectively, indicating that the proposed method is effective for urban road extraction.
Gould, Mark; Poulter, Damian R; Helman, Shaun; Wann, John P
One of the key contributory factors for accident involvement is the misjudgment of vehicle approach. Past research has indicated that individuals can use the rate of visual "looming" in order to judge the time to arrival (TTA) of approaching vehicles. Although a large number of road traffic collisions occur at roadside junctions, very little research has focused on individuals' abilities to detect the onset of visual looming within a complex road scene at junction scenarios. In this research, computer generated scenes with photorealistic vehicle images, and a psychophysical staircase methodology, were used to explore drivers' ability to detect the approach of both motorcycles and cars within a contextually rich city scene. Across three experiments the effect of additional vehicular and observer motion on driver detection of vehicle approach was assessed. Results showed that individuals were significantly poorer at detecting the approach of the motorcycle stimulus compared with the car stimulus. Results also showed that additional vehicular motion within the scene had a negative effect on detection thresholds for the car stimulus. Finally, the results showed that introducing lateral global motion of the scene, such as might occur if the observer was moving steadily forward from a junction, negatively affected detection thresholds. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed, including how vehicles traveling at high speed are often below the threshold for detecting visual looming. Practical implications for road design and layout are discussed that address the perceptual errors noted. PMID:23795983
Bernardes Vitor, Giovani; Victorino, Alessandro C.; Ferreira, Janito V.
International audience Navigation in urban environments has been receiving considerable attention over the past few years, especially for self-driving cars. Road detection for Autonomous Systems, and also for ADAS (Advanced Driving Assistance Systems) remains a major challenging in inner-city scenarios motivated by the high complexity in scene layout with unmarked or weakly marked roads and poor lightning conditions. This paper introduces a novel method that creates a classifier based on a...
Ohazulike, Anthony E.; Bliemer, Michiel C. J.; Still, Georg; Berkum, van, S.
Costs associated with trafﬁc externalities such as congestion, air pollution, noise, safety, etcetera are becoming “unbearable”. The Braess paradox shows that combating congestion by adding infrastructure may not improve trafﬁc conditions, and geographical and/or ﬁnancial constraints may not allow infrastructure expansion. Road pricing presents an alternative to combat the mentioned externalities. The traditional way of road pricing, namely; congestion charging, may create negative beneﬁts fo...
Ibnu Rusydy; Didik Sugiyanto; Lono Satrio; . Zulfahriza; Imam Munandar
A soil and rock slope assessment survey was conducted along Bireun – Takengon main road in Aceh Province, Indonesia. The slope assessment survey was carried out to determine the geological condition, verify and identify the potential areas of slope failure and to study what type of slope stability and protection method could be applied to the road. Several research methodologies were conducted in the field such as rock and soil identification, and slope assessment. The survey was conducted in...
Dunn, Naomi J.; Baker, Stephanie A.; Blanco, Myra
This report documents the Tips for Sharing the Road with Commercial Motor Vehicles website (http://www.cmvroadsharing.org). The website was created by the National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence to educate teen drivers about how to share the road with heavy vehicles. The website incorporates video clips of real-world driving events captured during a naturalistic driving study conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI). The video clips provide examples ...
Ohazulike, Anthony; Bliemer, Michiel; Still, Georg; Berkum, van, S.
Costs associated with traffic externalities such as congestion, air pollution, noise, safety, etcetera are becoming unbearable. The Braess paradox shows that combating congestion by adding infrastructure may not improve traffic conditions, and geographical and/or financial constraints may not allow infrastructure expansion. Road pricing presents an alternative to combat traffic externalities. The traditional way of road pricing, namely congestion charging, may create negative benefits for soc...
Shailendra Tahilyani; Manuj Darbari; Praveen Kumar Shukla
Traffic congestion in urban areas is a very critical problem and increasing day-by-day due to increment in number of vehicles and un-expandable traffic infrastructure. Several intelligent control systems have been developed to deal with this issue. In this paper, a new lane bypass algorithm has been developed for route diversion resulting in smooth traffic flow on the urban road networks. Genetic algorithms are utilized for the parameter optimization in this approach. Finally, the results of ...
The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.
Full Text Available In this paper, the integration of a multi-criteria analysis methodology that enables identification of critical road network links that can be applied to Mexico is proposed. In order to achieve this, recent works about road network vulnerability are reviewed in this article and their main findings are analyzed. It was found a concept of vulnerability accepted by some authors, where vulnerability is related to the consequences of link failure, irrespective of the probability of such failure. Some cited works, propose to take into account the road link capacity in vulnerability analysis, for that reason it is included in the proposed methodology. Finally, an exercise using a hypothetical network is made and a multi-criteria model is described.
Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M
Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853
Vasirani, Matteo; Ossowski, Sascha
Traffic congestion in urban road networks is a costly problem that affects all major cities in developed countries. To tackle this problem, it is possible (i) to act on the supply side, increasing the number of roads or lanes in a network, (ii) to reduce the demand, restricting the access to urban areas at specific hours or to specific vehicles, or (iii) to improve the efficiency of the existing network, by means of a widespread use of so-called Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). In li...
Mohammad Reza Jelokhani-Niaraki; Ali Asghar Alesheikh; Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki
One of the most powerful functions of Geographic Information System for Transportation(GIS-T)is Dynamic Segmentation(DS),which is used to increase the efficiency and precision of road management by generating segments based on attributes.The road segments describing transportation data are both spatially and temporally referenced.For a variety of transportation applications,historical road segments must be preserved.This study presents an appropriate approach to preserve and retrieve the historical road segments efficiently.In the proposed method,only the portions of segments of a time stamp that have been changed into new segments rather than storing the entire segments for every old time stamp are recorded.The storage of these portions is based on the type of changes.A recursive algorithm is developed to retrieve all segments for every old time stamp.Experimental results using real data of Tehran City,Iran justify the strength of the proposed approach in many aspects.An important achievement of the results is that database volume for 2006,2007 and 2008 within the Historical Line Event Table(HLET)is reduced by 70%,80%and 78%,respectively.The proposed method has the potential to prevent from vast data redundancy and the unnecessary storage of entire segments for each time stamp.Since the present technique is performed on ordinary plain tables that are readable by all GIS software,special software platforms to manage the storage and retrieval of historical segments are not needed.In addition,this method simplifies spatio-temporal queries.
Shekhar, A.; Klerks, S.; Bauer, P.; Prasanth, V.
One of the first of its kind, a pilot project involving the instalment of solar roads in Krommenie, was successfully implemented by the consortium of the province of North Holland, TNO, Ooms and Imtech. Seen as a living lab for knowledge gathering in this nascent application area, with a potential o
Lee, Bijun; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Maosheng; Guo, Yuan
Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the `Tuzhi' self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.
Full Text Available Given two positive parameters k and r, a constrained k-nearest neighbor (CkNN query returns the k closest objects within a network distance r of the query location in road networks. In terms of the scalability of monitoring these CkNN queries, existing solutions based on central processing at a server suffer from a sudden and sharp rise in server load as well as messaging cost as the number of queries increases. In this paper, we propose a distributed and scalable scheme called DAEMON for the continuous monitoring of CkNN queries in road networks. Our query processing is distributed among clients (query objects and server. Specifically, the server evaluates CkNN queries issued at intersections of road segments, retrieves the objects on the road segments between neighboring intersections, and sends responses to the query objects. Finally, each client makes its own query result using this server response. As a result, our distributed scheme achieves close-to-optimal communication costs and scales well to large numbers of monitoring queries. Exhaustive experimental results demonstrate that our scheme substantially outperforms its competitor in terms of query processing time and messaging cost.
Full Text Available This paper compares the spatial structure of accessibility in Romania before and after the implementation of some major national and/or European road infrastructure projects. This study suggests a new index for accessibility measurement by combining gravity-based models with Place Rank and adapting it to the Romanian system of settlements. Based on the GIS estimation of travel time, this index evaluates not only the geographical position of a specific community relative to the road network, but also the level of accessibility of rural and urban communities to the social services located in central places. The GIS-based maps indicate the existing disparities (between well-connected and isolated regions in terms of accessibility to the central places and the impact of new infrastructure projects on these disparities. The resulting maps can be used as efficient tools for transport planning and development at different scales (international, national, regional and local.
The transport of high-level radioactive wastes, involving Type B packages, is a part of the safety of the Romanian waste management programme and the overall aim of this activity is to promote the safe transport of radioactive materials in Romania. The paper presents a safety case analysis of the transport of a single spent fuel CANDU bundle, using a Romanian built Type B package, from the CANDU type nuclear power plant Cernavoda to the INR Pitesti, in order to be examined within INR's hot-cells facilities. The safety assessment includes the following main aspects: (1) evaluation and analysis of available data on road traffic accidents; (2) estimation of the expected frequency for severe road accident scenarios resulting in potential radionuclide release; and (3) evaluation of the expected radiological consequences and accident risks of transport operations. (author)
M. Mangiameli; G. Mussumeci
The theme of the simulation of hydrogeological risk with GIS technology is analyzed with focus on the modeling of the architecture of a Spatial Data Base to support risk analysis and on the construction of a specialized frame with free and open source software. For this purpose a model of analysis of the vulnerability of roads developed by (Cafiso et al., 2002) has been adopted. The case of study is represented by a seismic land characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena...
Martí Albiñana, José Vicente; Yepes Piqueras, Víctor; Gonzalez Vidosa, Fernando
This paper describes the influence of steel fiber-reinforcement on the design of cost-optimized, prestressed concrete, precast road bridges, with a double U-shaped crosssection and isostatic spans. A memetic algorithm with variable-depth neighborhood search is applied to the economic cost of these structures at different stages of manufacturing, transportation, and construction. The problem involved 41 discrete design variables for the geometry of the beam and the slab, materials in the two e...
Gabriele Bitelli; Andrea Simone; Fabrizio Girardi; Claudio Lantieri
The surface layer of road pavement has a particular importance in relation to the satisfaction of the primary demands of locomotion, such as security and eco-compatibility. Among those pavement surface characteristics, the “texture” appears to be one of the most interesting with regard to the attainment of skid resistance. Specifications and regulations, providing a wide range of functional indicators, act as guidelines to satisfy the performance requirements. This paper describes an experime...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...
Winter, M. G.; Smith, J. T.; Fotopoulou, S.; Pitlakis, K.; Mavrouli, O.-C.; Corominas, J.; Argyroudis, S.
The physical vulnerability of roads to debris flow is expressed through fragility functions that relate flow volume to damage probabilities. Fragility relationships are essential components of quantitative risk assessments (QRA) as they allow for the estimation of risk within a consequence-based framework. To the best of the Authors' knowledge this is the first time that fragility curves have been produced in order to provide the conditional probability for a road to be in, or to exceed, a certain damage state for a given debris flow volume. Preliminary assessments were undertaken by means of a detailed questionnaire. A total of 47 returns were received from experts in 17 countries: 32% academia, 51% the commercial sector and 17% governments. Fragility curves have been defined for three damage states (limited damage, serious damage and destroyed) for each of low speed and high speed roads in order to cover the typical characteristics of roads vulnerable to debris flow. The probability of any given damage state being met or exceeded by a debris flow of a given volume (10 to 100,000m3) was derived from the mean of the responses received. Inevitably there was a degree of scatter in the results and the treatment of such variation, or 'experimental errors', was crucial to understanding the data and to developing the fragility curves. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of arriving at these preliminary fragility curves were utilised. The nature of the data is such that unless all respondents return that value the average probability at the largest flow volume cannot reach unity; as a result the upper ends of each curve were forced to unity and in order to account for larger potential volumes manual extrapolation was undertaken to 1,000,000m3. In addition to an assessment of the probabilities of given damage states being exceeded respondents to the questionnaire were polled as to their level of experience and confidence in their ability to provide a valid and
Feng, Yang; Luo, Jiebo
In this paper, we focus on studying the appearing time of different kinds of cars on the road. This information will enable us to infer the life style of the car owners. The results can further be used to guide marketing towards car owners. Conventionally, this kind of study is carried out by sending out questionnaires, which is limited in scale and diversity. To solve this problem, we propose a fully automatic method to carry out this study. Our study is based on publicly available surveilla...
Chuqing Cao; Ying Sun
Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data....
Panayotis CHRISTIDIS; IBANEZ RIVAS Juan Nicolas
The methodology presented here allows to measure and monitor road congestion across Europe using data from TomTom in-vehicle navigation systems. The approach is based on the analysis of a large number of real vehicle speeds that have been measured on each road link and the application of algorithms that allow the estimation of congestion indicators for specific types of roads during selected time periods. The results include the detailed mapping of recurrent congestion both geographically and...
DELANNE, Y; DO, MT; M'SIRDI, NK
Two main approaches for tire road friction estimation : the "cause based" and the "effect based" are generally dealt with in the literature. The slip-based method seems to be the most promising and is, consequently, a very popular current subject. LCPC, a french research body in civil engineering has been working for several years on the relationship between road texture parameters and road surface condition (dry, damp, wet) and tire friction performance. In this framework, the two methods ha...
Bitelli, Gabriele; Simone, Andrea; Girardi, Fabrizio; Lantieri, Claudio
The surface layer of road pavement has a particular importance in relation to the satisfaction of the primary demands of locomotion, such as security and eco-compatibility. Among those pavement surface characteristics, the "texture" appears to be one of the most interesting with regard to the attainment of skid resistance. Specifications and regulations, providing a wide range of functional indicators, act as guidelines to satisfy the performance requirements. This paper describes an experiment on the use of laser scanner techniques on various types of asphalt for texture characterization. The use of high precision laser scanners, such as the triangulation types, is proposed to expand the analysis of road pavement from the commonly and currently used two-dimensional method to a three-dimensional one, with the aim of extending the range of the most important parameters for these kinds of applications. Laser scanners can be used in an innovative way to obtain information on areal surface layer through a single measurement, with data homogeneity and representativeness. The described experience highlights how the laser scanner is used for both laboratory experiments and tests in situ, with a particular attention paid to factors that could potentially affect the survey. PMID:23012535
Full Text Available The surface layer of road pavement has a particular importance in relation to the satisfaction of the primary demands of locomotion, such as security and eco-compatibility. Among those pavement surface characteristics, the “texture” appears to be one of the most interesting with regard to the attainment of skid resistance. Specifications and regulations, providing a wide range of functional indicators, act as guidelines to satisfy the performance requirements. This paper describes an experiment on the use of laser scanner techniques on various types of asphalt for texture characterization. The use of high precision laser scanners, such as the triangulation types, is proposed to expand the analysis of road pavement from the commonly and currently used two-dimensional method to a three-dimensional one, with the aim of extending the range of the most important parameters for these kinds of applications. Laser scanners can be used in an innovative way to obtain information on areal surface layer through a single measurement, with data homogeneity and representativeness. The described experience highlights how the laser scanner is used for both laboratory experiments and tests in situ, with a particular attention paid to factors that could potentially affect the survey.
Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.
Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and impr...
Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid
Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful. PMID:22565600
Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco
The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems. PMID:26857254
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a residue from the basic oxygen converter in steel-making operations, and is partially reused as an aggregate for road constructions. Although BOF slag is an attractive building material, its long-term behaviour and the associated environmental impacts must be taken into account. Indeed BOF slag is mainly composed of calcium, silicon and iron but also contains trace amounts of potential toxic elements, specifically chromium and vanadium, which can be released. The present research focuses (i) on the release of Cr and V during leaching and (ii) on their speciation within the bearing phase. Indeed the mobility and toxicity of heavy metals strongly depend on their speciation. Leaching tests show that only low amounts of Cr, present at relatively high concentration in steel slag, are released while the release of V is significantly high. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicates that Cr is present in the less mobile and less toxic trivalent form and that its speciation does not evolve during leaching. On the contrary, V which is predominantly present in the 4+ oxidation state seems to become oxidized to the pentavalent form (the most toxic form) during leaching
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...
Every day we all use roads. We walk on them. We walk eitheralong the pavement (人行道)or across the road. If we are careless, wecan cause accidents.Accidents often happen when people arecrossing the road. Here is some advice.
Johannes Salamon; Martin Hofmann; Caroline Jung; Michael Gerhard Kaul; Franziska Werner; Kolja Them; Rudolph Reimer; Peter Nielsen; Annika Vom Scheidt; Gerhard Adam; Tobias Knopp; Harald Ittrich
Purpose In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. Materials and Methods A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superp...
Full Text Available Purpose Difficulty in securing research funding has been cited as one barrier to the involvement of more librarians and information professionals in conducting original research. This article seeks to support the work of librarians who wish to secure research funding by describing a systematic approach to the creation of successful grant applications.Approach The authors draw on more than fifteen years collective experience in supporting the development of successful research grant proposals. Eleven grant‐writing best practicesor ‘key approaches’ are described, and a planning timeline is suggested.Conclusions: Use of these best practices can assist researchers in creating successful research grant proposals that will also help streamline the research process once it is underway. It is important to recognize the competitive nature of research grant competitions, obtain feedback from an internal review panel, and use feedback from funding agencies to strengthen future grant applications.
Abstract. The tourism industry and creative economy in Cirebon can not be separated from the historical aspect of the city's growth and development as silk lines in the spread of Islam, trade, and acculturation is very smooth so that the ethnic diversification becomes a major part in tourist activities. With a qualitative approach that emphasizes the phenomenon of ethnic Cirebon with tourist objects that vary in every corner of this city, then this paper confirms that Cirebon is a tourist des...
Alves De Lima, Danilo; Corrêa Victorino, Alessandro
This paper presents a local navigation strategy with obstacle avoidance applied to autonomous robotic auto-mobiles in urban environments, based on the validation of a Visual Servoing controller in a Dynamic Window Approach. Typically, Visual Servoing applications do not consider velocity changes to stop the robot in danger situations or avoid obstacles, while performing the navigation task. However, in several urban conditions, these are elements that must be deal with to guarantee the safe m...
Ben-Edigbe Johnnie; Mashros Nordiana; Raha Rahman
The study is exciting because it introduced a new quality of road service assessment approach. The study explored the effect of road lighting on the quality of dual carriageway road service. Based on the hypothesis that road lighting has no significant effect on the level of road service, an impact study was carried out in Skudai town, Malaysia. Twenty four hours continuous traffic volume, vehicle types and speeds data were collected during daylight, road lighting and dry weather conditions f...
Rowe, Richard; Roman, Gabriela D; McKenna, Frank P; Barker, Edward; Poulter, Damian
The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is a self-report measure of driving behavior that has been widely used over more than 20 years. Despite this wealth of evidence a number of questions remain, including understanding the correlation between its violations and errors sub-components, identifying how these components are related to crash involvement, and testing whether a DBQ based on a reduced number of items can be effective. We address these issues using a bifactor modeling approach to data drawn from the UK Cohort II longitudinal study of novice drivers. This dataset provides observations on 12,012 drivers with DBQ data collected at .5, 1, 2 and 3 years after passing their test. A bifactor model, including a general factor onto which all items loaded, and specific factors for ordinary violations, aggressive violations, slips and errors fitted the data better than correlated factors and second-order factor structures. A model based on only 12 items replicated this structure and produced factor scores that were highly correlated with the full model. The ordinary violations and general factor were significant independent predictors of crash involvement at 6 months after starting independent driving. The discussion considers the role of the general and specific factors in crash involvement. PMID:25463951
Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Le, Minh-Hoang; Chebbo, Ghassan
Nowadays, the increasing use of vehicles is causing contaminated stormwater runoff to drain from roads. The detailed understanding of urban wash-off processes is essential for addressing urban management issues. However, existing modelling approaches are rarely applied for these objectives due to the lack of realistic input data, unsuitability of physical descriptions, and inadequate documentation of model testing. In this context, we implement a method of coupling monitoring surveys with the physically-based FullSWOF (Full Shallow Water equations for Overland Flow) model (Delestre et al., 2014) and the process-based H-R (Hairsine-Rose) model (Hairsine and Rose, 1992a, 1992b) to evaluate urban wash-off process on a road catchment near Paris (Le Perreux sur Marne, Val de Marne, France, 2661 m(2)). This work is the first time that such an approach is applied for road wash-off modelling in the context of urban stormwater runoff. On-site experimental measurements have shown that only the finest particles of the road dry stocks could be transferred to the sewer inlet during rainfall events, and most Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in the particulate phase. Simulations over different rainfall events represent promising results in reproducing the various dynamics of water flows and sediment transports at the road catchment scale. Elementary Effects method is applied for sensitivity analysis. It is confirmed that settling velocity (Vs) and initial dry stocks (S) are the most influential parameters in both overall and higher order effects. Furthermore, flow-driven detachment seems to be insignificant in our case study, while raindrop-driven detachment is shown to be the major force for detaching sediment from the studied urban surface. Finally, a multiple sediment classification regarding the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) can be suggested for improving the model performance for future studies. PMID:27328366
Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.
and fine height accuracy. The main aim of this study is to research, analyze, develop, and improve the quality of the road condition forecasts by refining, detalization, setting up, and running the fine-scale resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with integration (from high resolution databases) of characteristics and derived parameters of surrounding roads the land-use, terrain, positioning and road properties at road stations/ stretches. The objectives include, at first, research and development of the existing road model based on input from a fine-scale NWP modelling. At second, it is analysis and integration of detailed data and derived parameters at road stations/stretches into the RCM based on available detailed Danish datasets on terrain, GPS positioning, land-use, and road properties. And at third, it is elaboration, testing, evaluation, and implementation of the methods and approaches suitable for forecasting and verification of the RCM performance for fine-scales. The results of this study are applicable for improvement of quality of detailed forecasts at road stretches. This will facilitate the use of data from the road stretch forecasting to automatic adjustment of control of the dosage spread by salting spreaders (i.e. for optimization of the salt amount spreaded in order to prevent the icing/freezing and better timing of salting schedule). It will lead to improvement of the overall safety of the winter road traffic. It will contribute to further development and improvement of the visualization tools for the road stretches forecasting. And it may reduce the environmental impact in the road surroundings due to an optimized spreading of the salt.
Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate
outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure....
Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.
Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.
The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...
Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George
This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...
Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W
A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.
Gülci, Sercan; Akay, Abdullah Emin
Major roads cause barrier effect and fragmentation on wildlife habitats that are suitable places for feeding, mating, socializing, and hiding. Due to wildlife collisions (Wc), human-wildlife conflicts result in lost lives and loss of biodiversity. Geographical information system (GIS)-based multi criteria evaluation (MCE) methods have been successfully used in short-term planning of road networks considering wild animals. Recently, wildlife passages have been effectively utilized as road engineering structures provide quick and certain solutions for traffic safety and wildlife conservation problems. GIS-based MCE methods provide decision makers with optimum location for ecological passages based on habitat suitability models (HSMs) that classify the areas based on ecological requirements of target species. In this study, ecological passages along Motorway 52 within forested areas in Mediterranean city of Osmaniye in Turkey were evaluated. Firstly, HSM coupled with nine eco-geographic decision variables were developed based on ecological requirements of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) that were chosen as target species. Then specified decision variables were evaluated using GIS-based weighted linear combination (WLC) method to estimate movement corridors and mitigation points along the motorway. In the solution process, two linkage nodes were evaluated for eco-passages which were determined based on the least-cost movement corridor intersecting with the motorway. One of the passages was identified as a natural wildlife overpass while the other was suggested as underpass construction. The results indicated that computer-based models provide accurate and quick solutions for positioning ecological passages to reduce environmental effects of road networks on wild animals. PMID:26620952
Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique
This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.
Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason
Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772
Wang, Bihao; Fremont, Vincent; Rodriguez Florez, Sergio Alberto
Road detection is one of the key issues of scene understanding for Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Recent approaches has addressed this issue through the use of different kinds of sensors, features and algorithms. KITTI-ROAD benchmark has provided an open-access dataset and standard evaluation mean for road area detection. In this paper, we propose an improved road detection algorithm that provides a pixel-level confidence map. The proposed approach is inspired from our former wor...
Full Text Available A posteriori studies of rock slope instabilities generally show that rockfalls do not occur at random locations: the failure zone can be classified as sensitive from geomorphological evidence. Zones susceptible to failure can there-fore be detected. Effects resulting from degrading and triggering factors, such as groundwater circulation and freeze and thaw cycles, must then be assessed in order to evaluate the probability of failure. A simple method to detect rock slope instabilities was tested in a study involving a 2000 m3 rockfall that obstructed a mountainous road near Sion (Switzerland on 9 January 2001. In order to locate areas from which a rock-fall might originate, areas were assessed with respect to the presence or absence of five criteria: (1 a fault, (2 a scree slope within a short distance, (3 a rocky cliff, (4 a steep slope, and (5 a road. These criteria were integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS using existing topo-graphic, geomorphological, and geological vector and raster digital data. The proposed model yields a rating from 0 to 5, and gives a relative hazard map. Areas yielding a high relative hazard have to meet two additional criteria if they are to be considered as locations from which a rockfall might originate: (1 the local structural pattern has to be unfavourable, and (2 the morphology has to be susceptible to the effects of degrading and triggering factors. The rockfall of 9 January 2001, has a score of 5. Applied to the entire length of the road (4 km, the present method reveals two additional areas with a high relative hazard, and allows the detection of the main instabilities of the site.
From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group
Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…
Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Dobak, Paweł
Localised landslide activity has been observed in the area of the plateau slope analysed, in the vicinity of the planned Warsaw Southern Ring Road. Using calculation models quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the impact of natural and anthropogenic load factors on slope stability (and hence, safety) are made. The present paper defines six stages of slope stability analysis, leading to an indication of optimum slope design in relation to the development planned. The proposed procedure produces a ranking of factors that affect slope stability. In the engineering geological conditions under consideration, the greatest factors impacting degradation and failure of slope stability are changes in soil strength due to local, periodic yielding and the presence of dynamic loads generated by intensification of road traffic. Calculation models were used to assess the impact of destabilisation factors and to obtain mutual equivalence with 3D-visualisation relations. Based on this methodology, various scenarios dedicated to specific engineering geological conditions can be developed and rapid stability evaluations of changing slope loads can be performed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries are a major global public health problem. Improvements in pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries (RTIs worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with a high rate of RTIs such as Iran. The current study aimed to explore pre-hospital trauma care process for RTI victims in Iran and to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of pre-hospital trauma care professionals. Methods A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was selected. The data, collected via in-depth interviews with 15 pre-hospital trauma care professionals, were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Seven categories emerged to describe the factors that hinder or facilitate an effective pre-hospital trauma care process: (1 administration and organization, (2 staff qualifications and competences, (3 availability and distribution of resources, (4 communication and transportation, (5 involved organizations, (6 laypeople and (7 infrastructure. The core category that emerged from the other categories was defined as "interaction and common understanding". Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. Conclusions Improving the interaction within the current pre-hospital trauma care system and building a common understanding of the role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS emerged as key issues in the development of an effective pre-hospital trauma care process.
Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina
emission inventory, together with the mobile source's parameters and the disaggregated transport activity data. The paper will also identify emission and concentration differences and gradients of certain magnitude/factor (e.g. comparison between estimated ATPs hourly concentrations in Madrid City Center and in the peripheries). Furthermore, because of the higher contribution of road mobile sources to GHGs and ATPs emissions in Madrid, small gradients between urban highways and residential areas will be expected. Second, the paper objectives are to develop valid methods and approaches to measure air quality and to develop valid road transport emission inventories to assess correlations between external costs, epidemiology and emissions in order to reveal how traffic pollution affects people exposure to key contaminants and disease development, and identify susceptible emission scenarios and health impacts. We have conducted general emission inventory studies providing preliminary evidence of regional road transport air pollution impacts on external cost growth and disease development. Third, we also aim to demonstrate short and long-term impacts of road transport emissions on external costs development using innovative multi-methodological methods interfaced with environmental chemistry and meteorology following meteorological and chemical fields with contrasting high/low traffic emissions in several linked components involving: air pollutant assessment using local measurements, height of the boundary layer, meteorological environment interactions on external costs and epidemiology, mapping of Madrid (identifying gradients of emissions), integrative causal modeling using statistical models, and trend and scenario analyses on external costs and impacts on human health. Meteorological and chemical fields will be obtained from local records collected by surface meteorological and air quality stations. These two sets of fields define the horizontal and vertical profiles of
Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own--surprisingly few--driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045
Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.
This manual presents the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) developed to improve the decision-making process for the development and maintenance of low-volume rural roads. The model performs an economic evaluation of road investments options using the consumer surplus approach and is customized to the characteristics and needs of low-volume roads such as the high uncertainty of the assess...
ANFOSSO, Fabienne; Do, Minh Tan
The paper deals with the determination of geometric parameters in order to study the relationship between the tire/road noise and the texture of road surfaces. The approach was found to be an alternative to the classical spectral analyses and the numerical simulations of the tire/road contact. Texture parameters were derived from previous works in LCPC related to the influence of the microtexture of road surfaces on the skid resistance. Use of these parameters was justified by the considerati...
Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The centerlines were originally developed under...
Millenium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...
Kim Oanh, N. T.; Martel, M.; Pongkiatkul, P.; Berkowicz, R.
Roadside air quality and vehicle emission are important and challenging issues in urban air quality management which need to be adequately characterized. This study involves designing a monitoring program that produces suitable data to determine the on-road hourly fleet emission and emission factors of individual vehicles in a street canyon. Simultaneous hourly monitoring of roadside gaseous pollutants (both windward and leeward sides), traffic volume and speed, and wind in a busy street of Bangkok was conducted in the rainy season when traffic emission was predominant in the city. Higher pollutant concentrations often occurred at midday (11:00 to 14:00h) when higher traffic density (3700-3800vehicles h - 1, weekdays) was observed. The levels of toluene and xylenes found in this study are higher than the roadside levels reported in other Asian cities. Hourly maximum concentrations reached 258ppb for toluene, 51ppb for m, p-xylenes, 15ppb for o-xylene, 526ppb for NO x, and 10.5ppm for CO. Hourly monitoring data during the periods when the street canyon effects were pronounced were selected for determination of the fleet hourly emission and vehicle emission factors by back calculation using a street canyon model (Operational Street Pollution Model). The average fleet hourly emission at daytime of NO x (6.2kg km - 1 h - 1), CO (54kg km - 1 h - 1), toluene (2.1kg km - 1 h - 1), m, p-xylenes (0.73kg km - 1 h - 1) and o-xylene (0.27kg km - 1 h - 1) did not vary much. However, the emission rates were substantially reduced at nighttime following the traffic pattern. The obtained pollutant emission factors varied within each group of vehicles with the average values agreed reasonably with the chassis dynamometer results for NO x but somewhat higher for CO and TX. The model estimated results are, however, considered to better represent the real driving conditions in the street at the average vehicle travel speed of around 20km h - 1. A statistical sampling design is proposed
Pu Wang; Timothy Hunter; Bayen, Alexandre M; Katja Schechtner; González, Marta C.
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, wh...
Jamal Raiyn; Tomer Toledo
Many modeling approaches have been proposed to help forecast and detect incidents. Accident has received the most attention from researchers due to its impacts economically. The traffic congestion costs billions of dollars to economy. The main reasons of major percentage of traffic congestion are the incidents. Road accidents continue to increase in digital age. There are many reasons for road accidents. This paper will discuss and introduce new algorithm for road ac...
Freitas, Elisabete F.; Paulo, Joel; Coelho, J. L. Bento; Pereira, Paulo A. A.
Noise classification of road surfaces has been addressed in many European countries. This paper presents the first approach towards noise classification of Portuguese road pavements. In this early stage, it aims at establishing guidelines for decision makers to support their noise reduction policies and the development of a classification system adapted to the European recommendations. A ranking to provide guidance on tire-road noise emission levels for immediate use by decisio...
Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.
Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald
Purpose In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. Materials and Methods A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Results Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. Conclusions 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions. PMID:27249022
The paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associa...
Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.
Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study aims at providing an instrument that facilitates easy comparisons of the overall road safety situation between countries. Ideally, sets of indicators, describing the road safety outcomes and road sa...
谭川豫; 曹泽文; 周姚
对公路网中车辆信息进行监控以发现密集行驶的车队,将会对交通调度起到重要的辅助作用.提出了一种新的公路网中车队的定义,采用2D模型对公路网进行建模,在此基础上以2D模型中的路片为基本单元.提出了EpS(endpoint scanning)车队发现方法.最后通过实验证明了该方法在性能上的优势,并说明了其在车辆调度、缓解交通压力中的作用.%Monitoring traffic information and discovering convoys on the road network plays an important role on assisting the traffic control.This paper proposed a new concept of convoy on road network, and adopted 2D model to modeling the road network.Based on these, it regarded road segment as the basic unit, and proposed EpS (endpoint scanning) convoy discovery approach.Finally, the experiment proves the advantage in performance of the approach and explains the effect of vehicle scheduling and reducing traffic.
Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne
An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477
Full Text Available Este trabajo presente algunos resultados de un estudio piloto realizado para el IFRTD (Foro Internacional para el Transporte Rural y el Desarrollo, Londres sobre los temas de movilización y vialidad en la comuna de Canela, IV Región de Chile. El planteamiento es que una política coherente de vialidad rural debe tener como fundamento un entendimiento de las necesidades percibidas por las comunidades rurales y de las prioridades que expresan. Este tema se explora en el proyecto en forma preliminar utilizando metodologías cualitativas y cuantitativas para investigar las necesidades de movilización en diversas comunidades de Canela desde el punto de vista de los usuarios, operadores de transporte y autoridades locales. Se presentará un análisis de los resultados pertinentes al asunto de la vialidad, que pretende establecer de manera tentativa un perfil del usuario de los caminos rurales de la zona y las características de sus traslados más difíciles. Entre los resultados más significativos se destacan:Una percepción de los amplios efectos modernizadores que introduce la pavimentación de un camino de acceso al sector.La existencia de una correlación baja pero positiva entre la dificultad percibida por el usuario de su traslado y su evaluación del camino, que se ve relacionado con el modo de transporte que se ocupa.La conclusión principal del trabajo es que un conocimiento de los criterios propios con los cuales el usuario rural evalúa su traslado es necesario para una gestión exitosa de la vialidad rural./The author argues that a coherent policy for rural roads should be founded on the understanding of the perceived needs of rural communities and the priorities expressed. It describes the Methodological approaches to assess, in this way, rural roads.
Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R
Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy-that of road development and motorisation versus road safety-and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new 'Safe Systems' approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394
Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.
Full Text Available Taste is one of the main factors determining food choices. Differences in PROP bitter taste perception have been implicated in individual differences in food preferences and selection. The present study examined associations between, PROP phenotypes, self-reported food liking and TAS2R38 polymorphisms, the major gene implicated in PROP bitterness, in six different populations of the Caucasus and Central Asia, located along the ancient Silk Road. Differences in the distribution of PROP phenotypes across populations were detected, with a higher frequency of super tasters in Tajikistan (31.3% and Armenia (39.0% and a higher frequency of non tasters in Georgia (50.9%. While no relationships were observed between PROP phenotypes and food liking using standard statistical tests, we used an approach based on comparison of distance matrices derived from these data. The first matrix compared the food liking ratings of each population to all others pairwise using the Kruskal-Wallis test (at p<0.00063, and the second one compared the distribution of PROP phenotypes across all populations in a similar manner calculating the chi-square statistic as a distance measure. A strong correlation between the two matrices was found (Mantel test: r = 0.67, p-value = 0.03, suggesting that the pattern of food liking across populations was closely related to the distribution of PROP phenotypes. This same relationship was not observed when TAS2R38 genotypes were substituted for PROP phenotypes in this analysis. Our data suggest that a population-based approach utilizing distance matrices is a useful technique for detecting PROP-related differences in food liking and can be applied to other taste phenotypes.
Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan
Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.
Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...
One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Mt Davis Road Extension. The Mount Davis Road Extension was part of the Smithfield Extension and Associated Roadworks which was completed by the Highways Department (Hong Kong S.A.R. ) in December 1997. The considerable increase in traffic volume necessitated the construction of a road link between Smithfield and Pokfulam Road. The construction of an elevate...
van Bommel, Wout
This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...
Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette
Speed is a substantial factor contributing to road safety. Currently, speed reduction is mainly achieved through law enforcement and the implementation of traffic calming measures. An alternative speed reducing approach is to encourage drivers to voluntarily choose an appropriate driving speed....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed-driving...... simulator experiment. Speed and lateral position were used as performance indicators. The results indicated that shoulders might not be applied to decrease the speed on the experimental road stretch, but their presence cause drivers to drive closer to the road edge, hence eliminating the probability of head...
Chinowsky, P.; Arndt, Channing
Decision-makers who are responsible for determining when and where infrastructure should be developed and/or enhanced are facing a new challenge with the emerging topic of climate change. The paper introduces a stressor–response methodology where engineering-based models are used as a basis...... to estimate the impact of individual climate stressors on road infrastructure in Mozambique. Through these models, stressor–response functions are introduced that quantify the cost impact of a specific stressor based on the intensity of the stressor and the type of infrastructure it is affecting. Utilizing...... four climate projection scenarios, the paper details how climate change response decisions may cost the Mozambican government in terms of maintenance costs and long-term roadstock inventory reduction. Through this approach the paper details how a 14% reduction in inventory loss can be achieved through...
Street, J T
Road accident trauma is a leading cause of death and serious morbidity among healthy young adults in the developed world. The Irish Republic has the third worst road safety record in the EU. In studying the unique demographics of rural road accidents, our aim was to provide information essential to the future development of trauma care in Ireland. Our figures highlight the inadequacies of data received by the National Roads Authority, illustrate the resource impact of road trauma on a peripheral hospital, and demonstrate the need for similar studies in the rationalisation of trauma care as we approach the next millennium.
A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b
Traffic jams are an important problem both on an individual and on a societal level and much research has been done on trying to explain their emergence. The mainstream approach to road traffic monitoring is based on crowdsourcing roaming GPS devices such as cars or cell phones. These systems are expectedly able to deliver good results in reflecting the immediate present. To my knowledge there is as yet no system which offers advance notice on road conditions. Google Search intensity for the ...
Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.
Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.
Dissertation Annotation. The aim of the dissertation is to explore resource allocation problems for motor roads, reveal positive aspects and drawbacks in road maintenance and resource allocation scheme, as well as elaborate proposals for decreasing the deficit of motor road repairs in Latvia. The paper is composed in three large sections, according to the tasks. In the first section the Author considers number of basic issues related to the meaning of the motor transport ...
One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Fei Tsui Road Landslide. In the early morning of 13 August 1995, a landslide occurred on the slope opposite the Chai Wan Baptist Church, Fei Tsui Road, Chai Wan. A 90m long section of Fei Tsui Road was buried by approximately 14,000 m3 of rock/soil materials from the landslide.
In my graduation thesis I deal with development of road network of town Celje. In the first part of my graduation thesis I introduce a few studies and projects that dealt with problems in road traffic network in the past and a complete road traffic network study of town Celje that foresaw individual measures and group of measures for the next 20 years. In the second part of the dissertation I check, if the suggested measures of road traffic study from 1995 where made. I also check if the meas...
Given that over a million people are fatally injured in road accidents each year, the need for a systematic proactive approach is undeniable. The Swedish Road Administration (SRA) has developed a model for a safe road transport system based on the Vision Zero philosophy, to identify and prevent deviations from a safe system approach with regard to crashes. The overall objective of this thesis was: to study road crashes using this system approach, to identify whether the SRA ...
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...
Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung
With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176
D. V. Kapsky
Full Text Available Road traffic with its share from 2/3 to 3/4 of the total volume of transport service represents rather large and complicated social and production system with several subsystems that include roads, transport facilities, road traffic organization, law enforcement, personnel training, road traffic service and others. Road traffic quality can be quantitatively evaluated in accordance with values of losses pertaining to social and economic cost of discretionary (unenforced expenses for road traffic process. Road traffic contains accident, ecological, economic and social risks. Accidence is considered as the most important risk for participants involved in road traffic because it directly concerns their life, health and welfare. So accident response has rather high social significance and it is considered as a matter of national importance. In this connection role of road traffic organization has become very important and it is directed on improvement of its quality including security in the accident clusters.Methodological principles for improvement of road traffic quality have been developed in the paper. These principles presuppose the following: maximization of danger while selecting investigation object; minimization of total losses while evaluating quality and selecting solutions on improvement in road traffic safety; balanced accountability of accidental and ecological losses while selecting solutions on higher road traffic safety in ambiguous situations; minimization of total cost pertaining to object operation while selecting measures on improvement of road traffic safety; obligatory operative control evaluation of accidence on the basis of method for conflict situations while introducing measures of road traffic safety. Such approaches will contribute to higher quality of the decisions taken in the field of road traffic organization.
An optimal first-best road charge should not only be differentiated with respect to factors that affect the direct external environmental and time costs from the road-user himself. Indirect effects, such as the fact that other cars will be more polluting when congestion increases, should also be taken into account.
Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may be...
Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George
This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:23928504
Ingo_Böbel; Casimir de Rham
Only recently, the subject of road pricing to reduce traffic congestion gained increasing importance in Europe. This paper uses a standard microeconomic approach to show that road user price charging to avoid traffic congestion is optimal from a society’s point of view as it improves economic efficiency of allocating a scarce resource (road space) by reducing the welfare loss (as being measured by a loss in consumer surplus) for everyone in the society.
Full Text Available Road safety has been a main societal and policy issue in many European countries since the early years of last decade. After the 2000-2010 Road Safety Programme launched by the European Commission, in 2011 the Commission adopted the new 2020 programme, even more demanding than the previous. As the societal consequences of road casualties are increasingly perceived as a core dimension of smart mobility, road safety system is now facing new challenges. Current mobility shifts to softer and greener transportation means raise new safety concerns for an increasingly larger share of vulnerable road users. The need to integrate road safety requirements with other residential, mobility, and environmental policies calls for a more detailed understanding of the phenomenon at different spatial levels and with different observation lenses. The pilot study described in this paper is a contribution to this end. It aims at identifying the accident prone sites of the regional road network to help prioritizing safety interventions, by the regional administration having road planning responsibilities. The study develops a screening approach to select hazardous road locations, outside urban premises, from the Piedmont provincial and state roads. The most recent data for the 2010-2012 years were considered, drawn from the ISTAT road accident database, managed by the CMRSS. The procedure consists of the following steps: identification of the elementary road sections to be screened, through a GIS analysis; definition of the screening groups (road sections have been subdivided in 4 length classes; definition of the selection criteria, with two severity thresholds based on the crash density; classification of the elementary road sections by severity thresholds.
Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.
We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.
Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.
Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study a
AKAY, Abdullah E.; Aruga, Kazuhiro; Bettinger, Pete; Sessions, John
There has been an increasing interest in using modern optimization techniques in forest road design due to advancements in computer hardware, optimization algorithms, and remote sensing technologies. These techniques allow one to automate many of the time consuming tasks involved in road design process and improve the efficiency of road design managers in identifying road alignment alternatives. This paper presents the main road design stages to indicate the possibilities of using optimizatio...
Full Text Available Road detection is a key task for autonomous land vehicles. Monocular vision-based road detection algorithms are mostly based on machine learning approaches and are usually cast as classification problems. However, the pixel-wise classifiers are faced with the ambiguity caused by changes in road appearance, illumination and weather. An effective way to reduce the ambiguity is to model the contextual information with structured learning and prediction. Currently, the widely used structured prediction model in road detection is the Markov random field or conditional random field. However, the random field-based methods require additional complex optimization after pixel-wise classification, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a structured random forest-based road-detection algorithm which is capable of modelling the contextual information efficiently. By mapping the structured label space to a discrete label space, the test function of each split node can be trained in a similar way to that of the classical random forests. Structured random forests make use of the contextual information of image patches as well as the structural information of the labels to get more consistent results. Besides this benefit, by predicting a batch of pixels in a single classification, the structured random forest-based road detection can be much more efficient than the conventional pixel-wise random forest. Experimental results tested on the KITTI-ROAD dataset and data collected in typical unstructured environments show that structured random forest-based road detection outperforms the classical pixel-wise random forest both in accuracy and efficiency.
Full Text Available Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art.
Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen
Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. PMID:26610514
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...
Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac
Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...
Full Text Available In the field of road safety, the concept of "risk" is used to define a measurable level of road safety dependent on numerical accident exposure value. This is an approach different (even contradictory to calculate the level of security, measured by the number of accidents or injuries. So, whether otherwise - risk assessment is needed to improve the safety of road transport and define priorities in the field of public health. The article presents the concept of risk and selected problems of risk analysis in road traffic.
Ray, B; Bhattacharyya, S N
The formation of density waves in two intersecting roads, with a traffic circle at the intersection, is studied. It is found that, depending on the traffic densities in the two roads, density waves can form in the traffic circle and in one or both of the roads. Depending on the expression chosen for the optimal velocity, either the congestion moves entirely to the traffic circle or the congestion becomes confined to the traffic circle and a part of the road approaching the traffic circle. PMID:16605592
David O. Whitten (ed.)
The earliest European immigrants in America traveled on waterways and on pathways worn into the earth by animals and Native Americans. Once their communities began to thrive, settlers widened paths and cleared new roads and streets then began experimenting with inexpensive surfacing to reduce dust in dry weather and mud in wet. “Earth Roads Are Easy” investigates materials and techniques used to maintain primitive thoroughfares with a minimum of effort and expense. The options range from the ...
Esbester, Mike Owen
This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure—“Africanization” in the first decade of Kenya’s political independence from Britain, 1963–75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an “epidemiological turn” influenc...
The thesis is concerned with road transportation of fuel. In theoretical part there are described the legal clauses that are related to this issue. The most detailed regulations can be found in the European Agreement on the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (so called Agreement ADR). Hence the biggest part of the theoretical section is devoted to these regulations. Instructions for transportation of diesel and petrol have been chosen from this international agreement and expla...
Doucette, Peter; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony; Musavi, Mohamad
The extraction of road networks from digital imagery is a fundamental image analysis operation. Common problems encountered in automated road extraction include high sensitivity to typical scene clutter in high-resolution imagery, and inefficiency to meaningfully exploit multispectral imagery (MSI). With a ground sample distance (GSD) of less than 2 m per pixel, roads can be broadly described as elongated regions. We propose an approach of elongated region-based analysis for 2D road extraction from high-resolution imagery, which is suitable for MSI, and is insensitive to conventional edge definition. A self-organising road map (SORM) algorithm is presented, inspired from a specialised variation of Kohonen's self-organising map (SOM) neural network algorithm. A spectrally classified high-resolution image is assumed to be the input for our analysis. Our approach proceeds by performing spatial cluster analysis as a mid-level processing technique. This allows us to improve tolerance to road clutter in high-resolution images, and to minimise the effect on road extraction of common classification errors. This approach is designed in consideration of the emerging trend towards high-resolution multispectral sensors. Preliminary results demonstrate robust road extraction ability due to the non-local approach, when presented with noisy input.
Transportation is the backbone of developing regional economies and the evolution of our civilization. Well planned road systems are essential to connect dispersed communities or cities. However, roads are one of the major destructive forces to regional ecosystems and the natural environment. The effects of roads on their adjacent ecosystems may include road kills, habitat fragmentation, barrier effect to animal movement, road edge effects, introduction of exotic species, pollution and noise,...
This thesis is concerned with producing a simple method to design low volume roads (LVR) by means of a rationale which accounts for permanent deformation development in granular layers. Rutting is regarded as the main distress mode in unsealed and thinly sealed pavements. Hence, it is desirable that it be analytically approached rather than empirically, as in most design methods. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to look into the behaviour of in-service roads and from a newly developed ...
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to infer road networks from GPS traces. These networks include intersections between roads, the connectivity between the intersections and the possible traffic directions between directly-connected intersections. These intersections are localized by detecting and clustering turning points, which are locations where the moving direction changes on GPS traces. We infer the structure of road networks by segmenting all of the GPS traces to identify these intersections. We can then form both a connectivity matrix of the intersections and a small representative GPS track for each road segment. The road segment between each pair of directly-connected intersections is represented using a series of geographical locations, which are averaged from all of the tracks on this road segment by aligning them using the dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we detect potential intersections by clustering the turning points on the GPS traces. Second, we infer the geometry of the road segments between intersections by aligning GPS tracks point by point using a “stretch and then compress” strategy based on the DTW algorithm. This approach not only allows road estimation by averaging the aligned tracks, but also a deeper statistical analysis based on the individual track’s time alignment, for example the variance of speed along a road segment.
Wegman, F. Aarts, L. & Bax, C.
Although road safety has improved enormously over time, and The Netherlands is one of the safest countries in the world, the current annual number of road casualties is still considered as unacceptable. To support next steps the sustainable safety vision was launched in the early 1990s. The idea was to make the Dutch road traffic system inherently safe. Sustainable safety was the guide in the approach of improving road safety in The Netherlands the last two decades. Because implemented sustai...
Jason Sherba; Leonhard Blesius; Jerry Davis
LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using th...
Vahid Ghods; Alireza Behrad
In this paper a new automatic approach to road extraction from aerial images is proposed. The initialization strategies are based on the intensity, color, and Hough transform. After road elements extraction, chain codes are calculated. In the last step, using shadow, cars on the roads are detected. We implemented our method on the 25 images from "Google Earth" database. The experiments show an increase in both the completeness and the quality indexes for the extracted road.
Full Text Available In this paper a new automatic approach to road extraction from aerial images is proposed. The initialization strategies are based on the intensity, color, and Hough transform. After road elements extraction, chain codes are calculated. In the last step, using shadow, cars on the roads are detected. We implemented our method on the 25 images from "Google Earth" database. The experiments show an increase in both the completeness and the quality indexes for the extracted road.
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by...
To round off the series of articles and posters published as part of its road safety awareness campaign, CERN is organising two information and demonstration open days on 23 and 25 September. Can you brake in time ? Did you know that you are 21 times more at risk of being killed if you are not wearing a seat belt in the event of your car rolling over? All your questions on road safety will be answered at two special days that are being organized on 23 and 25 September. You will also be able to test your reflexes and your knowledge by taking part in demonstrations. The CERN Management attaches high priority to an improvement in safety standards on the Laboratory's roads. These two open days have been arranged to round off the road safety awareness and highway courtesy campaign which was launched last year. They are intended to provide us with an opportunity, through a more "hands-on" approach, of heightening our awareness of the risks associated with road traffic, of the legislation in force, and above all t...
Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...
Full Text Available The paper is about the idea of establishment of road safety education center to improve road users behavior, which is in line with the National Road Safety Policy till 2020 of government of Poland. Through this center various educational activities, programs, European Union projects for road safety were launched since 2003. The authors have introduced those programs, showing their effectiveness as well have mentioned about future plan for expansion to achieve Vision Zero. The paper presents modern and effective approach to education today by setting up designed science centrums. The idea of implementing new technologies, innovative tools, laboratories, workshops in the long-lasting process of education to road safety hazards for main risk factors will improve road users behavior for reducing high number of road injuries and fatalities. It is important work from injury prevention point of view especially because the Poland government’ s interest in road safety. This center can be a model of innovative road traffic education for other countries.
Hafız Hulusi ACAR
Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...
Gothie, Michel; Do, Minh Tan
Both tire wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tire. They both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) and many others. Due to their many economic and ecological implications, including those concerning the road users safety, the possibility to predict them is of major importance to tire ma...
Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov
Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...
Roman, Harry T.
Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…
Collins, Mary Ellen
Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…
From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).
Conde, Dalia Amor
Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...
Labonne, Julien; Chase, Robert S.
The authors explore the relationship between transaction costs and generalized trust. Using panel data from 2,100 households in 135 rural communities of the Philippines, the paper shows that where transaction costs are reduced (proxied by road construction), there is an increase in generalized trust. Consistent with the argument that generalized trust is built through repeated interactions...
Zheng, Zezhong; Pu, Chengjun; Zhu, Mingcang; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Yalan; Li, Jiang
With the rapid development of earth observation technology, remote sensing images have played more important roles, because the high resolution images can provide the original data for object recognition, disaster investigation, and so on. When a disastrous earthquake breaks out, a large number of roads could be damaged instantly. There are a lot of approaches about road extraction, such as region growing, gray threshold, and k-means clustering algorithm. We could not obtain the undamaged roads with these approaches, if the trees or their shadows along the roads are difficult to be distinguished from the damaged road. In the paper, a method is presented to extract the damaged road with high resolution aerial image of post-earthquake. Our job is to extract the damaged road and the undamaged with the aerial image. We utilized the mathematical morphology approach and the k-means clustering algorithm to extract the road. Our method was composed of four ingredients. Firstly, the mathematical morphology filter operators were employed to remove the interferences from the trees or their shadows. Secondly, the k-means algorithm was employed to derive the damaged segments. Thirdly, the mathematical morphology approach was used to extract the undamaged road; Finally, we could derive the damaged segments by overlaying the road networks of pre-earthquake. Our results showed that the earthquake, broken in Yaan, was disastrous for the road, Therefore, we could take more measures to keep it clear.
Andrášik, Richard; Bíl, Michal
A new method for the automatic identification of road geometry from digital vector data is presented. The method is capable of efficiently identifying circular curves with their radii and tangents (straight sections). The average error of identification ranged from 0.01 to 1.30 % for precisely drawn data and 4.81 % in the case of actual road data with noise in the location of vertices. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more precise than commonly used techniques. This approach can be used by road administrators to complete their databases with information concerning the geometry of roads. It can also be utilized by transport engineers or traffic safety analysts to investigate the possible dependence of traffic accidents on road geometries. The method presented is applicable as well to railroads and rivers or other line features.
Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images has been considered to be a significant but very difficult task.Especially the spectrum of some buildings is similar with that of roads,which makes the surfaces being connect with each other after classification and difficult to be distinguished.Based on the cooperation between road surfaces and edges,this paper presents an approach to purify roads from high-resolution remote sensing images.Firstly,we try to improve the extraction accuracy of road surfaces and edges respectively.The logic cooperation between these two binary images is used to separate road and non-road objects.Then the road objects are confirmed by the cooperation between surfaces and edges.And the effective shape indices(e.g.polar moment of inertia and narrow extent index are applied to eliminate non-road objects.So the road information is refined.The experiments indicate that the proposed approach is efficient for eliminating non-road information and extracting road information from high-resolution remote sensing image.
Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart
A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. PMID:24361730
Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J
The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry. (technical design note)
Fábio Silva; Cesar Analide; Paulo Novais
Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Inte...
Trahtman, A. N.
The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest comm...
Eldorado France, 2008 85＇ Road movie Directed by： Bouly Lanners Cast： Bouly Lanners, Fabrice Adde Philippe Nahon Yvan is an auto salesman who makes a good living dealing in American luxury cars. One evening, Yvan comes home to discover a burglar has made his way into his home, and a quick search reveals the criminal, Elie is hiding under his bed, and when the thief finally emerges he turns out to be a junkie who is feeling the first stages of withdrawal.
Zahra Azizi; Akbar Najafi; Saeed Sadeghian
We developed a three-step classification approach for forest road extraction utilizing LiDAR data. The first step employed the IDW method to interpolate LiDAR point data (first and last pulses) to achieve DSM, DTM and DNTM layers (at 1 m resolution). For this interpolation RMSE was 0.19 m. In the second step, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify the LiDAR data into two classes, road and non-road. For this classification, SVM indicated the merged distance layer with intensity data and yielded better identification of the road position. Assessments of the obtained results showed 63% correctness, 75% completeness and 52% quality of classification. In the next step, road edges were defined in the LiDAR-extracted layers, enabling accu-rate digitizing of the centerline location. More than 95% of the Li-DAR-derived road was digitized within 1.3 m to the field surveyed nor-mal. The proposed approach can provide thorough and accurate road inventory data to support forest management.
With a rapid development of road systems and an associated drastic increase in number of automobiles, the traffic has induced more and more obvious environmental pollution such as noise, dust, emission and heavy metal contamination. Lead, as one of the most harmful heavy metal contaminants, can execute a significant impact on soil quality and plant growth, depending on its form, as well as its transport and accumulation in soil. This paper describes the source and characteristics of Pb contaminant in soil along a road, and reviews the results of research on remediation of Pb-contaminated soils, aiming at identifying promising approaches to soil remediation along roads.
Li, Qing; Tay, Richard
Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. PMID:24384385
Li, Xiaohui; Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.;
that are shown empirically to be scalable. Given a road network, a set of existing facilities, and a collection of customer route traversals, an optimal segment query returns the optimal road network segment(s) for a new facility. We propose a practical framework for computing this query, where each route...... that adopt different approaches to computing the query. Algorithm AUG uses graph augmentation, and ITE uses iterative road-network partitioning. Empirical studies with real data sets demonstrate that the algorithms are capable of offering high performance in realistic settings....
Li, Xiaohui; Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.;
that are shown empirically to be scalable. Given a road network, a set of existing facilities, and a collection of customer route traversals, an optimal segment query returns the optimal road network segment(s) for a new facility. We propose a practical framework for computing this query, where each route...... that adopt different approaches to computing the query. Algorithm AUG uses graph augmentation, and ITE uses iterative road-network partitioning. Empirical studies with real data sets demonstrate that the algorithms are capable of offering high performance in realistic settings....
Nemoto, Toshinori; Misui, Yuki; Kajiwara, Akira
The purpose of this study is to propose a new road planning and financing scheme based on short-term social marginal cost pricing that facilitates the establishment of optimal road standards in the long term. We conducted a simulation analysis based on the proposed planning scheme and observed that the simulation calculated the optimal road capacity in the future, and thus proved that the new planning scheme is feasible.
Cervera Alonso de Medina, Marina; Mercadé Aloy, Josep
Object: European non-motorway roads nearby natural and cultural heritage overlapping cross border regions in the European Union. Subject: Redundant roads as an Opportunity for land- use change, landscape identity disclosure and reducedspeed access network for the promotion of cultural tourism. The paper sustains a methodology to alleviate road redundancy by reconverting them into a reduced-speed access network. The aim would be to recreate historical access and circulation flow...
Hui, Zhenyang; Hu, Youjian; Jin, Shuanggen; Yevenyo, Yao Ziggah
Road information acquisition is an important part of city informatization construction. Airborne LiDAR provides a new means of acquiring road information. However, the existing road extraction methods using LiDAR point clouds always decide the road intensity threshold based on experience, which cannot obtain the optimal threshold to extract a road point cloud. Moreover, these existing methods are deficient in removing the interference of narrow roads and several attached areas (e.g., parking lot and bare ground) to main roads extraction, thereby imparting low completeness and correctness to the city road network extraction result. Aiming at resolving the key technical issues of road extraction from airborne LiDAR point clouds, this paper proposes a novel method to extract road centerlines from airborne LiDAR point clouds. The proposed approach is mainly composed of three key algorithms, namely, Skewness balancing, Rotating neighborhood, and Hierarchical fusion and optimization (SRH). The skewness balancing algorithm used for the filtering was adopted as a new method for obtaining an optimal intensity threshold such that the "pure" road point cloud can be obtained. The rotating neighborhood algorithm on the other hand was developed to remove narrow roads (corridors leading to parking lots or sidewalks), which are not the main roads to be extracted. The proposed hierarchical fusion and optimization algorithm caused the road centerlines to be unaffected by certain attached areas and ensured the road integrity as much as possible. The proposed method was tested using the Vaihingen dataset. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively extract road centerlines in a complex urban environment with 91.4% correctness and 80.4% completeness.
Manley, E. J.; Cheng, T.
Despite a considerable amount of research into the modelling of traffic flow through road networks, a clear understanding of the conditions that cause and exacerbate urban road congestion remains elusive. This paper presents a novel approach to this problem, by identifying congestion as an unintentional emergent property of driver-to-driver interactions. It is described how human interaction is a constant and important intrinsic property of city driving, and how these interactions can lead to...
Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik
Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily interested in maximizing profits, which ??ven the market power they will have ??ll typically not lead to welfare maximizing tolls and capacities. An important question is whether these discrepancies can ...
Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik
Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily interested in maximizing profits, which – given the market power they will have – will typically not lead to welfare maximizing tolls and capacities. An important question is whether these discrepancies ...
Two Swedish road projects were studied to find ways to shorten the time spent in the road planning process. The results indicated that the road projects developed very differently. One planning project developed rather smoothly, while the other received an escalating flood of letters. Concerns about the environment and landscape were present in the majority of these letters, pointing to the importance of involving the expertise of landscape planners or environmentalists in the management of r...
This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.
Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj
The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.
Gommers, M. [Divisie Transport, Nederlands Economisch Instituut NEI, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Glasius, E.H. [RAI Vereniging, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verhoef, E. [Afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Ruyter van Steveninck, M.A. [ed.
Each of the authors as mentioned in this record is responsible for one column, discussing road pricing. The first author discusses the use of road pricing in countries other than the Netherlands with special attention for the experiences in Singapore. The second author pays attention to the effects of road pricing on the drivers of cars: no less traffic jams but higher costs. The fourth author discusses the price elasticity of highway use and how levies can be reimbursed. The third author deals with the question whether road pricing works or not. 9 refs.
Rytwinski, T.; Van der Ree, van der R.; Cunnington, G.M.; Fahrig, L.; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, J.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Soanes, K.; Grift, van der E.A.
An experimental approach to road mitigation that maximizes inferential power is essential to ensure that mitigation is both ecologically-effective and cost-effective. Here, we set out the need for and standards of using an experimental approach to road mitigation, in order to improve knowledge of th
Willenbrock, S S
I describe the surrounding landscape on the road to the CERN Large Hadron Collider. I revisit the milestones of hadron-collider physics, and from them draw lessons for the future. I recall the primary motivation for the journey - understanding the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking - and speculate that even greater discoveries may await us. I review the physics that we know beyond the standard model - dark matter, dark energy, and neutrino masses - and discuss the status of grand-unified theories. I list the reasons why the Higgs boson is central to the standard model as well as to physics beyond the standard model.
China to invest $532 million in Rwanda in 2011 CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year,mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools,said Shu Zhan,Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda,in early February. "We need to have adequate field surveys,wide consultation and detailed ’homework,’ in order to come up with tailor-made solutions that meet local needs," Shu said in an interview with ChinAfrica.
@@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries . In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease . Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.
Zambon, G; Benocci, R; Brambilla, G
Road traffic in urban areas is recognized to be associated with urban mobility and public health, and it is often the main source of noise pollution. Lately, noise maps have been considered a powerful tool to estimate the population exposure to environmental noise, but they need to be validated by measured noise data. The project Dynamic Acoustic Mapping (DYNAMAP), co-funded in the framework of the LIFE 2013 program, is aimed to develop a statistically based method to optimize the choice and the number of monitoring sites and to automate the noise mapping update using the data retrieved from a low-cost monitoring network. Indeed, the first objective should improve the spatial sampling based on the legislative road classification, as this classification is mainly based on the geometrical characteristics of the road, rather than its noise emission. The present paper describes the statistical approach of the methodology under development and the results of its preliminary application to a limited sample of roads in the city of Milan. The resulting categorization of roads, based on clustering the 24-h hourly L Aeqh, looks promising to optimize the spatial sampling of noise monitoring toward a description of the noise pollution due to complex urban road networks more efficient than that based on the legislative road classification. PMID:26661962
Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NOx, particulates, SO2, CO2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented
Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.
Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J;
Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....
Li, Yan; Wu, Jianliang; Zhu, Lin; Tachibana, Kikuo
The objective of this research is the automatic extraction of the road network in a scene of the urban area from a high resolution digital surface model (DSM). Automatic road extraction and modeling from remote sensed data has been studied for more than one decade. The methods vary greatly due to the differences of data types, regions, resolutions et al. An advanced automatic road network extraction scheme is proposed to address the issues of tedium steps on segmentation, recognition and grouping. It is on the basis of a geometric road model which describes a multiple-level structure. The 0-dimension element is intersection. The 1-dimension elements are central line and side. The 2-dimension element is plane, which is generated from the 1-dimension elements. The key feature of the presented approach is the cross validation for the three road elements which goes through the entire procedure of their extraction. The advantage of our model and method is that linear elements of the road can be derived directly, without any complex, non-robust connection hypothesis. An example of Japanese scene is presented to display the procedure and the performance of the approach.
Full Text Available The concept of an algorithm developed for the segmentation of a road border from the content of an image produced by a forward looking TV camera mounted on a moving vehicle is presented in this paper. The extraction of a road boundary is an important step in the context of autonomous vehicle guidance, enabling further calculations of distance from the border, direction of a road, etc. The main idea behind this approach is that the texture of a road is different enough in comparison to the textures characterizing the surrounding environment, allowing the separation of the overall image into a few distinguishable regions. The segmentation algorithm combines the texture descriptors of a statistical nature and the ones based on a grey level co‐occurrence matrix. The significance of this work is mainly in the practical verification of the proposed algorithm and in the testing of the real limits of its application.
Omid M. Rouhani
Full Text Available This paper offers a broad overview of road pricing from a social welfare perspective. I first examine two common objectives of road pricing: congestion management and profit making. My goal is to provide a guideline explaining how to promote a social-welfare-enhancing road pricing scheme. To this end, we should: (i consider and improve public transportation systems by providing more environment-friendly transport options; (ii include tolling profits in our welfare analysis (as opposed to what economists suggest since residents are the real owners of roads not users, and since some users are from outside the region and so might not be excluded from analysis; and (iii search for a holistic approach that takes into account system-wide impacts, disutility to users who change their travel behavior (i.e., switch to public transportation, shift their travel, or do not travel at all, and the impacts on land use, employment, and residents.
Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong
3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks
Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu
Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. A...
Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima
Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762
On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.
Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs
Jensen, Thomas Christian
The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...
Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)
The study, design and development of a monitoring system for wildlife road crossing problem is addressed in this thesis. Collisions between fauna and vehicles is a relevant issue in several mountain and rural regions and a valuable low-cost solution has not yet been identified. In particular, the proposed system is composed by a network of sensors installed along road margins, in order to detect wildlife events, (e.g., approaching, leaving or crossing the road), thus to promptly warn the inco...
This paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major “unsustainabilities” of China’s urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China’s auto industry policy, and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experienc...
Dong, Zhu; Haoqi, Zhou
Purpose- The purpose of this research is to explore the role of road transport in logistics operations, and to investigate and analyze how IKEA China does operate on road transport in logistics operations. Design/methodology/approach- A single case study has been conducted at IKEA China, including semi-structured interviews and review of internal documents. Along with the case study, literature reviews have been conducted within the areas of efficient road transport in logistics operations. ...
Keel, William C
The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'roads'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in...
This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road fatalities in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. As was the case in 2013, the Netherlands counted 570 road fatalities in 2014. Nearly a third of the fatalities are car occupants (187), another near third are cyclists (185). Measured by the population size, relatively many fatalities occur among young people and young ...
Researches throat the world has shown that two-way rural highways are the most dangerous among the other types of roads. It was identified that the most notable cause for immerging fatal and other crashes are unbalanced and excessive speeds, which occur mainly in the region of the curve. Every combination of horizontal curves has its own unique distribution of real driving speed, which leads in a verity of resulting dynamics effects. To be able to provide adequate safety, road pavement struct...
Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Christopher R. Bennett
Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of th...
... road construction. (d) Drainage control. In accordance with the approved plan— (1) Each primary road... this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified... State which authorizes land surveyors to certify the construction or reconstruction of primary roads,...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal...
Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Torrance County digital road network wa created as part of the State of New Mexico Enhanced 911 Addressing Grant. The original primary function was to lay the...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...
Usman Zakir, Iffat Zafar, Eran A. Edirisinghe
Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient approach towards road sign detection andrecognition. The proposed system is divided into three sections namely; ColourSegmentation of the road traffic signs using the HSV colour space consideringvarying lighting conditions, Shape Classification using the Contourlet Transformconsidering occlusion and rotation of the candidate signs and the Recognition ofthe road traffic signs using features of a Local Energy based Shape Histogram(LESH. We have provided experimental results and a detailed analysis to justifythat the algorithm described in this paper is robust enough to detect andrecognize road signs under varying weather, occlusion, rotation and scalingconditions.
The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)
Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.
On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external
The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...
The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.
Newbery, David M G; Santos, Georgina
Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...
Newbery, David M.; Georgina Santos
Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...
We study the political economy of urban traffic policy. We consider a city and its suburbs. The city decides, by majority voting, on a parking charge in the Central Business District (CBD) and restrictions on road space dedicated to cars. City and suburbs vote on road pricing in the CBD. Results include the following. When the majority of city voters prefers cars to public transport sufficiently more than the average voter, car charges and space restrictions are smaller than optimal. If the s...
China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion a...
Gehlert, Tina; Kramer, Christiane; Nielsen, Otto Anker;
Urban road pricing is regarded as an effective instrument to reduce traffic congestion and environmental-related problems in metropolitan areas. Whereas the overall impact of urban road pricing on car use adaptation and public acceptability is known, there are only inconsistent results concerning...... the socioeconomic differences in the response towards road pricing. However, this knowledge is necessary for the development of urban road pricing packages. This paper uses a segmentation approach to identify groups of car users with a similar background in relevant socioeconomic variables and compares...... their responses towards road pricing. Three groups are identified: young families, suburban families, and singles and couples. These groups indeed differ in their car use adaptation towards urban road pricing as well as in their preferred revenues use. While all three groups significantly reduced their private...
Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia; Brişan, Cornel; Dumitriu, Dan; Sireteanu, Tudor; Petre, Simona
In this paper, a virtual experiment concerning driving on off-roads is investigated via 3D normal vibro-contact problem with friction. The dynamic road concept is introduced in order to characterize a particular stretch of road by total longitudinal, lateral, and normal forces and their geometric distributions in the contact patches. The off-road profiles are built by image sonification technique. The cross-sectional curves of off-roads before and after deformation, the contact between the tire and the road, the distribution of contact and friction forces in the contact domain, the natural frequencies and modes when the tire is in ground contact, are estimated. The approach is exercised on two particular problems and results compare favorably to existing analytical and numerical solutions. The feasibility of image sonification technique is useful to build a low-cost virtual reality environment with an increased degree of realism for driving simulators and higher user flexibility.
This is the first of a three-part series of papers which introduces a general background of building trajectory-oriented road network data models, including motivation, related works, and basic concepts. The purpose of the series is to develop a trajectory-oriented road network data model, namely carriageway-based road network data model (CRNM). Part 1 deals with the modeling background. Part 2 proposes the principle and architecture of the CRNM. Part 3 investigates the implementation of the CRNM in a case study. In the present paper, the challenges of managing trajectory data are discussed. Then, developing trajectory-oriented road network data models is proposed as a solution and existing road network data models are reviewed. Basic representation approaches of a road network are introduced as well as its constitution.
Lindsey, Robin; De Palma, André
In recent years there has been a surge of interest in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for a variety of reasons, including theirpotential to alleviate traffic congestion, shrinking public funds for road construction and maintenance,and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle.This paper takes the profitability of private toll roads as given, and focuses on their allocativeefficiency. The model features on...
Economists' favorite remedy for traffic congestion is road pricing. Not only is road pricing based on sound economic principles, but also given current technology it could be implemented at reasonable cost and in a flexible and sophisticated manner. But there are serious obstacles to the widespread adoption of road pricing. There are problems of phase-in: the fixed costs of introducing any system of road pricing, as well as the problems of coordinating road pricing across jurisdictions, inclu...
Do, Minh Tan; Cerezo, Véronique
This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered w...
Cerezo, Véronique; Gothie, Michel
The design of a road infrastructure must take into account the type of vehicles, which will use it. Indeed, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) represent a significant part of the road vehicles, with specific geometrical and dynamic characteristics, which make them more aggressive to road wear and more sensitive to the road profile for stability and safety. This paper investigates geometrical and surface characteristics of the most critical road sections with respect to rollover and knife-jacking of l...
Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij
The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...
Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Yu, Yongtao; Wang, Cheng; Chapman, Michael; Yang, Bisheng
A mobile laser scanning (MLS) system allows direct collection of accurate 3D point information in unprecedented detail at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs, which serves the fast growing demands of transportation-related road surveying including road surface geometry and road environment. As one type of road feature in traffic management systems, road markings on paved roadways have important functions in providing guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. This paper presents a stepwise procedure to recognize road markings from MLS point clouds. To improve computational efficiency, we first propose a curb-based method for road surface extraction. This method first partitions the raw MLS data into a set of profiles according to vehicle trajectory data, and then extracts small height jumps caused by curbs in the profiles via slope and elevation-difference thresholds. Next, points belonging to the extracted road surface are interpolated into a geo-referenced intensity image using an extended inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) approach. Finally, we dynamically segment the geo-referenced intensity image into road-marking candidates with multiple thresholds that correspond to different ranges determined by point-density appropriate normality. A morphological closing operation with a linear structuring element is finally used to refine the road-marking candidates by removing noise and improving completeness. This road-marking extraction algorithm is comprehensively discussed in the analysis of parameter sensitivity and overall performance. An experimental study performed on a set of road markings with ground-truth shows that the proposed algorithm provides a promising solution to the road-marking extraction from MLS data.
Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.
Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu
Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.
identified early in the project life cycle, are captured in project risk assessments, and often lead to applied technology development activities. 2) By reviews and assessments - EM utilizes experts to review the progress of its major cleanup projects and to assess the maturity of evolving technologies. These reviews include External Technical Reviews and Technology Readiness Assessments. They transcend the project's baseline and often identify opportunities for reducing technical risk through development and deployment of innovative or enhanced technologies. 3) By the sites - EM periodically asks EM sites to identify technical risks and uncertainties in the form of technical needs. The Road-map divides EM risks into six program areas: Waste Processing, Groundwater and Soil Remediation, Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) and Facility Engineering, Spent Nuclear Fuel, Challenging Materials, and Integration. Tables 1-6 show those risks and uncertainties, as well as the 13 strategic initiatives established to address those risks. In conclusion, the Engineering and Technology Road-map presents an integrated approach to reducing the technical risks and uncertainties facing the EM program in a manner consistent with its disciplined approach to project management. The risks include challenges in waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning, spent nuclear fuel, challenging materials, and integration. The EM Engineering and Technology Program will address these risks, and will use applied research and engineering to improve technologies and processes at sites across the country. (authors)
seed cotton yield was 19.50 and 10.25 q/ha in IPM and non-IPM fields, respectively. By spending Rs.2009 / ha on IPM components, farmers got an additional income of Rs.16, 650/ ha with a net gain of Rs.10.72 lakhs in a village. This IPM programme was repeated at Budki during 2002-03 on 202 ha (505 acres) involving 181 farm families. The average cotton yield was 17.33 and 10.75 q / ha in IPM and non-IPM fields, respectively. An additional income of Rs.13, 160 / ha was realised with an expenditure of Rs.1039/ha on IPM components. A net gain from this programme for a village was Rs.23.58 lakhs. During 2003-04, a massive IPM programme on rainfed cotton was undertaken in Shevgaon tahasil of Ahmednagar district. Soils of this area are heavy. This area falls in a semi-arid zone and total rainfall received in the season was only 240-350 mm. The IPM programme was undertaken on a whole village approach system (cluster approach) on 2101 ha comprising 2092 farm families in 8 villages viz. Varur (415 ha), Kambi (551 ha), Akhegaon (614 ha), Hatgaon (251 ha), Kharadgaon (150 ha), Sonvihir (45 ha), Bodhegaon (40 ha) and Balamtakali (35 ha). IPM components were, imidacloprid seed treatment, inter / mix cropping of cowpea, maize, Setaria, sorghum and bajara, pheromone traps 2-3/ha and 2-3 NSE 5% sprays. The seed cotton yield levels ranged from 8 to 30 q/ha in IPM fields, depending upon soil type and rainfall with average yield of 17 q/ha while in non-IPM fields, it was 10 q/ha. The net gain per hectare for IPM farmers was Rs. 17,500/- with total national gain of Rs.3.68 crores. These IPM demonstrations allowed the management of pests in a cost-effective, environmentally sound and socially acceptable way. Many prevention measures have a cumulative effect, for example, use of single genotype, sowing within a week, inter/mix cropping, seed treatment, NSE sprays, pheromone traps, HaNPV, conservation of natural enemies, all help to reduce pest pressure. These IPM demonstrations were conducted
Damania, Richard; Wheeler, David
Road construction has often been viewed as the precursor to deforestation, especially in tropical forests. Traditional responses to such threats have been reactive, with attempts to mitigate impacts through physical measures, or the establishment of protected areas. These approaches often have not been entirely successful, especially in areas where economic potential is significant. This p...
Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu
Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.
Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu
Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203
Manuel José Fonseca
Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Portuguese drivers recall and attitudes towards road safety advertising campaigns. Through a quantitative method the authors used a sample of Portuguese drivers. More than a half of the subjects didn’t recall any road safety advertising campaign. The appeals that most influenced driving behaviour were moderate speed and use of seatbelt. The dramatic approach was the one that had most impact, and the death of familiars of the driver the consequence that most influenced drivers. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2112
V. P. Yartsev
Full Text Available Statement of the problem. It is possible to improve working conditions of road pavement and to use it more efficiently by regulating water-thermal conditions of the subgrade thereby reducing humidity in the design period and mitigating its seasonal changes.Results and conclusions. It is suggested to use extruded foam polystyrene as a heating layer. The thermal fluctuation approach was applied to failure and deformation processes. Physical constants for the analytical description of these processes at varying temperatures and stresses are calculated. The technique for determining acting stresses and temperatures was described. The prediction of the durability of extruded foam polystyrene in road structure is presented
Full Text Available Image classification is an important research area in computer vision. Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for searching and browsing through large collections of images. It is a challenging task in various application domains, including satellite image classification, syntactic pattern recognition, medical diagnosis, biometry, video surveillance, vehicle navigation, industrial visual inspection, robot navigation etc. There are different approaches for image classification and imbalanced data classification. This paper provides a review of different methods for classifying images and imbalanced data classification. This paper proposes a method for road detection and highlights the importance of the imbalanced data classification in detecting the road in a complex scenario.
R. C. Sidle
Full Text Available Expanding mountain road networks in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha−1 yr−1, the upper end of this range being the highest rate ever reported along mountain roads. The two roads with the highest landslide erosion (FG1 = 12 966 Mg ha−1 yr−1 ; DXD = 48 235 Mg ha−1 yr−1 had some of the highest sediment delivery rates to channels (about 80 and 86%, respectively. Overall, three times more landslides occurred along cutslopes compared to fillslopes, but fillslope failures had a combined mass >1.3 times that of cutslope failures. Many small landslides occurred along road cuts, but these were often trapped on the road surface. Given the magnitude of the landslide problem and the lack of attention to this issue, a more sustainable approach for mountain road development is outlined based on an analysis of landslide susceptibility and how thresholds for landslide trigger mechanisms would be modified by road location and construction techniques.
Traditional traffic emission inventory models aim to provide overall emissions at regional level which cannot meet planners' demand for detailed and accurate traffic emissions information at the road segment level. Therefore, a road segment-based emission model for estimating light duty vehicle emissions is proposed, where floating car technology is used to collect information of traffic condition of roads. The employed analysis framework consists of three major modules: the Average Speed and the Average Acceleration Module (ASAAM), the Traffic Flow Estimation Module (TFEM) and the Traffic Emission Module (TEM). The ASAAM is used to obtain the average speed and the average acceleration of the fleet on each road segment using FCD. The TFEM is designed to estimate the traffic flow of each road segment in a given period, based on the speed-flow relationship and traffic flow spatial distribution. Finally, the TEM estimates emissions from each road segment, based on the results of previous two modules. Hourly on-road light-duty vehicle emissions for each road segment in Shenzhen's traffic network are obtained using this analysis framework. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the pollutant emissions of road segments are also summarized. The results show high emission road segments cluster in several important regions in Shenzhen. Also, road segments emit more emissions during rush hours than other periods. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed approach is feasible and easy-to-use to help planners make informed decisions by providing detailed road segment-based emission information
Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna
Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.
Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.
The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This cooperative agreement concerns the construction of a road bridge and approaches adjacent to the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. This agreement is between...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains correspondence associated with the cooperative agreement for the construction of a road bridge and approaches adjacent to the Tewaukon...
Kumar, M.; Singh, R. K.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishnamurthy, Y. V. N.
High Resolution satellite Imagery is an important source for road network extraction for urban road database creation, refinement and updating. However due to complexity of the scene in an urban environment, automated extraction of such features using various line and edge detection algorithms is limited. In this paper we present an integrated approach to extract road network from high resolution space imagery. The proposed approach begins with segmentation of the scene with Multi-resolution Object Oriented segmentation. This step focuses on exploiting both spatial and spectral information for the target feature extraction. The road regions are automatically identified using a soft fuzzy classifier based on a set of predefined membership functions. A number of shape descriptors are computed to reduce the misclassifications between road and other spectrally similar objects. The detected road segments are further refined using morphological operations to form final road network, which is then evaluated for its completeness, correctness and quality. The experiments were carried out of fused IKONOS 2 , Quick bird ,Worldview 2 Products with fused resolution's ranging from 0.5m to 1 m. Results indicate that the proposed methodology is effective in extracting accurate road networks from high resolution imagery.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...
Molinero, Carlos; Arcaute, Elsa
Road networks are characterised by several structural and geometric properties. Their topological structure determines partially its hierarchical arrangement, but since these are networks that are spatially situated and, therefore, spatially constrained, to fully understand the role that each road plays in the system it is fundamental to characterize the influence that geometrical properties have over the network's behaviour. In this work, we percolate the UK's road network using the relative angle between street segments as the occupation probability. We argue that road networks undergo a non-equilibrium first-order phase transition at the moment the main roads start to interconnect forming the spanning percolation cluster. The percolation process uncovers the hierarchical structure of the roads in the network, and as such, its classification. Furthermore, this technique serves to extract the set of most important roads of the network and to create a hierarchical index for each road in the system.
The final thesis deals with the usage of information support models in the process of construction and maintenance of the publicly owned roads. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the management of the road infrastructure; special attention is paid to the process of construction, renewal, and maintenance of roads, as well as to the pertaining legislation. In the following chapters the current progress in construction, renewal and maintenance of roads, as well as the process of monito...
Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.
Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.
In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2
Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle
terrain surface, thus the assumption of catchment delineation based on topography alone is not valid, which means that the local mass balance is not correct. An administrative challenge is to improve monitoring of spatially distributed road salt application. Another major challenge is to increase spatial resolution of water balance and quantify the spatial uncertainty. As soon as spatiotemporal water balance is available, a similar approach may be used to solve a simplified time dependent transport equation. So far the steady-state algorithm has been implemented in a Web-GIS application and is taken into operational use by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration for management of Norwegian roads during winter condition.
The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents Otero County roads. The data was collected with the use of GPS equipment during the time period of 7-01-98 thru 6-20-01. Data was verified for...
It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.
The report, Nepal Public Expenditure Review - Roads, was completed June 2011. The report states that the Government of Nepal has achieved several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while maintaining macroeconomic stability and prudent fiscal management. Strengthening public expenditure management is an ongoing reform agenda of the government's Three Year Plan, an inclusive devel...
Thein, M M; Lee, J
In Singapore 6% of mortality of children below the age of 15 years is due to traffic related accidents. Prevention is a function of school educational outreach, modification of driver's behavior, and distancing children from vehicles. Singapore's road safety education program for schoolchildren is described as directed to children aged 7-12 years. Education takes place in al road safety park on a permanent four acre site that models a miniature road setting. The traffic police conduct the sessions among 500 students daily. Lessons involve basic instruction in safety principles and a test of knowledge followed by a traffic game. The objective is use role plays of pedestrians, motorists and cyclists to test skills, to help children identify traffic hazards, and to teach practical safety prevention measures. Secondary school students are trained as marshalls for the road safety park. The traffic police also conduct training among senior citizens and among cyclists. The park is open to the public and private groups on Sundays. During 1981-92 over 600,000 children were trained. Other strategies that indirectly affect the safety of children include drunk driving checks, speed checks, campaigns against drunk driving, education programs for motorists, safety education for cyclists and motorcyclists, and mass media promotion of safety. Since 1991-92 school zones are marked with speed bumps and signs. Pedestrian walkways are improved, and policy are acting against drivers not yielding the right of way to pedestrians. PMID:8185797
Samsuddin Norshakina; Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus
Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infra...
... specifically approved by the regulatory authority as temporary routes during periods of road construction. (d... section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in a... authorizes land surveyors to certify the construction or reconstruction of primary roads, a...
Schutte, Jan Henk
In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical
Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George
Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application. PMID:23769622
Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.
Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Antoniou, Constantinos
This paper investigates the effect of the intensification of Police enforcement on the number of road accidents at national and regional level in Greece, focusing on one of the most important road safety violations: drinking-and-driving. Multilevel negative binomial models are developed to describe the effect of the intensification of alcohol enforcement on the reduction of road accidents in different regions of Greece. Moreover, two approaches are explored as far as regional clustering is concerned: the first one concerns an ad hoc geographical clustering and the second one is based on the results of mathematical cluster analysis through demographic, transport and road safety characteristics. Results indicate that there are significant spatial dependences among road accidents and enforcement. Additionally, it is shown that these dependences are more efficiently interpreted when regions are determined on the basis of qualitative similarities than on the basis of geographical adjacency. PMID:17274938
On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher traffic volumes and congestion affect road safety. But how and to what extent does this happen? This study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between traffic volume and road safety and...
Nurhidayati, Zuni Asih
The number of fatalities due to traffic accidents to date has reached worrying levels. Thus, various research which concern on road safety programs were actively generated. The aims of this study is suggests a set of scheme on road safety policy improvement in Yogyakarta by firstly understanding the road user perception on current road safety programmes related to road safety problems, then analyse it along with other actor’s role in achieving sustainable transport. “The Five Pillars” as curr...
Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.
High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.
Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.
Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.
Full Text Available This paper review some of the aspects of necessary disciplines of geomorphology and roads, with emphasize Soleghan road. For building this road didnt consider geomorphology process carefully. so the safety rang of the road is low and with consider to increasing traffic, the rang of danger is high. Specific subjects are related to the description of slops phenomena, including rock fall, block slide, rock creep, talus creep, debris flow, rock avalanches and floods. The river process, sloop steep, joint and fault system are the most important geomorphologic information of the Soleghan road. Soleghan road have been studied in this view and thus provide information which take the basis of stability road. Every road in Iran or world can include one or some important process, so some information is needed. More than half of Iran and world roads have built about before 1970, when the geomorphologic education and research was in the early of stage. Therefore many of Iran and world roads such as Soleghan road havent built with new geomorphologic and basic information. Too more damages which in order to geomorphologic process exposed to roads, people and cars in Iran and world such as Soleghan road are increased. Many flood and slumps destroyed built roads, many people and cars, damage or crash to ignoring the geomorphologic information, thus if we use geomorphologic information in road building, damage and crashes will be decreased, so safety will be increase.
Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer
The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.
Deprived children or deprived neighbourhoods? A public health approach to the investigation of links between deprivation and injury risk with specific reference to child road safety in Devon County, UK
Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, injuries from road traffic collisions are a rapidly growing problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. The UK has amongst the worst records in Europe with regard to child pedestrian safety. A traditional view holds that resources should be directed towards training child pedestrians. In order to reduce socio-economic differentials in child pedestrian casualty rates it is suggested that these should be directed at deprived children. This paper seeks to question whether analysis of extant routinely collected data supports this view. Methods Routine administrative data on road collisions has been used. A deprivation measure has been assigned to the location where a collision was reported, and the home postcode of the casualty. Aggregate data was analysed using a number of epidemiological models, concentrating on the Generalised Linear Mixed Model. Results This study confirms evidence suggesting a link between increasing deprivation and increasing casualty involvement of child pedestrians. However, suggestions are made that it may be necessary to control for the urban nature of an area where collisions occur. More importantly, the question is raised as to whether the casualty rate is more closely associated with deprivation measures of the ward in which the collision occurred than with the deprivation measures of the home address of the child. Conclusion Conclusions have to be drawn with great caution. Limitations in the utility of the officially collected data are apparent, but the implication is that the deprivation measures of the area around the collision is a more important determinant of socio-economic differentials in casualty rates than the deprivation measures of the casualties' home location. Whilst this result must be treated with caution, if confirmed by individual level case-controlled studies this would have a strong implication for the most appropriate interventions.
The rapid growth of urban population and the development of road infrastructures in Tunisian cities have brought about many environmental and economic problems, including the rise scored in energy consumption and the increase in the quantity of gas emissions arising from road transport. Despite the critical nature of such problems, no policies have yet been adopted to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper aims to determine driving factors of energy consumption change for the road mode. It uses decomposition analysis to discuss the effects of economic, demographic and urban factors on the evolution of transport energy consumption. The main result highlighted in the present work is that vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita, urbanized kilometers and national road network are found to be the main drivers of energy consumption change in the road transport sector during 1990–2006 period. Consequently, several strategies can be elaborated to reduce road transport energy. Economic, fiscal and regulatory instruments can be applied in order to make road transport more sustainable. -- Highlights: •We are interested in determining driving factors of transport energy consumption growth in Tunisia. •We use decomposition analysis approach. •Vehicle fuel and road vehicle intensities are found to be principal factors. •Motorization and urbanization are also found to be responsible
There is still not sufficient in-depth knowledge available concerning the type and extent of the interdependencies between the large number of factors that influence, on the one hand, urban and transport planning, and on the other hand, road safety. If such in-depth knowledge did, in fact, exist this information would make it possible to recommend courses of action to urban planning authorities. The present study aims to remove this data deficit so that planning authorities may be able to assess not only the effects expected from individual measures but also to evaluate, with respect to the level of road safety, an entire planning area. The empirical study is based on 21 typical residential areas for which a total of 56 characteristics (variables) relating to the following sectors have been identified as descriptors of the accident situation: transport; local development structure; infrastructure facilities other than those intended for transport; and population structure. The statistical analysis was undertaken in two steps: correlation analysis of all variables; identification of the determinants of significance for road safety; and establishment of a non-linear regression model based on seven variables to express the relationship between transport provisions and traffic volumes as well as the quality of supply and demand in quantitative terms. By means of the regression model the accident load can, in principle, be assessed for any given residential area. The correlation analysis showed that there are still further influential factors which are of importance for road safety. Attempts were therefore made to identify the variables displaying a significant relationship to the model variables and which could thus, owing to their effects on the latter and the resulting linkage with road safety, be considered as "background variables." Whereas the majority of the model variables are to be ascribed to the transport sector, the so-called "background variables" mainly
Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations. This paper deals with the inﬂuence of random road proﬁles on the vertical dynamics of road vehicles characterized by stochastic processes. Switching from road proﬁle displacement to road proﬁle velocity results in white noise excitation facilitating mathematical analysis. Some fundamentals of power spectral density analysis and covariance analysis are reviewed. A quarter car model is used to show the advantages of the covariance analysis resulting immediately in standard variations characterizing the vehicle’s performance.
Conde, Dalia Amor; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Burgués, Irene;
, we analyzed the economic and environmental impacts of proposed road construction and improvement investments. Economic returns to Guatemala and Mexico were calculated for two projects that would join the two countries through currently roadless forest of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. Deforestation...... list are carried out, as much as 311,000 hectares (769,000 acres) of forest would be lost over the next 30 years. This deforestation would release around 225 million tons of carbon dioxide. The global cost of those emissions in present value terms would be on the order of US$ 136 million. A lower......-bound estimate for deforestation in the Maya Biosphere Reserve alone is 37,500 hectares, obtained with a more conservative modeling approach....
This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered
Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee
Unpaved roads generate large amounts of sediment per unit area, and the impact of these high erosion rates depends on how much of this sediment is delivered to streams. In the western USA typically around 10-30% of the road length is connected to a stream, and this proportion tends to increase with increasing precipitation. Wildfires can greatly increase surface runoff and erosion rates, but we know of no studies that have evaluated how fires affect road surface erosion and road-stream connectivity. Hence the objective of this study was to quantify how: 1) fire severity affects the amount of road surface rilling, sediment deposition, and road-stream connectivity; and 2) how these effects are modified by road segment characteristics. The study area was 6.8 km of the unpaved Old Flowers Road just west of Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, as the forests along this road had burned in the 2012 High Park fire. Detailed data were collected for 141 hydrologically distinct road segments, including the hillslopes above the road, road segment characteristics, and the drainage features leaving the road. Nearly all of the road segments had a planar design, and mean segment length and active width were 50 m and 2.4 m, respectively. The road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more and larger rills than road segments below areas burned at low severity, and this can be attributed to the greater surface runoff from upslope. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the amount of rilling as burn severity increased, while the flatter segments tended to capture the sediment eroded from upslope. Three-quarters of the road segments had only a single drainage feature, indicating that the road generally collected and concentrated all of the dispersed runoff from upslope. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected to the stream. These
de Vera Garcia, Elma
This article is a product of a nine-month training and application program implemented by the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It compares and analyzes the socioeconomic status of the population within the influence areas of the experimental and control group before and after the rural road construction. In particular, it conducts an impact assessmen...
Alkhorshid, Yasamin; Aryafar, Kamelia; Bauer, Sven; Wanielik, Gerd
Autonomous driving is a rapidly evolving technology. Autonomous vehicles are capable of sensing their environment and navigating without human input through sensory information such as radar, lidar, GNSS, vehicle odometry, and computer vision. This sensory input provides a rich dataset that can be used in combination with machine learning models to tackle multiple problems in supervised settings. In this paper we focus on road detection through gray-scale images as the sole sensory input. Our...
Lei Zhang; David Levinson
This paper seeks to understand the economic impact of centralized and decentralized ownership structures and their corresponding pricing and investment strategies on transportation network performance and social welfare for travelers. In a decentralized network economic system, roads are owned by many agencies or companies that are responsible for pricing and investment strategies. The motivation of this study is two-fold. First, the question of which ownership structure, or industrial organi...
China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, bordering eight countries and providing a corridor to the Central Asian region, was once famous for the Silk Road. But now this region is often reported by Western media as having the problems of "political separatism, economic exclusion and religious fundamentalism." Professor David Gosset with the Shanghai-based China Europe International Business School analyzed Xinjiang's development, which he framed as "Xinjiang's experience." According to him, Xinjiang has ...
Adler, Martin W.; van Ommeren, Jos; Rietveld, Piet
Non-recurrent congestion is frequently caused by accidents and other incidents. We estimate the causal effect of incident duration on drivers’ time losses through changes in non-recurrent road congestion on Dutch highways. We demonstrate that incident duration has a strong positive, but concave, effect on non-recurrent congestion. The duration elasticity of non-recurrent congestion is about 0.40 implying that a one minute duration reduction generates a €60 gain per incident. We also show that...
DELANNE, Y; VANDANJON, PO
In board tire/road friction estimation is of current interest in two different framework : - optimization of driver assistance systems efficiency : antilock braking system, electronic stability program, adaptive cruise control, lane departure control, advanced automatic driving, etc., - driver instantaneous warning about the available friction and limits for his possible driving actions. This subject has been the objective of many research programs throughout the world. Four main methods have...
Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea
The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil
In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to computing the fewest-turn map directions or routes based on the concept of natural roads. Natural roads are joined road segments that perceptually constitute good continuity. This approach relies on the connectivity of natural roads rather than that of road segments for computing routes or map directions. Because of this, the derived routes posses the fewest turns. However, what we intend to achieve are the routes that not only possess the fewest turns, but are also as short as possible. This kind of map direction is more effective and favorable by people, because they bear less cognitive burden. Furthermore, the computation of the routes is more efficient, since it is based on the graph encoding the connectivity of roads, which is significantly smaller than the graph of road segments. We made experiments applied to eight urban street networks from North America and Europe in order to illustrate the above stated advantages. The experimental results indicate that...
Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented.
Antonella Del Rosso
Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it! Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...
Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro
This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement. PMID:22163717
Full Text Available This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.
Wegman, Fred; Zhang, Fan; Dijkstra, Atze
This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as 'vulnerable road users'. This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist casualties. However, this research is rather limited and the results cannot (easily) be transferred from one setting or country to another: generalization of results should only be done with the utmost care, if it is to be done at all. Interventions to reduce cyclist casualties worldwide seem to be of an incidental nature; that is to say, they are implemented in a rather isolated way. In a Safe System approach, such as the Dutch Sustainable Safety vision, the inherent risks of traffic are dealt with in a systematic, proactive way. We illustrate how this approach is especially effective for vulnerable road users, such as cyclists. Finally, the paper addresses the question of whether it is possible to make more cycling good for road safety. We conclude that when the number of cyclists increases, the number of fatalities may increase, but will not necessarily do so, and the outcome is dependent on specific conditions. There is strong evidence that well-designed bicycle facilities-physically separated networks-reduce risks for cyclists, and therefore have an impact on the net safety result, for example if car-kilometres are substituted by bicycle kilometres. Policies to support cycling should incorporate these findings in order to make more cycling good for road safety. PMID:22062332
Keijzer, E.E.; Leegwater, G.A.; Vos-Effting, S.E. de; Wit, M.S. de
The ambition of European countries to reduce their national greenhouse gas emissions, has been translated in the Netherlands in green procurement policy of the national road administration. An increasing amount of innovative techniques and approaches in road infrastructure construction and maintenan
The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED in Rio de Janeiro has passed and future plans and expectations are forming for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. UNCED did not come up with a miracle cure. Some argued that population control should have been included in the agenda; actually the population issue was not ignored entirely, as both the UNCED Secretary-General and chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development population growth affect both economics and environment. Population must be stabilized. The interrelationships between poverty, population, and environment must be recognized in the formulation of policies. A human rights approach with increased educational opportunities for women, increased women's status, and improved public health and family planning is needed. The UNCED principal document, Agenda 21, devoted an entire chapter to the dynamics of population growth and sustainability. The implications of national demographic trends must be assessed and demographic features included in policies and plans. Debating the accomplishments of UNCED is secondary to planning for the 1994 conference and dealing with the issues: family planning (FP) and well-being, women's status, urbanization and migration, and population policies and programs. The delivery of FP information, education, and services must be expedited by all agencies and organizations; there must be universal availability of maternal and child health care. 500 million women are currently in need of FP. Research is needed to improve contraceptive safety, efficiency, and effectiveness. More than 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year; many could be prevented. 15 million births/year are spaced too closely and infant health is jeopardized. Education and employment of women holds the hope for eliminating some of the social and cultural barriers to women's rights. 45 out of 100 people living in cities today are not experiencing upward mobility
Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de, J.W.
It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...
Roads, in particular rural roads, play a major role in deve- lopment. In Ethiopia, where the vast majority of the popula- tion depends on agricultural production, this is even more so, and the country’s road network has become a major po- licy issue with significant consequences for the population. An extensive network of 114,397 km of different roads has been constructed, maintained, and classified to date. Alt- hough community roads account for nearly two-thirds of the country’s total road ...
Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.
Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.
Full Text Available In the field of noninvasive sensing techniques for civil infrastructures monitoring, this paper addresses the problem of crack detection, in the surface of the French national roads, by automatic analysis of optical images. The first contribution is a state of the art of the image-processing tools applied to civil engineering. The second contribution is about fine-defect detection in pavement surface. The approach is based on a multi-scale extraction and a Markovian segmentation. Third, an evaluation and comparison protocol which has been designed for evaluating this difficult task—the road pavement crack detection—is introduced. Finally, the proposed method is validated, analysed, and compared to a detection approach based on morphological tools.
Bulatov, Dimitri; Häufel, Gisela; Pohl, Melanie
Road databases are essential instances of urban infrastructure. Therefore, automatic road detection from sensor data has been an important research activity during many decades. Given aerial images in a sufficient resolution, dense 3D reconstruction can be performed. Starting at a classification result of road pixels from combined elevation and optical data, we present in this paper a fivestep procedure for creating vectorized road networks. These main steps of the algorithm are: preprocessing, thinning, polygonization, filtering, and generalization. In particular, for the generalization step, which represents the principal area of innovation, two strategies are presented. The first strategy corresponds to a modification of the Douglas-Peucker-algorithm in order to reduce the number of vertices while the second strategy allows a smoother representation of street windings by Bezir curves, which results in reduction - to a decimal power - of the total curvature defined for the dataset. We tested our approach on three datasets with different complexity. The quantitative assessment of the results was performed by means of shapefiles from OpenStreetMap data. For a threshold of 6 m, completeness and correctness values of up to 85% were achieved.
Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.
Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and
Noor Alyani Yaacob
Full Text Available In its most simple terms, traffic calming is about preserving the functions of local streets. As local streets are intended to provide primarily land-access services, hence, when traffic begins to use local streets for through movements, traffic volume and speed levels become incompatible with this primary function. To respond, a study on the effectiveness of traffic calming measures in reducing vehicles speed at Taman Setapak residential area was undertaken. Field observations and spot speed survey were conducted to collect primary data. The field observation was carried out to collect data on road geometrics and design characteristics of the road humps. The spot speed survey was administered to collect vehicles speed at different points near the road humps. The major findings include first, the road humps proved effective in reducing the speed of the vehicles and second the design characteristics of the road humps is an important factor in reducing the speed of the vehicles. The average speed of the vehicles before approaching the road humps was about 30 km/hr and at the road humps below 10 km/hr. The findings showed that the design profiles of the road humps have an impact on the speed of the vehicles; the gentle the design profiles of the road humps especially in terms of its height and slope, the higher the speed of the vehicles near and at the road hump. The findings also showed a clear difference in the average speed of the motorcars approaching the road hump and at the road hump.
Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang
Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system
Grilo, Clara; Del Cerro, Irene; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Ramiro, Victor; Román, Jacinto; Molina-Vacas, Guillem; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rodríguez, Juan; Porto-Peter, Flávia; Fonseca, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José A
Roads are widely recognized to represent a barrier to individual movements and, conversely, verges can act as potential corridors for the dispersal of many small mammals. Both barrier and corridor effects should generate a clear spatial pattern in genetic structure. Nevertheless, the effect of roads on the genetic structure of small mammal populations still remains unclear. In this study, we examine the barrier effect that different road types (4-lane highway, 2-lane roads and single-lane unpaved roads) may have on the population genetic structure of three species differing in relevant life history traits: southern water vole Arvicola sapidus, the Mediterranean pine vole Microtus duodecimcostatus and the Algerian mouse Mus spretus. We also examine the corridor effect of highway verges on the Mediterranean pine vole and the Algerian mouse. We analysed the population structure through pairwise estimates of FST among subpopulations bisected by roads, identified genetic clusters through Bayesian assignment approaches, and used simple and partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative barrier or corridor effect of roads. No strong evidences were found for an effect of roads on population structure of these three species. The barrier effect of roads seems to be site-specific and no corridor effect of verges was found for the pine vole and Algerian mouse populations. The lack of consistent results among species and for each road type lead us to believe that the ability of individual dispersers to use those crossing structures or the habitat quality in the highway verges may have a relatively higher influence on gene flow among populations than the presence of crossing structures per se. Further research should include microhabitat analysis and the estimates of species abundance to understand the mechanisms that underlie the genetic structure observed at some sites. PMID:27219505
Premnath.P; Madava Krishnan.M; S.Arulselvi; Dr Kirankumar
Extended Kalman filter (EKF) has previously been used to extract road maps in satellite images. The extended Kalman filter in general is not an optimal estimator, if the measurement and the state transition model are both linear. In addition, if the initial estimate of the state is wrong, or if the process is modeled incorrectly, the filter may quickly diverge, owing to its linearization. In our new approach, we have combined Unscented Kalman Filter with a special Particle Filter (LLPF) in or...
Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.
Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.
Medinas, Denis; Marques, João Tiago; Mira, António
Recent studies suggest that roads can significantly impact bat populations. Though bats are one of the most threatened groups of European vertebrates, studies aiming to quantify bat mortality and determine the main factors driving it remain scarce. Between March 16 and October 31 of 2009, we surveyed road-killed bats daily along a 51-km-long transect that incorporates different types of roads in southern Portugal. We found 154 road-killed bats of 11 species. The two most common species in the...
Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua
Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...
Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, derive income from road crashes. Trade and industry can also be of importance for road safety. Particularly the transport sector, the car industry and insurers take several initiatives which for example...
Han van der Loop
Use of the main road network increased by 16% from 2000 to 2012. Of this increase, it is estimated that approximately one-eighth (2%) was a consequence of the extra car use that was evoked by the completed road expansions during that same period. At locations where road capacity was expanded due to previous congestion problems, there were during peak hours often sharp increases in traffic volumes. This primarily concerns existing traffic that, due to congestion, had previously opted to travel...
This study reviews the long-distance road transport industry in India, in order to identify inefficiencies that could reduce the benefits to be derived from the large investments now being made by the Government in the nation's highway infrastructure. It has been undertaken to assess the present policy regime, and identify measures which may be considered to improve the functioning of road transport, in particular long-distance road transport, and, enhance its already enormous contribution (3...
Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R
OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...
Road traffic networks offer a particularly challenging research subject to the control community. The traffic congestion around big cities is constantly increasing and is now becoming a major problem. However, the dynamics of a road network exhibit some complex behaviours such as nonlinearities, delays and saturation effects that prevent the use of some classical control algorithms. This thesis presents different models and control algorithms used for road traffic networks. The dynamics ar...
Road conditions affect fuel efficiency and vehicle fatigue when driving heavy trucks. Information about traveled road conditions enable optimization of chassis configuration when driving, and logging of vehicle stress. Previous work on this topic focus mainly on tuning of active suspension parameters in the car industry. One conceivable application for heavy trucks is implementation of active chassis level control based on road conditions, with possible improvements in driving economy as resu...
When daylight is absent, the acquisition of normal visual information is not possible. Road traffic of the nature we are accustomed to today is not possible either: some sort of artificial light is indispensable. This artificial light is, therefore, a road traffic requirement: without artificial light of any kind, night- time road traffic is, not possible. When we discuss the requirements for such lighting we will have to look into the task of the traffic participant.
Transportation infrastructure is a major factor determining land use forms. As global changes in this factor are the most important for biodiversity, roads fundamentally influence wildlife. The effect of roads on wildlife has been categorized in several ways resulting in six to ten categories with road kill as an obvious and important component, and amphibians are greatly affected by this factor. As this animal group has been documented to decline from multiple threats worldwide, the study an...
Davidich, Yu; Sorokopud, O.
There have been presented results ofinvestigation of road traffic parameters of municipal passenger transport on the base ofwhich the significance of factors influencing on road speed means of transportation was determined.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2007. It is described as 'Road Culvert Inventory'. Data...
Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar
informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.
Button, K.J. [ed.] [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States). Institute of Public Policy; Verhoef, E.T. [ed.] [Free University of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Spatial Economics
Various authors` works are drawn together in this book to explore historical and contemporaneous issues related to road pricing, as a means of easing traffic congestion and reducing atmospheric pollution from road transport. The need for energy efficiency as well as political and social pressure have led policy-makers away from road construction to meet all traffic growth towards traffic management. Despite having been suggested eighty years ago by Arthur Pigou, traffic management through road pricing stands up to analysis today, and should be put into practice. (UK)
D 'angelo, Gianlorenzo; Frigioni, Daniele; Vitale, Camillo
International audience In this work we introduce a new data structure, named Road-Signs, which allows us to efficiently update the Arc-Flags of a graph in a dynamic scenario. Road-Signs can be used to compute Arc-Flags, can be efficiently updated and do not require large space consumption for many real-world graphs like, e.g., graphs arising from road networks. In detail, we define an algorithm to preprocess Road-Signs and an algorithm to update them each time that a weight increase operat...
Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
important elements in the creation of new, ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. This argument will be unfolded and substantiated in this article through theoretical reflections which conceptually re-locate road networks in...... the urban landscape, supported by relevant reference projects that illustrate the potential of road networks as a platform for ‘green infrastructure’.......Roads are often associated with a fragmentation or splintering of landscapes and their natural connectivity; particularly in relation to ‘green infrastructure’ they are often considered problematic elements that rupture and barricade. Conversely, as part of larger networks, roads can be considered...
The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicles stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively. (author)
This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.
Full Text Available Optimization is a key factor in almost all the topics of operations research / management science and economics.The road networks can be optimized within different constraints like time, distance, cost and traffic running onthe roads.This study is based on optimization of real road network by means of distances. Two main objectives arepursued in this research: 1 road distances among different routes are composed in detail; 2 two standardalgorithms (Dijkstra and Floyd-Warshall algoritms are applied to optimize/minimize these distances for bothsingle-source and all-pairs shortest path problems.
Skórka, Piotr; Lenda, Magdalena; Moroń, Dawid; Kalarus, Konrad; Tryjanowski, Piotr
Little is known of the impact of roads on insect mortality. This is a significant gap, because road verges are regarded as an important tool for insect conservation. In this study, we investigated which factors affect the number of roadkills in grassland butterflies and, simultaneously, the species composition and abundance on road verges. We established sixty transects, two hundred metres long, on roads in farmland areas and with differing traffic volume. Each transect consisted ...
Steven P. Brady
The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes rema...
An efficient maintenance of roads to ensure high accessibility and durability of the transport capacity requires an understanding of how the hydrological response depends on both the road and the landscape characteristics. New methods and data were used to identify and explain interaction between roads and surrounding environment and their influence on hydrologic responses both in watershed scale and road-section scale. In the watershed scale, flood hazard probability was made with reference ...
Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo
Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.
This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation
Lundberg, Adina; Gunnarsson, Fredrik
A fauna passage is a way for animals to cross roads separated from the traffic. In Sweden, there are an unknown number of passages with different functions and appearances. These passages would, with the question “Which fauna passages can be found in Sweden, and how well do they work?” as a base, be compiled in a comparable way. This would be done with a number of questions asked to the different regions of Vägverket. The essay was delimited to only include ecoducts, animal bridges, landscape...
Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan
Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.
Snyder, M. G.; Isakov, V.; Arunachalam, S.; Cook, R.; Kimbrough, S.
Dispersion modeling tools have traditionally provided critical information for air quality management decisions. However, these models can be challenging to implement, particularly in near-road studies, due to the detailed input requirements necessary to estimate traffic-related emissions. Emissions, travel demand, and dispersion models are all needed to obtain temporally and spatially resolved pollutant concentrations. Current methodology combines these three models in a bottom-up approach based on hourly traffic and emissions estimates, and hourly dispersion concentrations from individual road links that represent the traffic activity. To model a large urban area, this method can be computationally expensive, but can significantly improve characterization of spatial and temporal variability, and reduce model uncertainties. Uncertainties in emissions are hard to quantify and are unique to each urban area. In a recent health study application in Detroit, Michigan, current methodology was used to determine pollutant exposure levels near major roadways. This application provided an opportunity to combine emissions, travel demand, and dispersion models to estimate spatiotemporally resolved concentration fields in the near-road environment for two and a half years. During this health study period pollutant measurements were taken at multiple AQS sites around the Detroit area. In addition, an intensive near-road field study with continuous measurements of multiple pollutants and traffic volumes was conducted. Traffic volumes are also measured on a continuous basis around the city on various roadway types. The duration and spatial separation of pollutant measurements and traffic volumes allow comparison of traffic-related pollutant concentration measurements to model predictions. In this paper, we outline the current methodology to combine emissions, traffic, and dispersion models for near-road assessments. Then the temporally and spatially pollutant estimates are
Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación
Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared
Matti T. Vaaja
Full Text Available A novel approach to evaluating night-time road and street environment lighting conditions through 3D point clouds is presented. The combination of luminance imaging and 3D point cloud acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner was used for analyzing 3D luminance on the road surface. A calculation of the luminance (cd/m2 was based on the RGB output values of a Nikon D800E digital still camera. The camera was calibrated with a reference luminance source. The relative orientation between the luminance images and intensity image of the 3D point cloud was solved in order to integrate the data sets into the same coordinate system. As a result, the 3D model of road environment luminance is illustrated and the ability to exploit the method for evaluating the luminance distribution on the road surface is presented. Furthermore, the limitations and future prospects of the methodology are addressed. The method provides promising results for studying road lighting conditions in future lighting optimizations. The paper presents the methodology and its experimental application on a road section which consists of five luminaires installed on one side of a two-lane road in Otaniemi, Espoo, Finland.
Full Text Available LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads.
Lai, Wei; Chen, Weimin; Liu, Xianming; Lei, Xiaohua
Conventional road lighting luminaries are gradually upgraded by LED luminaries nowadays. It is an urgent problem to design the light distribution of LED luminaries fixed at the former luminaries arrangement position, that are both energysaving and capable of meeting the lighting requirements made by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). In this paper, a nonlinear optimization approach is proposed for light distribution design of LED road lighting luminaries, in which the average road surface luminance, overall road surface luminance uniformity, longitudinal road surface luminance uniformity, glare and surround ratio specified by CIE are set as constraint conditions to minimize the total luminous flux. The nonlinear problem can be transformed to a linear problem by doing rational equivalent transformation on constraint conditions. A polynomial of cosine function for the illumination distribution on the road is used to make the problem solvable and construct smooth light distribution curves. Taking the C2 class road with five different lighting classes M1 to M5 defined by CIE for example, the most energy-saving light distributions are obtained with the above method. Compared with a sample luminary produced by linear optimization method, the LED luminary with theoretically optimal lighting distribution in the paper can save 40% of the energy at the least.
Chen, Faan; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Di
For road safety improvement, comparing and benchmarking performance are widely advocated as the emerging and preferred approaches. However, there is currently no universally agreed upon approach for the process of road safety benchmarking, and performing the practice successfully is by no means easy. This is especially true for the two core activities of which: (1) developing a set of road safety performance indicators (SPIs) and combining them into a composite index; and (2) identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class), one which has already obtained outstanding road safety practices. To this end, a scientific technique that can combine the multi-dimensional safety performance indicators (SPIs) into an overall index, and subsequently can identify the 'best-in-class' is urgently required. In this paper, the Entropy-embedded RSR (Rank-sum ratio), an innovative, scientific and systematic methodology is investigated with the aim of conducting the above two core tasks in an integrative and concise procedure, more specifically in a 'one-stop' way. Using a combination of results from other methods (e.g. the SUNflower approach) and other measures (e.g. Human Development Index) as a relevant reference, a given set of European countries are robustly ranked and grouped into several classes based on the composite Road Safety Index. Within each class the 'best-in-class' is then identified. By benchmarking road safety performance, the results serve to promote best practice, encourage the adoption of successful road safety strategies and measures and, more importantly, inspire the kind of political leadership needed to create a road transport system that maximizes safety. PMID:26536072
Full Text Available Roads play an indispensable role as part of the infrastructure of society. In recent years, society has witnessed the rapid development of laser mobile mapping systems (LMMS which, at high measurement rates, acquire dense and accurate point cloud data. This paper presents a way to automatically estimate the required excavation volume when widening a road from point cloud data acquired by an LMMS. Firstly, the input point cloud is down-sampled to a uniform grid and outliers are removed. For each of the resulting grid points, both on and off the road, the local surface normal and 2D slope are estimated. Normals and slopes are consecutively used to separate road from off-road points which enables the estimation of the road centerline and road boundaries. In the final step, the left and right side of the road points are sliced in 1-m slices up to a distance of 4 m, perpendicular to the roadside. Determining and summing each sliced volume enables the estimation of the required excavation for a widening of the road on the left or on the right side. The procedure, including a quality analysis, is demonstrated on a stretch of a mountain road that is approximately 132 m long as sampled by a Lynx LMMS. The results in this particular case show that the required excavation volume on the left side is 8% more than that on the right side. In addition, the error in the results is assessed in two ways. First, by adding up estimated local errors, and second, by comparing results from two different datasets sampling the same piece of road both acquired by the Lynx LMMS. Results of both approaches indicate that the error in the estimated volume is below 4%. The proposed method is relatively easy to implement and runs smoothly on a desktop PC. The whole workflow of the LMMS data acquisition and subsequent volume computation can be completed in one or two days and provides road engineers with much more detail than traditional single-point surveying methods such as
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the position and density of a secondary road network in the group-selection management system. The research was conducted in the economic unit Prosara in the north west of the Republic of Srpska. The network of skid roads in the analyzed sections was recorded using the GPS devices Garmin GPS 60 and Garmin Map 62st, and the analysis software package used was ESRI ArcInfo 10.1. Adhering to the general guidelines, the slope of skid roads was analyzed within six predefined intervals: 0-12 %, 12-16 %, 16-20 %, 20-30 %, 30-40 % and over 40%. Relative openness with a secondary road network was determined for a maximum distance between the skid roads of 130m and it ranged from 82.62 % to 96.37 %. Such openness was classified as very good and excellent. Together with all factors related to stand and terrain characteristics, it appears that in all the compartments, the density of the secondary network of skid roads is adequate for the application of a skidder with a winch, without extending above the maximum length of the winch rope. Out of the total length of analyzed skid roads, 24% is within an appropriate slope interval for a planned conversion to truck roads, whereas 37 % is the maximum slope from the ecological point of view. The average terrain slope for the whole analyzed area is 26.4%. Such moderately sloping terrain is suitable for the construction of skid roads with low investment and small environmental impact. Due to their specific configuration, the main skid roads were designed along the ridge, while the secondary and tertiary skid roads most often separated from them at the maximum slope, forming an irregular fish bone shape.
Schramm, J. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
This presentation outlined the characteristics of biolubricants and their use in vehicles. Experiments with compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) engines were also presented. Biolubes can be used in 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines, bearing compressors and hydraulic equipment. Studies have shown that biolubes do not cause unusual engine wear. They are produced from biomass, with the base material being vegetable oils and synthetic esters. Conventional lubricants are produced from fossil fuels, with the base material being mineral oils, polyglycol or synthetic ester. This presentation rated the characteristics of various lubricants in terms of viscosity temperature behaviour, low temperature behaviour, liquid range, oxidation stability, thermal stability, volatility, fire resistance, hydrolytic stability, corrosion protection, seal material compatibility, paints compatibility, miscibility with mineral oil, solubility of additives, lubricating properties, toxicity, and biodegradability. The environmental impacts of biolubes regarding emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and particulate matter were discussed along with the impact of combining biolubes with alternative fuels. The future beneficial applications include outboard engines, off road vehicle engines and road vehicle engines. Currently, vegetable oil based biolubricants are 2 to 3 times more expensive than mineral based oils, and synthetic lubricants are even more expensive. It was suggested that future studies should examine the biodegradability of used lubricants, the performance of biodegradable lubricants, alternative fuels and fuel economy. tabs., figs.
Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin. Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-
Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars
Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...
Ghanta, Sindhu; Birken, Ralf; Dy, Jennifer
Video health monitoring of large road networks requires the repeated collection of surface images to detect the defects and their changes over time. Vehicle mounted video equipment can easily collect the data, but the amount of data that can be collected in a single day prohibits interactive or semi-automated processing schemes as they would also not be cost-effective. A new approach that is fully automated to detect road surface defects from large amounts of highresolution grayscale images is presented. The images are collected with a vehicle-mounted rear-facing 5MP video camera complemented by GPS based positioning information. Our algorithm starts by correcting the images for radial and angular distortion to get a bird's-eye view image. This results in images with known dimensions (consistent in width per pixel) which allow data to be accurately placed on geo-referenced maps. Each of the pixels in the image is labeled as crack or non-crack using a Markov Random Field (MRF) approach. The data used for testing and training are disjoint sets of images collected from the streets of Boston, MA, USA. We compare our road surface defect detection results with other techniques/algorithms described in the literature for accuracy and robustness.
Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic dynamics. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in traffic volume, especially the non-recurrent traffic anomaly caused by unexpected or transient incidents, such as traffic accidents, celebrations and disasters. It is important to detect such sharp changes of traffic status for sensing abnormal events and planning their impact on the smooth volume of traffic. Unlike existing anomaly detection approaches that mainly monitor the derivation of current traffic status from history in the past, the proposed method in this paper evaluates the abnormal score of traffic on one road by comparing its current traffic volume with not only its historical data but also its neighbors. We define the neighbors as the roads that are close in sense of both geo-location and traffic patterns, which are extracted by matrix factorization. The evaluation results on trajectories data of 12,286 taxies over four weeks in Beijing show that our approach outperforms other baseline methods with higher precision and recall.
M. Grimm (Michael); C. Treibich (Carole)
textabstractObjective: This paper explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. As potential factors, the analysis considers, besides income, the sociodemographic populationstructure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement. Methods: An or
Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.
In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 26,300 people lost their lives on EU roads in 2015 compared to 25,970 in 2014, representing an increase of 1%. Out of the 32 countries monitored by the PIN Programme, as many as 22 saw an increase i...
Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, P.J.
International audience The aims of this study were: i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top 5 males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5 year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km ru...
This paper presents a new approach to the outdoor roa scene understanding by using omni-view images and backpropagation networks.Both the road directions used for vehicle heading and th road categories used for vehicle localization are determined by the integrated system.There are three main features about the work.First,an omni-view image sensor is used to extract image samples,and the original image is preprocessed so that the inputs of the network is rotation-invariant and simple.Second,the problem of the network size,especially the number of the hidden units,is decided by the analysis of systematic experimental results.Finally,the internal representation,which reveals the properties of the neural network,is analyzed in the view point of visual signal processing.Experimental results with real scene images are encouraging.
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anthropogenic vectors enhance the natural dispersal capacity of plant seeds significantly in terms of quantity and distance. Human-mediated seed dispersal (i.e. anthropochory greatly increases the dispersal of crop species across agroecosystems. In the case of oilseed rape (OSR, spillage of seeds from grain trailers during harvest has never been quantified. METHODS: Our experimental approach involved establishing 85 seed trap-sites on the road verges of an agricultural area around the grain silo of Selommes (Loir-et-Cher, France. We recorded OSR spillage during harvest and applied a linear model to the data. RESULTS: The amount of seed spilled was related positively to the area of the OSR fields served by the road, whereas the amount of seed spilled decreased with other variables, such as distance from the trap-site to the verge of the road and to the nearest field. The distance to the grain silo, through local and regional effects, affected seed loss. Local effects from fields adjacent to the road resulted in a cumulative spillage on one-lane roads. On two-lane roads, spillage was nearly constant whatever the distance to the silo due to a mixture of these local effects and of grain trailers that joined the road from more distant fields. From the data, we predicted the number of seeds lost from grain trailers on one road verge in the study area. We predicted a total spillage of 2.05 × 10(6 seeds (± 4.76 × 10(5 along the road length, which represented a mean of 404 ± 94 seeds per m(2. CONCLUSION: Containment of OSR seeds will always be challenging. However, seed spillage could be reduced if grain trailers were covered and filled with less seed. Reducing distances travelled between fields and silos could also limit seed loss.
Full Text Available Now-a – days there has been a quantum jump in number of vehicles; the road length has been barely doubled. The fatalities and injuries due to road accidents have increased three folds. Fatalities due to road accidents are very much higher in India as compared to all other developed countries. The road accidents constitute the highest percentage, around 22 percent. For minimizing the rate of accidents where the resources are limited, attention has to be given to cost effective mitigation methods. Proper accident analysis is necessary to know the real reasons causing accidents. The location chosen for the study was East coast Road (ECR from Thiruvanmiyur to Pannaiyur covering a length of 11.4 km road. After the thorough study of accident statistics, two accident locations were selected to perform road inventory survey, Traffic Volume survey and spot speed survey for further work. The speed frequency curves were drawn to analyse the variation of speeds of vehicles which causes accidents. From the observations, road safety measures were recommended to reduce the rate of accidents.
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan
This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a...
Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.
Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee
Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently. PMID:26357374
Groupe ST-TFM; GSM 164478; ST-TFM Group; Tel. 72296; GSM 164478
Division ST will proceed, as from Monday September 4, with improvement works of the SCHRÖDINGER road with the aim of facilitating the passing conditions of vehicles (see plan). These works will last for two weeks during which traffic will be forbidden on this section of road. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.
Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B;
Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road...
Arpit Singh; Dr. Sangita; Arpan Singh
Nanotechnology has changed our vision, expectations, and abilities to control the material world. This paper examines and document applicable nanotechnology based product that can be improve the overall competitiveness of the Road engineering industry. In this review, nanotechnology is applying in road sector.
Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.
ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 23 July, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for one week depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.
Full Text Available With the rapid improvement of geospatial data acquisition and processing techniques, a variety of geospatial databases from public or private organizations have become available. Quite often, one dataset may be superior to other datasets in one, but not all aspects. In Germany, for instance, there were three major road network vector data, viz. Tele Atlas (which is now “TOMTOM”, NAVTEQ (which is now “here”, and ATKIS. However, none of them was qualified for the purpose of multi-modal navigation (e.g., driving + walking: Tele Atlas and NAVTEQ consist of comprehensive routing-relevant information, but many pedestrian ways are missing; ATKIS covers more pedestrian areas but the road objects are not fully attributed. To satisfy the requirements of multi-modal navigation, an automatic approach has been proposed to conflate different road networks together, which involves five routines: (a road-network matching between datasets; (b identification of the pedestrian ways; (c geometric transformation to eliminate geometric inconsistency; (d topologic remodeling of the conflated road network; and (e error checking and correction. The proposed approach demonstrates high performance in a number of large test areas and therefore has been successfully utilized for the real-world data production in the whole region of Germany. As a result, the conflated road network allows the multi-modal navigation of “driving + walking”.
Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop
In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy. PMID:20925155
Full Text Available This paper describes a response acquisition system composed of some spindle accelerometers and a time synchronized on-board GPS receiver developed in order to collect the dynamic response of vehicle riding on an unpaved road. A method of time-space conversion for calculating the response spectrum is proposed to eliminate the adverse effect of time-varying speed, based on the transform from the equitime sampled spindle acceleration responses to equidistance sampling. By using two groups of independent distance histories acquired from GPS, a method called long-range error correction is proposed to improve the accuracy of the vehicle’s distance information, which is critical for the time-space conversion. The accuracy and limitations of the system have been analyzed, and its validity has been verified by implementing the system on a wheel loader for road response spectrum measuring. This paper offers a practical approach to obtaining unpaved road response spectra for durability road simulation.
T. C. Mbara
Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.
AndrÊ de Palma; Robin Lindsey
Interest is growing in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for various reasons, including a dearth of public funds for road construction and maintenance, increasing traffic congestion, and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle in general, and road pricing in particular. This paper focuses on allocative efficiency of private toll roads. The model features one origin and one destination linked by two parall...
Road user charging is used as an 'umbrella' term to describe a wide range of applications of pricing roads and infrastructure. Road user charging includes a number of charging measures that governments and other road owners use to: i) finance new or maintain existing road infrastructure ii) manage traffic (e.g. reduce congestion) iii) minimise environmental impacts of transport iv) internalise the external costs of road transport caused, e.g., by pollution and noise emissions. Historically, t...
Berlin, M A; Sheila Anand
In this paper, we present a Selective Road Hazard Message Dissemination Protocol (SRHMDP) for delivering road hazard information to vehicles travelling on highways. Road hazards could include information relating to road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road and other obstacles. This paper proposes the use of Road Side Units (RSUs) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication to selectively deliver hazard information to vehicles travelling towards the hazard location. Vehicle encountering the hazard wi...
ORFILA, O; VANDANJON, PO; COIRET, A
The skid resistance analysis is one part of the complex process which is involved in road safety analysis for a road project or for road maintenance. As early as the design phase, the road geometry choice is linked to the skid resistance for a given level of service. In the road maintenance case, different conventional measurements are performed on the road and by analyzing them together, risks can be enlightened. Currently, this analysis is done by comparing these data. This is time consumin...
This doctoral thesis deals primarily with condition assessment of road equipment. The road equipment concept is defined by five main groups, road lighting, fences and barriers, vertical signs, horizontal signs and traffic signals, respectively. Of these groups, road markings, street lighting and barriers of three-lane roads have been studied more in detail. A state-of-the-art, comprising information obtained by comprehensive literature studies on condition assessment of road equipment is pres...
The purpose of the graduation's thesis is to demonstrate the use of Plateia software for design of roads and road intersections. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part briefly describes the history and the main influences on the development of road transport. Further is made a general description of the technical and geometrical elements of roads with the description of level road intersections, roundabouts, multilevel road junctions and bus bays. ...
Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.
Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.
Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I
Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries. PMID:24940016
Full Text Available Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions addressed and the inferential strength of the studies undertaken. At a workshop at the German castle of Rauischholzhausen we identified five particularly relevant questions, which we suggest provide the framework for a research agenda for road ecology: (1 Under what circumstances do roads affect population persistence? (2 What is the relative importance of road effects vs. other effects on population persistence? (3 Under what circumstances can road effects be mitigated? (4 What is the relative importance of the different mechanisms by which roads affect population persistence? (5 Under what circumstances do road networks affect population persistence at the landscape scale? We recommend experimental designs that maximize inferential strength, given existing constraints, and we provide hypothetical examples of such experiments for each of the five research questions. In general, manipulative experiments have higher inferential strength than do nonmanipulative experiments, and full before-after-control-impact designs are preferable to before-after or control-impact designs. Finally, we argue that both scientists and planners must be aware of the limits to inferential strength that exist for a given research question in a given situation. In particular, when the maximum inferential strength of any feasible design is low, decision makers must not demand stronger evidence before incorporating research results into the planning process, even though the level of uncertainty may be high.
Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.
Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road
Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch
Chenet, L; McKee, M
A recent preliminary ruling by the European Court of Justice, that would have ended the Swedish state retail alcohol monopoly on grounds of European law on free movement of goods, highlights the international pressure on countries to deregulate further their alcohol markets. However, those countries that have recently taken the road to deregulation have not been able to prevent the alcohol industry encouraging people to drink more and they are experiencing increased alcohol-related problems. The international debates about tradeable commodities rarely take account of the consequences for public health. Alcohol is one such commodity that is also an important cause of premature death. It is essential that this is not overlooked in the race to promote free trade. PMID:9719390
Wendan Zhang; Jian Lu; Ping Xu; Yi Zhang
On-road vehicle emissions are one of the major sources of transport emissions. As a key design factor, road grades (or road slopes) have significant effects on on-road vehicle emissions, particularly on Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs). However, the research into the relationship between road grades and on-road vehicle emissions is very rare in China. Taking a road network in Taiyuan, China, as a study area, this paper explored the influences of road grades on carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC)...
Amato, Fulvio; Zandveld, Peter; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Querol, Xavier; Reche, Cristina; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Schaap, Martijn
Road dust emission is an emerging issue in air quality due to the lack of remediation measures in contrast to vehicle exhaust emissions. The evidence of receptor modeling studies allows for quantifying impact on a few receptors, but the high cost of PM chemical speciation data and the questionable representativeness of single monitoring sites, limit considerably the development of population exposure estimates and epidemiologic studies based on georeferenced data. This study attempts to initiate and promote urban-scale dispersion modeling for road dust emissions, which will allow for a more robust estimate of population exposure and health outcomes. The TNO URBIS (URBan Information System) model was applied in the city of Barcelona, implementing a Gaussian line source and a street canyon dispersion model, together with new experimental estimates of road dust emission factors and algorithm to describe the time variability. Annual, daily and hourly road dust contributions were simulated and validated against observation of PM10, mineral dust and hourly PM2.5-10 concentrations. Results show that road dust contributed 9-15% to PM10 levels at background sites, and 23-44% at traffic sites. Highest contributions were modeled in the commercial/residential district where most of population live and work (Eixample) structured by 120 m wide square blocks, separated by roads with >10,000 vehicles per day. Street level contributions rise up to 20 μg/m3 (96% of roads) and an additional 3% of roads within 20-40 μg/m3. Hourly simulations of road dust contributions revealed to benefit from the implementation of the new emission module (Amato et al., 2012), able to describe the exponential recovery of road dust emission potential after rain events, when compared to common approach such as the use of constant emission factor or an ON/OFF approach. Correlation coefficients with observed data varied from 0.61, 0.58 and 0.43 for annual, daily and hourly means, respectively, revealing
A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.
This book presents the index and query techniques on road network and moving objects which are limited to road network. Here, the road network of non-Euclidean space has its unique characteristics such that two moving objects may be very close in a straight line distance. The index used in two-dimensional Euclidean space is not always appropriate for moving objects on road network. Therefore, the index structure needs to be improved in order to obtain suitable indexing methods, explore the shortest path and acquire nearest neighbor query and aggregation query methods under the new index structures. Chapter 1 of this book introduces the present situation of intelligent traffic and index in road network, Chapter 2 introduces the relevant existing spatial indexing methods. Chapter 3-5 focus on several issues of road network and query, they involves: traffic road network models (see Chapter 3), index structures (see Chapter 4) and aggregate query methods (see Chapter 5). Finally, in Chapter 6, the book briefly de...
Jerzy A. Ejsmont
Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces.
Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG
Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].
Haijun GU; Qiang DAI; Qian WANG; Yuezhao WANG
To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve,we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007.Road mortality of three species,Rana kukunoris,Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus,was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September).Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads.We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality.We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September.Among road characteristics,road width was positively associated with road morality for R.kukunori and B.minshanicus.Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B.minshanicus in September.Of the landscape features measured,area proportions of three types of grassland (wet,mesic and dry) within 1 km of the roads,particularly that of wet grassland,significantly increased road mortality for R.kukunori and total mortality across all three species.To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands,we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands,minimizing road width,underground passes and traffic control measures.The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume,and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6):768-774,2011].
Full Text Available The “sustainability” concept relates to the prolonging of human economic systems with as little detrimental impact on ecological systems as possible. Construction that exhibits good environmental stewardship and practices that conserve resources in a manner that allow growth and development to be sustained for the long-term without degrading the environment are indispensable in a developed society.Past, current and future advancements in road construction as an environmentally sustainable paving material are especially important because the quantities of asphalt used annually in Europe as well as in the U.S. and all over the world are large. This research project is aimed to demonstrate the dual value of some new technologies in regards to the environmental and mechanical performance and to suggest a low environmental impact design procedure. In fact, the use of eco-friendly materials is the first phase towards an eco-compatible design but it cannot be the only step. The eco-compatible approach should be extended also to the design method and material characterization because only with these phases is it possible to exploit the maximum potential properties of the used materials.
Full Text Available Road traffic is an important phenomenon in modern societies. The study of its different aspects in the multiple scenarios where it happens is relevant for a huge number of problems. At the same time, its scale and complexity make it hard to study. Traffic simulations can alleviate these difficulties, simplifying the scenarios to consider and controlling their variables. However, their development also presents difficulties. The main ones come from the need to integrate the way of working of researchers and developers from multiple fields. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE addresses these problems using Modelling Languages (MLs and semi-automatic transformations to organise and describe the development, from requirements to code. This paper presents a domain-specific MDE framework for simulations of road traffic. It comprises an extensible ML, support tools, and development guidelines. The ML adopts an agent-based approach, which is focused on the roles of individuals in road traffic and their decision-making. A case study shows the process to model a traffic theory with the ML, and how to specialise that specification for an existing target platform and its simulations. The results are the basis for comparison with related work.
Brauner, F; Brauner, A
The authors have previously analyzed themes such as 'the rails', 'the sun', 'the house' in the drawings and modellings of very regressed, psychotic children. Here we have 'the roads', another anxiogenous subject. The mental condition of the young patients expresses itself clearly in the way the theme is treated in plastic works, and even in the stage play. The colours used, the entanglement, the importance of cross-roads, and the delirious comments are studied. The image of the roads is changing with progressing success of treatment. PMID:776524
Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.
The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice” investigation model recommends no “one-best-way” solutions, either for attaining a particular objective or for organizing the road safety sector, as the national context always needs to be taken in account whe...
The road coloring theorem states that every aperiodic directed graph with constant out-degree has a synchronized coloring. This theorem had been conjectured during many years as the road coloring problem before being settled by A. Trahtman. Trahtman's proof leads to an algorithm that finds a synchronized labeling with a cubic worst-case time complexity. We show a variant of his construction with a worst-case complexity which is quadratic in time and linear in space. We also extend the road coloring theorem to the periodic case.
The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)
Mcdonald John F.
This introductory article to the special issue discusses briefly both the practice and theory of road pricing. Actual methods of charging for road use are discussed, and the current trend towards greater use of time-of-day congestion tolls is noted. The basic model of traffic congestion and road pricing is presented next, and this is followed by a summary of the extensions to the basic model represented in this issue of the Review of Network Economics. Researchers are now developing models th...
Full Text Available Urban road toll systems are increasingly on the political agenda in order to achieve environmental, urban and traffic management as well as financial objectives. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS as for example Global Positioning System (GPS or Galileo may enhance the usability and also financial soundness of city road pricing and shall be included into the overall concept selection process – in spite of relatively high investment costs. As this contribution shows with a comprehensive evaluation scheme, for example GNSS-related toll systems may contribute to improved telematics and road pricing in cities.
Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G
Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies. PMID:19540969
James H Baxter-Gilbert
Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively
Sorenson, S. C.; Kalivoda, M.; Vacarro, R.; Trozzi, C.; Samaras, Z.; Lewis, C.A.
The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)
Aleksandar J. Bulajić
Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.
Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas; Boldo, Didier
This paper presents an automatic approach to road marking reconstruction using stereo pairs acquired by a mobile mapping system in a dense urban area. Two types of road markings were studied: zebra crossings (crosswalks) and dashed lines. These two types of road markings consist of strips having known shape and size. These geometric specifications are used to constrain the recognition of strips. In both cases (i.e. zebra crossings and dashed lines), the reconstruction method consists of three main steps. The first step extracts edge points from the left and right images of a stereo pair and computes 3D linked edges using a matching process. The second step comprises a filtering process that uses the known geometric specifications of road marking objects. The goal is to preserve linked edges that can plausibly belong to road markings and to filter others out. The final step uses the remaining linked edges to fit a theoretical model to the data. The method developed has been used for processing a large number of images. Road markings are successfully and precisely reconstructed in dense urban areas under real traffic conditions.
Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.
Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.
Helala, Mohamed A.; Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Pu, Ken Q.
Automatic detection of road boundaries in traffic surveillance imagery can greatly aid subsequent traffic analysis tasks, such as vehicle flow, erratic driving, and stranded vehicles. This paper develops an online technique for identifying the dominant road boundary in video sequences captured by traffic cameras under challenging environmental and lighting conditions, e.g., unlit highways captured at night. The proposed method works in real time of up to 20 frames/s and generates a ranked list of road regions that identify road and lane boundaries. Our method begins by segmenting each frame into a set of superpixels. An adaptive sampling step approximates superpixel contours to a collection of edge segments. Next, we show how online hierarchical clustering can be efficiently used to organize edges into clusters of colinearly similar sets. Promising clusters are paired with each other to form cluster pairs. Then we present and prove a statistical ranking measure that is used along with road-activity and perspective cues to find the dominant road boundaries. We evaluate the proposed approach on two real-world datasets to test our method under camera viewpoint changes and extreme environmental and lighting conditions. Results show that our method outperforms two state-of-the-art techniques in precision, recall, and runtime.
Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests
Emissions from transportation are some of the largest sources of urban air pollution. Transportation emissions originate from both the engine-through combustion processes and non-tailpipe re-suspended road dust emissions induced by vehicle travel on unpaved and paved roads. Gaseous and particulate emissions from transportation sources have negative impacts on human health, visibility and may influence the global radiation balance. Fugitive dust emissions originating from vehicle travel on paved and unpaved roads constitute a significant fraction of the PM10 in many areas of the western US impacting their attainment status of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The research used three novel instrument platforms developed at the Desert Research Institute. The In-Plume Emissions Test Stand (IPETS) was designed to provide characterization of exhaust emissions from in-use individual vehicles or engines by analyzing air as close as 1 m from the exhaust port. Real-world emission factors can be quantified by in-plume measurements and provide more realistic measures for emission inventories, source modeling, and receptor modeling than certification measurements. The Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) provides an effective alternate approach to the EPA AP-42 road dust emissions estimation techniques by sampling 1000s of km of roads versus isolated 3 m sections. The Portable Deposition Monitoring Platform (PDMP incorporates PM and meteorological instruments to characterize the downwind change in particle concentrations to define depositional losses in different environments. The research outcome provides important knowledge for understanding diesel engine emissions, road dust emissions and aerosol deposition process near road sources.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...
This book is a collection of the Finnish acts and regulations concerning transport of dangerous substances by road as of 31st March 1985. Included are: Act and Decree on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road (Nos 510/74 and 861/74), both as amended; Decree setting up a related Commission (No. 862/74), as amended; Act on the Contract for Carriage of Goods by Road (No. 345/79); Decree bringing into force the ADR (No. 289/79); and Decision of the Ministry of Communications on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road (No. 610/78) as amended by Decisions No. 344/79, 995/79, 218/82 and 935/83. (NEA)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the annual number of fatal and severe road traffic injuries per population and per miles traveled by transport mode, for California, its...
Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning th
Millenium Challenge Corporation — Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct traffic, household, and business surveys as part of the Roads Project evaluation....
The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.
Braccio, R.; Finch, P.
This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.
... altering the normal flow of water in streambeds or drainage channels; (6) Prevent or control damage to... part of any road shall be located in the channel of an intermittent or perennial stream...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...
Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush
Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.
Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))
The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)
Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club
The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m. The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...
This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex
The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...
The field of information systems of municipal roads is examined in the master’s thesis. The rules managing this area, existing information systems and databases are presented and analysed. Business processes (planning, management, protection, maintenance, investment, control, execution of works ...) which are taking place in this field, are analysed and specified. Design plan of the uniform information system of municipal roads, consists of diagrams and processes descriptions. The sy...
Yazao Yang; Xiaoni Hao; Junshao Luo
With the increasing traffic contradiction between supply and demand, urban traffic problems have become quite complex. Reasons for traffic congestion have become much more diverse. During the construction of urban road project, the surrounding road network will encounter a huge impact, traffic problems therefore emerged. Simulation is an important means for transport impact assessment, which has an important role for construction traffic impact analysis. Accordingly, traffic simulation i...
Simon D. Ellis; Aurelio Menendez
This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the d...
Fung, GSK; Yung, NHC; Pang, GKH
Three-dimensional computer vision techniques have been actively studied for the purpose of visual traffic surveillance. To determine the 3-D environment, camera calibration is a crucial step to resolve the relationship between the 3-D world coordinates and their corresponding image coordinates. A novel camera calibration using the geometry properties of road lane markings is proposed. A set of equations that computes the camera parameters from the image coordinates of the road lane markings a...
WJ Pienaar; JH Nel
This paper briefly considers the objectives of road congestion pricing and identifies prerequisites to the successful application of such a pricing scheme. The paper is divided into two sections. In the first section, a mathematical analysis of the constituents of an optimal road congestion price is offered. The eliminated inefficiency loss achieved by the introduction of a congestion levy is usually evaluated by means of an integral involving marginal trip cost, travel demand and average tri...
Papageorgiou, M.; Diakaki, C.; Dinopoulou, V.; Kotsialos, A.; Wang, Y.
Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via suitable control measures and strategies. After illustrating the main reasons for infrastructure deterioration due to traffic congestion, a comprehensive overview of proposed and implemented control strategies is provided for three areas: urban road networks, freeway networks, and route guidance. Selected application r...
ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 15th of September, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for three weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 160224 - 163976
Haghighattalab, A.; Mohammadzadeh, A.; Valadan Zoej, M. J.; Taleai, M.
Receiving accurate and comprehensive knowledge about the conditions of roads after earthquake strike are crucial in finding optimal paths and coordinating rescue missions. Continuous coverage of the disaster region and rapid access of high-resolution satellite images make this technology as a useful and powerful resource for post-earthquake damage assessment and the evaluation process. Along with this improved technology, object-oriented classification has become a promising alternative for classifying high-resolution remote sensing imagery, such as QuickBird, Ikonos. Thus, in this study, a novel approach is proposed for the automatic detection and assessment of damaged roads in urban areas based on object based classification techniques using post-event satellite image and vector map. The most challenging phase of the proposed region-based algorithm is the segmentation procedure. The extracted regions are then classified using nearest neighbor classifier making use of textural parameters. Then, an appropriate fuzzy inference system (FIS) is proposed for road damage assessment. Finally, the roads are correctly labeled as 'Blocked road' or 'Unblocked road' in the road damage assessment step. The proposed method was tested on QuickBird pan-sharpened image of Bam, Iran, concerning the devastating earthquake that occurred in December 2003. The visual investigation of the obtained results demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed approach.
肖志强; 鲍光淑; 蒋晓确
Due to the complicated background of objectives and speckle noise, it is almost impossible to extract roads directly from original synthetic aperture radar(SAR) images. A method is proposed for extraction of road network from high-resolution SAR image. Firstly, fuzzy C means is used to classify the filtered SAR image unsupervisedly, and the road pixels are isolated from the image to simplify the extraction of road network. Secondly, according to the features of roads and the membership of pixels to roads, a road model is constructed, which can reduce the extraction of road network to searching globally optimization continuous curves which pass some seed points. Finally, regarding the curves as individuals and coding a chromosome using integer code of variance relative to coordinates, the genetic operations are used to search global optimization roads. The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively extract road network from high-resolution SAR images.
Petegem, J.W.H. van & Wegman, F.C.M.
About 50% of all road traffic fatalities and 30% of all traffic injuries in The Netherlands take place on rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. About 50% of these crashes are run-off-road (ROR) crashes. To reduce the number of crashes on this road type, attention should be put on improving the
Daniel Odongo Oronje; Charles M. Rambo; Paul A. Odundo
Kenya established the Road Maintenance Levy Fund in 1993 to finance road maintenance. The Kenya Roads Board is at the centre of the Fundâ€™s administration and accomplishes this by working in collaboration with various implementing agencies. However, through professional experience, we have learnt that the flow of funds to road agencies is inconsistent, due to various factors, which this study aimed at documenting to justify reforms towards sustainable road maintenance. We applied the crossse...
Kovačić, Kristian; Ivanjko, Edouard; Gold, Hrvoje
The number of road vehicles significantly increased in recent decades. This trend accompanied a build-up of road infrastructure and development of various control systems to increase road traffic safety, road capacity and travel comfort. In traffic safety significant development has been made and today's systems more and more include cameras and computer vision methods. Cameras are used as part of the road infrastructure or in vehicles. In this paper a review on computer vision systems in veh...
Road extraction methods from SAR Image are important in the field of SAR image recognition and detection. In the past few decades, scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of experiments and researches. Through the analysis of the current situation, it firstly introduces the road characteristics of SAR image and basic strategies of road extraction. Then, the existing road extraction methods from SAR image are summarized. Finally, the prospective road extraction researches from SAR image are put forward
Simon, Ludovic; TAREL, Jean Philippe; BREMOND, Roland
Road signs, the main communication media towards the drivers, play a significant role in road safety and traffic control through drivers' guidance, warning, and information. However, not all traffic signs are seen by all drivers, which sometimes lead to dangerous situations. In order to manage safer roads, the estimation of the legibility of the road environment is thus of importance for road engineers and authorities who aim at making and keeping traffic signs salient enough to attract atten...
Visibility is an evaluation index for road lighting, which comprehensively influences the vision reliability of drivers and is a key factor for road lighting safety and energy saving. This paper introduces the concept of road lighting visibility and its influencing factors. It also explains the small target visibility calculation model for road lighting design, and describes the significance of establishing urban road lighting visibility standards from a point of view of visual function and visual comfort of drivers.
Full Text Available Road damage detection and assessment from high-resolution remote sensing image is critical for natural disaster investigation and disaster relief. In a disaster context, the pairing of pre-disaster and post-disaster road data for change detection and assessment is difficult to achieve due to the mismatch of different data sources, especially for rural areas where the pre-disaster data (i.e., remote sensing imagery or vector map are hard to obtain. In this study, a knowledge-based method for road damage detection and assessment solely from post-disaster high-resolution remote sensing image is proposed. The road centerline is firstly extracted based on the preset road seed points. Then, features such as road brightness, standard deviation, rectangularity, and aspect ratio are selected to form a knowledge model. Finally, under the guidance of the road centerline, the post-disaster roads are extracted and the damaged roads are detected by applying the knowledge model. In order to quantitatively assess the damage degree, damage assessment indicators with their corresponding standard of damage grade are also proposed. The newly developed method is evaluated using a WorldView-1 image over Wenchuan, China acquired three days after the earthquake on 15 May 2008. The results show that the producer’s accuracy (PA and user’s accuracy (UA reached about 90% and 85%, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is effective for road damage detection and assessment. This approach also significantly reduces the need for pre-disaster remote sensing data.
Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public lighting; lighting with vehicle lights, daylight conditions; lighting with vehicle lights; daylight; and road markings are described in part I. Part II presents the measurement of reflection proper...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — ROADS_TIGER05_IN is a line shapefile of Indiana roads. Original data are from the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2005 (First Edition) Tiger...
Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrhamen; Bues, Michel
Winter maintenance relies on many operational tools consisting in monitoring atmospheric and pavement physical parameters. Among them, road weather information systems (RWIS) and thermal mapping are mostly used by service in charge of managing infrastructure networks. The Data from RWIS and thermal mapping are considered as inputs for forecasting physical numerical models, commonly in place since the 80s. These numerical models do need an accurate description of the infrastructure, such as pavement layers and sub-layers, along with many meteorological parameters, such as air temperature and global and infrared radiation. The description is sometimes partially known, and meteorological data is only monitored on specific spot. On the other hand, thermal mapping is now an easy, reliable and cost effective way to monitor road surface temperature (RST), and many meteorological parameters all along routes of infrastructure networks, including with a whole fleet of vehicles in the specific cases of roads, or airports. The technique uses infrared thermometry to measure RST and an atmospheric probes for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and global radiation, both at a high resolution interval, to identify sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming, and the data from thermal mapping is one input among others to establish the forecast. The idea was to build a reliable forecast on the sole data from thermal mapping. Previous work has established the interest to use principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of a reduced number of thermal fingerprints. The work presented here is a focus on the use of partial least-square regression (PLS) to build a RST forecast with air temperature measurements. Roads with various environments, weather conditions (clear, cloudy mainly) and seasons were monitored over several months to generate an appropriate number of samples. The study was conducted to determine the minimum
Full Text Available Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites. There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.
The purpose was to create a GIS data set representing future road construction in the EPA MAIA study region. The latest data came from planning departments during 1999. Two types of construction were considered: the first are completely new roads being built on new easements an...
In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour. Go
The high risk location approach is one of the most traditional ways of improving road safety. This reactive approach tackles unsafe situations at locations with the most crashes. On average, this approach results in an 18% reduction in casualties at such locations. However, in the Netherlands this a
This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…
Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie
actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number of......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users and for...... bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...
Full Text Available Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is located. However, larger improvements could be achieved if information from subsequent stretches is used. The main objective of this work is to develop a system to warn the driver in real time of the optimal speed that should be maintained on every road segment in order to optimize the energy used and the fuel consumed while observing a time schedule. The system takes into account the road vertical profile, the fixed and variable speed limits and the traffic information retrieved using V2V and V2I communications. The system has been tested on real road sections with satisfactory results in fuel savings.
Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie
actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number of......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users and for...... bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...
This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys. In...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training, more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both
Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal;
Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided the...... infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....
Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Guzzetti, Fausto
In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rainfall, as part of a triggered landslide event, one individual to tens of thousands of landslides may occur across a region. If in the region, one or more roads become blocked by landslides, this can cause extensive detours and delay rescue and recovery operations. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with real data of a model to simulate triggered landslide events and their impacts upon road networks. This is done by creating a 'synthetic' triggered landslide event inventory by randomly sampling landslide areas and shapes from already established statistical distributions. These landslides are then semi-randomly dropped across a given study region, conditioned by that region's landslide susceptibility. The resulting synthetic triggered landslide event inventory is overlaid with the region's road network map and the number, size, location and network impact of road blockages and landslides near roads calculated. This process is repeated hundreds of times in a Monte Carlo type simulation. The statistical distributions and approaches used in the model are thought to be generally applicable for low-mobility triggered landslides in many medium to high-topography regions throughout the world. The only local data required to run the model are a road network map, a landslide susceptibility map, a map of the study area boundary and a digital elevation model. Coupled with an Open Source modelling approach (in GRASS-GIS), this model may be applied to many regions where triggered landslide events are an issue. We present model results and confrontation with observed data for two study regions where the model has been applied: Collazzone (Central Italy) where rapid snowmelt triggered 413 landslides in January 1997 and Oat Mountain (Northridge, USA), where the Northridge Earthquake triggered 1,356 landslides in January 1994. We find that when the landslide
Full Text Available As a significant role for traffic management, city planning, road monitoring, GPS navigation and map updating, the technology of road extraction from a remote sensing (RS image has been a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, after analyzing different road features and road models, the road extraction methods were classified into the classification-based methods, knowledge-based methods, mathematical morphology, active contour model, and dynamic programming. Firstly, the road features, road model, existing difficulties and interference factors for road extraction were analyzed. Secondly, the principle of road extraction, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and research achievements were briefly highlighted. Then, the comparisons of the different road extraction algorithms were performed, including road features, test samples and shortcomings. Finally, the research results in recent years were summarized emphatically. It is obvious that only using one kind of road features is hard to get an excellent extraction effect. Hence, in order to get good results, the road extraction should combine multiple methods according to the real applications. In the future, how to realize the complete road extraction from a RS image is still an essential but challenging and important research topic.
The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter the
Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo
Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic
Full Text Available With the increasing traffic contradiction between supply and demand, urban traffic problems have become quite complex. Reasons for traffic congestion have become much more diverse. During the construction of urban road project, the surrounding road network will encounter a huge impact, traffic problems therefore emerged. Simulation is an important means for transport impact assessment, which has an important role for construction traffic impact analysis. Accordingly, traffic simulation is particularly important for policy setting and traffic organization. Taking an improvement project of Changjiang rapid road in Zhongshan city for example, this paper used the professional simulation software Vissim to analysis the impact of Qiwan road during the construction project. The simulation and traffic evaluation results can give some forward-looking and targeted measures about traffic safety, traffic organization, road facilities alteration and so on. The traffic impact analysis results shown that traffic safety and high-efficiency transport system must protected by good traffic re-organization projects and the simulation method is an effective mean to actualize traffic impact assessment.
Kaijiang YU; Junqi YANG; Daisuke YAMAGUCHI
This paper presents development of a control system for ecological driving of a hybrid vehicle. Prediction using traffic signal and road slope information is considered to improve the fuel economy. It is assumed that the automobile receives traffic signal information from intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Model predictive control is used to calculate optimal vehicle control inputs using traffic signal and road slope information. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed through computer simulation results. Both the fuel economy and the driving profile are optimized using the proposed approach. It was observed that fuel economy was improved compared with driving of a typical human driving model.
Tang, Luliang; Liu, Zhang; Yang, Xue; KAN Zihan; Li, Qingquan; Dong, Kun
The spatio-temporal trajectory of taxi GPS data in streets and small lanes of Wuhan city is taken as the experiment data source, based on the "perceptual-cognition-experience" three levels of cognitive law, a new approach for track fusion and road network generation is put forward from the GPS spatio-temporal trajectories. The experiment with the taxi GPS trajectory in Wuhan is done, and the results are shown us that the proposed method in this paper for the taxi trajectory fusion and road ne...
China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested
R. Yu. Lagerev
Full Text Available Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queuing traffic flow on main road the “turbulence” component can result in formation of an impact blow in the main traffic flow. It has been proved that an impact of the ramp traffic flow on congestion probability is higher in comparison with main road traffic flow. The paper makes it possible to establish that some transport facilities moving along a high-way simul taneously occupy two lanes in the merging traffic zones and they reduce capacity of the used road section. It is necessary to take into account this specific feature and it is necessary to pay attention to it in the zones of “turbulence” effect formation. The paper presents main approaches, methodology, principles and stages required for access control of high-class roads which are directed on higher quality of their operation including improvement of road traffic safety. The paper proposes a methodоlogy that allows to evaluate and optimize ramp control in the context of a transport queue length minimization at adjoining ramps for the purposes of probability reduction in transport congestion.
Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: Using Geographical Information System (GIS can decreases the burden of road traffic injuries effectively by identification of hot spot to modification in hazardous areas. The aim of the study was determining geographical distribution of human risk factors associated with road traffic injuries by using Geographical Information System (GIS in Iran.Materials and Methods: The national database of road traffic injuries registered by the Iranian traffic Police (Rahvar NAJA was used. The human risk factors were investigated by recognition of the hazardous points and geographical distribution of associated risk factors. The Hot Spot Analysis and Map clustering approaches were employed to meet the objectives. Results: The mean age of injured subjects was 34 years and the most affected age group was 20-39 years. Death and injury occurrence within out of cities ways were 0.3 % and 28% respectively. Geographical distribution of risk factors also showed that roads of Northern provinces i.e. (Gilaan and Mazandaran were the hazardous rising as well as Qazvin to Rasht and Qom to Tehran roads. Sistan and Balochestan Provinces and Tehran had the highest (4.8% and the lowest (0.1% rates of road traffic injuries leading to death in the country.Conclusions: Northern provinces and its leading axes by hazardous rising and Sistan and Balochestan province with fatal injuries need to identify the cause of injuries’ and, if necessary, more tighten regulations and more controls by the traffic police must be applied.Keywords: Road Traffic Injuries; Geographical Information System GIS; Hazardous
Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation
This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...
Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen
though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation of the......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important it...
Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier; Festas, Laurence
For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with heterogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We present the identification of typical situations that have been used to create the image data base, the experimental protocol designs to compare the performances of the techniques and the analysis of the experimental results.
Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.
A linear mass-spring system model of a tractor-semitrailer together with driver body parts and sprung seat is presented. Natural frequencies of the system are calculated and response of components in the system to road roughness is completed by means of computer simulation and power spectral density (PSD) approach in all of road conditions and loading cases. The results show that the severest situation of response of the system occurs when the road in rough condition and vehicle unladen. The most sensitive frequency to human body parts is around 0.9Hz, and model types of a human body seem to be not significant tothe response of a heavy tractor-semitrailer system, including to the response of the driver himself.
Full Text Available This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS developed by Pierson et al. (1990 at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories 'ditch effectiveness', 'geologic characteristic', 'volume of rockfall/block size', 'climate and water circulation' and 'rockfall history' have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991 improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories 'decision sight distance' and 'road geometry'. For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR have been used (CNR, 1980. The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145 in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is
On-road emissions are a major contributor to rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. In this study, we applied a downscaling methodology based on commonly available spatial parameters to model on-road CO2 emissions at the 1 × 1 km scale for the Boston, MA region and tested our approach with surface-level CO2 observations. Using two previously constructed emissions inventories with differing spatial patterns and underlying data sources, we developed regression models based on impervious surface area and volume-weighted road density that could be scaled to any resolution. We found that the models accurately reflected the inventories at their original scales (R2 = 0.63 for both models) and exhibited a strong relationship with observed CO2 mixing ratios when downscaled across the region. Moreover, the improved spatial agreement of the models over the original inventories confirmed that either product represents a viable basis for downscaling in other metropolitan regions, even with limited data. - Highlights: ► We model two on-road CO2 emissions inventories using common spatial parameters. ► Independent CO2 observations are used to validate the emissions models. ► The downscaled emissions models capture the urban spatial heterogeneity of Boston. ► Emissions estimates show a strong non-linear relationship with observed CO2. ► Our study is repeatable, even in areas with limited data. - This work presents a new, reproducible methodology for downscaling and validating on-road CO2 emissions estimates.
Arima, Eugenio Y.; Walker, Robert T.; Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus
Although a large literature now exists on the drivers of tropical deforestation, less is known about its spatial manifestation. This is a critical shortcoming in our knowledge base since the spatial pattern of land-cover change and forest fragmentation, in particular, strongly affect biodiversity. The purpose of this article is to consider emergent patterns of road networks, the initial proximate cause of fragmentation in tropical forest frontiers. Specifically, we address the road-building processes of loggers who are very active in the Amazon landscape. To this end, we develop an explanation of road expansions, using a positive approach combining a theoretical model of economic behavior with geographic information systems (GIs) software in order to mimic the spatial decisions of road builders. We simulate two types of road extensions commonly found in the Amazon basin in a region: showing the fishbone pattern of fragmentation. Although our simulation results are only partially successful, they call attention to the role of multiple agents in the landscape, the importance of legal and institutional constraints on economic behavior, and the power of GIs as a research tool.
Bin Jiang; Chao Yang; Takao Terano
This paper proposes an adaptive agent model with a hybrid routing selection strategy for studying the road⁃network congestion problem. We focus on improving those severely congested links. Firstly, a multi⁃agent system is built, where each agent stands for a vehicle, and it makes its routing selection by considering the shortest path and the minimum congested degree of the target link simultaneously. The agent⁃based model captures the nonlinear feedback between vehicle routing behaviors and road⁃network congestion status. Secondly, a hybrid routing selection strategy is provided, which guides the vehicle routes adapting to the real⁃time road⁃network congestion status. On this basis, we execute simulation experiments and compare the simulation results of network congestion distribution, by Floyd agent with shortest path strategy and our proposed adaptive agent with hybrid strategy. The simulation results show that our proposed model has reduced the congestion degree of those seriously congested links of road⁃network. Finally, we execute our model on a real road map. The results finds that those seriously congested roads have some common features such as located at the road junction or near the unique road connecting two areas. And, the results also show an effectiveness of our model on reduction of those seriously congested links in this actual road network. Such a bottom⁃up congestion control approach with a hybrid congestion optimization perspective will have its significance for actual traffic congestion control.
Ok, A. O.
This paper presents an original unsupervised framework to identify regions belonging to buildings and roads from monocular very high resolution (VHR) satellite images. The proposed framework consists of three main stages. In the first stage, we extract information only related to building regions using shadow evidence and probabilistic fuzzy landscapes. Firstly, the shadow areas cast by building objects are detected and the directional spatial relationship between buildings and their shadows is modelled with the knowledge of illumination direction. Thereafter, each shadow region is handled separately and initial building regions are identified by iterative graph-cuts designed in a two-label partitioning. The second stage of the framework automatically classifies the image into four classes: building, shadow, vegetation, and others. In this step, the previously labelled building regions as well as the shadow and vegetation areas are involved in a four-label graph optimization performed in the entire image domain to achieve the unsupervised classification result. The final stage aims to extend this classification to five classes in which the class road is involved. For that purpose, we extract the regions that might belong to road segments and utilize that information in a final graph optimization. This final stage eventually characterizes the regions belonging to buildings and roads. Experiments performed on seven test images selected from GeoEye-1 VHR datasets show that the presented approach has ability to extract the regions belonging to buildings and roads in a single graph theory framework.
We adopted the simple average Divisia index approach to explore the impacts of factors on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from road freight transportation in China from 1985 to 2007. CO2 emissions were investigated using the following as influencing factors: the emission coefficient, vehicle fuel intensity, working vehicle stock per freight transport operator, market concentration level, freight transportation distance, market share of road freight transportation, ton-kilometer per value added of industry, industrialization level and economic growth. Building on the results, we suggest that economic growth is the most important factor in increasing CO2 emissions, whereas the ton-kilometer per value added of industry and the market concentration level contribute significantly to decreasing CO2 emissions. We also discussed some recent important policies concerning factors contained in the decomposition model. - Highlights: ► We estimated road freight fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in China. ► Factors implying features of road freight were considered in decomposition model. ► Some policies were discussed to affect CO2 emissions from road freight
Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John
To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140
Danilović Milorad; Ljubojević Darko
This paper presents the results of an analysis of the position and density of a secondary road network in the group-selection management system. The research was conducted in the economic unit Prosara in the north west of the Republic of Srpska. The network of skid roads in the analyzed sections was recorded using the GPS devices Garmin GPS 60 and Garmin Map 62st, and the analysis software package used was ESRI ArcInfo 10.1. Adhering to the general guidelin...