WorldWideScience

Sample records for approach method development

  1. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  2. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  3. Methods of the Development Strategy of Service Companies: Logistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toymentseva, Irina A.; Karpova, Natalya P.; Toymentseva, Angelina A.; Chichkina, Vera D.; Efanov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to lack of attention of heads of service companies to the theory and methodology of strategic management, methods and models of management decision-making in times of economic instability. The purpose of the article is to develop theoretical positions and methodical recommendations on the formation of the…

  4. Development of soil microbiology methods: from respirometry to molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Jiří

    2010-12-01

    This review deals with techniques and methods used in the study of the function and development of microorganisms occurring in soil with emphasis on the contributions of Czech Academician Ivan Málek and his coworkers or fellows (Jiří Macura, František Kunc) to the development of basic techniques used in soil microbiology. Early studies, including batch cultivation and respirometric techniques, as well as later developments of percolation and continuous-flow methods of cultivation of soil microorganisms are discussed. Recent developments in the application of analytical chemistry (HPLC or GC) and of molecular biological techniques to ecological questions that have revolutionized concepts in soil microbiology and microbial ecology are also briefly mentioned, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and others. The shift of soil microbiology from the study of individual microorganisms to entire microbial communities, including nonculturable species, is briefly discussed.

  5. Analytical Quality by Design Approach to Test Method Development and Validation in Drug Substance Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. V. S. S. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industry has been emerging rapidly for the last decade by focusing on product Quality, Safety, and Efficacy. Pharmaceutical firms increased the number of product development by using scientific tools such as QbD (Quality by Design and PAT (Process Analytical Technology. ICH guidelines Q8 to Q11 have discussed QbD implementation in API synthetic process and formulation development. ICH Q11 guidelines clearly discussed QbD approach for API synthesis with examples. Generic companies are implementing QbD approach in formulation development and even it is mandatory for USFDA perspective. As of now there is no specific requirements for AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design and PAT in analytical development from all regulatory agencies. In this review, authors have discussed the implementation of QbD and AQbD simultaneously for API synthetic process and analytical methods development. AQbD key tools are identification of ATP (Analytical Target Profile, CQA (Critical Quality Attributes with risk assessment, Method Optimization and Development with DoE, MODR (method operable design region, Control Strategy, AQbD Method Validation, and Continuous Method Monitoring (CMM. Simultaneous implementation of QbD activities in synthetic and analytical development will provide the highest quality product by minimizing the risks and even it is very good input for PAT approach.

  6. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  7. Approaches for developing a sizing method for stand-alone PV systems with variable demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S., Universidad de Cordoba, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Accurate sizing is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration when designing a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPV). Various methods, which differ in terms of their simplicity or reliability, have been developed for this purpose. Analytical methods, which seek functional relationships between variables of interest to the sizing problem, are one of these approaches. A series of rational considerations are presented in this paper with the aim of shedding light upon the basic principles and results of various sizing methods proposed by different authors. These considerations set the basis for a new analytical method that has been designed for systems with variable monthly energy demands. Following previous approaches, the method proposed is based on the concept of loss of load probability (LLP) - a parameter that is used to characterize system design. The method includes information on the standard deviation of loss of load probability ({sigma}{sub LLP}) and on two new parameters: annual number of system failures (f) and standard deviation of annual number of failures ({sigma}{sub f}). The method proves useful for sizing a PV system in a reliable manner and serves to explain the discrepancies found in the research on systems with LLP<10{sup -2}. We demonstrate that reliability depends not only on the sizing variables and on the distribution function of solar radiation, but on the minimum value as well, which in a given location and with a monthly average clearness index, achieves total solar radiation on the receiver surface. (author)

  8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS as a methodical approach to the development of design strategies for environmentally sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring

    The field of environmentally sustainable architecture has been under development since the late 1960's when mankind first started to notice the consequences of industrialisation and modern lifestyle. Energy crises in 1973 and 1979, and global climatic changes ascribed to global warming have caused...... architecture, such as: ecological, green, bio-climatic, sustainable, passive, low-energy and environmental architecture. This PhD project sets out to gain a better understanding of environmentally sustainable architecture and the methodical approaches applied in the development of this type of architecture...

  9. Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichao; Xu, Kui; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling; Ma, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Flood is a serious challenge that increasingly affects the residents as well as policymakers. Flood vulnerability assessment is becoming gradually relevant in the world. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach to reveal the relationship between exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for better flood vulnerability assessment, based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and coordinated development degree model (CDDM). The approach is organized into three parts: establishment of index system, assessment of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and multiple flood vulnerability assessment. Hydrodynamic model and statistical data are employed for the establishment of index system; FCEM is used to evaluate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity; and CDDM is applied to express the relationship of the three components of vulnerability. Six multiple flood vulnerability types and four levels are proposed to assess flood vulnerability from multiple perspectives. Then the approach is applied to assess the spatiality of flood vulnerability in Hainan's eastern area, China. Based on the results of multiple flood vulnerability, a decision-making process for rational allocation of limited resources is proposed and applied to the study area. The study shows that multiple flood vulnerability assessment can evaluate vulnerability more completely, and help decision makers learn more information about making decisions in a more comprehensive way. In summary, this study provides a new way for flood vulnerability assessment and disaster prevention decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physics Teaching and Learning Methods: Comparison between the Developed and Developing Country Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Pradip

    2010-07-01

    As a fundamental basis of all natural science and technology, Physics is the key subject in many science teaching institutions around the world. Physics teaching and learning is the most important issue today—because of its complexity and fast growing applications in many new fields. The laws of Physics are global—but teaching and learning methods of Physics are very different among countries and cultures. When I first came in Australia for higher education about 11 years ago with an undergraduate and a graduate degree in Physics from a university of Bangladesh, I found the Physics education system in Australia is very different to what I have experienced in Bangladesh. After having two graduate degrees from two Australian universities and gaining few years experience in Physics teaching in Australian universities, I compare the two different types of Physics education experiences in this paper and tried to find the answer of the question—does it all depend on the resources or internal culture of the society or both. Undergraduate and graduate level Physics syllabi, resources and teaching methods, examination and assessment systems, teacher-student relationships, and research cultures are discussed and compared with those in Australia.

  11. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-04

    Analyses of complex samples of cosmetics, such as creams or lotions, are generally achieved by HPLC. These analyses are often multistep gradients, due to the presence of compounds with a large range of polarity. For instance, the bioactive compounds may be polar, while the matrix contains lipid components that are rather non-polar, thus cosmetic formulations are usually oil-water emulsions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) uses mobile phases composed of carbon dioxide and organic co-solvents, allowing for good solubility of both the active compounds and the matrix excipients. Moreover, the classical and well-known properties of these mobile phases yield fast analyses and ensure rapid method development. However, due to the large number of stationary phases available for SFC and to the varied additional parameters acting both on retention and separation factors (co-solvent nature and percentage, temperature, backpressure, flow rate, column dimensions and particle size), a simplified approach can be followed to ensure a fast method development. First, suited stationary phases should be carefully selected for an initial screening, and then the other operating parameters can be limited to the co-solvent nature and percentage, maintaining the oven temperature and back-pressure constant. To describe simple method development guidelines in SFC, three sample applications are discussed in this paper: UV-filters (sunscreens) in sunscreen cream, glyceryl caprylate in eye liner and caffeine in eye serum. Firstly, five stationary phases (ACQUITY UPC(2)) are screened with isocratic elution conditions (10% methanol in carbon dioxide). Complementary of the stationary phases is assessed based on our spider diagram classification which compares a large number of stationary phases based on five molecular interactions. Secondly, the one or two best stationary phases are retained for further optimization of mobile phase composition, with isocratic elution conditions or, when

  13. A basis of common approach to the development of universal steganalysis methods for digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla А. Kobozeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new common approach to the organization of steganalysis in digital images is developed. New features of formal parameters defining the image are identified, theoretically grounded and practically tested. For the first time characteristics of mutual disposition of the left and right singular vectors corresponding to the largest singular value of the matrix (block of matrix of an image and the vector composed of the singular values obtained as a result of normal singular decomposition of the matrix (block matrix are obtained. It is shown that for the majority of the blocks of the original image (regardless of the storage format — lossy, lossless the angle between the left (right singular vector and the vector composed of singular numbers is determined by the angle between the n-optimal vector and the standard space basis of the corresponding dimension. It is shown that the discovered feature is violated for the mentioned formal parameters in the disturbed image. This is an indicator of integrity violation, particularly steganotransformation, and it can be used to develop new universal steganalysis methods and algorithms. Their efficiency does not depend on the specifics of steganoalgorithm used for insertion of additional information.

  14. Developing a Virtual Teach-To-Goal™ Inhaler Technique Learning Module: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Woodrick, Nicole M; Arora, Vineet M; Farnan, Jeanne M; Press, Valerie G

    Most hospitalized patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease misuse respiratory inhalers. An in-person educational strategy, teach-to-goal (TTG), improves inpatients' inhaler technique. To develop an effective, portable education intervention that remains accessible to hospitalized patients postdischarge for reinforcement of proper inhaler technique. A mixed methods approach at an urban academic hospital was used to iteratively develop, modify, and test a virtual teach-to-goal ™ (V-TTG ™ ) educational intervention using patient end-user feedback. A survey examined access and willingness to use technology for self-management education. Focus groups evaluated patients' feedback on access, functionality, and quality of V-TTG ™ . Forty-eight participants completed the survey, with most reporting having Internet access; 77% used the Internet at home and 82% used the Internet at least once every few weeks. More than 80% reported that they were somewhat or very likely to use V-TTG ™ to gain skills to improve their health. Most participants reported smartphone access (73%); half owned laptop computers (52%). Participants with asthma versus chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more likely to own a smartphone, have a data plan, and have daily Internet use (P platform and delivery, Internet access, and technological literacy; functionality-usefulness, content, and teaching strategy; and quality-clarity, ease of use, length, and likability. V-TTG ™ is a promising educational tool for improving patients' inhaler technique, iteratively developed and refined with patient input. Patients in our urban, academic hospital overwhelmingly reported access to platforms and willingness to use V-TTG ™ for health education. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemometric approach for development, optimization, and validation of different chromatographic methods for separation of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevska, J; Stefkov, G; Petkovska, R; Kulevanova, S; Dimitrovska, A

    2012-05-01

    The excessive and continuously growing interest in the simultaneous determination of poppy alkaloids imposes the development and optimization of convenient high-throughput methods for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative profile of alkaloids in poppy straw. Systematic optimization of two chromatographic methods (gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID)/mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD)) for the separation of alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) was carried out. The effects of various conditions on the predefined chromatographic descriptors were investigated using chemometrics. A full factorial linear design of experiments for determining the relationship between chromatographic conditions and the retention behavior of the analytes was used. Central composite circumscribed design was utilized for the final method optimization. By conducting the optimization of the methods in very rational manner, a great deal of excessive and unproductive laboratory research work was avoided. The developed chromatographic methods were validated and compared in line with the resolving power, sensitivity, accuracy, speed, cost, ecological aspects, and compatibility with the poppy straw extraction procedure. The separation of the opium alkaloids using the GC/FID/MS method was achieved within 10 min, avoiding any derivatization step. This method has a stronger resolving power, shorter analysis time, better cost/effectiveness factor than the RP-HPLC/DAD method and is in line with the "green trend" of the analysis. The RP-HPLC/DAD method on the other hand displayed better sensitivity for all tested alkaloids. The proposed methods provide both fast screening and an accurate content assessment of the six alkaloids in the poppy samples obtained from the selection program of Papaver strains.

  16. Using a Mixed Methods Approach to Explore Strategies, Metacognitive Awareness and the Effects of Task Design on Listening Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Anne; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is increasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the four skills (Vandergrift, 2007). Based on research in listening comprehension, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to shed light on the development of four…

  17. Development of new therapeutic methods of lung cancer through team approach study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Ho; Zo, Jae Ill; Baek, Hee Jong; Jung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Kim, Mi Sook; Choi, Du Hwan; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Hae Young

    2000-12-01

    The aims of this study were to make the lung cancer clinics in Korea Cancer Center Hospital, and to establish new therapeutic methods of lung cancer for increasing the cure rate and survival rate of patients. Also another purpose of this study was to establish a common treatment method in our hospital. All patients who were operated in Korea Cancer Center Hospital from 1987 due to lung cancer were followed up and evaluated. And we have been studied the effect of postoperative adjuvant therapy in stage I, II, IIIA non-small cell lung cancer patients from 1989 with the phase three study form. Follow-up examinations were scheduled in these patients and interim analysis was made. Also we have been studied the effect of chemo-therapeutic agents in small cell lung cancer patients from 1997 with the phase two study form. We evaluated the results of this study. Some important results of this study were as follows. 1. The new therapeutic method (surgery + MVP chemotherapy) was superior to the standard therapeutic one in stage I Non-small cell lung cancer patients. So, we have to change the standard method of treatment in stage I NSCLC. 2. Also, this new therapeutic method made a good result in stage II NSCLC patients. And this result was reported in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 3. However, this new therapeutic method was not superior to the standard treatment method (surgery only) in stage IIIA NSCLC patients. So, we must develop new chemo-therapeutic agents in the future for advanced NSCLC patients. 4. In the results of the randomized phase II studies about small cell lung cancer, there was no difference in survival between Etoposide + Carboplatin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin group and Etoposide + Carboplatin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin + Tamoxifen group in both the limited and extended types of small cell lung cancer patients.

  18. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  19. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  20. Medical Students' Development of Ethical Judgment - Exploring the Learners' Perspectives using a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Jazmati, Danny; Jung, Ole; Schulz, Christian; Schnell, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary healthcare requires physicians to have well developed ethical judgment skills in addition to excellent clinical skills. However, no consensus has been reached on how to best teach ethical judgment skills during medical training. Previous studies revealed inconclusive results and applied varying theoretical frameworks. To date, the students' perspectives on their development in ethical judgment has received less attention. Better insights in the learners' experiences can help to improve educational interventions in medical ethics. Methods: A vignette featuring a challenging case with opposing views between a patient's parents and a physician followed by a questionnaire was presented to a cohort of medical students at a German medical school at three points in time during their medical training (Year 1, 2 and 5). The questionnaire included closed and open-ended questions addressing the participant's preferred, hypothetical actions, their reasoning as well as the resources informing their reasoning. Content analysis was used for qualitative data; frequencies and percentages were used to describe quantitative findings. Results: The response rate remained stable (28%) over the study period. Participants' responses changed overtime. Accepting parents' autonomy in the decision-making process was the majority standpoint of students in year 1 and 2 and became less often cited in year 5 (Year 1/2/5: 68/67/48%). On the contrary, not readily following the parents' decision for medical reasons was a minority standpoint in year 1 and became more prevalent over time (year 1/2/5: 12/17/42%). Judgments were only partly based on ethics training. Instead, participants drew on experiences from their clinical clerkships and their personal lives. Throughout the study, participants did not feel well-prepared to make a judgment in the case (Average 2.7 on a Likert-Scale; 1=very well prepared, 4=very poor). Conclusions: Over the course of their medical training, the

  1. Medical Students’ Development of Ethical Judgment – Exploring the Learners’ Perspectives using a mixed methods approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Jazmati, Danny; Jung, Ole; Schulz, Christian; Schnell, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary healthcare requires physicians to have well developed ethical judgment skills in addition to excellent clinical skills. However, no consensus has been reached on how to best teach ethical judgment skills during medical training. Previous studies revealed inconclusive results and applied varying theoretical frameworks. To date, the students’ perspectives on their development in ethical judgment has received less attention. Better insights in the learners’ experiences can help to improve educational interventions in medical ethics. Methods: A vignette featuring a challenging case with opposing views between a patient’s parents and a physician followed by a questionnaire was presented to a cohort of medical students at a German medical school at three points in time during their medical training (Year 1, 2 and 5). The questionnaire included closed and open-ended questions addressing the participant’s preferred, hypothetical actions, their reasoning as well as the resources informing their reasoning. Content analysis was used for qualitative data; frequencies and percentages were used to describe quantitative findings. Results: The response rate remained stable (28%) over the study period. Participants’ responses changed overtime. Accepting parents’ autonomy in the decision-making process was the majority standpoint of students in year 1 and 2 and became less often cited in year 5 (Year 1/2/5: 68/67/48%). On the contrary, not readily following the parents’ decision for medical reasons was a minority standpoint in year 1 and became more prevalent over time (year 1/2/5: 12/17/42%). Judgments were only partly based on ethics training. Instead, participants drew on experiences from their clinical clerkships and their personal lives. Throughout the study, participants did not feel well-prepared to make a judgment in the case (Average 2.7 on a Likert-Scale; 1=very well prepared, 4=very poor). Conclusions: Over the course of their medical

  2. Palliative care in advanced dementia; A mixed methods approach for the development of a complex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tookman Adrian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in improving the quality of care that patients with advanced dementia receive when they are dying. Our understanding of the palliative care needs of these patients and the natural history of advanced disease is limited. Many people with advanced dementia have unplanned emergency admissions to the acute hospital; this is a critical event: half will die within 6 months. These patients have complex needs but often lack capacity to express their wishes. Often carers are expected to make decisions. Advance care planning discussions are rarely performed, despite potential benefits such more consistent supportive healthcare, a reduction in emergency admissions to the acute hospital and better resolution of carer bereavement. Design/Methods We have used the MRC complex interventions framework, a "bottom-up" methodology, to develop an intervention for patients with advanced dementia and their carers aiming to 1 define end of life care needs for both patients and carers, 2 pilot a palliative care intervention and 3 produce a framework for advance care planning for patients. The results of qualitative phase 1 work, which involved interviews with carers, hospital and primary care staff from a range of disciplines, have been used to identify key barriers and challenges. For the exploratory trial, 40 patients will be recruited to each of the control and intervention groups. The intervention will be delivered by a nurse specialist. We shall investigate and develop methodology for a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. For example we shall explore the feasibility of randomisation, how best to optimise recruitment, decide on appropriate outcomes and obtain data for power calculations. We will evaluate whether the intervention is pragmatic, feasible and deliverable on acute hospital wards and test model fidelity and its acceptability to carers, patients and staff. Discussion Results of qualitative phase 1 work

  3. Analysis of Scientific and Methodical Approaches to Portfolio Investment as a Tool of Financial Provision of Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Daryna V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses scientific and methodical approaches to portfolio investment. It develops recommendations on specification of the categorical apparatus of portfolio investment in the context of differentiation of strategic (direct and portfolio investments as alternative approaches to the conduct of investment activity. It identifies the composition and functions of objects and subjects of portfolio investment under conditions of globalisation of the world financial markets. It studies main postulates of the portfolio theory and justifies a necessity of identification of the place, role and functions of subjects of portfolio investment in them for ensuring sustainable development of the economy. It offers to specify, as one of the ways of further development of portfolio theories, a separate direction in the financial provision of economy with consideration of ecologic and social components – socio responsible investment.

  4. Quality by Design (QbD approach to develop HPLC method for eberconazole nitrate: Application oxidative and photolytic degradation kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vamsi Krishna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of eberconazole nitrate (EBZ was investigated using a stability indicating HPLC method. Quality by Design (QbD approach was used to facilitate method development. EBZ was exposed to different stress conditions, including hydrolytic (acid, base, neutral, oxidative, thermal and photolytic. Relevant degradation was found to take place in all the conditions. The degradation of EBZ followed (pseudo first-order kinetics under experimental conditions. The kinetic parameters (rate constant, t1/2, and t90 of the degradation of EBZ were calculated.

  5. THE THEORETICAL AND METHODICAL APPROACH TO AN ASSESSMENT OF A LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE IN CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Shved

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is theoretical, methodical and practical aspects of enterprise development in conditions of globalization. The purpose of this research is to provide theoretical and methodical approach to an assessment of a level of development of the enterprise, which is based on the relationship between the factors and influence, illustrating the effect of the internal and external environment of enterprises functioning, and indicates the level of development of the enterprise. Methodology. Theoretical basis of the study was the examination and rethinking of the main achievements of world and domestic science on the development of enterprises. To achieve the objectives of the research following methods were used: systemic and structural analysis for the formation of methodical approaches to the selection of the factors, influencing the development of enterprises; abstract and logical – for the formulation of conclusions and proposals; the method of valuation and expert assessments to the implementation of the proposed theoretical and methodical approach to an assessment of a level of development of the enterprise in conditions of globalization. Results of the research is the proposed theoretical and methodical to an assessment of a level of development of the enterprise in conditions of globalization, which is associated with the idea of development of the enterprise as a system with inputs–factors, influencing on the development , and outputs – indicators of the level of enterprise development within these factors. So, the chosen factors – resources, financial-economic activity, innovation and investment activities, competition, government influence, and foreign trade. Indicators that express these factors, are capital productivity, labour productivity, material efficiency within the first factor; the profitability of the activity, the coefficient of current assets, the total liquidity coefficient, financial stability

  6. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention : methods, progress and international development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  7. Using a mixed methods approach to explore strategies, metacognitive awareness and the effects of task design on listening development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne O’Bryan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is increasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the four skills (Vandergrift, 2007. Based on research in listening comprehension, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to shed light on the development of four intermediate English as a second language (ESL students’ listening strategy use and awareness over the course of one semester. Specifically, we investigate the complexities of students’ listening strategy use by level of language proficiency (low-intermediate to high-intermediate, the impact of repetition on listening strategies and the development of students’ metacognitive awareness.

  8. Exploring the effects of shale gas development on natural gas markets : A multi-method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorlag, R.; Auping, W.L.; Pruyt, E.

    2014-01-01

    Now that conventional gas resources are rapidly declining in many industrialised regions, national governments are considering the exploration and production of unconventional resources, with shale gas in particular. Large-scale development of these resources could significantly lower import

  9. Development of new therapeutic methods of lung cancer through team approach study (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zo, Jae Ill; Park, Jong Ho; Baek, Hee Jong

    1999-12-01

    The aims of this study were to make the lung cancer clinics in Korea Cancer Center Hospital, and to establish new therapeutic methods of lung cancer for increasing the cure rate and survival rate of patients. Also another purpose of this study was to establish a common treatment method in our hospital. All patients who were operated in Korea Cancer Center Hospital from 1987 due to lung cancer were followed up and evaluated. And we have been studied the effect of postoperative adjuvant therapy in stage 1, 2, 3A non-small cell lung cancer patients from 1989 with the phase three study form. Follow-up examinations were scheduled in these patients and interim analysis was made. Also we have been studied the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in small cell lung cancer patients from 1997 with the phase two study form. We evaluated the results of this study

  10. A REVIEW: AN APPROACH TOWARDS THE ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF NEWER DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Kirtimaya Mishra*, Dr. K. Balamurugan1, Dr. R. Suresh1

    2017-01-01

    In this present scenario for treating various diseases several new drugs were invented. Before launching to the market these drugs must undergo analytical validation process. In this review some of analytical techniques such as ultraviolet/ visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and chromatographic methods (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography), LC-MS, GC-MS, SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION, NMR, MASS Spectrophotometry LC/MS/MS LC/UV X-ray crystallo...

  11. Analysis of the Difficulties and Improvement Method on Introduction of PBL Approach in Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Takasei; Sessa, Salvatore

    In the field of international cooperation, it is increasing to introduce Japanese engineering educational model in the developing country to improve the quality of education and research activity. A naive implementation of such model in different cultures and educational systems may lead to several problems. In this paper, we evaluated the Project Based Learning (PBL) class, developed at Waseda University in Japan, and employed to the Egyptian education context at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) . We found difficulties such as : non-homogeneous student’ s background, disconnection with the student’ s research, weak learning style adaptation, and irregular course conduction. To solve these difficulties at E-JUST, we proposed : the groupware introduction, project theme choice based on student’ s motivation, and curriculum modification.

  12. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Developing and validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: a mixed methods approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Ng

    Full Text Available This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R. Qualitative free listing (n = 74 and key informant interviews (n = 47 identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research.

  14. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-05

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. APPROACHES TO DETERMINING THE STAGES OF THE LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS DEVELOPMENT IN WESTERN UKRAINE (1867-1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Labinska, Bogdana

    2016-01-01

    The article under discussion focuses on scientific works, dedicated to the development of language teaching methods. We have analysed the criteria for singling out the stages of contemporary scholars’ methods of development and created our own criteria regarding language teaching methods in Western Ukraine (1867-1939). According to the selected criteria, we have determined the basic stages of development methods on a particular territory, in a specific chronological framework: stage I – 1867–...

  16. The development of a consensus definition for healthcare improvement science (HIS) in seven European countries: A consensus methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Rooney, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    There is a limited body of research in the field of healthcare improvement science (HIS). Quality improvement and 'change making' should become an intrinsic part of everyone's job, every day in all parts of the healthcare system. The lack of theoretical grounding may partly explain the minimal transfer of health research into health policy. This article seeks to present the development of the definition for healthcare improvement science. A consensus method approach was adopted with a two-stage Delphi process, expert panel and consensus group techniques. A total of 18 participants were involved in the expert panel and consensus group, and 153 answers were analysed as a part of the Delphi survey. Participants were researchers, educators and healthcare professionals from Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Italy, England, Poland, and Romania. A high level of consensus was achieved for the broad definition in the 2nd Delphi iteration (86%). The final definition was agreed on by the consensus group: 'Healthcare improvement science is the generation of knowledge to cultivate change and deliver person-centred care that is safe, effective, efficient, equitable and timely. It improves patient outcomes, health system performance and population health.' The process of developing a consensus definition revealed different understandings of healthcare improvement science between the participants. Having a shared consensus definition of healthcare improvement science is an important step forward, bringing about a common understanding in order to advance the professional education and practice of healthcare improvement science.

  17. Methodical approach is to forming of strategy of development of railway tourism on the railways of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Dergousova, A.

    2011-01-01

    A methodical hike is in-process considered to forming strategists of development of railway tourism on the railways of Ukraine. The necessity of development of additional service business is shown on the ferrous road. The necessity of development of the stages of organization and development of railway tourism is represented for Ukraine.

  18. EURL ECVAM Status Report on the Development, Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods and Approaches (2016)

    OpenAIRE

    ZUANG Valerie; ASTURIOL BOFILL DAVID; VIEGAS BARROSO JOAO FILIPE; BELZ SUSANNE; BERGGREN ELISABET; BERNASCONI Camilla; BOPP Stephanie; BOSTROEM Ann-Charlotte; BOUHIFD Mounir; CASATI Silvia; COECKE Sandra; COLE Thomas; CORVI Raffaella; HALDER MARIA ELISABETH; HOLLEY TRACEY

    2016-01-01

    Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing is anchored in EU legislation. Alternative non-animal approaches facilitate a shift away from animal testing. Cell-based methods and computational technologies are integrated to translate molecular mechanistic understanding of toxicity into safety testing strategies.

  19. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  20. System Approach in RIPRAN Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Lacko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes reasons, principles for design, structure and using of RIPRAN method (Risk Project Analysis for risk project analysis. The RIPRAN method is used to identify, quantify risks, and design proposals that reduce risk in the project to increase the likelihood of successful completion of the project. The method uses a system and process approach to risk analysis and respects international ISO standards that recommend how to perform a high‑quality risk analysis of the project. The method has been incorporated into the national standard of the Czech Republic among the recommended knowledge for certified project managers. The third version of the method is available. The method is included in teaching at many universities in the Czech Republic, trained by a number of training firms and used by firms to analyse the risks of corporate projects or by various risk analysis institutions for projects funded by the EU structural funds. The aim of the article is to inform about the RIPRAN method. At the same time, the paper points out that the method describes the procedure for risk analysis of the project and presents the benefits of RIPRAN application. The description of a system approach application when designing the RIPRAN method serves as an example of a system approach to risk engineering.

  1. Methodical approaches to providing sustainable development of the transport industry management system based on self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyantseva, Oksana; Panenkov, Andrey; Safonova, Nataliya

    2017-10-01

    Current conditions of the cognitive economy formation demand to take into account the leading role of information, knowledge and human capital in the development of the transport industry management system. The article substantiates the conceptual approach to the self-organization of a management system on the basis of innovative changes. Human capital is the key aspect of self-organization, so the directions of improving the workforce quality are justified. Basing on the information-innovative genesis of the process of self-organization, the authors justified the necessity of preventing asymmetric information. For this pupose the actions against the resistance to innovations were proposed. The implementation of certain measures contributes to the effective development of the transport management system.

  2. Green chromatographic fingerprinting: an environmentally friendly approach for the development of separation methods for fingerprinting complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Cristiano Soleo; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Andrade, André Marques; Hilder, Emily Frances; Cavalheiro, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    A chromatographic fingerprint is a comprehensive method that reveals the distinctive pattern of peaks across the chromatogram for a given sample. It is considered an effective strategy to assess the identity and quality of herbal materials, as well as for the control of the quality of their derived products. HPLC is the most employed technique for these purposes and it is used routinely for quality control in industry. Hence, its impact on the environment should not be neglected. This work provides a rational and generic procedure to qualitatively fingerprint complex matrices. Resource- and time-saving experimental designs were selected; an alternative safer organic solvent was tested and a time-saving and innovative response entitled the green chromatographic fingerprinting response was developed and employed. This procedure was applied in the development of chromatographic fingerprints for extracts of Bauhinia forficata and Casearia sylvestris. Moreover, the response proposed here can be combined with a complementary metric available in the literature to compare methods using different solvents. According to this, the chromatographic fingerprints developed here using ethanol as the organic solvent provided a performance better than that of reference methods in which more harmful acetonitrile or methanol were employed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Developing Evidence for Public Health Policy and Practice: The Implementation of a Knowledge Translation Approach in a Staged, Multi-Methods Study in England, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Cattan, Mima

    2014-01-01

    Effective knowledge translation processes are critical for the development of evidence-based public health policy and practice. This paper reports on the design and implementation of an innovative approach to knowledge translation within a mixed methods study on lay involvement in public health programme delivery. The study design drew on…

  4. Methodical Approaches To Analysis And Forecasting Of Development Fuel And Energy Complex And Gas Industry In The Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Andreyevich Tsybatov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel and energy complex (FEC is one of the main elements of the economy of any territory over which intertwine the interests of all economic entities. To ensure economic growth of the region should ensure that internal balance of energy resources, which should be developed with account of regional specifics of economic growth and energy security. The study examined the status of this equilibrium, indicating fuel and energy balance of the region (TEB. The aim of the research is the development of the fuel and energy balance, which will allow to determine exactly how many and what resources are not enough to ensure the regional development strategy and what resources need to be brought in. In the energy balances as the focus of displays all issues of regional development, so thermopile is necessary as a mechanism of analysis of current issues, economic development, and in the forward-looking version — as a tool future vision for the fuel and energy complex, energy threats and ways of overcoming them. The variety of relationships in the energy sector with other sectors and aspects of society lead to the fact that the development of the fuel and energy balance of the region have to go beyond the actual energy sector, involving the analysis of other sectors of economy, as well as systems such as banking, budgetary, legislative, tax. Due to the complexity of the discussed problems, the obvious is the need to develop appropriate forecast-analytical system, allowing regional authorities to implement evidence-based predictions of the consequences of management decisions. Multivariant scenario study on development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry, to use the methods of project-based management, harmonized application of state regulation of strategic and market mechanisms on the operational directions of development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry in the economy of the region.

  5. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  6. Development of modern approach to absorbed dose assessment in radionuclide therapy, based on Monte Carlo method simulation of patient scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Y. V.; Klimanov, V. A.; Narkevich, B. Ya

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems of modern radionuclide therapy (RNT) is control of the absorbed dose in pathological volume. This research presents new approach based on estimation of radiopharmaceutical (RP) accumulated activity value in tumor volume, based on planar scintigraphic images of the patient and calculated radiation transport using Monte Carlo method, including absorption and scattering in biological tissues of the patient, and elements of gamma camera itself. In our research, to obtain the data, we performed modeling scintigraphy of the vial with administered to the patient activity of RP in gamma camera, the vial was placed at the certain distance from the collimator, and the similar study was performed in identical geometry, with the same values of activity of radiopharmaceuticals in the pathological target in the body of the patient. For correct calculation results, adapted Fisher-Snyder human phantom was simulated in MCNP program. In the context of our technique, calculations were performed for different sizes of pathological targets and various tumors deeps inside patient’s body, using radiopharmaceuticals based on a mixed β-γ-radiating (131I, 177Lu), and clear β- emitting (89Sr, 90Y) therapeutic radionuclides. Presented method can be used for adequate implementing in clinical practice estimation of absorbed doses in the regions of interest on the basis of planar scintigraphy of the patient with sufficient accuracy.

  7. Methodical approaches in town-planning design of street circuits in the conditions of sustainable development of the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Nina; Ganzha, Olga

    2017-10-01

    In article the technique of adoption of the design decision on placement of eco-friendly routes for the purpose of use is proved by steady transport, the technique of the choice of the optimal solution of development of local bicycle network of routes is offered and developed structural model of the choice of options of placement of cycle routes in system of street road system and recreational zones in the conditions of sustainable development of the city. The theoretical and practical experience of construction of cycle routes in Russia and abroad is generalized; the method of the analysis of hierarchies which allows to carry out the choice of the design decision taking into account different groups of factors is used; the structural model at the choice of options of placement of bicycle tracks on the example of linear structure of the coastal city is developed; experimental design in the territory of streets of Volgograd is executed. The offered structural model is used in development of design offers of construction of bicycle tracks for the streets of Volgograd providing to inhabitants and city visitors more attractive, healthy and cheap option of movement to place of work, training, rest and entertainments.

  8. New Approach for Differentiating Sessile and Pedunculate Oak: Development of a LC-HRMS Method To Quantitate Triterpenoids in Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Axel; Prida, Andréi; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-01-27

    Oak aging is a crucial step in winemaking during which the organoleptic properties of wine are modified. Various parameters affect the chemical composition of oak wood including botanical origin, which has been previously shown to be a determinant factor. This study focused on the development of a LC-HRMS method to assay four recently discovered taste-active triterpenes (three sweet and one bitter). The method was applied to evaluate the effect of oak species (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) on the concentration of these molecules in wood. The results showed that sessile oak was richer in sweet triterpenes and poorer in the bitter one than pedunculate oak, with high interindividual variations within species. Furthermore, a triterpenoid index was calculated to reveal the triterpenoid composition of oak wood. This index appears to be a promising tool for the unambiguous discrimination of oak species and could offer new insights into oak wood selection by coopers and the monitoring of oak aging by winemakers.

  9. The Implementation of Sustainable Approaches in the Architectural Design Studio Developing Architectural Designs Using the Solar Envelope Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Canan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching students the notion of sustainability during their architectural education is of great importance. The architectural design studio course is the most important environment in which theory and practice can be brought together. In this study, the development of architectural design by using the solar envelope method–which can be considered within the scope of sustainable architectur–was examined in the architectural design studio course in the department of architecture in our university. In the design studio, students had the opportunity to directly observe the impact and use of scientific information that is often difficult to obtain and access. The advantages and disadvantages that appear during the application of this mentioned method was identified based on the observations that were made, and feedback was provided by the students. This method helped the students in conceiving architectural projects in the context of sustainability in a more applied way rather than as a superficial and solely theoretic concept. Through this method, students have gained additional sensitivity regarding solar architecture and perceived its effect on form and space. According to the feedback obtained from students, the most important disadvantage was design freedom. Students found it stringent to be bound to make their designs within very well established boundaries from the early stages. The authors think that the limitations increased creativity and allowed interesting and unusual solutions. The projects were all formed on the basis of the rhythm of nature, which attached more value and meaning to architecture.

  10. Development and validation of an HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride using a DOE approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines simultaneous multiple response optimization using Derringer's desirability function for the development of an HPTLC method to detect Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. Central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the chromatographic conditions for HPTLC. The independent variables used for the optimization were the n-butanol content in the mobile phase, the chamber saturation time and the distance travelled. HPTLC separation was performed on aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (9:2:0.5% v/v/v as the mobile phase. Quantification was achieved based on a densitometric analysis of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride over the concentration range of 40–240 ng/band and 300–1800 ng/band, respectively, at 288 nm. The method yielded compact and well-resolved bands at Rf of 0.77 ± 0.02 and 0.34 ± 0.02 for Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride, respectively. The linear regression analysis for the calibration plots produced r2 = 0.9958 and r2 = 0.9989 for Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride, respectively. The precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The factors evaluated in the robustness test were determined to have an insignificant effect on the selected responses. The results indicate that the method is suitable for the routine quality control testing of marketed tablet formulations.

  11. Development of Fabrication Methods of Filler/Polymer Nanocomposites: With Focus on Simple Melt-Compounding-Based Approach without Surface Modification of Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Tanahashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods.

  12. Development of Fabrication Methods of Filler/Polymer Nanocomposites: With Focus on Simple Melt-Compounding-Based Approach without Surface Modification of Nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites) by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods.

  13. Development of a new certified reference material of diosgenin using mass balance approach and Coulometric titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ningbo; Zhang, Baoxi; Hu, Fan; Du, Hui; Du, Guanhua; Gao, Zhaolin; Lu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) can be used as a valuable tool to validate the trueness of measurement methods and to establish metrological traceability of analytical results. Diosgenin has been selected as a candidate reference material. Characterization of the material relied on two different methods, mass balance method and Coulometric titration method (CT). The certified value of diosgenin CRM is 99.80% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.37% (k=2). The new CRM of diosgenin can be used to validate analytical methods, improve the accuracy of measurement data and control the quality of diosgenin in relevant pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss t...

  15. GEM simulation methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.; Veenhof, R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of methods used in the simulation of processes in gas electron multipliers (GEMs) and in the accurate calculation of detector characteristics is presented. Such detector characteristics as effective gas gain, transparency, charge collection and losses have been calculated and optimized for a number of GEM geometries and compared with experiment. A method and a new special program for calculations of detector macro-characteristics such as signal response in a real detector readout structure, and spatial and time resolution of detectors have been developed and used for detector optimization. A detailed development of signal induction on readout electrodes and electronics characteristics are included in the new program. A method for the simulation of charging-up effects in GEM detectors is described. All methods show good agreement with experiment

  16. A Design Science Research Methodology for Developing a Computer-Aided Assessment Approach Using Method Marking Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genemo, Hussein; Miah, Shah Jahan; McAndrew, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Assessment has been defined as an authentic method that plays an important role in evaluating students' learning attitude in acquiring lifelong knowledge. Traditional methods of assessment including the Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA) for mathematics show limited ability to assess students' full work unless multi-step questions are sub-divided…

  17. Systematic errors in detecting biased agonism: Analysis of current methods and development of a new model-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, H Ongun; Ambrosio, Caterina; Uğur, Özlem; Madaras Koncz, Erzsebet; Grò, Maria Cristina; Vezzi, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-03-14

    Discovering biased agonists requires a method that can reliably distinguish the bias in signalling due to unbalanced activation of diverse transduction proteins from that of differential amplification inherent to the system being studied, which invariably results from the non-linear nature of biological signalling networks and their measurement. We have systematically compared the performance of seven methods of bias diagnostics, all of which are based on the analysis of concentration-response curves of ligands according to classical receptor theory. We computed bias factors for a number of β-adrenergic agonists by comparing BRET assays of receptor-transducer interactions with Gs, Gi and arrestin. Using the same ligands, we also compared responses at signalling steps originated from the same receptor-transducer interaction, among which no biased efficacy is theoretically possible. In either case, we found a high level of false positive results and a general lack of correlation among methods. Altogether this analysis shows that all tested methods, including some of the most widely used in the literature, fail to distinguish true ligand bias from "system bias" with confidence. We also propose two novel semi quantitative methods of bias diagnostics that appear to be more robust and reliable than currently available strategies.

  18. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  19. Predicting Cancer Mortality: Developing a New Cancer Care Variable Using Mixed Methods and the Quasi-Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickmund, Susan L; Yang, Suzanne; Mulvey, Edward P; Bost, James E; Shinkunas, Laura A; LaBrecque, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the value of using a variable derived from qualitative analysis in subsequent quantitative analyses. Data Sources/Study Setting. Mixed methods data were combined with 10-year mortality outcomes. Participants with cancer were recruited from services at a large teaching hospital, and mortality data were from the Social Security Death Index. Study Design. An observational concurrent or convergent mixed methods design was used to collect demographics and structured ratings along with qualitative data from 909 cancer patients at baseline. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Coding rules for qualitative data were defined for open-ended responses from cancer participants speaking about their view of self, and a variable was numerically coded for each case. Mortality outcomes were matched to baseline data, including the view of self variable. Principal Findings. Individuals with an improved view of self had a significantly lower mortality rate than those for whom it was worse or unchanged, even when adjusting for age, gender, and cancer stage. Conclusions. Statistical analysis of qualitative data is feasible and can identify new predictors with health services' implications associated with cancer mortality. Future studies should consider the value of testing coded qualitative variables in relation with key health care outcomes. PMID:24138682

  20. Developing a function impairment measure for children affected by political violence: a mixed methods approach in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Susanty, D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Practitioners in political violence-affected settings would benefit from rating scales that assess child function impairment in a reliable and valid manner when designing and evaluating interventions. We developed a procedure to construct child function impairment rating scales using

  1. A mixed-methods qualitative research study to develop a complex intervention for weight loss and anorexia in advanced cancer: the Family Approach to Weight and Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Jane B; Richardson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Worldwide, most people with incurable cancer experience weight loss and anorexia. These symptoms can distress patients and their family caregivers. Interventions that take account of the relationship between patient and family caregiver may improve outcomes for both members of this dyad. To report an example of process for the development of a complex intervention, the Family Approach to Weight and Eating. A mixed-methods process informed by the Medical Research Council's guidelines for developing a complex intervention was used to develop a psychosocial intervention for patients with incurable cancer and weight loss or poor appetite and their family caregivers and then to test for its feasibility, acceptability and perceived benefit. South of England in 2010/2011. A purposive sample of patient-family caregiver dyads under the care of a specialist community palliative care team. Patient participants had incurable cancer and were cachectic or at risk of cachexia. The patient-family caregiver dyads comprised seven female and nine male patients (age range 41-84 years) and their carers. The emergent form of the Family Approach to Weight and Eating was found to aid family talk about food, feelings and reciprocity, without adverse consequences. Of the dyads, 15 reported benefits of the Family Approach to Weight and Eating. Three patient participants spoke of the approach evoking sadness and three carers of guilt. The Family Approach to Weight and Eating should now be tested in a pilot trial and the effect on emotional health outcomes in patients and their family caregivers evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  3. A Mixed-Methods Approach to the Development, Refinement, and Pilot Testing of Social Networks for Improving Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Fahim, Arjang; Freix, Andrew; Wilcox, Sara; Davis, Rachel E; Huhns, Michael; Valafar, Homayoun

    2016-02-12

    Mobile health (mHealth) has shown promise as a way to deliver weight loss interventions, including connecting users for social support. To develop, refine, and pilot test the Social Pounds Off Digitally (POD) Android app for personalized health monitoring and interaction. Adults who were overweight and obese with Android smartphones (BMI 25-49.9 kg/m(2); N=9) were recruited for a 2-month weight loss pilot intervention and iterative usability testing of the Social POD app. The app prompted participants via notification to track daily weight, diet, and physical activity behaviors. Participants received the content of the behavioral weight loss intervention via podcast. In order to re-engage infrequent users (did not use the app within the previous 48 hours), the app prompted frequent users to select 1 of 3 messages to send to infrequent users targeting the behavioral theory constructs social support, self-efficacy, or negative outcome expectations. Body weight, dietary intake (2 24-hr recalls), and reported calories expended during physical activity were assessed at baseline and 2 months. All participants attended 1 of 2 focus groups to provide feedback on use of the app. Participants lost a mean of 0.94 kg (SD 2.22, P=.24) and consumed significantly fewer kcals postintervention (1570 kcal/day, SD 508) as compared to baseline (2384 kcal/day, SD 993, P=.01). Participants reported expending a mean of 171 kcal/day (SD 153) during intentional physical activity following the intervention as compared to 138 kcal/day (SD 139) at baseline, yet this was not a statistically significant difference (P=.57). There was not a statistically significant correlation found between total app entries and percent weight loss over the course of the intervention (r=.49, P=.19). Mean number of app entries was 77.2 (SD 73.8) per person with a range of 0 to 219. Messages targeting social support were selected most often (32/68, 47%), followed by self-efficacy (28/68, 41%), and negative outcome

  4. Development of partitioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Dojiri, Shigeru; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1988-10-01

    The literature survey was carried out on the amount of natural resources, behaviors in reprocessing process and in separation and recovery methods of the platinum group elements and technetium which are contained in spent fuel. The essential results are described below. (1) The platinum group elements, which are contained in spent fuel, are quantitatively limited, compared with total demand for them in Japan. And estimated separation and recovery cost is rather high. In spite of that, development of these techniques is considered to be very important because the supply of these elements is almost from foreign resources in Japan. (2) For recovery of these elements, studies of recovery from undisolved residue and from high level liquid waste (HLLW) also seem to be required. (3) As separation and recovery methods, following techniques are considered to be effective; lead extraction, liquid metal extraction, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, adsorption, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis or their combination. (4) But each of these methods has both advantages and disadvantages. So development of such processes largely depends on future works. (author) 94 refs

  5. Taking a community-based participatory research approach in the development of methods to measure a community health worker community advocacy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maia; Sabo, Samantha J; Gomez, Sofia; Piper, Rosalinda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Schachter, Ken A; Carvajal, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Public health advocacy is by necessity responsive to shifting sociopolitical climates, and thus a challenge of advocacy research is that the intervention must by definition be adaptive. Moving beyond the classification of advocacy efforts to measurable indicators and outcomes of policy, therefore, requires a dynamic research approach. The purposes of this article are to (1) describe use of the CBPR approach in the development and measurement of a community health worker (CHW) intervention designed to engage community members in public health advocacy and (2) provide a model for application of this approach in advocacy interventions addressing community-level systems and environmental change. The Kingdon three streams model of policy change provided a theoretical framework for the intervention. Research and community partners collaboratively identified and documented intervention data. We describe five research methods used to monitor and measure CHW advocacy activities that both emerged from and influenced intervention activities. Encounter forms provided a longitudinal perspective of how CHWs engaged in advocacy activities in the three streams. Strategy maps defined desired advocacy outcomes and health benefits. Technical assistance notes identified and documented intermediate outcomes. Focus group and interview data reflected CHW efforts to engage community members in advocacy and the development of community leaders. APPLICATION OF LESSONS LEARNED: We provide a model for application of key principles of CPBR that are vital to effectively capturing the overarching and nuanced aspects of public health advocacy work in dynamic political and organizational environments.

  6. Implementation of QbD Approach to the Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Propafenone Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika L. Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were developed according to Quality by Design (QbD approach as per ICH Q8(R2 guidelines for estimation of propafenone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. QbD approach was carried out by varying various parameters and these variable parameters were designed into Ishikawa diagram. The critical parameters were determined by using principal component analysis as well as by observation. Estimated critical parameters in HPTLC method include solvent methanol, mode of detection absorbance, precoated aluminium backed TLC plate (10 cm 10 cm, wavelength: 250 nm, saturation time: 20 min, band length: 8 mm, solvent front: 70 mm, volume of mobile phase: 5 mL, type of chamber: 10 cm 10 cm, scanning time: 10 min, and mobile phase methanol : ethyl acetate : triethylamine (1.5 : 3.5 : 0.4 v/v/v. Estimated critical parameters in zero order spectrophotometric method were solvent methanol, sample preparation tablet, wavelength: 247.4 nm, slit width: 1.0, scan speed medium, and sampling interval: 0.2, and for first order derivative spectrophotometric method it was scaling factor: 5 and delta lambda 4. The above methods were validated according to ICH Q2(R1 guidelines. Proposed methods can be used for routine analysis of propafenone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form as they were found to be robust and specific.

  7. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. THE SUBSTANTIATION OF THE METHODICAL APPROACH FOR ESTIMATION OF DYNAMICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES OF OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY USING (THE GERMAN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gorlov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the introduction of renewable energy technologies (RES occurs against the backdrop of a developed hydrocarbon energy market, which raises the risk of seeing unreasonable decisions by investors. The development and use of various analytical tools can reduce such risks. Economic models based on calculations by dozens of experts of a number of macro- and micro-economic factors have been used to study the replacement of traditional energy technologies with already developed RES technologies. At the same time, simpler but more effective econometric methods are being developed, based on the data of real projects and allowing to conduct research for the recently launched RES technologies. The main purpose of this article is to substantiate one of such methodologies used to asses growth dynamics of developing offshore wind energy based on the example of Germany – the leading country in the North Sea basin.Methods: many foreign and domestic authoritative organizations have developed a number of fairly complex models in order to study the economic substitution processes in fuel and energy complexes of different countries, calculate trends and forecasts in this area. Such models take into account findings of dozens of experts focusing on various macro and micro economic parameters and factors, including GDP, growth of employment, welfare, trade and many others. However, econometric methods based on the study of learning curves and calculations of the present value of LCOE electricity according to real energy projects tend to be simpler and effective tool used in order to estimates the recently developed RES technologies for which substantial volumes of data have not yet developed. This article considers substantiation of such methodical and mathematical approaches used to evaluate the dynamics of the development of offshore wind energy technologies using the model "Times model", modified by the author.Results: the feasibility analysis of using

  9. Using an innovative Quality-by-Design approach for development of a stability indicating UHPLC method for ebastine in the API and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander H; Molnár, Imre

    2013-05-05

    A stability-indicating ultra high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method has been developed for purity testing of ebastine and its pharmaceutical formulations. Successful chromatographic separation of the API from impurities was achieved on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18, 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size column with gradient elution of 10 mM acetate buffer pH 6.2 and a mixture of acetonitrile/2-propanol (1:1) as the mobile phase. Incorporating Quality by Design (QbD) principles to the method development approach by using the chromatography modeling software DryLab4 allows the visualization of a "Design Space", a region in which changes to method parameters will not significantly affect the results as defined in the ICH guideline Q8 (R2). A verification study demonstrated that the established model for Design Space is accurate with a relative error of prediction of only 0.6%. The method was fully validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision, and robustness in compliance to the ICH guideline Q2 (R1). The method was found to be linear in the concentration range from the quantification limit (LOQ) to 125% of the specification limit for ebastine and each of the impurities with correlation coefficients of not less than 0.999. The recovery rate was between 98.15 and 100.30% for each impurity. The repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD) were less than 3.2% for ebastine and each of the impurities. The robustness of the developed method was studied by varying the six parameters: gradient time, temperature, ternary composition of the eluent, flow rate and start and end concentration of the gradient at 3 levels (+1, 0, -1). The resulting 729 experiments were performed in silico from the previously constructed model for Design Space and showed that the required resolution of 2.0 can be reached in all experiments. To prove the stability-indicating performance of the method, forced degradation (acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic

  10. An integrated quality by design and mixture-process variable approach in the development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of almotriptan and its impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, S; Pasquini, B; Stocchero, M; Pinzauti, S; Furlanetto, S

    2014-04-25

    The development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the assay of almotriptan (ALM) and its main impurities using an integrated Quality by Design and mixture-process variable (MPV) approach is described. A scouting phase was initially carried out by evaluating different CE operative modes, including the addition of pseudostationary phases and additives to the background electrolyte, in order to approach the analytical target profile. This step made it possible to select normal polarity microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) as operative mode, which allowed a good selectivity to be achieved in a low analysis time. On the basis of a general Ishikawa diagram for MEEKC methods, a screening asymmetric matrix was applied in order to screen the effects of the process variables (PVs) voltage, temperature, buffer concentration and buffer pH, on critical quality attributes (CQAs), represented by critical separation values and analysis time. A response surface study was then carried out considering all the critical process parameters, including both the PVs and the mixture components (MCs) of the microemulsion (borate buffer, n-heptane as oil, sodium dodecyl sulphate/n-butanol as surfactant/cosurfactant). The values of PVs and MCs were simultaneously changed in a MPV study, making it possible to find significant interaction effects. The design space (DS) was defined as the multidimensional combination of PVs and MCs where the probability for the different considered CQAs to be acceptable was higher than a quality level π=90%. DS was identified by risk of failure maps, which were drawn on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations, and verification points spanning the design space were tested. Robustness testing of the method, performed by a D-optimal design, and system suitability criteria allowed a control strategy to be designed. The optimized method was validated following ICH Guideline Q2(R1) and was applied to a real sample of ALM coated tablets

  11. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.

  12. Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method based on a core-shell column approach for the rapid determination of multiclass polyphenols in grape pomaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Antoniolli, Andrea; Bottini, Rubén

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and economically affordable reverse-phase chromatographic approach based on a core-shell column with high-performance liquid chromatography multi-wavelength detector (HPLC-MWD) is proposed for the quantification and quality control of multiclass polyphenols (PPs). The separation of 20 relevant polyphenols from grape pomace extracts (GPEs) was achieved in less than 12 min by using a Kinetex C18 column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 2.6 μm) with a gradient system of ultrapure water (0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile, a temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The maximum backpressure reached was 327 bar, meaning the developed method is adequate for standard HPLC instruments. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the determination of PPs in GPEs of different red grape varieties. Cabernet Sauvignon GPE showed the highest content of studied PPs (9804.2 μg g(-1)GPE) followed by Bonarda GPE (7302.0 μg g(-1)GPE). Besides the methodological development for a high throughput routine quality control of GPEs, this is the first report of PPs content for Bonarda and Aspirant Bouchet GPE, so the results add knowledge for these grape varieties cultivated in Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme-labeled Antigen Method: Development and Application of the Novel Approach for Identifying Plasma Cells Locally Producing Disease-specific Antibodies in Inflammatory Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory lesions of autoimmune and infectious diseases, plasma cells are frequently observed. Antigens recognized by antibodies produced by the plasma cells mostly remain unclear. A new technique identifying these corresponding antigens may give us a breakthrough for understanding the disease from a pathophysiological viewpoint, simply because the immunocytes are seen within the lesion. We have developed an enzyme-labeled antigen method for microscopic identification of the antigen recognized by specific antibodies locally produced in plasma cells in inflammatory lesions. Firstly, target biotinylated antigens were constructed by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system or through chemical biotinylation. Next, proteins reactive to antibodies in tissue extracts were screened and antibody titers were evaluated by the AlphaScreen method. Finally, with the enzyme-labeled antigen method using the biotinylated antigens as probes, plasma cells producing specific antibodies were microscopically localized in fixed frozen sections. Our novel approach visualized tissue plasma cells that produced 1) autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, 2) antibodies against major antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis or radicular cyst, and 3) antibodies against a carbohydrate antigen, Strep A, of Streptococcus pyogenes in recurrent tonsillitis. Evaluation of local specific antibody responses expectedly contributes to clarifying previously unknown processes in inflammatory disorders

  14. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method for the analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in cheese and milk products: Development and validation using the total error approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Kahina; Féret, Aurélie; Pirotais, Yvette; Maris, Pierre; Abjean, Jean-Pierre; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique

    2017-09-29

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are both cationic surfactants and biocidal substances widely used as disinfectants in the food industry. A sensitive and reliable method for the analysis of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) and dialkyldimethylammonium chlorides (DDACs) has been developed that enables the simultaneous quantitative determination of ten quaternary ammonium residues in dairy products below the provisional maximum residue level (MRL), set at 0.1mgkg -1 . To the best of our knowledge, this method could be the one applicable to milk and to three major processed milk products selected, namely processed or hard pressed cheeses, and whole milk powder. The method comprises solvent extraction using a mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate, without any further clean-up. Analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS) operating in positive mode. A C18 analytical column was used for chromatographic separation, with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water both containing 0.3% formic acid; and methanol in the gradient mode. Five deuterated internal standards were added to obtain the most accurate quantification. Extraction recoveries were satisfactory and no matrix effects were observed. The method was validated using the total error approach in accordance with the NF V03-110 standard in order to characterize the trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision and analytical limits within the range of 5-150μgkg -1 for all matrices. These performance criteria, calculated by e.noval ® 3.0 software, were satisfactory and in full accordance with the proposed provisional MRL and with the recommendations in the European Union SANTE/11945/2015 regulatory guidelines. The limit of detection (LOD) was low (method is suitable for quantifying quaternary ammoniums in foodstuffs from dairy industries at residue levels, and could be used for biocide residues monitoring plans and to measure

  15. Using a Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach to develop and pilot a photo grid method to gain insights into early child health and development in a socio-economic disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Emma; Tyrrell-Smith, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of a Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach to develop a new research tool to involve members of the community in thinking about priorities for early child health and development in a deprived area of the UK. The CEnR approach involves researchers, professionals and members of the public working together during all stages of research and development.Researchers used a phased approach to the development of a Photo Grid tool including reviewing tools which could be used for community engagement, and testing the new tool based on feedback from workshops with local early years professionals and parents of young children.The Photo Grid tool is a flat square grid on which photo cards can be placed. Participants were asked to pace at the top of the grid the photos they considered most important for early child health and development, working down to the less important ones at the bottom. The findings showed that the resulting Photo Grid tool was a useful and successful method of engaging with the local community. The evidence for this is the high numbers of participants who completed a pilot study and who provided feedback on the method. By involving community members throughout the research process, it was possible to develop a method that would be acceptable to the local population, thus decreasing the likelihood of a lack of engagement. The success of the tool is therefore particularly encouraging as it engages "seldom heard voices," such as those with low literacy. The aim of this research was to consult with professionals and parents to develop a new research toolkit (Photo Grid), to understand community assets and priorities in relation to early child health and development in Blackpool, a socio-economic disadvantaged community. A Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach was used to consult with community members. This paper describes the process of using a CEnR approach in developing a Photo Grid toolkit. A phased CEnR approach

  16. Architecture Approach in System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Burita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical solution of architecture approach in system development. The software application is the system which optimizes the transport service. The first part of the paper defines the enterprise architecture, its parts and frameworks. Next is explained the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF, a tool for command and control systems development in military environment. The NAF is used for architecture design of the system for optimization of the transport service.

  17. Molecular approaches to contraceptive development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Molecular approaches for contraceptive development rely on the identification of genes and target validation. Some major genomic technologies for identification of gene targets are: expressed sequence tags (est), secreted protein analysis, differential display (Liang and Pardee. 1992), DNA micro array (Debouck and ...

  18. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis...

  19. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  20. A Non–Gas-Based Cryotherapy System for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Initial Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Paul, Proma; Bergman, Katie; Haas, Michael; Maza, Mauricio; Zevallos, Albert; Ossandon, Miguel; Garai, Jillian D; Winkler, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. Results: Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the

  1. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  2. Probe molecules (PrM) approach in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high throughput screening (HTS): in vivo discovery for developing in vitro target methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient and accurate adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high-throughput screening (HTS) methods use a systems biology based approach to computationally model in vitro cellular and molecular data for rapid chemical prioritization; however, not all HTS assays are grounded by rel...

  3. A Non-Gas-Based Cryotherapy System for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Initial Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Paul, Proma; Bergman, Katie; Haas, Michael; Maza, Mauricio; Zevallos, Albert; Ossandon, Miguel; Garai, Jillian D; Winkler, Jennifer L

    2017-03-24

    Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the adapted CryoPen achieved the target depth

  4. English language teaching methods and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    This handbook for English language students presents the major teaching methods and approaches that have been used in English language teaching and learning. It is divided into two parts. Part I gives an overview of first and second/foreign language acquisition theories, such as the behaviourist, the innatist, the cognitive, the interactionist and the creative-construction theory. Part II describes the English language teaching methods and approaches that have been popular at different times ...

  5. Cloud computing methods and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

  6. Intelligent automation of high-performance liquid chromatography method development by means of a real-time knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Ting-Po; Smith, Randy; Guhan, Sam; Taksen, Ken; Vavra, Mark; Myers, Douglas; Hearn, Milton T W

    2002-09-27

    We describe the development, attributes and capabilities of a novel type of artificial intelligence system, called LabExpert, for automation of HPLC method development. Unlike other computerised method development systems, LabExpert operates in real-time, using an artificial intelligence system and design engine to provide experimental decision outcomes relevant to the optimisation of complex separations as well as the control of the instrumentation, column selection, mobile phase choice and other experimental parameters. LabExpert manages every input parameter to a HPLC data station and evaluates each output parameter of the HPLC data station in real-time as part of its decision process. Based on a combination of inherent and user-defined evaluation criteria, the artificial intelligence system programs use a reasoning process, applying chromatographic principles and acquired experimental observations to iteratively provide a regime for a priori development of an acceptable HPLC separation method. Because remote monitoring and control are also functions of LabExpert, the system allows full-time utilisation of analytical instrumentation and associated laboratory resources. Based on our experience with LabExpert with a wide range of analyte mixtures, this artificial intelligence system consistently identified in a similar or faster time-frame preferred sets of analytical conditions that are equal in resolution, efficiency and throughput to those empirically determined by highly experienced chromatographic scientists. An illustrative example, demonstrating the potential of LabExpert in the process of method development of drug substances, is provided.

  7. Developments in Plasticity Approach to Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with plastic methods applied to shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Emphasis is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced and lightly shear reinforced beams and slabs. The model, which is an upper bound plasticity approach, takes...... into account the mechanism of crack formation followed by crack sliding. Comparisons between the model and test results are carried out. Good agreement has been found over a wide range of cases....

  8. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills

  9. Maintenance Approaches for Different Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungani, Dzivhuluwani Simon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various production methods are used in industry to manufacture or produce a variety of products needed by industry and consumers. The nature of a product determines which production method is most suitable or cost-effective. A continuous process is typically used to produce large volumes of liquids or gases. Batch processing is often used for small volumes, such as pharmaceutical products. This paper discusses a research project to determine the relationship between maintenance approaches and production methods. A survey was done to determine to what extent three maintenance approaches reliability-centred maintenance (RCM, total productive maintenance (TPM, and business-centred maintenance (BCM are used for three different processing methods (continuous process, batch process, and a production line method.

  10. Socratic Method as an Approach to Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Delić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the theoretical view of Socrates' life and his method in teaching. After the biographical facts of Socrates and his life, we explained the method he used in teaching and the two main types of his method, Classic and Modern Socratic Method. Since the core of Socrates' approach is the dialogue as a form of teaching we explained how exactly the Socratic dialogue goes. Besides that, we presented two examples of dialogues that Socrates led, Meno and Gorgias. Socratic circle is also one of the aspects that we presented in this paper. It is the form of seminars that is crucial for group discussions of a given theme. At the end, some disadvantages of the Method are explained. With this paper, the reader can get the conception of this approach of teaching and can use Socrates as an example of how successfull teacher leads his students towards the goal.

  11. Systematic Development and Validation of a Thin-Layer Densitometric Bioanalytical Method for Estimation of Mangiferin Employing Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Rao, Satish; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, O P; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims at the systematic development of a simple, rapid and highly sensitive densitometry-based thin-layer chromatographic method for the quantification of mangiferin in bioanalytical samples. Initially, the quality target method profile was defined and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) earmarked, namely, retardation factor (Rf), peak height, capacity factor, theoretical plates and separation number. Face-centered cubic design was selected for optimization of volume loaded and plate dimensions as the critical method parameters selected from screening studies employing D-optimal and Plackett-Burman design studies, followed by evaluating their effect on the CAAs. The mobile phase containing a mixture of ethyl acetate : acetic acid : formic acid : water in a 7 : 1 : 1 : 1 (v/v/v/v) ratio was finally selected as the optimized solvent for apt chromatographic separation of mangiferin at 262 nm withRf 0.68 ± 0.02 and all other parameters within the acceptance limits. Method validation studies revealed high linearity in the concentration range of 50-800 ng/band for mangiferin. The developed method showed high accuracy, precision, ruggedness, robustness, specificity, sensitivity, selectivity and recovery. In a nutshell, the bioanalytical method for analysis of mangiferin in plasma revealed the presence of well-resolved peaks and high recovery of mangiferin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development of a method to determine the specific environment as a starting point for the strategic analysis and the approach to competitors' Knowledge: presentation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio García Vega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the specific environment is important for the formulation of efficient enterprise strategies, on the basis of a strategic analysis properly focused. This paper suggests a method to help its limitation and identification. With its use, it pretends to offer a simple and practical tool that allows to have a more accurate approach to the identification of the industry that will be analysed, as well as, a clarification of the specification of the direct and substitute competition. Also, with the use of this tool, the managers of a business idea, an experienced or new organization, will have an approximation to the mentioned themes that are of a strategic importance in any management type. Likewise, two applications of the proposed method are presented: the first orientated to a business idea and the second to supermarkets with a high service charge in Lima, Peru.

  13. Information Systems Development as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hasan

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the stance that some cases of information systems development can be considered knowledge creating activities, and, in those cases, information systems development can be a legitimate research method. In these cases not only is knowledge created about the development process itself but also a deeper understanding emerges about the organisational problem that the system is designed to solve. The paper begins with a brief overview of research in the design sciences and a comparison of research methods that are concerned with the design, and use, of information systems. This is followed by an assessment of the way systems development as a research method deals with the scientific research processes of data collection, analysis, synthesis and display. A case study, where the systems development research method was use, is described to illustrate the method and give the reader a better understanding of the approach.

  14. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  15. DDOT MXD+ method development report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Mixed-use development has become increasingly common across the country, including Washington, D.C. : However, a straightforward and empirically validated method for evaluating the traffic impacts of such : projects is still needed. The data presente...

  16. Developing a multi-method approach to data collection and analysis for explaining the learning during simulation in undergraduate nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Andrew J; Tobbell, Jane

    2015-11-01

    Simulation has become an established feature of undergraduate nurse education and as such requires extensive investigation. Research limited to pre-constructed categories imposed by some questionnaire and interview methods may only provide partial understanding. This is problematic in understanding the mechanisms of learning in simulation-based education as contemporary distributed theories of learning posit that learning can be understood as the interaction of individual identity with context. This paper details a method of data collection and analysis that captures interaction of individuals within the simulation experience which can be analysed through multiple lenses, including context and through the lens of both researcher and learner. The study utilised a grounded theory approach involving 31 under-graduate third year student nurses. Data was collected and analysed through non-participant observation, digital recordings of simulation activity and focus group deconstruction of their recorded simulation by the participants and researcher. Focus group interviews enabled further clarification. The method revealed multiple levels of dynamic data, concluding that in order to better understand how students learn in social and active learning strategies, dynamic data is required enabling researchers and participants to unpack what is happening as it unfolds in action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...

  18. Development of an image Mean Square Displacement (iMSD)-based method as a novel approach to study the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Luca; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2016-09-15

    Fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to investigate complex and interacting biological systems (e.g. proteins and nanoparticles in living cells), since these techniques can explore intracellular dynamics with high time resolution at the nanoscale. Here we extended one of the Image Correlation Spectroscopy (ICS) methods, i.e. the image Mean Square Displacement, in order to study 2-dimensional diffusive and flow motion in confined systems, whose driving speed is uniformly distributed in a variable angular range. Although these conditions are not deeply investigated in the current literature, they can be commonly found in the intracellular trafficking of nanocarriers, which diffuse in the cytoplasm and/or may move along the cytoskeleton in different directions. The proposed approach could reveal the underlying system's symmetry using methods derived from fluorescence correlation concepts and could recover dynamic and geometric features which are commonly done by single particle analyses. Furthermore, it improves the characterization of low-speed flow motions, when compared to SpatioTemporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (STICS). Although we present a specific example (lipoplexes in living cells), the emphasis is in the discussion of the method, its basic assumptions and its validation on numeric simulations. Recent advances in nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery systems have pointed out the interactions at cellular and subcellular levels as key-factors for the efficiency of the adopted biomaterials. Such biochemical and biophysical interactions drive and affect the intracellular dynamics, that is commonly characterized by means of fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Here we present a novel Image Correlation Spectroscopy (ICS) method as a promising tool to capture the intracellular behavior of nanoparticles with high resolution and low background's sensitivity. This study overcomes some of the approximations

  19. Development of a modified - solid dispersion in an uncommon approach of melting method facilitating properties of a swellable polymer to enhance drug dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong Ngoc-Gia; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thanh Van; Vo, Toi Van; Truong-DinhTran, Thao

    2015-04-30

    The study aimed to develop a modified-solid dispersion method using a swellable hydrophilic polymers accompanied by a conventional carrier to enhance the dissolution of a drug that possesses poor water solubility. Two swellable polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide) were swelled in melted polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) in different ratios and under different conditions. The type, amount, and, especially, incorporation method of the swellable polymers were crucial factors affecting the dissolution rate, crystallinity, and molecular interaction of the drug. Interestingly, the method in which the swellable polymer was thoroughly mixed with the melted PEG 6000 as the first step was more effective in increasing drug dissolution than the method in which the drug was introduced to the melted PEG 6000 followed by the addition of the swellable polymer. This system has potential for controlling drug release due to high swelling capabilities of these polymers. Therefore, the current study can be considered to be a promising model for formulations of controlled release systems containing solid dispersions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biotechnological approaches to control the crop pathogen Fusarium and development of nanotechnology-based diagnostic methods for detection of plant diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Botella, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The plant fungal pathogen Fusarium is the causal agent of ‘Fusarium wilt’ and results in large losses on a wide range of crops including vegetables, flowers, trees and field crops. Control methods for Fusarium wilt are very limited. Crop rotations are ineffective because F. oxysporum has such a large host range and is able to survive in the soil for long periods of time and genetic resistance is very scarce or on-existent in many crops. I will describe the development of two biotechnological ...

  1. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  2. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  3. [Narrative Approach to Moral Development.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.

    1996-01-01

    Elaborates on some issues in the debate between Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach and a narrative, relativistic, approach to studies of moral development. Reviews the concept of self in both approaches, ideas on the Cartesian rationality underlying Kohlberg's theories, and the reliance of the self on language in narrative approaches.…

  4. Development and psychometric evaluation of a new team effectiveness scale for all types of community adult mental health teams: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Middleton, Hugh; Dawson, Jeremy F; Naylor, Paul B; West, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Defining 'effectiveness' in the context of community mental health teams (CMHTs) has become increasingly difficult under the current pattern of provision required in National Health Service mental health services in England. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of multi-professional team working effectiveness in adult CMHTs to develop a new measure of CMHT effectiveness. The study was conducted between May and November 2010 and comprised two stages. Stage 1 used a formative evaluative approach based on the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System to develop the scale with multiple stakeholder groups over a series of qualitative workshops held in various locations across England. Stage 2 analysed responses from a cross-sectional survey of 1500 members in 135 CMHTs from 11 Mental Health Trusts in England to determine the scale's psychometric properties. Based on an analysis of its structural validity and reliability, the resultant 20-item scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and captured one overall latent factor of CMHT effectiveness comprising seven dimensions: improved service user well-being, creative problem-solving, continuous care, inter-team working, respect between professionals, engagement with carers and therapeutic relationships with service users. The scale will be of significant value to CMHTs and healthcare commissioners both nationally and internationally for monitoring, evaluating and improving team functioning in practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Developing Wave Encyclopaedia based on Scientific Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurafifah, A.; Budi, A. S.; Siahaan, B. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Students have many difficulties in understanding to wave propagation. Such difficulties lead to misconceptions also in understanding sound, light, and electromagnetic wave. Meanwhile, students only use the text book as the learning resources. Whereas students need a more varied and interesting learning resources. This study aims to develop a wave encyclopaedia based on scientific approach as the learning resources that tested the feasibility and superiority. The method used is research by design. The steps are (1) analysing learner characteristic, (2) state objective, (3) select media and materials, (4) utilize materials, (5) requires learner participation, (6) evaluation and revision. The wave encyclopaedia is developed by applying the 5 components of a scientific approach that is, observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In this encyclopaedia also includes fun science activities and exciting recommended websites. The encyclopaedia has been validated by material experts, media experts, and learning experts. And then field trials are conducted to assess an impact on use. Overall the development of encyclopaedia based on scientific approach can enhance learning outcomes of students in high school.

  6. Strategies and Methods: A Variety of Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, H. Daniel; And Others

    This document consists of the second section of a book of readings on issues related to adult career development. The five chapters in this second section focus on strategies and methods for providing adults with career services. "The Adult Career Program Developer as Learner" (H. Daniel Lea and Zandy Leibowitz) presents a five-stage model of…

  7. Applying social innovation theory to examine how community co-designed health services develop: using a case study approach and mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Carlisle, Karen; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Teasdale, Simon; Kenny, Amanda; Taylor, Judy; Croker, Felicity; Marini, Karen; Gussy, Mark

    2018-01-31

    Citizen participation in health service co-production is increasingly enacted. A reason for engaging community members is to co-design services that are locally-appropriate and harness local assets. To date, much literature examines processes of involving participants, with little consideration of innovative services are designed, how innovations emerge, develop and whether they sustain or diffuse. This paper addresses this gap by examining co-designed initiatives through the lens of social innovation - a conceptualisation more attuned to analysing grassroots innovation than common health services research approaches considering top-down, technical innovations. This paper considers whether social innovation is a useful frame for examining co-designed services. Eighty-eight volunteer community-based participants from six rural Australian communities were engaged using the same, tested co-design framework for a 12-month design and then 12-month implementation phase, in 24 workshops (2014-16). Mixed, qualitative data were collected and used to formulate five case studies of community co-designed innovations. A social innovation theory, derived from literature, was applied as an analytical frame to examine co-design cases at 3 stages: innovation growth, development and sustainability/diffusion. Social innovation theory was found relevant in examining and understanding what occurred at each stage of innovation development. Innovations themselves were all adaptations of existing ideas. They emerged due to local participants combining knowledge from local context, own experiences and exemplars. External facilitation brought resources together. The project provided a protective niche in which pilot innovations developed, but they needed support from managers and/or policymakers to be implemented; and to be compatible with existing health system practices. For innovations to move to sustainability/diffusion required political relationships. Challenging existing practice

  8. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Imidapril and Its Degradation Products Using a Design of Experiment (DoE) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Abiramasundari; Joshi, Amita; Vasu, Kamala K

    2017-11-01

    The present work focused on the application of design of experiment (DoE) principles to the development and optimization of a stability-indicating method (SIM) for the drug imidapril hydrochloride and its degradation products (DPs). The resolution of peaks for the DPs and their drug in a SIM can be influenced by many factors. The factors studied here were pH, gradient time, organic modifier, flow rate, molar concentration of the buffer, and wavelength, with the aid of a Plackett-Burman design. Results from the Plackett-Burman study conspicuously showed influence of two factors, pH and gradient time, on the analyzed response, particularly, the resolution of the closely eluting DPs (DP-5 and DP-6) and the retention time of the last peak. Optimization of the multiresponse processes was achieved through Derringer's desirability function with the assistance of a full factorial design. Separation was achieved using a C18 Phenomenex Luna column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 µm particle size) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min at 210 nm. The optimized mobile phase composition was ammonium-acetate buffer (pH 5) in pump A and acetonitrile-methanol (in equal ratio) in pump B with a run time of 40 min using a gradient method.

  9. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Approach to Understanding Researchers’ Data Management Practices at UVM: Integrated Findings to Develop Research Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Berman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the third in a series of articles reporting on a study of researcher data management practices and data services at the University of Vermont. This article reports on the integrated findings of an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design aimed to understand data management behaviors and challenges of faculty at the University of Vermont (UVM in order to develop relevant research data services. The exploratory sequential mixed methods design is characterized by an initial qualitative phase of data collection and analysis, followed by a phase of quantitative data collection and analysis, with a final phase of integration or linking of data from the two separate strands of data. A joint display was used to integrate data focused on the three primary research questions: How do faculty at UVM manage their research data, in particular how do they share and preserve data in the long-term?; What challenges or barriers do UVM faculty face in effectively managing their research data?; and What institutional data management support or services are UVM faculty interested in? As a result of the analysis, this study suggests four major areas of research data services for UVM to address: infrastructure, metadata, data analysis and statistical support, and informational research data services. The implementation of these potential areas of research data services is underscored by the need for cross-campus collaboration and support.

  10. Molecular approaches to contraceptive development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Functional analysis of naturally occurring reproductive genetic disorders and creation of mice null for specific genes would greatly assist in the choice of genetic targets for contraceptive development. Structure-based design of drugs as exemplified by the preparation of an orally active non-peptide gonadotropin releasing ...

  11. Efficient integration method for fictitious domain approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duczek, Sascha; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    In the current article, we present an efficient and accurate numerical method for the integration of the system matrices in fictitious domain approaches such as the finite cell method (FCM). In the framework of the FCM, the physical domain is embedded in a geometrically larger domain of simple shape which is discretized using a regular Cartesian grid of cells. Therefore, a spacetree-based adaptive quadrature technique is normally deployed to resolve the geometry of the structure. Depending on the complexity of the structure under investigation this method accounts for most of the computational effort. To reduce the computational costs for computing the system matrices an efficient quadrature scheme based on the divergence theorem (Gauß-Ostrogradsky theorem) is proposed. Using this theorem the dimension of the integral is reduced by one, i.e. instead of solving the integral for the whole domain only its contour needs to be considered. In the current paper, we present the general principles of the integration method and its implementation. The results to several two-dimensional benchmark problems highlight its properties. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared to conventional spacetree-based integration techniques.

  12. The Typology of Methodological Approaches to Development of Innovative Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farat Olexandra V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the existing methodological approaches to assessing the development of enterprises for further substantiation of possibilities of their using by cluster associations. As a result of research, based on the analysis of scientific literature, the most applicable methodological approaches to assessing the development of enterprises are characterized. 8 methodical approaches to assessing the level of development of enterprises and 4 methodological approaches to assessing the level of development of clusters are singled out. Each of the approaches is characterized by the presence of certain advantages and disadvantages, but none of them allows to obtain a systematic assessment of all areas of cluster functioning, identify possible reserves for cluster competitiveness growth and characterize possible strategies for their future development. Taking into account peculiarities of the functioning and development of cluster associations of enterprises, we propose our own methodological approach for assessing the development of innovative cluster structures.

  13. A DYNAMIC APPROACH TO IMPROVING THE EXECUTION OF DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR DATE-RELATED INDUSTRIES IN IRAN, BASED ON HYBRID GRA AND ISM METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents a hybrid Grey Relational Analysis (GRA and Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM methodology for appropriate dynamic analysis, in order to improve the execution of development strategies for date-related industries in Iran. The proposed framework consists of four main phases: (1 establishment of strategies; (2 GRA analysis; (3 binary comparison to determine hierarchy levels using the ISM method; and (4 dynamic analysis. The analysis reveals that the strategic priorities to improve Iran’s date industries can be arranged on three levels. The first level consists of the by-products of date packing and processing. On the second level, three tactics are determined: developing ready-for-use date products, deriving date fruit products, and fermentation of products. The third level is to blend dates with other foods and palm products (excluding dates.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel hou ’n hibirede GRA en ISM metodologie voor vir dinamiese analise om ont-wikkelingstrategieë vir die dadelindustrie in Iran te verbeter. Die voorgestelde raamwerk bestaan uit vier fases: (1 vasstelling van die strategieë; (2 GRA analise; (3 binêre vergelyking om die hierargievlakke te bepaal deur die ISM metode te gebruik; en (4 dinamiese analise. Die analise toon dat die strategiese prioriteite om die dadelindustrie in Iran te verbeter in drie vlakke gerangskik kan word. Die eerste vlak behels die neweprodukte van dadelverpakking en -prosessering. Op die tweede vlak word drie taktieke ontwikkel: die ontwikkeling van gereed-vir-gebruik dadelprodukte, dadelvrugteprodukte en die fermentasie van produkte. Die derde vlak behels die versny van dadels met ander voedsel- en palmprodukte (uitgesonderd dadels.

  14. Approaches to greenhouse gas accounting methods for biomass carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downie, Adriana; Lau, David; Cowie, Annette; Munroe, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examines different approaches for the GHG flux accounting of activities within a tight boundary of biomass C cycling, with scope limited to exclude all other aspects of the lifecycle. Alternative approaches are examined that a) account for all emissions including biogenic CO 2 cycling – the biogenic method; b) account for the quantity of C that is moved to and maintained in the non-atmospheric pool – the stock method; and c) assume that the net balance of C taken up by biomass is neutral over the short-term and hence there is no requirement to include this C in the calculation – the simplified method. This investigation demonstrates the inaccuracies in both emissions forecasting and abatement calculations that result from the use of the simplified method, which is commonly accepted for use. It has been found that the stock method is the most accurate and appropriate approach for use in calculating GHG inventories, however short-comings of this approach emerge when applied to abatement projects, as it does not account for the increase in biogenic CO 2 emissions that are generated when non-CO 2 GHG emissions in the business-as-usual case are offset. Therefore the biogenic method or a modified version of the stock method should be used to accurately estimate GHG emissions abatement achieved by a project. This investigation uses both the derivation of methodology equations from first principles and worked examples to explore the fundamental differences in the alternative approaches. Examples are developed for three project scenarios including; landfill, combustion and slow-pyrolysis (biochar) of biomass. -- Highlights: • Different approaches can be taken to account for the GHG emissions from biomass. • Simplification of GHG accounting methods is useful, however, can lead to inaccuracies. • Approaches used currently are often inadequate for practises that store carbon. • Accounting methods for emissions forecasting can be inadequate for

  15. A method to enchance existing business-IT alignment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vries, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise engineering has recently emerged as a new discipline to address the intensified complexity and dynamics of the evolving enterprise by designing, aligning, and governing its development. Enterprise designers employ various approaches, frameworks, and methodologies to design and align various components in the enterprise. This paper takes a closer look at alignment between the business and IT components of an enterprise, and the need for a theoretical backing when combining multiple approaches during enterprise design. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a method artefact. The method artefact applies an existing model, called the business-IT alignment model, and is useful to enterprise designers when they need to enhance an existing business-IT alignment approach. As an additional contribution, the paper emphasises the role of an emerging research methodology, called design research, in developing the new method artefact. The paper demonstrates the use of the method artefact by enhancing the foundation for execution approach with an element from the essence of operation approach, and concludes with opportunities for further research.

  16. A mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating oncology trainee education around minimization of adverse events and improved patient quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Bradbury, Lauren; Moujaber, Tania; Nørrelykke, Anne Mette; Zerillo, Jessica A; LaCasce, Ann; Co, John Patrick T; Robinson, Tracy; Starr, Alison; Harnett, Paul

    2016-03-12

    Adverse events are a significant quality and safety issue in the hospital setting due to their direct impact on patients. Additionally, such events are often handled by junior doctors due to their direct involvement with patients. As such, it is important for health care organizations to prioritize education and training for junior doctors on identifying adverse events and handling them when they occur. The Cancer Cup Challenge is an educational program focuses on quality improvement and adverse event awareness targeting for junior oncology doctors across three international sites. A mixed methodology was used to develop and evaluate the program. The Qstream spaced learning platform was used to disseminate information to participants, as it has been demonstrated to impact on both knowledge and behavior. Eight short case based scenarios with expert feedback were developed by a multidisciplinary advisory committee containing representatives from the international sites. At the conclusion of the course impact on participant knowledge was evaluated using analysis of the metrics collected by the Qstream platform. Additionally, an online survey and semi-structured interviews were used to evaluate engagement and perceived value by participants. A total of 35 junior doctors registered to undertake the Qstream program, with 31 (88.57 %) successfully completing it. Analysis of the Qstream metrics revealed 76.57 % of cases were answered correctly on first attempt. The post-program survey received 17 responses, with 76.47 % indicating cases for the course were interesting and 82.35 % feeling cases were relevant. Finally, 14 participants consented to participate in semi-structured interviews about the program, with feedback towards the course being generally very positive. Our study demonstrates that an online game is well accepted by junior doctors as a method to increase their quality improvement awareness. Developing effective and sustainable training for doctors is

  17. DNA methods: critical review of innovative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Esther J; Aarts, Henk J M; Van Hoef, A M Angeline; Kuiper, Harry A

    2002-01-01

    The presence of ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products in the market place is subject to a number of European regulations that stipulate which product consisting of or containing GMO-derived ingredients should be labeled as such. In order to maintain these labeling requirements, a variety of different GMO detection methods have been developed to screen for either the presence of DNA or protein derived from (approved) GM varieties. Recent incidents where unapproved GM varieties entered the European market show that more powerful GMO detection and identification methods will be needed to maintain European labeling requirements in an adequate, efficient, and cost-effective way. This report discusses the current state-of-the-art as well as future developments in GMO detection.

  18. Microscopic approach to the generator coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Q.; Gogny, D.; Weiss, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we solve different theoretical problems associated with the calculation of the kernel occurring in the Hill-Wheeler integral equations within the framework of generator coordinate method. In particular, we extend the Wick's theorem to nonorthogonal Bogoliubov states. Expressions for the overlap between Bogoliubov states and for the generalized density matrix are also derived. These expressions are valid even when using an incomplete basis, as in the case of actual calculations. Finally, the Hill-Wheeler formalism is developed for a finite range interaction and the Skyrme force, and evaluated for the latter. 20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Reflections on Narrative Approaches to Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Compares narrative approaches to Kohlberg's theory of moral development along five dimensions: values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Argues that, contrary to Kohlberg's theory, narrative approaches may lead to contradiction in epistemology, nihilism in moral choices, and opportunism in relationships.…

  20. A strength-based approach to teacher professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Rosanne; Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93

  1. A Strength-Based Approach to Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teachers of six primary schools in the Netherlands and…

  2. A strength-based approach to teacher professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93

  3. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  4. Complexions of Iterative Information Systems Development Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    There is an abundance of methodologies and approaches of information Systems Development (ISD) Processes. We use the concept of complexions of development processes and Technology Use Mediation (TUM) from a client perspective to show how an instance of a planned project in the prehospital sector...

  5. On Social Development: The Social Welfare Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.O. van Nieuwenhuijze

    1979-01-01

    textabstractThe well-established preponderance of the economic approach to development corresponds to the dominance of an economistic "philosophie vécue" - a view of life in general and of development in particular. The prospect of this typically modern-Western thought complex is dim. Doubts are

  6. Creative Approaches to Teaching Graduate Research Methods Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Reilly

    2017-01-01

    Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students.  Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement.  Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while...

  7. Which factors may determine the necessary and feasible type of effectiveness evidence? A mixed methods approach to develop an instrument to help coverage decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Saskia; Rijnsburger, Adriana J; Versteegh, Matthijs M; Heymans, Juanita M; Kleijnen, Sarah; Redekop, W Ken; Verstijnen, Ilse M

    2015-07-28

    Reimbursement decisions require evidence of effectiveness and, in general, a blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) is the preferred study design to provide it. However, there are situations where a cohort study, or even patient series, can be deemed acceptable. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument that first examines which study characteristics of a blinded RCT are necessary, and then, if particular characteristics are considered necessary, examines whether these characteristics are feasible. We retrospectively studied 22 interventions from 20 reimbursement reports concerning medical specialist care made by the Dutch National Health Care Institute (ZIN) to identify any factors that influenced the necessity and feasibility of blinded RCTs, and their constituent study characteristics, that is, blinding, randomisation and a control group. A literature review was performed to identify additional factors. Additional expertise was included by interviewing eight experts in epidemiology, medicine and ethics. The resulting instrument was called the FIT instrument (Feasible Information Trajectory), and was prospectively validated using three consecutive reimbursement reports. (Blinded) RCT evidence was lacking in 5 of 11 positive reimbursement decisions and 3 of 11 negative decisions. In the reimbursement reports, we found no empirical evidence supporting situations where a blinded RCT is unnecessary. The literature also revealed few arguments against the necessity of a blinded RCT. In contrast, many factors influencing the feasibility of randomisation, a control group and blinding, were found in the reimbursement reports and the literature; for example, when a patient population is too small or when an intervention is common practice, randomisation will be hindered. Policy regarding the necessity and feasibility of different types of evidence of effectiveness would benefit from systematic guidance. The FIT instrument has the potential to support

  8. Object Oriented Software Development Using A Use-Cases Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a systematic approach to the analysis and design of an online banking system using the Use-Cases method of Jacobson. This analysis and design method will support the development of highly effective reuseable code, thus bringing the benefits of object orientation into important software projects.

  9. Holistic and Ecological Approaches in Talent Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kristoffer

    Research on athletic talent has evolved from talent detection to talent development with both perspectives focusing on an individual athlete. This individual focus has been mirrored in the applied work of the sport psychology practitioner in youth competitive sport who has primarily focused...... on equipping individual athletes with the psychosocial skills required in a sport career. In contrast, the holistic ecological approach (HEA) to talent development in sport (Henriksen, Stambulova & Roessler, 2010) acknowledges the role of the overall environment in athletes’ development. The HEA integrates...... the somewhat opposing talent discovery and development approaches by focusing on how an environment manages the balance between these two, and how this balance becomes a part of the environment’s identity. Ecological perspectives on talent development hold rich insights for developing theories, research...

  10. Approaching Development Projects from a Human Development and Capability Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Frediani (Alexandre); A. Boni (Alejandro); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the relevance of the human development and capability approach for development project planning, management and evaluation. With reference to the set of five other studies that it introduces, the paper suggests in which areas insights from human development and

  11. Developing the Business Modelling Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, B; Shishkov, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Currently, business modelling is an art, instead of a science, as no scientific method for business modelling exists. This, and the lack of using business models altogether, causes many projects to end after the pilot stage, unable to fulfil their apparent promise. We propose a structured method to

  12. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  13. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  14. Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth

  15. An approach towards sustainable groundwater development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address water availability problems in a semi-arid country like South Africa, the National Water Act (RSA, 1998) proposes that specialists adopt an approach that is strategic, deliberate and dictated by socio-political reforms and socioeconomic development needs on a programmatic basis for long-term sustainability.

  16. An approach towards sustainable groundwater development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address water availability problems in a semi-arid country like South Africa, the National Water Act (RSA, 1998) proposes that specialists adopt an approach that is strategic, deliberate and dictated by socio-political reforms and socio- economic development needs on a programmatic basis for long-term sustainability.

  17. Design for Development : A Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterlaken, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I suggest a ‘capability approach’ towards designing for society, and particularly, the world’s poor. I will explain that this approach assigns a central place to human capabilities in our discussions of justice and development and criticizes a focus on utility or preference

  18. The Infusion Approach to Teacher Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen M.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying premise of infusion is that information about individuals with disabilities must be more systematically integrated throughout an entire curriculum. This article describes the infusion approach to teacher development, explaining three central premises, providing sample program applications for each premise, and discussing brain…

  19. A constructivist approach to artifact development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory on artifact development. The theory is built on the constructivist paradigm, and the research strategy applied is the constructivist approach to grounded theory. A conceptual framework was employed for the analysis of a number of food producers and retailers. The ...

  20. Biotechnology approaches to developing herbicide tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbicides has revolutionized weed control in many crop production systems. However, with the increasing development of weed resistances to many popular selective herbicides, the need has arisen to rethink the application of chemical weed control. Approaches to maintain the efficiency of chemical weed ...

  1. A Skills Approach to Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grites, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    A counseling approach encourages students' development of job-applicable, career-transferable skills to meet the changing demands of specialization, automation, mobility, urban growth, and industrial trends in the job market. These include writing; speaking; research; and analytical, organizational, leadership, interpersonal, and quantitative…

  2. Increasingly, holistic ecosystem approaches are being developed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasingly, holistic ecosystem approaches are being developed for fisheries management purposes, incor- porating multispecies models as potential tools for quantifying and predicting trends in the biota of whole ecosystems (Hollowed et al. 2000, Whipple et al. 2000,. Shannon and Moloney 2004). Most models combine.

  3. Creative Approaches to Teaching Graduate Research Methods Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reilly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students.  Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement.  Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while ensuring these sessions are student centred and conducive to a collaborative learning environment.  Blogs, interactive tutorials, online videos, games and posters, are used to develop student’s cognitive and metacognitive abilities.  Using novelty images appeals to a groups’ intellectual curiosity, acting as an interpretive device to explain  the value of adopting a holistic rather than analytic approach towards a topic.

  4. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest...

  5. Quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods: approaching indigenous ecological knowledge heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Spoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the use of quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods to document and operationalize Indigenous ecological knowledge, using case studies from the Nepalese Himalaya and Great Basin. Both case studies applied results to natural and cultural resource management and interpretation for the public. These approaches attempt to reposition the interview subjects to serve as active contributors to the research and its outcomes. I argue that the study of any body of Indigenous knowledge requires a context-specific methodology and mutually agreed upon processes and outcomes. In the Nepalese Himalaya, I utilized linked quantitative and qualitative methods to understand how tourism influenced Sherpa place-based spiritual concepts, species, and landscape knowledge inside Sagarmatha (Mount Everest National Park and Buffer Zone. In this method, Sherpa collaborated in the development of the research questions, the design, and in the review of results. The research in the Great Basin employed collaborative qualitative methods to document Numic (Southern Paiute and Western Shoshone ecological knowledge of federal lands within their ancestral territory and attempted to piece together fragmented and contested histories of place. In this method, Numic peoples collaborated on the development of research questions and design; however they also conducted most of the interviews. In both cases, I selected particular suites of methods depending on the context and created forums for the translation of this information to applied outcomes. The methods were also improved and innovated through praxis.

  6. Embedding methods: application and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Correlated-wavefunction/density functional theory (CW/DFT) embedding methods aim to combine the formally exact correlation treatment in CW methods with the high efficiency of DFT. By partitioning a system into a cluster and its environment, each part can be treated independently. Different embedding schemes have been proposed. The density-based scheme searches for a global embedding potential mediating the interaction on the DFT level. The potential can then be used in CW calculations, e.g., to investigate hot-electron assisted H2 dissociation on Al and Au surfaces. Experimentally, optical excitations of plasmons efficiently create the required hot electrons. The embedded CW calculations validates that the hot electrons play a key role. However, this method neglects the back-action of the cluster on the environment. To solve this problem, a potential-based scheme has been proposed [J. Chem. Phys., 135, 194104 (2011)] that allows for a self-consistent combination of different ab-initio methods. Such an embedding potential thus goes beyond the DFT level. The heterogeneity involved poses various numerical challenges. We report on efforts to construct appropriate basis sets and pseudopotentials as well as to optimize the numerical procedure.

  7. Scenario development methods and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an essential aspect of all nuclear power programmes. Although a general consensus has been reached in OECD countries on the use of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, analysis of the long-term safety of these repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation. The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten. Scenario development has become the general term used to describe the collection and organisation of the scientific and technical information necessary to assess the long-term performance or safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This includes the identification of the relevant features, events and processes (FEPs), the synthesis of broad models of scientific understanding, and the selection of cases to be calculated. Scenario development provides the overall framework in which the cases and their calculated consequences can be discussed, including biases or shortcomings due to omissions or lack of knowledge. The NEA Workshop on Scenario Development was organised in Madrid, in May 1999, with the objective of reviewing developments in scenario methodologies and applications in safety assessments since 1992. The outcome of this workshop is the subject of this book. It is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies. (author)

  8. Methods of approach in market research

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    The author of this article, an eminent Hungarian research worker, director of Hungarian Institute for Market Research in Budapest, appeared several times as the author of interesting articles in this periodical. In this contribution Dr. Szabo reviews the possibility of research of marketing phenomena, especially the possibility of previsions of future events. In his opinion one or two methods are not sufficient; a complex application of several different methods and research of determined phe...

  9. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  10. Selection of construction methods: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada, Ximena; Serpell, Alfredo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method' selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS) was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods' selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  11. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  12. Nuclear methods in national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the proceedings of the First National Conference on Nuclear Methods held at Kongo Conference Hotel Zaria from 2-4 September 1993, contains the full text of about 30 technical papers and speeches of invited dignitaries presented at the conference. The technical papers are original or review articles containing results and experiences in nuclear and related analytical techniques. Topics treated include neutron generator operation and control, nuclear data, application of nuclear techniques in environment, geochemistry, medicine, biology, agriculture, material science and industries. General topics in nuclear laboratory organization and research experiences were also covered. The papers were fully discussed during the conference and authors were requested to make changes in the manuscripts where necessary. However, they were further edited. The organizing committee wishes to thank all authors for their presentation and cooperation in submitting their manuscripts promptly and the participants for their excellent contribution during the conference

  13. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Andryshyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the detection, theoretical study and the analysis of key innovative approaches to regional development in modern conditions and the justification of a necessity of their use in practice. Methodology. The study is based on theoretical methods to study this problem. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study are works of scientists on the innovative approaches to the regional development in modern conditions. The dialectical method of cognition, as well as such methods as a systematic and structural analysis, logical generalization are used to study the formation of scientific positions and forming the methodological foundations of the innovative approaches to regional development. Results of the survey showed that among the existing innovative approaches to the regional development two are considered to be the most suitable in the present conditions – interregional cooperation and cluster approach. Theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of regional development, which determine the transformation of the socio-economic relations in the context of sustainability of regional development and are caused by using innovative approaches to the regional development, are described. Practical implications. The priorities of the dynamic regional development through activization of interregional economic cooperation and development of regional and interregional clusters are defined. The development of interregional and international cooperation, implementation of the potential of regional cluster initiatives, development of the system of innovation-oriented investment projects, innovative development of the industry and the realization of its export potential can lead to the qualitative structural shifts in the socio-economic development of regions and Ukraine as a whole. Value/originality. Despite the existing considerable experience of the implementation of these processes in highly developed countries, the

  14. Stepwise Approach to Accessible MOOC Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Wald, Mike; Dickens, Kate; Zimmermann, Gottfried; Kelle, Sebastian; Miesenberger, Klaus; Petz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Developing resources for online learning in its many guises and more recently for MOOCs has been discussed across the educational sector, usually by individuals working for one institution or organisation. Rarely are there discussions that highlight the issues of collaborative working on content that is delivered over a period of weeks for a wide range of abilities and skills. In particular there is a reluctance to face the issues presented by barriers to access for those with disabilities and even the issues that could arise should an academic be unable to access the development platform to present content. This paper aims to approach these issues by providing guidance in a series of practical steps that highlight an inclusive design approach.

  15. Bionic Design Methods - A practical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøll; Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2004-01-01

    Nature has served as inspiration for product design throughout history. Applications range from poetic translations of form to utilization of primary functional principles. This paper describes a generally applicable design methodology for transforming natural functional principles to feasible...... product design. From a formulation of design demands, which need not necessarily be very precise, the approach continues with a study of natural objects (anaimals, plants) which are subject to the same demands. From this study, the working principle(s) are derived. This (these) are then clarified through...... illustrative models, which should be simplified as much as possible. The simplified principle may now be evaluated and transformed into practical design. The methodology is clarified through examples, taken from a series of extended workshops held atAalborg University ....

  16. Heutagogic approach to developing capable learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Komattil, Ramnarayan

    2017-03-01

    The twenty-first century higher education sector has come a long way after undergoing continuous metamorphosis from pedagogy to andragogy. Most of the educational approaches adopted in medical schools are directed towards developing more of competencies and less of capability, which is the ability to use competencies in novel contexts. Competencies alone are not sufficient to thrive in the present day work place as medical profession subsumes complex contexts; it is in this scenario that, medical educators are entrusted with the challenging task of developing "capable learners". In the heutagogical approach, learners are required to decide upon what to learn and how to learn and therefore the control of the learning process is on the learner and the role of the teacher becomes that of a navigator. This paper highlights the current higher educational practices based on heutagogy, considers its application in the context of Problem-based learning and also discusses a few challenges in incorporating this approach in the existing undergraduate medical curriculum. The article proposes the use of social media in order to support learner autonomy, which in turn improves learners' cognitive engagement with content and tasks, thereby assisting the development of attributes associated with capability.

  17. A development approach for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and time to develop nuclear thermal propulsion systems are very approach dependent. The objectives addressed are the development of an ''acceptable'' nuclear thermal propulsion system that can be used as part of the transportation system for people to explore Mars and the enhancement performance of other missions, within highly constrained budgets and schedules. To accomplish this, it was necessary to identify the cost drivers considering mission parameters, safety of the crew, mission success, facility availability and time and cost to construct new facilities, qualification criteria, status of technologies, management structure, and use of such system engineering techniques as concurrent engineering

  18. Enterprise Engineering Method supporting Six Sigma Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Enterprise Modeling (EM) is currently in operation either as a technique to represent and understand the structure and behavior of the enterprise, or as a technique to analyze business processes, and in many cases as support technique for business process reengineering. However, EM architectures and methodes for Enterprise Engineering can also used to support new management techniques like SIX SIGMA, because these new techniques need a clear, transparent and integrated definition and descript...

  19. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  20. Qualitative methods: a research approach worth considering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has no explanation for. He/she observes the phenomenon and collects data about it to describe it-this is qualitative research. With enough information about the phenomenon the researcher can now formulate a hypothesis or hypotheses that can be tested through quantitative research. Qualitative research developed in the ...

  1. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma

  2. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  3. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  4. Conducting Research with young people and developing the MTW Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Gravesen, David Thore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this article we present our qualitative mixed-methods methodology that we name the Map-Talk-Walk Approach (MTW Approach). We developed the approach to better grasp young people’s understandings of youth, normality and belonging, which make up the thematic framework of our current youth...... in their life worlds. Our ambition is to create a democratized research process that allows the participants ownership, and we find this to be a challenging task. In the closing section, after a thorough presentation of the three phases, we discuss some of the pitfalls we experienced during the process...

  5. A CRITICAL APPROACH OF CSR RATING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Rãzvan Cãtãlin DOBREA; Felicia Alina DINU

    2011-01-01

    Under the contemporary business environment characterized by permanent transformation, a proper attitude towards the society and environment is essential for long-term development of organizations. The way that the company synchronize their values and behaviour with the needs and requirements of shareholders, employees, suppliers, community, authorities and society overall are reflected in their performance. Balancing all these interests, the company ability to respond to all expectations and...

  6. Development of numerical methods for reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillard, N.

    2006-12-01

    When a radioactive waste is stored in deep geological disposals, it is expected that the waste package will be damaged under water action (concrete leaching, iron corrosion). Then, to understand these damaging processes, chemical reactions and solutes transport are modelled. Numerical simulations of reactive transport can be done sequentially by the coupling of several codes. This is the case of the software platform ALLIANCES which is developed jointly with CEA, ANDRA and EDF. Stiff reactions like precipitation-dissolution are crucial for the radioactive waste storage applications, but standard sequential iterative approaches like Picard's fail in solving rapidly reactive transport simulations with such stiff reactions. In the first part of this work, we focus on a simplified precipitation and dissolution process: a system made up with one solid species and two aqueous species moving by diffusion is studied mathematically. It is assumed that a precipitation dissolution reaction occurs in between them, and it is modelled by a discontinuous kinetics law of unknown sign. By using monotonicity properties, the convergence of a finite volume scheme on admissible mesh is proved. Existence of a weak solution is obtained as a by-product of the convergence of the scheme. The second part is dedicated to coupling algorithms which improve Picard's method and can be easily used in an existing coupling code. By extending previous works, we propose a general and adaptable framework to solve nonlinear systems. Indeed by selecting special options, we can either recover well known methods, like nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, or design specific method. This algorithm has two main steps, a preconditioning one and an acceleration one. This algorithm is tested on several examples, some of them being rather academical and others being more realistic. We test it on the 'three species model'' example. Other reactive transport simulations use an external chemical code CHESS. For a

  7. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    compounds are high priority as new analytes. The objective for analytical methods development is to design an integrated analytical strategy that includes as many of the Tier 1 pesticide compounds as possible in a relatively few, cost-effective methods. More than 60 percent of the Tier 1 compounds are high priority because they are anticipated to be present at concentrations approaching levels that could be of concern to human health or aquatic life in surface water or groundwater. An additional 17 percent of Tier 1 compounds were frequently detected in monitoring studies, but either were not measured at levels potentially relevant to humans or aquatic organisms, or do not have benchmarks available with which to compare concentrations. The remaining 21 percent are pesticide degradates that were included because their parent pesticides were in Tier 1. Tier 1 pesticide compounds for water span all major pesticide use groups and a diverse range of chemical classes, with herbicides and their degradates composing half of compounds. Many of the high priority pesticide compounds also are in several national regulatory programs for water, including those that are regulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act and those that are on the latest Contaminant Candidate List. For sediment, a total of 175 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods available for monitoring and studies. More than 60 percent of these compounds are included in some USGS analytical method; however, some are spread across several research methods that are expensive to perform, and monitoring data are not extensive for many compounds. The remaining Tier 1 compounds for sediment are high priority as new analytes. The objective for analytical methods development for sediment is to enhance an existing analytical method that currently includes nearly half of the pesticide compounds in Tier 1

  8. Methods for measuring denitrification: Diverse approaches to a difficult problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groffman, Peter M.; Altabet, Mark A.; Böhlke, J. K.

    2006-01-01

    , and global scales. Unfortunately, this process is very difficult to measure, and existing methods are problematic for different reasons in different places at different times. In this paper, we review the major approaches that have been taken to measure denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic environments...... balance and stoichiometric approaches that constrain estimates of denitrification at large scales with point measurements (made using multiple methods), in multiple systems, is likely to propel more improvement in denitrification methods over the next few years....... and discuss the strengths, weaknesses, and future prospects for the different methods. Methodological approaches covered include (1) acetylene-based methods, (2) 15N tracers, (3) direct N2 quantification, (4) N2:Ar ratio quantification, (5) mass balance approaches, (6) stoichiometric approaches, (7) methods...

  9. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  10. Asset Based Community Driven Development Method For Agrotourism Development On Integrated Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Syah, Muhammad; Zakariah, Muhammad Askari; Zakariah, Muhammad; Azis, Muhammad Asra

    2017-01-01

    This community based research aim to determined effect asset based community driven development (ABCD) method for agrotourism development on integrated farming system were done in Mowewe district, East Kolaka Regency. Qualitative method were used participant observation developed. Approach stage of ABCD method for agrotourism development on integrated farming system are: discovering strengths, organizing and mapping, lingking and mobilizing, community driven initiatives and sustaining the pro...

  11. IoT System Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giray, G.; Tekinerdogan, B.; Tüzün, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is generally believed that the application of methods plays an important role in developing quality systems. A development method is mainly necessary for structuring the process in producing largescale and complex systems that involve high costs. Similar to the development of other systems, it is

  12. Method development and validations: characterization of critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method development and validations: characterization of critical elements in the development of pharmaceuticals. ... International Journal of Health Research ... Although a thorough validation cannot rule out all potential problems, the process of method development and validation should address the most common ones.

  13. Selection of Construction Methods: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ferrada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods’ selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  14. Developing gerontological competency: a curriculum approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Colleen; Curl, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a competency-based educational approach to course development, implementation, and evaluation. The course model is presented, including its philosophical base. The authors hypothesized that student participation in a competency-based graduate gerontology course would increase their perceived competency level. Results indicate that students (N = 74 students; 2008-2011) rated their competency skill level as higher at posttest than at the pretest (paired t-tests, p curriculum so that students are better prepared to work with older adults when they graduate.

  15. Moral counselling: a method in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jack; Leget, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method of moral counselling developed in the Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen (The Netherlands). The authors apply insights of Paul Ricoeur to the non-directive counselling method of Carl Rogers in their work of coaching patients with moral problems in health care. The developed method was shared with other health care professionals in a training course. Experiences in the course and further practice led to further improvement of the method.

  16. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  17. The development of interdepartmental audit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The UK Radiotherapy Physics Audit Network is now well-established, with seven network groups and co-ordinated by the IPSM. It is based on visits, using ion chambers as the measurement method, and auditing at least machine calibration, single field parameters and simple multi-field planned irradiations. In addition procedural audit of dosimetry and quality control procedures, and records is incorporated. The general approach has been to use interdepartmental audit involving mutual co-operation with peer professionals from other centres. The different groups have evolved at different paces and in rather different directions. However the IPSM coordinating role ensures a basic common minimum to the system. The Scottish+ group has developed a semi-anatomical phantom to use in audit stages following on from the basic single field and geometric phantom dosimetry audit levels. This has been evaluated experimentally in one department before wider use. The Scottish+ audit system is briefly described. Results from levels 1 and 2 are summarised and the design and testing of the semi-anatomical phantom are discussed. The current and future development of the audit system is presented

  18. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  19. Teaching Web Evaluation: A Cognitive Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Benjes-Small

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Web evaluation has been a standard information literacy offering for years and has always been a challenging topic for instruction librarians. Over time, the authors had tried a myriad of strategies to teach freshmen how to assess the credibility of Web sites but felt the efforts were insufficient. By familiarizing themselves with the cognitive development research, they were able to effectively revamp Web evaluation instruction to improve student learning. This article discusses the problems of traditional methods, such as checklists; summarizes the cognitive development research, particularly in regards to its relationship to the ACRL Information Literacy Standards; and details the instructional lesson plan developed by the authors that incorporates cognitive development theories.

  20. A new approach for developing adjoint models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many data assimilation algorithms rely on the availability of gradients of misfit functionals, which can be efficiently computed with adjoint models. However, the development of an adjoint model for a complex geophysical code is generally very difficult. Algorithmic differentiation (AD, also called automatic differentiation) offers one strategy for simplifying this task: it takes the abstraction that a model is a sequence of primitive instructions, each of which may be differentiated in turn. While extremely successful, this low-level abstraction runs into time-consuming difficulties when applied to the whole codebase of a model, such as differentiating through linear solves, model I/O, calls to external libraries, language features that are unsupported by the AD tool, and the use of multiple programming languages. While these difficulties can be overcome, it requires a large amount of technical expertise and an intimate familiarity with both the AD tool and the model. An alternative to applying the AD tool to the whole codebase is to assemble the discrete adjoint equations and use these to compute the necessary gradients. With this approach, the AD tool must be applied to the nonlinear assembly operators, which are typically small, self-contained units of the codebase. The disadvantage of this approach is that the assembly of the discrete adjoint equations is still very difficult to perform correctly, especially for complex multiphysics models that perform temporal integration; as it stands, this approach is as difficult and time-consuming as applying AD to the whole model. In this work, we have developed a library which greatly simplifies and automates the alternate approach of assembling the discrete adjoint equations. We propose a complementary, higher-level abstraction to that of AD: that a model is a sequence of linear solves. The developer annotates model source code with library calls that build a 'tape' of the operators involved and their dependencies, and

  1. Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedare, Sagar B; Singh, R P

    2011-08-01

    α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method offers the first approach for evaluating the antioxidant potential of a compound, an extract or other biological sources. This is the simplest method, wherein the prospective compound or extract is mixed with DPPH solution and absorbance is recorded after a defined period. However, with the advancement and sophistication in instrumental techniques, the method has undergone various modifications to suit the requirements, even though the basic approach remains same in all of them. This article presents a critical review on various developments to the DPPH method.

  2. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  3. Quantitative comparison of cranial approaches in the anatomy laboratory: A neuronavigation based research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglietto, Francesco; Qiu, Jimmy; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Radovanovic, Ivan; Belotti, Francesco; Agur, Anne; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Kucharczyk, Walter; Gentili, Fred

    2017-12-26

    To describe the development and validation of a novel neuronavigation-based method, which allows the quantification of the anatomical features that define an approach, as well as real-time visualization of the surgical pyramid. The method was initially developed with commercially-available hardware for coordinate collection (a digitizer and a frameless navigation system) and software for volume rendering; dedicated neuronavigation software (ApproachViewer, part of GTx-UHN) was then developed. The accuracy of measurements and the possibility of volumetric rendering of surgical approaches simulated in a phantom were compared among three different methods and commercially-available radiological software. In the anatomy laboratory, ApproachViewer was applied to the comparative quantitative analysis of multiple neurosurgical approaches and was used by many surgeons who were untrained for the research method. The accuracy of ApproachViewer is comparable to commercially-available radiological software. In the anatomy laboratory, the method appears versatile. The system can be easily used after brief training. ApproachViewer allows for real-time evaluation and comparison of surgical approaches, as well as post-dissection analyses of collected data. The accuracy of the method depends on the navigation registration: with a 1-2 mm registration error, it is adequate for evaluation and comparison of most neurosurgical approaches. This new research method and software allows semi-automated visualization, quantification, and comparison of neurosurgical approaches in the anatomy laboratory.

  4. METHODICAL APPROACH TO AN ESTIMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM OF AN EMPLOYEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Александровна Коркина

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of definitions of «professionalism», reflecting the different viewpoints of scientists and practitioners, has shown that it is interpreted as a specific property of the people effectively and reliably carry out labour activity in a variety of conditions. The article presents the methodical approach to an estimation of professionalism of the employee from the position as the external manifestations of the reliability and effectiveness of the work and the position of the personal characteristics of the employee, determining the results of his work. This approach includes the assessment of the level of qualification and motivation of the employee for each key job functions as well as the final results of its implementation on the criteria of efficiency and reliability. The proposed methodological approach to the estimation of professionalism of the employee allows to identify «bottlenecks» in the structure of its labour functions and to define directions of development of the professional qualities of the worker to ensure the required level of reliability and efficiency of the obtained results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-11

  5. Methodical Approach to Measuring The Life Quality in Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolyevna Kozlova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relevant problem of regional development that is the development of methodological tools to evaluate the life quality in the region. The article discusses the concept of “life quality”, as well as related terms and justifies the author’s position about its content. The existing Russian and foreign approaches to the assessment of life quality were analyzed, and it was argued that a comprehensive approach was the most relevant to conduct this research. The criteria to assess the life quality of the population were summoned. The authors proposed a methodological approach that not only includes the objective indicators of the life quality presented in the statistical reporting of Federal State Statistics Service, but also involves the subjective assessments of the local population, which allows to obtain an adequate assessment of the life quality of the population in the region. The methodological research tools include, firstly, mathematical methods of statistical data processing and, secondly, a sociological survey of the population of Sverdlovsk region about the level of satisfaction with various aspects of life. The authors concluded that stable growth objective indicators of life quality, on the one hand, characterize Sverdlovsk region. On the other hand, simultaneously it is accompanied with low satisfaction with population-specific aspects of life quality, which generally reduces the integral indicator of the life quality of the population, despite the positive dynamics of socio-economic development of the region and an active social policy of the regional authorities. The results of the study were used for the preparation of the regional target program “New life quality of Ural” (decree of the Governor of Sverdlovsk region from 29.01.2014 No. 45-UG “ON the Concept of improving the quality of life of the population of Sverdlovsk region for the period up to 2030 — “a new quality of life of Ural”.

  6. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power in agricultu......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...

  7. Novel approach in quantitative analysis of shearography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    The application of laser interferometry in industrial non-destructive testing and material characterization is becoming more prevalent since this method provides non-contact full-field inspection of the test object. However their application only limited to the qualitative analysis, current trend has changed to the development of this method by the introduction of quantitative analysis, which attempts to detail the defect examined. This being the design feature for a ranges of object size to be examined. The growing commercial demand for quantitative analysis for NDT and material characterization is determining the quality of optical and analysis instrument. However very little attention is currently being paid to understanding, quantifying and compensating for the numerous error sources which are a function of interferometers. This paper presents a comparison of measurement analysis using the established theoretical approach and the new approach, taken into account the factor of divergence illumination and other geometrical factors. The difference in the measurement system could be associated in the error factor. (Author)

  8. Contraceptive development: targets, approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, G S

    2007-01-01

    The control of fertility constitutes a global health issue, since overpopulation and unintended pregnancy have both major personal and societal impact. Although some regions of the world are seeing neutral or negative population growth, many developing countries are seeing explosive growth of their populations and these population changes will affect the entire globe. It is estimated that in a decade, the largest cohort of young women worldwide in human history will reach adolescence thus necessitating the need for a wide range of contraceptive options that can be used by both females and males. The contraceptive revolution that occurred in the 1960s with the development of the hormonal-based oral contraceptive for women has subsequently made a significant impact on societal dynamics in several cultures, yet there has been virtually no innovation in this field since that time. This lack of innovation contrasts dramatically with the vast enhancement of our knowledge base of the basic processes of reproduction. The genomic and proteomic revolutions have provided new tools and new targets for contraceptive development, and the results of such approaches have identified gene products that play critical roles in female and male reproduction, thus expanding the array of targets for novel and innovative female- and male-based contraceptives. This normally would herald a renaissance in contraceptive development, yet the commitment of industry to this endeavor is limited to a few firms due to the economics of contraceptive development. This chapter will consider the types of targets being considered in the development of new generations of contraceptives and will also focus on the challenges that industry has in meeting these goals.

  9. Perception approaches and practices of local farming and development: an anthropological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, S.A.; Chaudhry, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on recognizing the local approaches of farming in designing and implementation of development projects. These approaches are representative of a particular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable solution to them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which they are being abandoned by the farmers. Modern farming which is representative of development has increased the competition, transitioning, breaking the community into people experimenting on modern technology and those who are still finding means to adapt their traditional agriculture to the fast changing needs of the societies. The research was carried out in the villages of Ghora Gali and Aruka through qualitative and quantitative methods. Sustainable development in Pakistan thus needs to be reinvented in the local perspective considering approaches and practices and, eradicating the alien chains of development completely. (author)

  10. The SIESTA method; developments and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artacho, Emilio; Anglada, E; Dieguez, O; Gale, J D; Garcia, A; Junquera, J; Martin, R M; Ordejon, P; Pruneda, J M; Sanchez-Portal, D; Soler, J M

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in and around the SIESTA method of first-principles simulation of condensed matter are described and reviewed, with emphasis on (i) the applicability of the method for large and varied systems (ii) efficient basis sets for the standards of accuracy of density-functional methods (iii) new implementations, and (iv) extensions beyond ground-state calculations

  11. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  12. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunova A. V.; Maximova O. N.; Ekova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding eva...

  13. A Model-Driven Development Method for Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Keinosuke; Mori, Naoki

    Traditionally, a Management Information System (MIS) has been developed without using formal methods. By the informal methods, the MIS is developed on its lifecycle without having any models. It causes many problems such as lack of the reliability of system design specifications. In order to overcome these problems, a model theory approach was proposed. The approach is based on an idea that a system can be modeled by automata and set theory. However, it is very difficult to generate automata of the system to be developed right from the start. On the other hand, there is a model-driven development method that can flexibly correspond to changes of business logics or implementing technologies. In the model-driven development, a system is modeled using a modeling language such as UML. This paper proposes a new development method for management information systems applying the model-driven development method to a component of the model theory approach. The experiment has shown that a reduced amount of efforts is more than 30% of all the efforts.

  14. Energy and Development. A Modelling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used to explore possible future developments of the global energy system and identify policies to prevent potential problems. Such estimations of future energy use in developing countries are very uncertain. Crucial factors in the future energy use of these regions are electrification, urbanisation and income distribution, issues that are generally not included in present day global energy models. Model simulations in this thesis show that current insight in developments in low-income regions lead to a wide range of expected energy use in 2030 of the residential and transport sectors. This is mainly caused by many different model calibration options that result from the limited data availability for model development and calibration. We developed a method to identify the impact of model calibration uncertainty on future projections. We developed a new model for residential energy use in India, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science. Experiments with this model show that the impact of electrification and income distribution is less univocal than often assumed. The use of fuelwood, with related health risks, can decrease rapidly if the income of poor groups increases. However, there is a trade off in terms of CO2 emissions because these groups gain access to electricity and the ownership of appliances increases. Another issue is the potential role of new technologies in developing countries: will they use the opportunities of leapfrogging? We explored the potential role of hydrogen, an energy carrier that might play a central role in a sustainable energy system. We found that hydrogen only plays a role before 2050 under very optimistic assumptions. Regional energy

  15. Energy and Development. A Modelling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-12-17

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used to explore possible future developments of the global energy system and identify policies to prevent potential problems. Such estimations of future energy use in developing countries are very uncertain. Crucial factors in the future energy use of these regions are electrification, urbanisation and income distribution, issues that are generally not included in present day global energy models. Model simulations in this thesis show that current insight in developments in low-income regions lead to a wide range of expected energy use in 2030 of the residential and transport sectors. This is mainly caused by many different model calibration options that result from the limited data availability for model development and calibration. We developed a method to identify the impact of model calibration uncertainty on future projections. We developed a new model for residential energy use in India, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science. Experiments with this model show that the impact of electrification and income distribution is less univocal than often assumed. The use of fuelwood, with related health risks, can decrease rapidly if the income of poor groups increases. However, there is a trade off in terms of CO2 emissions because these groups gain access to electricity and the ownership of appliances increases. Another issue is the potential role of new technologies in developing countries: will they use the opportunities of leapfrogging? We explored the potential role of hydrogen, an energy carrier that might play a central role in a sustainable energy system. We found that hydrogen only plays a role before 2050 under very optimistic assumptions. Regional energy

  16. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  17. Developing Learning in Organizations with Innovation Pedagogy Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Konst, Taru

    2017-01-01

    Most jobs include training and communication tasks, but often the people in these jobs lack pedagogical competences to plan, implement and assess learning. This paper aims to discuss how a learning approach called innovation pedagogy developed in higher education can be utilized for learning development in various organizations. The methods presented how to implement innovation pedagogy such as process consultation and train the trainer model can provide added value to develop pedagogical kno...

  18. Development of Enterprise Architecture using a Framework with Agile Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Sandoval

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of an enterprise architecture (EA in large organizations is complex. Thus, is important that the implementation of EA creates value in early stages of the process. This document contains a proposal of an EA framework design with agile approach based in TOGAF. This proposal is done with the objective to streamline the EA process. This framework presents a new design taking into account the current regulations, the target line of the organization and the principles proposed by the agile approach of EA. The objectives of each phase of the architecture development method ADM of TOGAF are matched with the requirements of the organization to extract only those that are aligned to the business. The deliverables proposed by TOGAF are analyzed with the goal to obtain, integrate and reduce the documentation in the implementation and modeling phases. This reduction allows more flexibility, less impact in the processes, reduction in development time and costs.

  19. PUMA Development through a Multi physics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jinsik; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2013-01-01

    Meanwhile advances of numerical methods make it possible for the multi physics problem to be solved in a fully coupled way. In addition to a multidimensional, multi physical approach, a nuclear fuel performance analysis code, which is 1D code, should be improved by accommodating the state-of-the-art in the numerical analysis to support current fuel design and performance analysis. In particular, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of numerically stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is of great importance for a multi physics simulation of nuclear fuel. Instead, coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was found to be made with a relative ease by employing an ordinary differential equations solver. As an effort for a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code), the deformation of U-Zr fuel for SFR in connection with a fission gas release model is analyzed. A finite element analyses for purely mechanical problems are performed using a backward differentiation formula, and are subjected to scrupulous verification with Abaqus. Then mechanical equilibrium equation and the equations for fission gas release are coupled with the same differential-algebraic equations (DAE) solver

  20. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-08-19

    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants (http

  1. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  2. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of herbal formulations. A simple, rapid and validated fingerprint method has developed for estimation of piperine in 'Talisadi churna', a well known herbal formulation in India. The estimation was carried out in two ...

  3. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  4. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This model describes the primary quality management methods which may be used to assess an organization's present strengths and weaknesses with regard to its use of quality management methods. This model ...

  5. Numerical Methods Application for Reinforced Concrete Elements-Theoretical Approach for Direct Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ciprian Catinas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.

  6. Algebraic Verification Method for SEREs Properties via Groebner Bases Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient solution using computer algebra system to perform linear temporal properties verification for synchronous digital systems. The method is essentially based on both Groebner bases approaches and symbolic simulation. A mechanism for constructing canonical polynomial set based symbolic representations for both circuit descriptions and assertions is studied. We then present a complete checking algorithm framework based on these algebraic representations by using Groebner bases. The computational experience result in this work shows that the algebraic approach is a quite competitive checking method and will be a useful supplement to the existent verification methods based on simulation.

  7. Using Concept Mapping in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia

    2013-07-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful approach to increasing community involvement in research. Developing rigorous methods in conducting CBPR is an important step in gaining more support for this approach. The current article argues that concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, is useful in the initial development of a rigorous CBPR program of research aiming to develop culturally tailored and community-based health interventions for vulnerable populations. A research project examining social dynamics and consequences of alcohol and substance use in Newark, New Jersey, is described to illustrate the use of concept mapping methodology in CBPR. A total of 75 individuals participated in the study.

  8. An Efficient Approach for Solving Mesh Optimization Problems Using Newton’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibum Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient approach for solving various mesh optimization problems. Our approach is based on Newton’s method, which uses both first-order (gradient and second-order (Hessian derivatives of the nonlinear objective function. The volume and surface mesh optimization algorithms are developed such that mesh validity and surface constraints are satisfied. We also propose several Hessian modification methods when the Hessian matrix is not positive definite. We demonstrate our approach by comparing our method with nonlinear conjugate gradient and steepest descent methods in terms of both efficiency and mesh quality.

  9. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Contemporary Museology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Campolmi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has become a leading value of the 21st century society. Throsby’s and Hutter’s recent studies on inter and intra-generational equity, diversity maintenance and interdependence have demonstrated that sustainability values promote a different perspective on cultural institutions. Particularly, they incite to reorganize the production and consumption patterns, and rethink about the construction of meanings in permanent displays. The paper wants to explore how sustainability principles are an approach to develop a “sustainable museology”, which cares about making visitors more critic and aware of the political, sociological, epistemological and cultural implications that lay behind the making of exhibitions. Museums undertaking a sustainable development of their narrative making processes overpass the Foucauldian idea of art museums as heterotopy, (space of otherness, and approach that of archétopy. This model offers rooms to rethink about narratives as stakeholders’ collective processes capable to “meet the needs of the present without compromising those of the future generations”, as stated in the “Brundtland Commision” Report of 1987. The last display done by the Berlin Neue Nationalgalerie is analysed as a case-study for archétopy. Il paper analizza il concetto di sostenibilità nelle politiche governative dei musei d’arte. Lo studio osserva tale valore da un punto di vista sia teorico che pratico e cita l’esempio dei grandi musei europei, facendo più volte riferimento al caso della Tate Modern di Londra. Se da un lato l’argomento è esplicitamente collegato ai musei d’arte in quanto essi operano per la sostenibilità del bene comune, dall’altro i musei europei hanno basato le proprie politiche culturali adottando il così detto approccio “three bottom” già intrapreso dalle grandi aziende e dalle business companies. Tale approccio si basa sull’elaborazione di politiche attente alla

  10. Approaching complexity by stochastic methods: From biological systems to turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Rudolf [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Peinke, Joachim [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Sahimi, Muhammad [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211 (United States); Reza Rahimi Tabar, M., E-mail: mohammed.r.rahimi.tabar@uni-oldenburg.de [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, 49076 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    This review addresses a central question in the field of complex systems: given a fluctuating (in time or space), sequentially measured set of experimental data, how should one analyze the data, assess their underlying trends, and discover the characteristics of the fluctuations that generate the experimental traces? In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing this question for a class of stochastic processes that can be modeled by Langevin equations, including additive as well as multiplicative fluctuations or noise. Important results have emerged from the analysis of temporal data for such diverse fields as neuroscience, cardiology, finance, economy, surface science, turbulence, seismic time series and epileptic brain dynamics, to name but a few. Furthermore, it has been recognized that a similar approach can be applied to the data that depend on a length scale, such as velocity increments in fully developed turbulent flow, or height increments that characterize rough surfaces. A basic ingredient of the approach to the analysis of fluctuating data is the presence of a Markovian property, which can be detected in real systems above a certain time or length scale. This scale is referred to as the Markov-Einstein (ME) scale, and has turned out to be a useful characteristic of complex systems. We provide a review of the operational methods that have been developed for analyzing stochastic data in time and scale. We address in detail the following issues: (i) reconstruction of stochastic evolution equations from data in terms of the Langevin equations or the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations and (ii) intermittency, cascades, and multiscale correlation functions.

  11. Approaching complexity by stochastic methods: From biological systems to turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Rudolf; Peinke, Joachim; Sahimi, Muhammad; Reza Rahimi Tabar, M.

    2011-01-01

    This review addresses a central question in the field of complex systems: given a fluctuating (in time or space), sequentially measured set of experimental data, how should one analyze the data, assess their underlying trends, and discover the characteristics of the fluctuations that generate the experimental traces? In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing this question for a class of stochastic processes that can be modeled by Langevin equations, including additive as well as multiplicative fluctuations or noise. Important results have emerged from the analysis of temporal data for such diverse fields as neuroscience, cardiology, finance, economy, surface science, turbulence, seismic time series and epileptic brain dynamics, to name but a few. Furthermore, it has been recognized that a similar approach can be applied to the data that depend on a length scale, such as velocity increments in fully developed turbulent flow, or height increments that characterize rough surfaces. A basic ingredient of the approach to the analysis of fluctuating data is the presence of a Markovian property, which can be detected in real systems above a certain time or length scale. This scale is referred to as the Markov-Einstein (ME) scale, and has turned out to be a useful characteristic of complex systems. We provide a review of the operational methods that have been developed for analyzing stochastic data in time and scale. We address in detail the following issues: (i) reconstruction of stochastic evolution equations from data in terms of the Langevin equations or the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations and (ii) intermittency, cascades, and multiscale correlation functions.

  12. The contemporary art of cost management methods during product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.; Morales, S.; Epstein, M.J.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design. Methodology/approach The structured literature search

  13. An integrated approach for facilities planning by ELECTRE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbishari, E. M. Y.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Rahman, Nur Salihah Binti Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Facility planning is concerned with the design, layout, and accommodation of people, machines and activities of a system. Most of the researchers try to investigate the production area layout and the related facilities. However, few of them try to investigate the relationship between the production space and its relationship with service departments. The aim of this research to is to integrate different approaches in order to evaluate, analyse and select the best facilities planning method that able to explain the relationship between the production area and other supporting departments and its effect on human efforts. To achieve the objective of this research two different approaches have been integrated: Apple’s layout procedure as one of the effective tools in planning factories, ELECTRE method as one of the Multi Criteria Decision Making methods (MCDM) to minimize the risk of getting poor facilities planning. Dalia industries have been selected as a case study to implement our integration the factory have been divided two main different area: the whole facility (layout A), and the manufacturing area (layout B). This article will be concerned with the manufacturing area layout (Layout B). After analysing the data gathered, the manufacturing area was divided into 10 activities. There are five factors that the alternative were compared upon which are: Inter department satisfactory level, total distance travelled for workers, total distance travelled for the product, total time travelled for the workers, and total time travelled for the product. Three different layout alternatives have been developed in addition to the original layouts. Apple’s layout procedure was used to study and evaluate the different alternatives layouts, the study and evaluation of the layouts was done by calculating scores for each of the factors. After obtaining the scores from evaluating the layouts, ELECTRE method was used to compare the proposed alternatives with each other and with

  14. A Pattern-Oriented Approach to a Methodical Evaluation of Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amberg

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a pattern-oriented approach to evaluate modeling methods and to compare various methods with each other from a methodical viewpoint. A specific set of principles (the patterns is defined by investigating the notations and the documentation of comparable modeling methods. Each principle helps to examine some parts of the methods from a specific point of view. All principles together lead to an overall picture of the method under examination. First the core ("method neutral" meaning of each principle is described. Then the methods are examined regarding the principle. Afterwards the method specific interpretations are compared with each other and with the core meaning of the principle. By this procedure, the strengths and weaknesses of modeling methods regarding methodical aspects are identified. The principles are described uniformly using a principle description template according to descriptions of object oriented design patterns. The approach is demonstrated by evaluating a business process modeling method.

  15. A Corporate Approach to Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Diana

    1988-01-01

    Presents a corporate model for faculty development programs. Reviews corporate training programs, including planning, implementation, and motivations. Discusses the application of these corporate concepts to professional development, instructional development, personal development, and new staff orientation for faculty. (CH)

  16. A full digital approach to the TDCR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mini, Giuliano; Pepe, Francesco; Tintori, Carlo; Capogni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Current state of the art solutions based on the Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio method are generally large size, heavy-weight and not transportable systems. This is due, on one side, to large detectors and scintillation chambers and, on the other, to bulky analog electronics for data acquisition. CAEN developed a new, full digital approach to TDCR technique based on a portable, stand-alone, high-speed multichannel digitizer, on-board Digital Pulse Processing and dedicated DAQ software that emulates the well-known MAC3 analog board. - Highlights: • CAEN Desktop Digitizers used to emulate the MAC3 analog board in TDCR acquisition. • Spectroscopic application of the CAEN digitizers to the TDCR for charge spectra. • Development of two different softwares by CAEN and ENEA-INMRI for TDCR analysis. • Single electron peak obtained by CAEN digitizer and ENEA-INMRI portable TDCR. • Measurements of 90 Sr/ 90 Y by the new TDCR device equipped with CAEN digitizers

  17. Guiding the development of enterprise design approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vries, Marne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise engineering (EE is an emerging discipline that aims to address several phenomena in the evolution of an enterprise. Previous research highlighted a particular phenomenon that requires more research — i.e., the inability of the enterprise as a complex socio-technical system to adapt swiftly to rapidly-changing environments. Although there are numerous theoretical design approaches (with their own methodologies, frameworks, and modelling languages, there is little empirical evidence about their effectiveness. Furthermore, research indicates that multiple enterprise design approaches are used concurrently in industry, with each approach focusing on a sub-set of stakeholder concerns. The proliferating design approaches do not necessarily explicate their conditional use in terms of contextual prerequisites and demarcated design scope; and this also impairs their evaluation. This article provides guidance for the construction of design approaches that will enable researchers to contribute to the systematic growth of the EE knowledge base.

  18. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  19. Methods of Strength Development in Middle Schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Нарижний

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strength being the foundation of motor abilities development, the question arises as to rationalizing the process of its development. The purpose of the research is to improve the conventional methods of strength development in middle schoolers. To achieve the objectives set, the study used the following methods: theoretical analysis and collation of methodological literature, testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The analysis of the testing results showed a statistically significant increase in the indicators by two of five tests in girls and three of five tests in boys, with the combined method used. The other results show a tendency to improve too, but the deviations in the testing results are statistically weak. The re-use of the method reveals a statistically reliable indicator in one of five exercises, whereas no such indicator manifests in girls. Conclusions. Using the combined method makes it possible to simultaneously influence several types of strength, which rationalizes the development of strength abilities. The tests “bending and unbending of arms in suspension lying”, “remaining in suspension lying on bent arms” proved most informative.

  20. The development of market approaches in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiman, I

    1994-01-01

    In the late 1980s, it became clear that poor outcomes of the Russian health system were caused not only by underfunding but also by inadequate management of health care. Some features of the system led to great inefficiency in medical care provision and an irrational structure of medical care. The recognition of this fact has intensified the search for new methods of finance and management. The underlying idea of health care reforms in Russia is to weaken providers' dominance, to make them more responsive to consumer preferences, and to change the structure of medical care. The main developments of the reform parallel the reforms in Western countries. These are primarily the separation of finance and provision of medical care, with the shift from an integrated to a contractual model of relationships between payers and providers. But the specific characteristics of the health care situation, primarily the great underfunding and the absolute dominance of state-owned medical facilities, make the reform in the Russian health sector more radical. This paper highlights the issues of the current and planned developments in the Russian health sector. After presenting the main characteristics of the current health systems, it addresses economic experiments which are underway in several regions of the new Russian Federation. They are designed to introduce elements of market relations into a highly bureaucratic system. The main features and the impact of the experiments are discussed. Then the new model of finance, which is based on a transition from tax-financed to the health insurance system, is presented.

  1. Methods and approaches to prediction in the meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of the agro-industrial complex is characterized by an increasing complexity, intensification of technological processes of complex processing of materials of animal origin also the need for a systematic analysis of the variety of determining factors and relationships between them, complexity of the objective function of product quality and severe restrictions on technological regimes. One of the main tasks that face the employees of the enterprises of the agro-industrial complex, which are engaged in processing biotechnological raw materials, is the further organizational improvement of work at all stages of the food chain, besides an increase in the production volume. The meat industry as a part of the agro-industrial complex has to use the biological raw materials with maximum efficiency, while reducing and even eliminating losses at all stages of processing; rationally use raw material when selecting a type of processing products; steadily increase quality, biological and food value of products; broaden the assortment of manufactured products in order to satisfy increasing consumer requirements and extend the market for their realization in the conditions of uncertainty of external environment, due to the uneven receipt of raw materials, variations in its properties and parameters, limited time sales and fluctuations in demand for products. The challenges facing the meat industry cannot be solved without changes to the strategy for scientific and technological development of the industry. To achieve these tasks, it is necessary to use the prediction as a method of constant improvement of all technological processes and their performance under the rational and optimal regimes, while constantly controlling quality of raw material, semi-prepared products and finished products at all stages of the technological processing by the physico-chemical, physico-mechanical (rheological, microbiological and organoleptic methods. The paper

  2. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    for an industry to do so; discuss what education that candidates for these industries need, that is, which courses must be part of a BSc/MSc Software Engineering curriculum. Finally we shall comment on distinctions between formal methods and formal techniques; limitations of mono-language formalisations, hence......The use of formal methods and formal techniques in industry is steadily growing. In this survey we shall characterise what we mean by software development and by a formal method; briefly overview a history of formal specification languages - some of which are: VDM (Vienna Development Method, 1974......-..., [1]), Z (Z for Zermelo Fraenkel, 1980-..., [2]), RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering, 1987-..., [3]) Event B (B for Bourbaki, 1990/2000-..., [4]) and Alloy [5]; and outline the basics of a formal development using, for example, RAISE: first developing a domain description D...

  3. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS; ANNA KOURTESOPOULOU

    2008-01-01

    In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD). For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development ...

  4. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  5. Malaria Vaccine Development: The Need for Novel Approach-es: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima MAHMOUDI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rigorous efforts have substantially decreased the malaria burden through decades, it still threatens the lives of millions of children. Development of an effective vaccine can provide important approach in malaria control strategies. Unfortunately, development of an effective vaccine for falciparum malaria has been hindered by the extreme complexity of malaria parasite biology, complex and diverse parasite genomes, and immune evasion by the parasites as well as the intricate nature of the parasites infection cycle. The aim of this review was to discuss the different approaches to malaria vaccine development until now.Methods: Scientific databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed and SCOPUS were searched up to 30 Jan 2017 and the articles regarding malaria vaccine development were taken into examination.Results: Several strategies for malaria vaccine development including pre-erythrocytic vaccines, antibody-based subunit vaccines, vectored vaccines, whole sporozoite vaccines, genetically Attenuated parasites and sporozoite subunit vaccine, erythrocytic vaccines, sexual stage vaccine, transmission-blocking vaccine as well as synthetic peptides and conjugate vaccine has been introduced. However, the success has been limited thus far.Conclusion: Although development of malaria vaccine over the past 70 year has been continued, the discovery, development, and licensing of a malaria vaccine formulation, which meets safety, affordability, accessibility, applicability, and efficacy has not yet been achieved.

  6. The Microsociological Approach on Local Development Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Domingos António-Lópes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, societies, economies and cultures of the countries developed and developing have lived deep structural changes of marked breadth and impact processes in everyday lives.  Today we are witnessing a new era of technological and organizational restructuring that affects the ways to produce and manage local development. Sociology as a social science has begun to rethink development from the voices of a variety of actors, to strike with them rhythms and intensities of the social and cultural dynamics. This article is a sociological study on local development from the perspective of culture, placing the concepts of social space and socialization practices. An analysis of documentary sources which favoured the systematization of the concepts of development and local development.Keywords:  development, local development, socialization, cultural practices, social space, social capital.

  7. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  8. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Tamer F; Elkilani, Wail S; Abdul-Kader, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  9. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  10. Systematic approaches to data analysis from the Critical Decision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It

  11. A retrospective approach to testing the DNA barcoding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Chapple

    Full Text Available A decade ago, DNA barcoding was proposed as a standardised method for identifying existing species and speeding the discovery of new species. Yet, despite its numerous successes across a range of taxa, its frequent failures have brought into question its accuracy as a short-cut taxonomic method. We use a retrospective approach, applying the method to the classification of New Zealand skinks as it stood in 1977 (primarily based upon morphological characters, and compare it to the current taxonomy reached using both morphological and molecular approaches. For the 1977 dataset, DNA barcoding had moderate-high success in identifying specimens (78-98%, and correctly flagging specimens that have since been confirmed as distinct taxa (77-100%. But most matching methods failed to detect the species complexes that were present in 1977. For the current dataset, there was moderate-high success in identifying specimens (53-99%. For both datasets, the capacity to discover new species was dependent on the methodological approach used. Species delimitation in New Zealand skinks was hindered by the absence of either a local or global barcoding gap, a result of recent speciation events and hybridisation. Whilst DNA barcoding is potentially useful for specimen identification and species discovery in New Zealand skinks, its error rate could hinder the progress of documenting biodiversity in this group. We suggest that integrated taxonomic approaches are more effective at discovering and describing biodiversity.

  12. Experiential Approach to Teaching Statistics and Research Methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistics and research methods are among the more demanding topics for students of education to master at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is our conviction that teaching these topics should be combined with real practical experiences. We discuss an experiential teaching/ learning approach that ...

  13. Teaching Psychological Research Methods through a Pragmatic and Programmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Patrick; Fielden, Amy; Tzemou, Effy

    2014-01-01

    Research methods teaching in psychology is pivotal in preparing students for the transition from student as learner to independent practitioner. We took an action research approach to re-design, implement and evaluate a module guiding students through a programmatic and pragmatic research cycle. These revisions allow students to experience how…

  14. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  15. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... combating HIV/AIDS. However, the South African construction industry has been slow in responding to this call, and many organisations are not fully aware of what such involvement might mean. A sequential mixed methods research approach was used to investigate this problem. As the research is ...

  16. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  17. A Framework for Teaching Software Development Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Yael; Hazzan, Orit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that aims at constructing a teaching framework for software development methods in higher education. The research field is a capstone project-based course, offered by the Technion's Department of Computer Science, in which Extreme Programming is introduced. The research paradigm is an Action Research that involves…

  18. Automating Object-Oriented Software Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Saeki, Motoshi; Sunyé, Gerson; van den Broek, P.M.; Hruby, Pavel; Tekinerdogan, B.; van den Broek, P.M.; Saeki, M.; Hruby, P.; Sunye, G.

    2001-01-01

    Current software projects have generally to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. It is generally believed that applying software development methods are useful in coping with this complexity and for supporting quality. As such numerous object-oriented software

  19. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This

  20. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: An ultraviolet spectrophotometric system was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lornoxicam in solid dosage forms. Methods: Lornoxicam was dissolved in 0.01M NaOH and analysed using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Various analytical parameters such as linearity, precision, ...

  1. Automating Object-Oriented Software Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Frohner, A´ kos; Saeki, Motoshi; Sunyé, Gerson; van den Broek, P.M.; Hruby, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Current software projects have generally to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. It is generally believed that applying software development methods are useful in coping with this complexity and for supporting quality. As such numerous object-oriented software

  2. Usability Evaluation Method for Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Masood Butt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agile methods are the best fit for tremendously growing software industry due to its flexible and dynamic nature. But the software developed using agile methods do meet the usability standards? To answer this question we can see that majority of agile software development projects currently involve interactive user interface designs, which can only be possible by following User Centered Design (UCD in agile methods. The question here is, how to integrate UCD with agile models. Both Agile models and UCD are iterative in nature but agile models focus on coding and development of software; whereas, UCD focuses on user interface of the software. Similarly, both of them have testing features where the agile model involves automated tested code while UCD involves an expert or a user to test the user interface. In this paper, a new agile usability model is proposed and the evaluation is of the proposed model is presented by practically implementing it in three real life projects. . Key results from these projects clearly show: the proposed agile model incorporates usability evaluation methods, improves the relationship between usability experts to work with agile software experts; in addition, allows agile developers to incorporate the result from UCD into subsequent interactions.

  3. Development of methodical approach to the identification of the features of the genetic polymorphisms and gene expression in children under influence of chemical environmental factors on the example of strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Dolgikh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approaches evaluating the features of genetic polymorphism associated with exposure to chemical etiology factors for the identification of genetic susceptibility markers were developed. The technologies, methodological aspects of the use of polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing fragments, studies of spontaneous and induced strontium expression of candidate genes that help identify changes in the genome and transcriptome in order to identify early disorders of adaptation processes in chronic environmental burden to prove the injury and assessment of individual exposure risk chemical factors were suggested.

  4. An Efficient Approach for Identifying Stable Lobes with Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for quick identification of chatter stability lobes with discretization method. Firstly, three different kinds of stability regions are defined: absolute stable region, valid region, and invalid region. Secondly, while identifying the chatter stability lobes, three different regions within the chatter stability lobes are identified with relatively large time intervals. Thirdly, stability boundary within the valid regions is finely calculated to get exact chatter stability lobes. The proposed method only needs to test a small portion of spindle speed and cutting depth set; about 89% computation time is savedcompared with full discretization method. It spends only about10 minutes to get exact chatter stability lobes. Since, based on discretization method, the proposed method can be used for different immersion cutting including low immersion cutting process, the proposed method can be directly implemented in the workshop to promote machining parameters selection efficiency.

  5. A Systematic Approach for Soft Sensor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Renaudat, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    by a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) approach, is used to detect outlying observations. Then, robust regression techniques are employed to derive an inferential model. A dynamic partial least squares (DPLS) model is implemented to address the issue of auto-correlation in process data and thus...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIGGINS, J.C.; O'HARA, J.M.; LEWIS, P.M.; PERSENSKY, J.; BONGARRA, J.

    2002-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS. THE U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC) REVIEWS THE HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF PROPOSED LICENSE AMENDMENTS THAT IMPACT HUMAN ACTIONS THAT ARE CREDITED IN A PLANTS SAFETY ANALYSIS. THE STAFF IS COMMITTED TO A GRADED APPROACH TO THESE REVIEWS THAT FOCUS RESOURCES ON THE MOST RISK IMPORTANT CHANGES. THEREFORE, A RISK INFORMED SCREENING METHOD WAS DEVELOPED BASED ON AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING GUIDANCE FOR RISK INFORMED REGULATION AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE METHOD USES BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION TO DIVIDE THE AMENDMENT REQUESTS INTO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF REVIEW. THE METHOD WAS EVALUATED USING A VARIETY OF TESTS. THIS PAPER WILL SUMMARIZE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY AND THE EVALUATIONS THAT WERE PERFORMED TO VERIFY ITS USEFULNESS

  7. Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

  8. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  9. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  10. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  11. Test method for the microbiological barrier properties of wrapping materials ; new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn ACP; Wagner P

    1993-01-01

    The study shows that the new approach, as proposed by CEN TC102 wg4, for the development of a test method for the determination the microbial barrier properties of packaging materials for medical devices does not give the expected advances over the in 1990 presented LGM test method (RIVM-report

  12. Budgetary Approach to Project Management by Percentage of Completion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Borowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and effective project management process is made possible by the use of methods and techniques of project management. The aim of this paper is to present the problems of project management by using Percentage of Completion method. The research material was gathered based on the experience in implementing this method by the Johnson Controls International Company. The article attempts to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that the POC project management method, allows for effective implementation and monitoring of the project and thus is an effective tool in the managing of companies which exploit the budgetary approach. The study presents planning process of basic parameters affecting the effectiveness of the project (such as costs, revenue, margin and characterized how the primary measurements used to evaluate it. The present theme is illustrating by numerous examples for showing the essence of the raised problems and the results are presenting by using descriptive methods, graphical and tabular.

  13. Computation of a coastal protection, using classical method, the PIANC-method or a full probabilistic approach ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In a classical design approach to breakwaters a design wave height is determined, and filled in into a design formula. Some undefined safety is added. In the method using partial safety coefficients (as developed by PIANC [1992] and recently also adopted by the Coastal Engineering Manual of the US

  14. Evolving approaches to sustainable development | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... Our Common Future, the 1987 report issued by the Brundtland Commission, defined it as “development that meets the needs of the present without ... brought about by the complex links between human well-being and the processes of globalization, development, and natural resource degradation.”

  15. NEW ECONOMY: APPROACHES, FEATURES, SOCIAL SPHERE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Babicheva E.E.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents main features of the New economy. Special consideration was given to social sphere development and social institutions restructuring in the context of the New economy. A number of social problems arisen out of this processes had been covered. In the issue author concluded that social sphere development occurred under the conditions of the New economy is fundamental process

  16. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  17. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, M.; Thompson, T.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 μrad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The EDIE method – towards an approach to collaboration-based persuasive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sandra Burri Gram

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the initial steps towards a collaboration-based method for persuasive design – the EDIE method (Explore, Design, Implement, Evaluate). The method is inspired by Design-Based Research, but developed to combine different design approaches that have dominated the persuasive...... technology field over the past decade. The rhetorical notion of Kairos is considered a key element in the EDIE method, resulting in a distinct focus on participatory design and constructive ethics. The method is explained through a practical example of developing persuasive learning designs in collaboration...

  19. Development of Gocing Storage Method for Cocoyam

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwu, G.O; Nwosu, K.I; Madu, T.U; Chinaka, C; Okoye, B.C

    2008-01-01

    Lack of good storage reduces the shelf life of harvested cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) corms and cormels. This is a major challenge facing cocoyam farmers, processors, and marketers in Nigeria. The National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria, which has a national mandate to research into root and tubers crops of economic importance, has developed the ‘Gocing Storage’ for improved storage of cocoyam. The paper highlights this improved method of storing cocoya...

  20. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding evaluation criteria in the quality management system of enterprises is introduced. Authors also introduce the method of controlling quality costs and propose it for the practical application, which allows them to determine useful and unnecessary costs at the existing operating plant. Implementing the proposed recommendations in the system of cost management at an enterprise will allow to improve productivity of processes operating and reduce wasted expense on the quality of the process on the basis of determining values of useful and useless costs of quality according to criteria of processes functioning in the system of quality management.

  1. Adopting of Agile methods in Software Development Organizations: Systematic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of agile methods in the software development organization is considered as a powerful solution to deal with the quickly changing and regularly developing business environment and fully-educated customers with constantly rising expectation, such as shorter time periods and an extraordinary level of response and service. This study investigates the adoption of agile approaches in software development organizations by using systematic mapping. Six research questions are identified, and to answer these questions a number of research papers have been reviewed in electronic databases. Finally, 25 research papers are examined and answers to all research questions are provided.

  2. Philosophy and possible approach to SAMG development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartmadjiev, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture are discussed: Safety functional relationship; Basic principles for development and implementation of SAMG; and Determination of the plant damage condition. Phases of the SA management are presented

  3. An action research approach to curriculum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riding

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ‘teacher- researcher’ movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

  4. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  5. Group decision-making approach for flood vulnerability identification using the fuzzy VIKOR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Jun, K. S.; Chung, E.-S.

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes an improved group decision making (GDM) framework that combines the VIKOR method with data fuzzification to quantify the spatial flood vulnerability including multiple criteria. In general, GDM method is an effective tool for formulating a compromise solution that involves various decision makers since various stakeholders may have different perspectives on their flood risk/vulnerability management responses. The GDM approach is designed to achieve consensus building that reflects the viewpoints of each participant. The fuzzy VIKOR method was developed to solve multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems with conflicting and noncommensurable criteria. This comprising method can be used to obtain a nearly ideal solution according to all established criteria. This approach effectively can propose some compromising decisions by combining the GDM method and fuzzy VIKOR method. The spatial flood vulnerability of the southern Han River using the GDM approach combined with the fuzzy VIKOR method was compared with the spatial flood vulnerability using general MCDM methods, such as the fuzzy TOPSIS and classical GDM methods (i.e., Borda, Condorcet, and Copeland). As a result, the proposed fuzzy GDM approach can reduce the uncertainty in the data confidence and weight derivation techniques. Thus, the combination of the GDM approach with the fuzzy VIKOR method can provide robust prioritization because it actively reflects the opinions of various groups and considers uncertainty in the input data.

  6. A developed unsharp masking method for images contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaafouri, A.; Sayadi, M.; Fnaiech, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a developed unsharp masking process for contrast image enhancement. The main idea here is to enhance the dark and bright area in the same way which matches the response of human visual system well. Then in order to reduce the noise effect, a mean weighted high pass filter is used for edge extraction. The proposed method gives satisfactory results for wide range of low contrast images compared with others known approaches.

  7. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  9. Development of quality-by-design analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frederick G; Kord, Alireza S

    2011-03-01

    Quality-by-design (QbD) is a systematic approach to drug development, which begins with predefined objectives, and uses science and risk management approaches to gain product and process understanding and ultimately process control. The concept of QbD can be extended to analytical methods. QbD mandates the definition of a goal for the method, and emphasizes thorough evaluation and scouting of alternative methods in a systematic way to obtain optimal method performance. Candidate methods are then carefully assessed in a structured manner for risks, and are challenged to determine if robustness and ruggedness criteria are satisfied. As a result of these studies, the method performance can be understood and improved if necessary, and a control strategy can be defined to manage risk and ensure the method performs as desired when validated and deployed. In this review, the current state of analytical QbD in the industry is detailed with examples of the application of analytical QbD principles to a range of analytical methods, including high-performance liquid chromatography, Karl Fischer titration for moisture content, vibrational spectroscopy for chemical identification, quantitative color measurement, and trace analysis for genotoxic impurities. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A bioinformatics approach to marker development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on two bioinformatics research topics: the development of tools for an efficient and reliable identification of single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (Chapter 2, 3 and 4), and the subsequent

  11. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  12. Classical and Contemporary Approaches for Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Zekeriya; Seydoogullari, Sedef; Cavdar, Duygu; Cok, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Most of the information in the moral development literature depends on Theories of Piaget and Kohlberg. The theoretical contribution by Gilligan and Turiel are not widely known and not much resource is available in Turkish. For this reason introducing and discussing the theories of Gilligan and Turiel and more comprehensive perspective for moral…

  13. Neurosurgery resident leadership development: an innovative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeffrey E; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Albert, Gregory W; Greenlee, Jeremy D

    2011-02-01

    A great deal of time and resources go into the development and training of neurosurgeons. One area that has minimal literature and assessment is leadership development. Under the core competency of interpersonal and communication skills, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has indicated that residents are expected to work effectively as a member or leader of a healthcare team. This article reveals how a structured leadership program was developed so that residents are better prepared for the role of chief resident and future leadership roles. Beginning in October 2006, residents attended a series of 1-hour workshops conducted monthly. Topics included leadership style, conflict management, effective feedback, team building, team leadership, motivation, and moving from peer to leader. A retrospective pretest was conducted at the end of the program. Residents reported a significant knowledge gain for the majority of topics. Resident comments indicated a greater awareness of the impact of leading and ways to improve their personal leadership. Quantitatively and qualitatively, residents and faculty reported that the leadership program made a significant impact on the development of future neurosurgical leaders.

  14. Energy and development : A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used explore

  15. Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia Hector Horacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Several research efforts have coordinated the academic program of Agricultural Business Management from the University De La Salle (Bogota D.C., to the design and implementation of a sustainable agribusiness model applied to food development, with territorial projection. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations “Millennium Development Goals” and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm (technical objectives, family (social purposes and community (collective orientations projects. Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research (PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the “new rurality”.

  16. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE COST MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunina Iryna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper deals with the actual issues of managing the costs of industrial enterprises, because in the conditions of an unstable market environment the financial performance depends on the efficiency of the cost management system, competitiveness, financial sustainability and investment attractiveness of any subject of economic activity. Purpose of the article is analys is of approaches to cost management, theoretical substantiation and development of recommendations regarding the formation of strategic cost management. Results. The economic content of cost management in the treatment of different authors and on different approaches: functional, process-oriented and system approaches has been considered. Their essence and features, the direction for operational or strategic management of expenses of the enterprise, ways of spending management in different approaches are determined. It is stated that all considered approaches to cost management of enterprises are aimed at optimal use of resources and ensuring the growth of the efficiency of enterprises. Conclusions. Based on the review of methodological approaches to cost management, recommendations are developed for expanding the implementation of cost management at various levels of enterprise management and the formation of strategic cost management within the framework of strategic management of an enterprise. The strategic cost management is complex category aimed at achieving a rational level of costs in the long run, which allows for the consideration of competitive cost advantages and increase the competitiveness of an industrial enterprise. The implementation of cost reduction strategies should be a constant and important part of the company’s work, while the strategy of cost reduction should be integrated into the overall business strategy of the enterprise.

  17. Revising Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to Education for Ethical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kwangsu; Jeong, Wongyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether Amartya Sen's capability approach can suggest an appropriate theory of education for ethical development. Many advocates of Sen's capability approach insist that his approach is superior to rival theories of education, including the human capital theory. This is because Sen emphasizes the purpose and…

  18. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  19. Understanding and developing creativity: A practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald J. Treffinger; Edwin C. Selby

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes i...

  20. Teacher Professional Development: International Perspectives and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Bautista; Rosario Ortega-Ruíz

    2015-01-01

    Nations around the world are currently embarked in deep reforms of their education systems. There is widespread agreement among policymakers, scholars, and educators that one of the keys for success during these reforms is promoting the professional development (PD) of in-service teachers. Every year, governments invest astronomical amounts of money on teacher continuous learning. However, the literature shows that much of the PD offered to teachers is inefficient, having small or no effect o...

  1. Feminist Development Economics : An Institutional Approach to Household Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); O. Odebode (Olasunbo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this chapter, we argue that an institutional approach to feminist development economics provides deeper understandings to how gender inequalities function in economic processes in developing countries. We do this in three ways. First, we distinguish between

  2. Sustainability Assessment Approaches: Towards a Global Sustainability Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The beginnings and progress in implementing sustainable development in different areas with large impacts on the environment, society, and economy in the last decade is summarized. Thus, the different existing approaches and possible future developments f No data (2012)

  3. A systematic approach for component-based software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling prefabricated, configurable and independently evolving building blocks, called software components. This paper presents an approach for the development of component-based software artefacts. This

  4. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    We plan to extend our success in treating B cell malignancies with {sup 131}I labeled Lym-1 by a major effort in therapy with {sup 67}Cu Lym-1. Yttrium-90 labeled by a macrocycle, DOTA will be studied in patients as a continuation of the {sup 111}In-BAD (DOTA) Lym-1 studies. Excellent images and pharmacokinetics of the {sup 111}In-BAD(DOTA)-Lym-1 studies. Lymphomas and related diseases represent a special case for radioimmunotherapy because of their documented radiosensitivity and immunodeficiency, and thus offer a unique opportunity to conduct therapeutic feasibility studies in a responsive human model. Using marine and chimeric L6 and other MoAb to breast cancer, we have applied the strategies that were developed in taking Lym-1 antibody from the bench to the patient. We have examined a number of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of breast cancer and chose chimeric L6 for prototype studies because of certain characteristics. The chemistry of attachment of conjugates to antibodies and their impact on immunological targeting biological activities (cytotoxicity), metabolic fate, and therapeutic index will continue to be a major strength and function of this program. This grant has supported the conception, synthesis, and development of the first macrocylic, bifunctional chelating agent TETA (6-p-nitrobenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazatetradecane-N,N{prime},N{double prime}, N{prime}{double prime}-tetraacetic acid and its derivatives, including Lym-1-2IT-BAT), for use in Cu-67-based radioimmunodiagnosis and therapy. This work has led to the further development of several new macrocylic bifunctional chelating agents for copper, indium, yttrium and other metals. In addition, successful Cu-67 labelings of Lym-1-2IT-BAT for human radiopharmaceutical have shown patient pharmacokinetics of {sup 67}Cu-BAT(TETA)-Lym-1 with promising therapeutic dosimetry.

  5. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    We plan to extend our success in treating B cell malignancies with 131 I labeled Lym-1 by a major effort in therapy with 67 Cu Lym-1. Yttrium-90 labeled by a macrocycle, DOTA will be studied in patients as a continuation of the 111 In-BAD (DOTA) Lym-1 studies. Excellent images and pharmacokinetics of the 111 In-BAD(DOTA)-Lym-1 studies. Lymphomas and related diseases represent a special case for radioimmunotherapy because of their documented radiosensitivity and immunodeficiency, and thus offer a unique opportunity to conduct therapeutic feasibility studies in a responsive human model. Using marine and chimeric L6 and other MoAb to breast cancer, we have applied the strategies that were developed in taking Lym-1 antibody from the bench to the patient. We have examined a number of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of breast cancer and chose chimeric L6 for prototype studies because of certain characteristics. The chemistry of attachment of conjugates to antibodies and their impact on immunological targeting biological activities (cytotoxicity), metabolic fate, and therapeutic index will continue to be a major strength and function of this program. This grant has supported the conception, synthesis, and development of the first macrocylic, bifunctional chelating agent TETA (6-p-nitrobenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazatetradecane-N,N',N double-prime, N'double-prime-tetraacetic acid and its derivatives, including Lym-1-2IT-BAT), for use in Cu-67-based radioimmunodiagnosis and therapy. This work has led to the further development of several new macrocylic bifunctional chelating agents for copper, indium, yttrium and other metals. In addition, successful Cu-67 labelings of Lym-1-2IT-BAT for human radiopharmaceutical have shown patient pharmacokinetics of 67 Cu-BAT(TETA)-Lym-1 with promising therapeutic dosimetry

  6. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Gholi Sarli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year organic patterns of evolution great poets and writers literary emblems and evaluations of every period events, concepts and periods of general or political history analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts approaches and styles of language dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change. Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  7. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Gh. Sarli

    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year; organic patterns of evolution; great poets and writers; literary emblems and evaluations of every period; events, concepts and periods of general or political history; analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts; approaches and styles of language; dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change.Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  8. Software development an open source approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Allen; de Silva, Chamindra

    2011-01-01

    Overview and Motivation Software Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)Two Case Studies Working with a Project Team Key FOSS Activities Client-Oriented vs. Community-Oriented Projects Working on a Client-Oriented Project Joining a Community-Oriented Project Using Project Tools Collaboration Tools Code Management Tools Run-Time System ConstraintsSoftware Architecture Architectural Patterns Layers, Cohesion, and Coupling Security Concurrency, Race Conditions, and DeadlocksWorking with Code Bad Smells and Metrics Refactoring Testing Debugging Extending the Software for a New ProjectDeveloping the D

  9. Development and Optimization of an UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Method Based on an In-Source Collision Induced Dissociation Approach for Comprehensive Discrimination of Chlorogenic Acids Isomers from Momordica Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Madala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acids (CGA have been profiled in the leaves of Momordica balsamina, Momordica charantia, and Momordica foetida. All three species were found to contain the trans and cis isomers of 4-acyl para-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA, and feruloylquinic acid (FQA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pCoQA and FQA and their cis isomers in these Momordica species. These profiles were obtained by a newly developed UPLC-qTOF-MS method based on the in-source collision induced dissociation (ISCID method optimized to mimic the MS2 and MS3 fragmentation of an ion trap-based MS. The presence of the cis isomers is believed to be due to high UV exposure of these plants. Furthermore, the absence of the 3-acyl and 5-acyl CGA molecules points to a metabolic mark that is unusual and represents a very interesting biochemical phenotype of these species. Our optimized ISCID method was also shown to be able to distinguish between the geometrical isomers of all three forms of CGA, a phenomenon previously deemed impossible with other common mass spectrometry systems used for CGA analyses.

  10. Development and Optimization of an UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Method Based on an In-Source Collision Induced Dissociation Approach for Comprehensive Discrimination of Chlorogenic Acids Isomers from Momordica Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, N. E.; Tugizimana, F.; Steenkamp, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) have been profiled in the leaves of Momordica balsamina, Momordica charantia, and Momordica foetida. All three species were found to contain the trans and cis isomers of 4-acyl para-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA), caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and feruloylquinic acid (FQA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pCoQA and FQA and their cis isomers in these Momordica species. These profiles were obtained by a newly developed UPLC-qTOF-MS method based on the in-source collision induced dissociation (ISCID) method optimized to mimic the MS2 and MS3 fragmentation of an ion trap-based MS. The presence of the cis isomers is believed to be due to high UV exposure of these plants. Furthermore, the absence of the 3-acyl and 5-acyl CGA molecules points to a metabolic mark that is unusual and represents a very interesting biochemical phenotype of these species. Our optimized ISCID method was also shown to be able to distinguish between the geometrical isomers of all three forms of CGA, a phenomenon previously deemed impossible with other common mass spectrometry systems used for CGA analyses. PMID:25295221

  11. Ex-post evaluation of local energy efficiency and demand-side management operations - State of the art, bottom-up methods, applied examples and approach for the development of an evaluation practical culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, J.S.

    2006-12-01

    Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)

  12. [Descartes' influence on the development of the anatomoclinical method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, A; Domínguez Rodríguez, M V; Fabre Pi, O; Cubero González, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of the anatomical-clinical method was a huge advance for modern medicine since it revealed a new approach to understanding diagnostic procedures. This change in medical thinking towards a more scientific basis has gradually evolved over several centuries, reaching its brilliant zenith with the contributions of the French school. There are certain similarities between the guidelines of the anatomical-clinical method and René Descartes' philosophical principles, so it is fair to consider him as one of the major precursors in this new line of thinking that definitely influenced the historical course of medicine.

  13. Basis set approach in the constrained interpolation profile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, T.; Koga, J.; Yabe, T.; Ogata, Y.; Matsunaga, E.; Aoki, T.; Sekine, M.

    2003-07-01

    We propose a simple polynomial basis-set that is easily extendable to any desired higher-order accuracy. This method is based on the Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method and the profile is chosen so that the subgrid scale solution approaches the real solution by the constraints from the spatial derivative of the original equation. Thus the solution even on the subgrid scale becomes consistent with the master equation. By increasing the order of the polynomial, this solution quickly converges. 3rd and 5th order polynomials are tested on the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation and are proved to give solutions a few orders of magnitude higher in accuracy than conventional methods for lower-lying eigenstates. (author)

  14. Design and Development of Biomimetic Nanovesicles Using a Microfluidic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Roberto; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Hoffman, Jessica R; Corbo, Claudia; Taraballi, Francesca; Martinez, Jonathan O; Hartman, Kelly A; Cosco, Donato; Costa, Giosue'; Romeo, Isabella; Sherman, Michael; Paolino, Donatella; Alcaro, Stefano; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2018-03-07

    The advancement of nanotechnology toward more sophisticated bioinspired approaches has highlighted the gap between the advantages of biomimetic and biohybrid platforms and the availability of manufacturing processes to scale up their production. Though the advantages of transferring biological features from cells to synthetic nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes have recently been reported, a standardizable, batch-to-batch consistent, scalable, and high-throughput assembly method is required to further develop these platforms. Microfluidics has offered a robust tool for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles in a versatile and reproducible approach. In this study, the incorporation of membrane proteins within the bilayer of biomimetic nanovesicles (leukosomes) using a microfluidic-based platform is demonstrated. The physical, pharmaceutical, and biological properties of microfluidic-formulated leukosomes (called NA-Leuko) are characterized. NA-Leuko show extended shelf life and retention of the biological functions of donor cells (i.e., macrophage avoidance and targeting of inflamed vasculature). The NA approach represents a universal, versatile, robust, and scalable tool, which is extensively used for the assembly of lipid nanoparticles and adapted here for the manufacturing of biomimetic nanovesicles. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A multi-faceted approach to research development (II): Supporting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-faceted approach to research development (II): Supporting communities of practice. IM Christiansen, L Slammert. Abstract. In South Africa, dominant discourses on research development are characterised by a technical-rational approach combined with a focus on the individual. Working from the notion that research ...

  16. Theorising Age and Generation in Development: A Relational Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, R.; George, S.; Gigengack, R.A.; Evers, S.J.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction outlines the analytical approach informing the articles presented in this special issue. The project of ‘generationing’ development involves re-thinking development as distinctly generational in its dynamics. For this, we adopt a relational approach to the study of young people in

  17. Theorising age and generation in development: A relational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, R.; George, S.; Gigengack, Roy; Evers, S.J.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction outlines the analytical approach informing the articles presented in this special issue. The project of 'generationing' development involves re-thinking development as distinctly generational in its dynamics. For this, we adopt a relational approach to the study of young people in

  18. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Directeur(s) : Séverine Deneulin and Lila Shahani. Maison(s) d'édition : Earthscan, IDRC. 29 août 2009. ISBN :.

  19. An OOP Approach to Simplify MDI Application Development An OOP Approach to Simplify MDI Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Hernández Fusilier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Multiple Document Interface (MDI is a Microsoft Windows specification that allows managing multiple documents using a single graphic interface application. An MDI application allows opening several documents simultaneously. Only one document is active at a particular time. MDI applications can be deployed using Win32 or Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC. Programs developed using Win32 are faster than those using MFC. However, Win32applications are difficult to implement and prone to errors. It should be mentioned that, learning how to properly use MFC to deploy MDI applications is not simple, and performance is typically worse than that of Win32 applications. A method to simplify the development of MDI applications using Object-Oriented Programming (OOP is proposed. Subsequently, it is shown that this method generates compact code that is easier to read and maintain than other methods (i.e., MFC. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed method allowsthe rapid development of MDI applications without sacrificing application performance.La Interfase para Múltiples Documentos (MDI es una especificación del sistema operativo Microsoft Windows que permite manipular varios documentos usando un sólo programa. Un programa del tipo MDI permite abrir varios documentos simultáneamente. En un instante dado, sólo un documento es activo. Los programas del tipo MDI pueden desarrollarseu sando Win32 o las clases fundamentales de Microsoft (MFC. Los programas desarrollados usando Win32 son más rápidos que los programas que usan MFC. Sin embargo, éstos son difíciles de implementar promoviendo la existencia de errores. Cabe mencionar que el desarrollo de programas del tipo MDI usando MFC no es sencillo, y que su desempeño estípicamente peor que el de un programa del tipo Win32. Se propone un método que drásticamente simplifica el desarrollo de programas del tipo MDI por medio de la Programación Orientada a Objetos (POO. Se demuestra que el m

  20. Innovative approaches to clinical development and trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Orloff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical innovation is increasingly risky, costly and at times inefficient, which has led to a decline in industry productivity. Despite the increased investment in R&D by the industry, the number of new molecular entities achieving marketing authorization is not increasing. Novel approaches to clinical development and trial design could have a key role in overcoming some of these challenges by improving efficiency and reducing attrition rates. The effectiveness of clinical development can be improved by adopting a more integrated model that increases flexibility and maximizes the use of accumulated knowledge. Central to this model of drug development are novel tools, including modelling and simulation, Bayesian methodologies, and adaptive designs, such as seamless adaptive designs and sample-size re-estimation methods. Applications of these methodologies to early- and late-stage drug development are described with some specific examples, along with advantages, challenges, and barriers to implementation. Because they are so flexible, these new trial designs require significant statistical analyses, simulations and logistical considerations to verify their operating characteristics, and therefore tend to require more time for the planning and protocol development phase. Greater awareness of the distinct advantages of innovative designs by regulators and sponsors are crucial to increasing the adoption of these modern tools.

  1. Understanding and developing creativity: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Treffinger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes in the creative problem solving solution, as well as its application from infancy to adulthood is discussed. Finally, recommendations about teaching and application of thinking tools are considered.

  2. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  3. Scanning method for indoor localization using the RSSI approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Warda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scanning method for indoor mobile robot localization using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI approach. The method eliminates the main drawback of the conventional fingerprint, whose database construction is time-consuming and which needs to be rebuilt every time a change in indoor environment occurs. It directly compares the column vectors of a kernel matrix and signal strength vector using the Euclidean distance as a metric. The highest resolution available in localization using a fingerprint is restricted by a resolution of a set of measurements performed prior to localization. In contrast, resolution using the scanning method can be easily changed using a denser grid of potential sources. Although slightly slower than the trilateration method, the scanning method outperforms it in terms of accuracy, and yields a reconstruction error of only 0. 08 m averaged over 1600 considered source points in a room with dimensions 9.7 m × 4.7 m × 3 m. Its localization time of 0. 39 s makes this method suitable for real-time localization and tracking.

  4. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  5. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  6. Innovative high-performance liquid chromatography method development for the screening of 19 antimalarial drugs based on a generic approach, using design of experiments, independent component analysis and design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrus, B; Lebrun, P; Kindenge, J Mbinze; Lecomte, F; Ceccato, A; Caliaro, G; Mbay, J Mavar Tayey; Boulanger, B; Marini, R D; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph

    2011-08-05

    An innovative methodology based on design of experiments (DoE), independent component analysis (ICA) and design space (DS) was developed in previous works and was tested out with a mixture of 19 antimalarial drugs. This global LC method development methodology (i.e. DoE-ICA-DS) was used to optimize the separation of 19 antimalarial drugs to obtain a screening method. DoE-ICA-DS methodology is fully compliant with the current trend of quality by design. DoE was used to define the set of experiments to model the retention times at the beginning, the apex and the end of each peak. Furthermore, ICA was used to numerically separate coeluting peaks and estimate their unbiased retention times. Gradient time, temperature and pH were selected as the factors of a full factorial design. These retention times were modelled by stepwise multiple linear regressions. A recently introduced critical quality attribute, namely the separation criterion (S), was also used to assess the quality of separations rather than using the resolution. Furthermore, the resulting mathematical models were also studied from a chromatographic point of view to understand and investigate the chromatographic behaviour of each compound. Good adequacies were found between the mathematical models and the expected chromatographic behaviours predicted by chromatographic theory. Finally, focusing at quality risk management, the DS was computed as the multidimensional subspace where the probability for the separation criterion to lie in acceptance limits was higher than a defined quality level. The DS was computed propagating the prediction error from the modelled responses to the quality criterion using Monte Carlo simulations. DoE-ICA-DS allowed encountering optimal operating conditions to obtain a robust screening method for the 19 considered antimalarial drugs in the framework of the fight against counterfeit medicines. Moreover and only on the basis of the same data set, a dedicated method for the

  7. University Housing Development: A PPP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Blair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth and financial constraint continue to hinder development in a multitude of areas in the public sector. Higher education has joined the growing list of public sector organizations turning toward the private sector for innovative solutions to the negative externalities of growth. On April 14, 2014, the University System of Georgia posted a request for qualified contractors for a first of its kind public–private partnership. Wishing to move away from its current long-term asset financing plan that utilized public–private ventures, and to move much of the bonded debt, the university system issued a call for contractors for the construction of campus housing on nine system-member institutions across the state of Georgia. In an effort to evaluate the importance of this contractual arrangement, a thematic analysis of publicly available contract documents is analyzed. We find that the university system’s values associated with the project are best described as risk-averse behavior.

  8. Sustainability in product development: a proposal for classification of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Flores Magnago

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The product development is a process that addresses sustainability issues inside companies. Many approaches have been discussed in academy concerning sustainability, as Natural Capitalism, Design for Environment (DfE and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, but a question arises: which is indicated for what circumstance? This article aim is the proposition of a classification, based on a literature review, for 15 of these approaches. The criteria were: (i approach nature, (ii organization level, (iii integration level in Product Development Process (PDP, and (iv approach relevance for sustainability dimensions. Common terms allowed the establishment of connections among the approaches. As a result the researchers concluded that, despite they come from distinct knowledge areas they are not mutually excludent, on the contrary, the approaches may be used in a complementary way by managers. The combined use of complementary approaches is finally suggested in the paper.

  9. Agile Software Development Methods: A Comparative Review1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Oza, Nilay; Siponen, Mikko T.

    Although agile software development methods have caught the attention of software engineers and researchers worldwide, scientific research still remains quite scarce. The aim of this study is to order and make sense of the different agile approaches that have been proposed. This comparative review is performed from the standpoint of using the following features as the analytical perspectives: project management support, life-cycle coverage, type of practical guidance, adaptability in actual use, type of research objectives and existence of empirical evidence. The results show that agile software development methods cover, without offering any rationale, different phases of the software development life-cycle and that most of these methods fail to provide adequate project management support. Moreover, quite a few methods continue to offer little concrete guidance on how to use their solutions or how to adapt them in different development situations. Empirical evidence after ten years of application remains quite limited. Based on the results, new directions on agile methods are outlined.

  10. Methodical approaches to solving special problems of testing. Seminar papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This Seminar volume introduces concepts and applications from different areas of application of ultrasonic testing and other non-destructive test methods in 18 lectures, in order to give an idea of new trends in development and stimuli for special solutions to problems. 3 articles were recorded separately for the ENERGY data bank. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Program Management Approach to the Territorial Development of Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Knysh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research of the application on a state level of the program management approach to the territorial development of small business. Studying the main mechanism of the state policy implementation in the sphere of small business on a regional level, the authors have revealed the necessity to take into account the territorial specificity while the government programs of small business development are being formed. The analysis of the national practice of utilizing the program management mechanism in the regional system of the government support of small entrepreneurship was conducted on the example of Omsk region. The results of the analysis have shown the inefficiency of the current support system for small business and have determined the need to create an integrated model of territorial programming, which would not only contribute to the qualitative development of small business, but also provide the functioning efficiency of program management mechanism. As a result, the authors have created the two-level model of the programming of the territorial development of small business, which allows to satisfy purposefully the needs of entrepreneurship taking into account the specificity of the internal and external environment of the region. The first level of the model is methodological one and it is based on the marketing approach (the concepts of place marketing and relationship marketing to the operation of the program management mechanism. The second level of the model is methodical one. It offers the combination of the flexible methods of management of programming procedure (benchmarking, foresight, crowdsourcing and outsourcing. The given model raises the efficiency of the management decisions of the state structures in the sphere of small business. Therefore, it is interesting for the government authorities, which are responsible for the regional and municipal support programs of small business, as well

  12. The Development of a Robot-Based Learning Companion: A User-Centered Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Zeng; Su, Mu-Chun; Chen, Sherry Y.; Chen, Gow-Dong

    2015-01-01

    A computer-vision-based method is widely employed to support the development of a variety of applications. In this vein, this study uses a computer-vision-based method to develop a playful learning system, which is a robot-based learning companion named RobotTell. Unlike existing playful learning systems, a user-centered design (UCD) approach is…

  13. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-μDFN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (μDFN approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create μDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-μDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the mechanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in

  14. A continuum of approaches toward developing culturally focused prevention interventions: from adaptation to grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Steiker, Lori K Holleran; Dustman, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model of methods used to develop culturally focused interventions. We describe a continuum of approaches ranging from non-adapted/surface-structure adapted programs to culturally grounded programs, and present recent examples of interventions resulting from the application of each of these approaches. The model has implications for categorizing culturally focused prevention efforts more accurately, and for gauging the time, resources, and level of community engagement necessary to develop programs using each of the different methods. The model also has implications for funding decisions related to the development and evaluation of programs, and for planning of participatory research approaches with community members.

  15. XRSW method, its application and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheludeva, S.I.; Kovalchuk, M.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    X-Ray Standing Waves (XRSW) may be obtained under dynamical diffraction in periodic structures or under total external reflection conditions (TR) is stratified medium. As the incident angle varies, XRSW nodes and antinodes move in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting planes, leading to drastic variation of photoelectron interaction of X-ray with matter and resulting in specific angular dependencies of secondary radiation yields (photoelectrons, fluorescence, internal photoeffect, photoluminescence, Compton and thermal diffuse scattering). The structural information - the position of investigated atoms in the direction of XRSW movement (coherent position), the distribution of atoms about this position (coherent fraction) - is obtained with the accuracy about several percents from XRSW period D. The objects under investigation are: semiconductor surface layers, heterostructure, multicomponent crystals, interfaces, adsorbed layers. Besides the development of XRSW method allow to obtain structure, geometrical and optical parameters of ultrathin films (crystalline and disordered, organic and inorganic) and nanostructures on their base.

  16. Information operator approach and iterative regularization methods for atmospheric remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doicu, A. [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)]. E-mail: adrian.doicu@dlr.de; Hilgers, S. [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Bargen, A. von [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Rozanov, A. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Eichmann, K.-U. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Savigny, C. von [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Burrows, J.P. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    In this study, we present the main features of the information operator approach for solving linear inverse problems arising in atmospheric remote sensing. This method is superior to the stochastic version of the Tikhonov regularization (or the optimal estimation method) due to its capability to filter out the noise-dominated components of the solution generated by an inappropriate choice of the regularization parameter. We extend this approach to iterative methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems and derive the truncated versions of the Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods. Although the paper mostly focuses on discussing the mathematical details of the inverse method, retrieval results have been provided, which exemplify the performances of the methods. These results correspond to the NO{sub 2} retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb scatter measurements and have been obtained by using the retrieval processors developed at the German Aerospace Center Oberpfaffenhofen and Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen.

  17. A meta-composite software development approach for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Tanik, Murat M

    2013-06-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.

  18. Development of a Radial Deconsolidation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of experiments have been initiated to determine the retention or mobility of fission products* in AGR fuel compacts [Petti, et al. 2010]. This information is needed to refine fission product transport models. The AGR-3/4 irradiation test involved half-inch-long compacts that each contained twenty designed-to-fail (DTF) particles, with 20-μm thick carbon-coated kernels whose coatings were deliberately fabricated such that they would crack under irradiation, providing a known source of post-irradiation isotopes. The DTF particles in these compacts were axially distributed along the compact centerline so that the diffusion of fission products released from the DTF kernels would be radially symmetric [Hunn, et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011; Kercher, et al. 2011; Hunn, et al. 2007]. Compacts containing DTF particles were irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) [Collin, 2015]. Analysis of the diffusion of these various post-irradiation isotopes through the compact requires a method to radially deconsolidate the compacts so that nested-annular volumes may be analyzed for post-irradiation isotope inventory in the compact matrix, TRISO outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC), and DTF kernels. An effective radial deconsolidation method and apparatus appropriate to this application has been developed and parametrically characterized.

  19. Sustainable Development Impacts of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the Clean Development Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed...... are suggested based on emerging approaches and methodologies for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas reductions and SD impacts of NAMAs....

  20. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  1. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  2. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, J

    1989-01-01

    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  3. Systems approach to waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to the development of waste management facilities is described which may prove to be useful for developing countries. Basically the approach involves a determination of performance objectives, the functions necessary to achieve the objectives, the constraints involved, and the basic facility requirements necessary to accomplish the functions. The foregoing provides the basis for developing a set of descriptions and associated requirements for the overall system as well as for elements of the system at different hierarchical levels. These in turn provide the basis for initiation of design and subsequently construction of the facilities involved. The operation of the approach is illustrated for a hypothetical low level waste processing system

  4. IDEF method-based simulation model design and development framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an IDEF method-based integrated framework for a business process simulation model to reduce the model development time by increasing the communication and knowledge reusability during a simulation project. In this framework, simulation requirements are collected by a function modeling method (IDEF0 and a process modeling method (IDEF3. Based on these requirements, a common data model is constructed using the IDEF1X method. From this reusable data model, multiple simulation models are automatically generated using a database-driven simulation model development approach. The framework is claimed to help both requirement collection and experimentation phases during a simulation project by improving system knowledge, model reusability, and maintainability through the systematic use of three descriptive IDEF methods and the features of the relational database technologies. A complex semiconductor fabrication case study was used as a testbed to evaluate and illustrate the concepts and the framework. Two different simulation software products were used to develop and control the semiconductor model from the same knowledge base. The case study empirically showed that this framework could help improve the simulation project processes by using IDEF-based descriptive models and the relational database technology. Authors also concluded that this framework could be easily applied to other analytical model generation by separating the logic from the data.

  5. Professional teachers development through a constructivist approach: didactic contexts,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria Coelho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the partial results obtained from a research that aimed professional development courses for primary and secondary school teachers, under a constructivist and hands-on approach. The intention was to analyze how teachers grasp knowledge under such context, what difficulties emerge and what situations favour their learning process, as well as to study the consequences of professional development courses on their classroom practices. Thirteen teachers participated on workshops during which the investigation of electrostatic phenomena was proposed and low cost experimental apparatus were built, and simultaneously teachers had the opportunity to reflect and analyze their pedagogic practices. The methodological approach of this investigation was qualitative, data were collected with records of oral and written outcomes from researched subjects, as well as records of researchers observations. The learning context generated in those workshops enabled the identification of both conceptual and linguistic difficulties, along with other learning forms, such as action learning and group action learning. Metacognition processes fostered a critical view upon the mechanisms of scientific knowledge acquisition. It is assumed that the experience and the analysis of situations that are similar to those proposed to students might favour an isomorphism with future classroom actions. This professional development proposal seems promising as to consolidate methodological changes arisen from teachers new models and conceptions, different from those regarded as traditional. The analysis of the data regarding the reflections on teachers practices and how the transposition of methods and contents to classrooms happened indicate to this sense and will be covered in a future paper.

  6. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE CREATION MOOC (EXPERIENCE LAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Nozdrina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a number of problems, determining the current state of development of the domestic market of massive open online courses (MOOC. Considering the aim of the research, there is described national experience in this area, proposed and substantiated a number of the criteria and methodological approaches to the implementation of MOOC in higher education. The development of MOOC in the Lviv Academy of Commerce (LAC is reviewed as example. The main factors which determine the success of this educational innovation in the domestic market and are put under the research are software platforms, multimedia software for creating video lectures, course structure and support the learning process. The results of study which have been analyzed in this course can have a positive impact on the functioning of the market MOOC in Ukrainian universities. The article focuses on finding the ways of improving the process of developing and implementing MOOC in higher education in the example of LAC where Web-center on the MOODLE platform is used for e-learning. Further research should focus on the development of institutional mechanisms to ensure the effective design, implementation and operation of the MOOC in the universities in Ukraine. Particular attention during learning in massive open online course should be aimed at improving the educational process and to strengthen student's motivation in MOOC. Experience of MOOC's development in LAC can be useful at creating similar courses at other institutions of higher education in the different platforms, both MOODLE, and on the others

  7. A Comparison of MOOC Development and Delivery Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Caldwell, Helen; Richards, Mike; Bandara, Arosha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of two ways of developing and delivering massive open online courses (MOOCs). One was developed by The Open University in collaboration with FutureLearn; the other was developed independently by a small team at the Northampton University. Design/methodology/approach: The different…

  8. A Constructive Neural-Network Approach to Modeling Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a particular computational modeling approach to the study of psychological development--that of constructive neural networks. This approach is applied to a variety of developmental domains and issues, including Piagetian tasks, shift learning, language acquisition, number comparison, habituation of visual attention, concept…

  9. Sustainable Development: Does the Capability Approach have Anything to Offer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although the sustainability of development is one of the most important problems facing the world, it has received little attention from the capability approach. This article asks whether the capability approach has anything to offer the debate that has continued for over a quarter of a century...

  10. A Task-Based Approach to Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a task-based approach to materials development. In the first part of the chapter, I sketch out the evolution of task based language teaching, drawing on a distinction between synthetic and analytical approaches to syllabus design first articulated by Wilkins (1976).

  11. Developing, Approving and Maintaining Qualifications: Selected International Approaches. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2015-01-01

    There are lessons for Australia in the key approaches to the development, approval, maintenance and quality assurance of qualifications adopted in countries overseas. This research takes into account a range of approaches used in selected European Union (EU) member states (Germany, Finland and Sweden), the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland…

  12. Bridging Knowledge: A Collective Undergraduate Thesis Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Jason K.; Arun, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    While there are various approaches to gerontological and geriatrics (and social sciences) education globally, a component commonly included in undergraduate education is a final thesis project. In Turkey, the Department of Gerontology at Akdeniz University has undertaken a unique approach to thesis development that values and draws on accessing…

  13. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is suggested. The similarity between the classical systems approach and typical current policy development life-cycles are striking. The rigorous systems approach, as often used in Systems Engineering projects, could be adapted, and thus provide the rigour...

  14. Method of transient identification based on a possibilistic approach, optimized by genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de

    2001-02-01

    This work develops a method for transient identification based on a possible approach, optimized by Genetic Algorithm to optimize the number of the centroids of the classes that represent the transients. The basic idea of the proposed method is to optimize the partition of the search space, generating subsets in the classes within a partition, defined as subclasses, whose centroids are able to distinguish the classes with the maximum correct classifications. The interpretation of the subclasses as fuzzy sets and the possible approach provided a heuristic to establish influence zones of the centroids, allowing to achieve the 'don't know' answer for unknown transients, that is, outside the training set. (author)

  15. Starting a palliative care initiative using a transformational development approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Foster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A general descrition of the initiation of a palliative care program in Kenya using a transformational development, participatory and empowering approach, with lessons learned and description of subsequent impact.

  16. Developing Your English Vocabulary: A Systematic New Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Gabriele Stein. Developing Your English Vocabulary: A Systematic New Approach. 2002, VIII + 272 pp. Stauffenburg Linguistik 26. ISBN 3-86057-727-1. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag. Price: €33.

  17. A comprehensive approach to the development of thinking skills

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Rossouw; J. C. Lamprecht

    1995-01-01

    The development of independent and innovative thinking entails much more than merely the acquisition of a series of thinking skills. A comprehensive approach based upon inter-disciplinary cooperation between, among others, the disciplines of philosophy, education and pscychology is needed. In such a comprehensive approach to the development of thinking skills the following factors that have a bearing on the acquisition of thinking skills should be addressed:The cultivation of a positive dispo...

  18. Development of reliability centered maintenance methods and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Dubreuil-Chambardel, A.; Lannoy, A.; Monnier, B.

    1992-12-01

    This paper recalls the development of the RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) approach in the nuclear industry and describes the trial study implemented by EDF in the context of the OMF (RCM) Project. The approach developed is currently being applied to about thirty systems (Industrial Project). On a parallel, R and D efforts are being maintained to improve the selectivity of the analysis methods. These methods use Probabilistic Safety Study models, thereby guaranteeing better selectivity in the identification of safety critical elements and enhancing consistency between Maintenance and Safety studies. They also offer more detailed analysis of operation feedback, invoking for example Bayes' methods combining expert judgement and feedback data. Finally, they propose a functional and material representation of the plant. This dual representation describes both the functions assured by maintenance provisions and the material elements required for their implementation. In the final chapter, the targets of the future OMF workstation are summarized and the latter's insertion in the EDF information system is briefly described. (authors). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

  19. Situationally influenced tinnitus coping strategies: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Eldré W; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Andersson, Gerhard; Allen, Peter M; Terlizzi, Paige M; Baguley, David M

    2017-08-09

    The primary aim of this study was to identify coping strategies used to manage problematic tinnitus situations. A secondary aim was to determine whether different approaches were related to the level of tinnitus distress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia experienced. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented. The study sample was adults interested in undertaking an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus. Self-reported measures assessed the level of tinnitus distress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. An open-ended question was used to obtain information about how problematic tinnitus situations were dealt with. Responses were investigated using qualitative content analysis to identify problematic situations. Further data analysis comprised of both qualitative and quantitative methods. There were 240 participants (137 males, 103 females), with an average age of 48.16 years (SD: 22.70). Qualitative content analysis identified eight problematic tinnitus situations. Participants had either habituated to their tinnitus (7.9%), used active (63.3%), or passive (28.8%) coping styles to manage these situations. Those who had habituated to tinnitus or used active coping strategies had lower levels of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression. The main problematic tinnitus situations for this cohort were identified. Both active and passive coping styles were applied to approach these situations. The coping strategies used most frequently and utilised in the widest range of problematic situations were using sound enrichment and diverting attention. Implications for Rehabilitation The main problematic tinnitus situations for this group of participants were identified. Overall, a limited range of strategies were used to deal with individual problematic situations. The use of sound enrichment and diverting attention was applied in the widest range of problematic situations. The use of both active and passive coping styles was evident to approach these situations. The

  20. Developments of an Interactive Sail Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Malpede

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new tool for performing the integrated design and analysis of a sail. The features of the system are the geometrical definition of a sail shape, using the Bezier surface method, the creation of a finite element model for the non-linear structural analysis and a fluid-dynamic model for the aerodynamic analysis. The system has been developed using MATLAB(r. Recent sail design efforts have been focused on solving the aeroelastic behavior of the sail. The pressure distribution on a sail changes continuously, by virtue of cloth stretch and flexing. The sail shape determines the pressure distribution and, at the same time, the pressure distribution on the sail stretches and flexes the sail material determining its shape. This characteristic non-linear behavior requires iterative solution strategies to obtain the equilibrium configuration and evaluate the forces involved. The aeroelastic problem is tackled by combining structural with aerodynamic analysis. Firstly, pressure loads for a known sail-shape are computed (aerodynamic analysis. Secondly, the sail-shape is analyzed for the obtained external loads (structural analysis. The final solution is obtained by using an iterative analysis process, which involves both aerodynamic and the structural analysis. When the solution converges, it is possible to make design modifications.

  1. Methodical approach to financial stimulation of logistics managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnykova Kateryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a methodical approach to financial stimulation of logistics managers, which allows calculation of the incentive amount with consideration of profit obtained from introduction of optimisation logistics solutions. The author generalises measures, which would allow increase of stimulation of labour of logistics managers by the enterprise top managers. The article marks out motivation factors, which exert influence upon relation of logistics managers to execution of optimisation logistical solutions, which minimise logistical costs. The author builds a scale of financial encouragement for introduction of optimisation logistical solutions proposed by logistics managers. This scale is basic for functioning of the encouragement system and influences the increase of efficiency of logistics managers operation and also optimisation of enterprise logistical solutions.

  2. Evaluation of Continuation Desire as an Iterative Game Development Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Birke, Alexander; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    use an evaluation method which focuses on assessing the desire to continue playing as an indicator of player engagement. This feedback can then be applied to detect and prevent any design decisions that would jeopardise a game's level of player engagement. The process is exemplified by a case study...... concerning a crowd game which is controlled by smartphones and is intended to be played by audiences in cinemas and at venues with large screens. The case study demonstrates how the approach can be used to help improve the desire to continue when developing a game....

  3. The equivalent energy method: an engineering approach to fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The equivalent energy method for elastic-plastic fracture evaluations was developed around 1970 for determining realistic engineering estimates for the maximum load-displacement or stress-strain conditions for fracture of flawed structures. The basis principles were summarized but the supporting experimental data, most of which were obtained after the method was proposed, have never been collated. This paper restates the original bases more explicitly and presents the validating data in graphical form. Extensive references are given. The volumetric energy ratio, a modelling parameter encompassing both size and temperature, is the fundamental parameter of the equivalent energy method. It is demonstrated that, in an engineering sense, the volumetric energy ratio is a unique material characteristic for a steel, much like a material property except size must be taken into account. With this as a proposition, the basic formula of the equivalent energy method is derived. Sufficient information is presented so that investigators and analysts may judge the viability and applicability of the method to their areas of interest. (author)

  4. Assessment of global flood exposures - developing an appropriate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millinship, Ian; Booth, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly complex probabilistic catastrophe models have become the standard for quantitative flood risk assessments by re/insurance companies. On the one hand, probabilistic modelling of this nature is extremely useful; a large range of risk metrics can be output. However, they can be time consuming and computationally expensive to develop and run. Levels of uncertainty are persistently high despite, or perhaps because of, attempts to increase resolution and complexity. A cycle of dependency between modelling companies and re/insurers has developed whereby available models are purchased, models run, and both portfolio and model data 'improved' every year. This can lead to potential exposures in perils and territories that are not currently modelled being largely overlooked by companies, who may then face substantial and unexpected losses when large events occur in these areas. We present here an approach to assessing global flood exposures which reduces the scale and complexity of approach used and begins with the identification of hotspots where there is a significant exposure to flood risk. The method comprises four stages: i) compile consistent exposure information, ii) to apply reinsurance terms and conditions to calculate values exposed, iii) to assess the potential hazard using a global set of flood hazard maps, and iv) to identify potential risk 'hotspots' which include considerations of spatially and/or temporally clustered historical events, and local flood defences. This global exposure assessment is designed as a scoping exercise, and reveals areas or cities where the potential for accumulated loss is of significant interest to a reinsurance company, and for which there is no existing catastrophe model. These regions are then candidates for the development of deterministic scenarios, or probabilistic models. The key advantages of this approach will be discussed. These include simplicity and ability of business leaders to understand results, as well as

  5. DEVELOPING THE METHODICAL THINKING OF PROSPECTIVE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tabachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to fostering the methodical thinking of the philological profile students. The methodology basis incorporates the procedural and cognitive approach along with the strategic direction on the cognitive process management at all educational levels. The author considers the main characteristics of methodical thinking, its content and structure including the set of cognitive components. The methodical thinking is regarded as a capability of effective work with linguistic and methodological information (i.e. analysis, transformation, optimization, and adaptation for learning purposes; easy formulation of language rules; scientific methodological generalization; implementation of the assessment and diagnostic instruments based on research experience. The author describes the development process of methodical thinking of prospective Russian language teachers, exemplified by series of workshops exploring the complex of methodology problems; the types and algorithms of the given problems being demonstrated. All the necessary teachers’ qualities can be developed by means of solving the specific methodological problems and developing the cognitive component of the thinking process.

  6. Advanced methods in NDE using machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Christian; Tschöpe, Constanze; Duckhorn, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Machine learning (ML) methods and algorithms have been applied recently with great success in quality control and predictive maintenance. Its goal to build new and/or leverage existing algorithms to learn from training data and give accurate predictions, or to find patterns, particularly with new and unseen similar data, fits perfectly to Non-Destructive Evaluation. The advantages of ML in NDE are obvious in such tasks as pattern recognition in acoustic signals or automated processing of images from X-ray, Ultrasonics or optical methods. Fraunhofer IKTS is using machine learning algorithms in acoustic signal analysis. The approach had been applied to such a variety of tasks in quality assessment. The principal approach is based on acoustic signal processing with a primary and secondary analysis step followed by a cognitive system to create model data. Already in the second analysis steps unsupervised learning algorithms as principal component analysis are used to simplify data structures. In the cognitive part of the software further unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms will be trained. Later the sensor signals from unknown samples can be recognized and classified automatically by the algorithms trained before. Recently the IKTS team was able to transfer the software for signal processing and pattern recognition to a small printed circuit board (PCB). Still, algorithms will be trained on an ordinary PC; however, trained algorithms run on the Digital Signal Processor and the FPGA chip. The identical approach will be used for pattern recognition in image analysis of OCT pictures. Some key requirements have to be fulfilled, however. A sufficiently large set of training data, a high signal-to-noise ratio, and an optimized and exact fixation of components are required. The automated testing can be done subsequently by the machine. By integrating the test data of many components along the value chain further optimization including lifetime and durability

  7. Reactor kinetics methods development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Henry, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a qualitative summary of research conducted at MIT from 1967 to 1977 in the area of reactor kinetics methods. The objectives of the research were to find methods of integration of various mathematical models of nuclear reactor transients. From the beginning the work was aimed at numerical integration methods. Specific areas of research, discussed in more detail following, included: integration of multigroup diffusion theory models by finite difference and finite element methods; response matrix and nodal methods; coarse-mesh homogenization; and special treatment of boundary conditions

  8. Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

  9. METHOD FOR SELECTION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACH BASED ON FUZZY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. KONONENKO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature analysis of works that devoted to research of the selection a project management approach and development of effective methods for this problem solution is given. Mathematical model and method for selection of project management approach with fuzzy concepts of applicability of existing approaches are proposed. The selection is made of such approaches as the PMBOK Guide, the ISO21500 standard, the PRINCE2 methodology, the SWEBOK Guide, agile methodologies Scrum, XP, and Kanban. The number of project parameters which have a great impact on the result of the selection and measure of their impact is determined. Project parameters relate to information about the project, team, communication, critical project risks. They include the number of people involved in the project, the customer's experience with this project team, the project team's experience in this field, the project team's understanding of requirements, adapting ability, initiative, and others. The suggested method is considered on the example of its application for selection a project management approach to software development project.

  10. FODEM: A Multi-Threaded Research and Development Method for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Jarkko; de Villiers, M. Ruth; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Formative development method (FODEM) is a multithreaded design approach that was originated to support the design and development of various types of educational technology innovations, such as learning tools, and online study programmes. The threaded and agile structure of the approach provides flexibility to the design process. Intensive…

  11. Methods and models in mathematical biology deterministic and stochastic approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This book developed from classes in mathematical biology taught by the authors over several years at the Technische Universität München. The main themes are modeling principles, mathematical principles for the analysis of these models, and model-based analysis of data. The key topics of modern biomathematics are covered: ecology, epidemiology, biochemistry, regulatory networks, neuronal networks, and population genetics. A variety of mathematical methods are introduced, ranging from ordinary and partial differential equations to stochastic graph theory and  branching processes. A special emphasis is placed on the interplay between stochastic and deterministic models.

  12. Stochastic development regression using method of moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the estimation problem arising when inferring parameters in the stochastic development regression model for manifold valued non-linear data. Stochastic development regression captures the relation between manifold-valued response and Euclidean covariate variables using...... the stochastic development construction. It is thereby able to incorporate several covariate variables and random effects. The model is intrinsically defined using the connection of the manifold, and the use of stochastic development avoids linearizing the geometry. We propose to infer parameters using...

  13. Learning Conservation and Sustainable Development: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; James P. Lassoie

    2001-01-01

    Conservation aud sustainable development (CSD) represent one of the most important new ways of thinking in natural resource management and policy. Cornell University has developed an iuterdisciplinary graduate minor to include this approach in its curriculum. The concept of CSD involves working toward environmental, social, and economic goals simultaneously. Although...

  14. Rights-Based Approach: The Hub of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choondassery, Yesudas

    2017-01-01

    A rights-based approach to the environmental issues has been gaining momentum since the United Nations' Environmental Agency proposed a new rights-based agenda for sustainable development in the document, "Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" (UN, 2015). Our moral responsibility toward the environment is…

  15. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement: GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) Algorithm Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the approach to the development of the Global Precipitation Measurement algorithm. This presentation includes information about the responsibilities for the development of the algorithm, and the calibration. Also included is information about the orbit, and the sun angle. The test of the algorithm code will be done with synthetic data generated from the Precipitation Processing System (PPS).

  17. "Design for Somebody" - Approach Enabling Mobile Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkka, Andrew; Merilampi, Sari; Koivisto, Antti; Tommiska, Janika; Saarinen, Tatu-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents case examples of Design for Somebody (DfS) philosophy used both in developing novel technologies and modifying existing main stream technologies applicable for users with special needs. DfS embodies variety of mobile technology approaches to generate personalised means to enable and motivate physical, cognitive and social skills development.

  18. Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colonial era presents a need for a critical rethink into what the nation has been through all the way, with a view to identifying the most fitting approach to rural agricultural development. This paper reflects on Nigeria's rural agricultural development ...

  19. A two-pronged approach in leishmaniasis drug development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    innovative approach rather than invention is being developed at CBRD's Leishmania laboratory. This is to .... Lancet. 2002; 359: 2188–94. 9. Nwaka S and Ridley RG. Virtual drug discovery and development for neglected diseases through public-private partnerships. Nature Reviews on Drug. Discovery. 2003; 2: 919-928.

  20. Personal Development Plans: Insights from a Case Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In light of contemporary shifts away from annual appraisals, this study aims to explore the implications of using a personal development plan (PDP) as a means of focussing on continuous feedback and development to improve individual performance and ultimately organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected…

  1. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  2. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  3. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  4. Development of modelling method selection tool for health services management: from problem structuring methods to modelling and simulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan T; Morris, Zoe; Eldabi, Tillal; Harper, Paul; Naseer, Aisha; Patel, Brijesh; Clarkson, John P

    2011-05-19

    There is an increasing recognition that modelling and simulation can assist in the process of designing health care policies, strategies and operations. However, the current use is limited and answers to questions such as what methods to use and when remain somewhat underdeveloped. The aim of this study is to provide a mechanism for decision makers in health services planning and management to compare a broad range of modelling and simulation methods so that they can better select and use them or better commission relevant modelling and simulation work. This paper proposes a modelling and simulation method comparison and selection tool developed from a comprehensive literature review, the research team's extensive expertise and inputs from potential users. Twenty-eight different methods were identified, characterised by their relevance to different application areas, project life cycle stages, types of output and levels of insight, and four input resources required (time, money, knowledge and data). The characterisation is presented in matrix forms to allow quick comparison and selection. This paper also highlights significant knowledge gaps in the existing literature when assessing the applicability of particular approaches to health services management, where modelling and simulation skills are scarce let alone money and time. A modelling and simulation method comparison and selection tool is developed to assist with the selection of methods appropriate to supporting specific decision making processes. In particular it addresses the issue of which method is most appropriate to which specific health services management problem, what the user might expect to be obtained from the method, and what is required to use the method. In summary, we believe the tool adds value to the scarce existing literature on methods comparison and selection.

  5. Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    densitometric method, was based on the separation of the mixture on silica gel plates using chloroform: methanol (93:7, v/v) as a mobile phase. Results: All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of raw materials and dosage ...

  6. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test method using a USP paddle type dissolution test apparatus set at a speed of. 50 rpm. The dissolution medium consisted of 900 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) containing 0.25% w/v cetrimide at 37 ...

  7. Applying Program Theory-Driven Approach to Design and Evaluate a Teacher Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-ching; Wu, Ming-sui

    2016-01-01

    This study was the first year of a two-year project which applied a program theory-driven approach to evaluating the impact of teachers' professional development interventions on students' learning by using a mix of methods, qualitative inquiry, and quasi-experimental design. The current study was to show the results of using the method of…

  8. Changing children's diets: Developing methods & messages.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Kathryn Hayley.

    2003-01-01

    Primary school-aged children are an important target for health promotion but their increasing social and financial freedom is unlikely to be matched by an increase in their food control, cognitive abilities or the perceived need required to facilitate healthy behaviours, especially food choice. Thus, indirect attempts at behavioural modification are required, with parents indicated as potentially powerful education intermediaries. This research aimed to take a 'bottom-up' approach to investi...

  9. REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT ON THE BASIS OF CLUSTER APPROACH (IN TERMS OF ORENBURG REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Korabejnikov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of regional industrial complex development on the basis of cluster approach are observed in the article. The methodics of estimation of regional industrial complex development is carried out, which enables to study it as the mediation system of specific, territorial and scientific-innovation functioning aspects. The authors' typology of regional industrial clusters is described, where priorities for study are marked. The authors' approach of methodical explanation of industrial clusters priorities forming as the basic elements of regional industrial complex development is represented. Business models of different types functioning clusters are shown.

  10. The Formal Approach to Computer Game Rule Development Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, A.

    2009-01-01

    Computer game rules development is one of the weakly automated tasks in game development. This paper gives an overview of the ongoing research project which deals with automation of rules development for turn-based strategy computer games. Rules are the basic elements of these games. This paper proposes a new approach to automation including visual formal rules model creation, model verification and modelbased code generation.

  11. Agile Development Methods for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Webster, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Main stream industry software development practice has gone from a traditional waterfall process to agile iterative development that allows for fast response to customer inputs and produces higher quality software at lower cost. How can we, the space ops community, adopt state of the art software development practice, achieve greater productivity at lower cost, and maintain safe and effective space flight operations? At NASA Ames, we are developing Mission Control Technologies Software, in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC) and, more recently, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  12. Bayesian methods for proteomic biomarker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Hernández

    2015-12-01

    In this review we provide an introduction to Bayesian inference and demonstrate some of the advantages of using a Bayesian framework. We summarize how Bayesian methods have been used previously in proteomics and other areas of bioinformatics. Finally, we describe some popular and emerging Bayesian models from the statistical literature and provide a worked tutorial including code snippets to show how these methods may be applied for the evaluation of proteomic biomarkers.

  13. Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1986-08-01

    After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)

  14. A geospatial mixed methods approach to assessing campus safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle S; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

    2013-10-01

    While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of safety and incidents of crime do not necessarily mirror one another, both were utilized in this investigation. The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative, mixed methods approach for assessing campus safety at a large, urban campus in the southeast region of the United States. A concurrent triangulation design was implemented to allow investigators the opportunity to collect qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously and integrate results in the interpretation phase. Data were collected from four distinct sources of information. Student focus groups yielded data regarding perceptions of risk, and kernel density analysis was used to identify "hot spots" of campus crime incidents. While in many cases perceived risk and actual crime incidents were associated, incidents of hot spots of each type occurred independently with such frequency that an overall correlation of the two was not significant. Accordingly, while no significant correlation between perceived risk and crime incidents was confirmed statistically, the geospatial integration of these data suggested three types of safety conditions. Further, the combination of focus group data and spatial analyses provided a more comprehensive and, therefore, more complete understanding of the multifaceted issues related to campus safety.

  15. Method and Excel VBA Algorithm for Modeling Master Recession Curve Using Trigonometry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Kristijan; Giacopetti, Marco; Materazzi, Marco; Birk, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    A new method was developed and implemented into an Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBAs) algorithm utilizing trigonometry laws in an innovative way to overlap recession segments of time series and create master recession curves (MRCs). Based on a trigonometry approach, the algorithm horizontally translates succeeding recession segments of time series, placing their vertex, that is, the highest recorded value of each recession segment, directly onto the appropriate connection line defined by measurement points of a preceding recession segment. The new method and algorithm continues the development of methods and algorithms for the generation of MRC, where the first published method was based on a multiple linear/nonlinear regression model approach (Posavec et al. 2006). The newly developed trigonometry-based method was tested on real case study examples and compared with the previously published multiple linear/nonlinear regression model-based method. The results show that in some cases, that is, for some time series, the trigonometry-based method creates narrower overlaps of the recession segments, resulting in higher coefficients of determination R 2 , while in other cases the multiple linear/nonlinear regression model-based method remains superior. The Excel VBA algorithm for modeling MRC using the trigonometry approach is implemented into a spreadsheet tool (MRCTools v3.0 written by and available from Kristijan Posavec, Zagreb, Croatia) containing the previously published VBA algorithms for MRC generation and separation. All algorithms within the MRCTools v3.0 are open access and available free of charge, supporting the idea of running science on available, open, and free of charge software. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Student Development in Higher Education: A Constructivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rania; Sarirete, Akila

    Sustainable education requires a new approach to knowledge acquisition and learning. This approach is manifested in merging student experience inside and outside the classroom, which eventually results in shaping the 21 st century lifelong learner. This paper presents an innovative student development model based on the constructivist approach; showing the collaboration between student affairs and academics. Furthermore, it illustrates a unique experience implemented at Effat University for developing the student as a whole person. This is done to complement the student's academic experience with the necessary skills and abilities derived from Effat University mission that focuses on creating women leaders. The student finds herself in a journey of self development and growth throughout the course of her study until graduation. At the time of graduation, she is equipped with all what it takes to be a successful career woman and a leader of change in her society.

  17. Investigating the effectiveness of a dynamic integrated approach to teacher professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Panayiotis; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that research on teacher professional development could be integrated with validated theoretical models of educational effectiveness research (EER). A dynamic integrated approach (DIA) to teacher professional development is proposed. The methods and results of a study comparing the

  18. Systematic Approach to Formulate PSS Development Project Proposals in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquet, Ana Paula B.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    patterns adopted for product development. Currently, there is not a systematic approach that can be followed for the formulation of PSS proposals in the fuzzy front end. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop a method for defining PSS project proposals based on attributes that should...

  19. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  20. An approach for the development of visual configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde

    2007-01-01

    How can a visual configuration system be developed to support the specification process' in companies that manufacture customer tailored products? This article focuses on how visual configuration systems can be developed. The approach for developing visual configuration systems has been developed...... by Centre for Product Modelling (CPM) at The Technical University of Denmark. The approach is based on experiences from a visualization project in co-operation between CPM and the global provider of power protection American Power Conversion (APC). The visual configuration system was developed in 2001......-2002 and has during its operation since the beginning of 2003 delivered promising results. The lead-time for approval of quotations has been reduced and the percentages of first-time-completed and correct configuration sessions are increased thanks to an increased user-interaction, caused by the visualization...

  1. Development of an inverse method for coastal risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Idier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent flooding events, like Katrina (USA, 2005 or Xynthia (France, 2010, illustrate the complexity of coastal systems and the limits of traditional flood risk analysis. Among other questions, these events raised issues such as: "how to choose flooding scenarios for risk management purposes?", "how to make a society more aware and prepared for such events?" and "which level of risk is acceptable to a population?". The present paper aims at developing an inverse approach that could seek to address these three issues. The main idea of the proposed method is the inversion of the usual risk assessment steps: starting from the maximum acceptable hazard level (defined by stakeholders as the one leading to the maximum tolerable consequences to finally obtain the return period of this threshold. Such an "inverse" approach would allow for the identification of all the offshore forcing conditions (and their occurrence probability inducing a threat for critical assets of the territory, such information being of great importance for coastal risk management. This paper presents the first stage in developing such a procedure. It focuses on estimation (through inversion of the flooding model of the offshore conditions leading to the acceptable hazard level, estimation of the return period of the associated combinations, and thus of the maximum acceptable hazard level. A first application for a simplified case study (based on real data, located on the French Mediterranean coast, is presented, assuming a maximum acceptable hazard level. Even if only one part of the full inverse method has been developed, we demonstrate how the inverse method can be useful in (1 estimating the probability of exceeding the maximum inundation height for identified critical assets, (2 providing critical offshore conditions for flooding in early warning systems, and (3 raising awareness of stakeholders and eventually enhance preparedness for future flooding events by allowing them to

  2. A stochastic root finding approach: the homotopy analysis method applied to Dyson-Schwinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Tobias; Pollet, Lode

    2017-04-01

    We present the construction and stochastic summation of rooted-tree diagrams, based on the expansion of a root finding algorithm applied to the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The mathematical formulation shows superior convergence properties compared to the bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach and the developed algorithm allows one to tackle generic high-dimensional integral equations, to avoid the curse of dealing explicitly with high-dimensional objects and to access non-perturbative regimes. The sign problem remains the limiting factor, but it is not found to be worse than in other approaches. We illustrate the method for {φ }4 theory but note that it applies in principle to any model.

  3. A Stigmergy Approach for Open Source Software Developer Community Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The stigmergy collaboration approach provides a hypothesized explanation about how online groups work together. In this research, we presented a stigmergy approach for building an agent based open source software (OSS) developer community collaboration simulation. We used group of actors who collaborate on OSS projects as our frame of reference and investigated how the choices actors make in contribution their work on the projects determinate the global status of the whole OSS projects. In our simulation, the forum posts and project codes served as the digital pheromone and the modified Pierre-Paul Grasse pheromone model is used for computing developer agent behaviors selection probability.

  4. Methodical Approach to Managing Resources at an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonets Olga O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of optimal ways of managing material resources of an industrial enterprise on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling. In the process of analysis and systematisation of works of foreign and domestic scientists the article makes a conclusion about the insufficient degree of development of such complex solutions on formation of logistic systems of resource management, which would be simple and adaptive. The article provides results of the study of specific features of resource management at enterprises, among which – surplus (deficit of resources and availability of non-liquid reserves. In order to eliminate shortcomings the article offers a situational order of management with consideration of a possible state of reserves. The article improves the model of selection of the volume of supply of material resources and identifies optimal solutions with consideration of interval uncertainty. The further direction of the study lies in integration of the proposed approach to resource management with the system of financial planning at an industrial enterprise.

  5. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking

  6. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  7. Developing methods for detecting radioactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.; Johnston, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major developments in radiation detection systems used for catching shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The original testing required to determine the extent of the problem and the preliminary designs of the first instruments will be discussed. Present systems available today will be described listing their advantages and disadvantages. In conclusion, the newest developments and state of the art equipment will also be included describing the limits and most appropriate locations for the systems

  8. [Mendelian randomisation - a genetic approach to an epidemiological method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensrud, Mats Julius

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic information is becoming more easily available, and rapid progress is being made in developing methods of illuminating issues of interest. Mendelian randomisation makes it possible to study causes of disease using observational data. The name refers to the random distribution of gene variants in meiosis. The methodology makes use of genes that influence a risk factor for a disease, without influencing the disease itself. In this review article I explain the principles behind Mendelian randomisation and present the areas of application for this methodology.MATERIAL AND METHOD Methodology articles describing Mendelian randomisation were reviewed. The articles were found through a search in PubMed with the combination «mendelian randomization» OR «mendelian randomisation», and a search in McMaster Plus with the combination «mendelian randomization». A total of 15 methodology articles were read in full text. Methodology articles were supplemented by clinical studies found in the PubMed search.RESULTS In contrast to traditional observational studies, Mendelian randomisation studies are not affected by two important sources of error: conventional confounding variables and reverse causation. Mendelian randomisation is therefore a promising tool for studying causality. Mendelian randomisation studies have already provided valuable knowledge on the risk factors for a wide range of diseases. It is nevertheless important to be aware of the limitations of the methodology. As a result of the rapid developments in genetics research, Mendelian randomisation will probably be widely used in future years.INTERPRETATION If Mendelian randomisation studies are conducted correctly, they may help to reveal both modifiable and non-modifiable causes of disease.

  9. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  10. Standardless quantification approach of TXRF analysis using fundamental parameter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaloki, I.; Taniguchi, K.

    2000-01-01

    New standardless evaluation procedure based on the fundamental parameter method (FPM) has been developed for TXRF analysis. The theoretical calculation describes the relationship between characteristic intensities and the geometrical parameters of the excitation, detection system and the specimen parameters: size, thickness, angle of the excitation beam to the surface and the optical properties of the specimen holder. Most of the TXRF methods apply empirical calibration, which requires the application of special preparation technique. However, the characteristic lines of the specimen holder (Si Kα,β) present information from the local excitation and geometrical conditions on the substrate surface. On the basis of the theoretically calculation of the substrate characteristic intensity the excitation beam flux can be approximated. Taking into consideration the elements are in the specimen material a system of non-linear equation can be given involving the unknown concentration values and the geometrical and detection parameters. In order to solve this mathematical problem PASCAL software was written, which calculates the sample composition and the average sample thickness by gradient algorithm. Therefore, this quantitative estimation of the specimen composition requires neither external nor internal standard sample. For verification of the theoretical calculation and the numerical procedure, several experiments were carried out using mixed standard solution containing elements of K, Sc, V, Mn, Co and Cu in 0.1 - 10 ppm concentration range. (author)

  11. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source identification applications. The genome of a newly discovered bacteriophage (~97 kbp), the Cross-Assembly phage or “crAssphage”, assembled from a human gut metagenome DNA sequence library is predicted to be both highly abundant and predominately occur in human feces suggesting that this double stranded DNA virus may be an ideal human fecal pollution indicator. We report the development of two human-associated crAssphage endpoint PCR methods (crAss056 and crAss064). A shotgun strategy was employed where 384 candidate primers were designed to cover ~41 kbp of the crAssphage genome deemed favorable for method development based on a series of bioinformatics analyses. Candidate primers were subjected to three rounds of testing to evaluate assay optimization, specificity, limit of detection (LOD95), geographic variability, and performance in environmental water samples. The top two performing candidate primer sets exhibited 100% specificity (n = 70 individual samples from 8 different animal species), >90% sensitivity (n = 10 raw sewage samples from different geographic locations), LOD95 of 0.01 ng/µL of total DNA per reaction, and successfully detected human fecal pollution in impaired envi

  12. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  13. The Methodical Approaches to Activation of Innovative Potential of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berveno Oksana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing theoretical provisions and practical recommendations on methods of management and activation of innovative potential of enterprises. Assessment of innovative potential of enterprise should be carried out from different positions, taking into consideration all external and internal possibilities of enterprise as to carrying out an innovation activity. The system of management of innovation activity and implementation of innovative potential at enterprise should be closely woven in the general management of the enterprise. Activation of innovative potential of enterprise foresees adoption of the whole system of strategic decisions, which are aimed at creation of the most favorable conditions for implementation of innovative potential with obtaining of planned results. The system of activization of innovative potential should develop a number of organizational decisions on interaction of elements of the most innovative potential in the process of innovation activity and cooperation of innovative potential with other subsystems of the enterprise. Results of these organizational decisions in many respects determine efficiency of innovation activity of the enterprise.

  14. Comparative analysis of methodical approaches to evaluating the efficiency of investment projects in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstooukhov, D.A.; Karkhov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    At present time, a transition is made to market mechanisms of economy functioning based on equilibrium price formation for products of enterprises and their self-financing. Based on long-term forecasts of economic development, electric power industry should not only ensure preservation of the accumulated potential but should also provide for modernization, reconstruction, service life extension of operating power facilities and construction of new ones. Under market conditions, nuclear power installations will have to prove their right to exist and develop in competition with other power technologies. In these conditions, the responsibility is growing for the correctness of investment decisions taken in the power industry and methods on which they are based. This paper analyzes currently used calculation methods for economic efficiency of investment projects. It emphasizes the limitations and drawbacks of the existing methodical approaches, and their inconsistency with market economy and scientific and technological progress (STP). The said drawbacks lead to serious mistakes in evaluating the prospects for the development of nuclear power. The paper describes a methodical approach based on equilibrium price formation that does not have the said drawbacks and may be used as the basis for further work on creation of improved calculation methods for the economic efficiency of investment projects in nuclear power. (authors)

  15. Dynamic management of sustainable development methods for large technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krishans, Zigurds; Merkuryev, Yuri; Oleinikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development presents a concise summary of the authors' research in dynamic methods analysis of technical systems development. The text illustrates mathematical methods, with a focus on practical realization and applications.

  16. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  17. User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roto, Virpi; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Law, Effie; Vermeeren, Arnold

    High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without

  18. Study on Risk Approaches in Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu BRANDAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk approaches in project development led to the integration in the IT project management methodologies and software development of activities and processes of risk management. The diversity and the advanced level of the used technologies in IT projects with increasing com-plexity leads to an exponential diversification of risk factors.The purpose of this research is to identify the level of the risk approach in IT projects both at the IT project management and software development methodologies level and the level of the perception of IT project man-agers, IT managers and IT analysts in Romanian IT companies. Thus, we want to determine the correlation between the use of a project management or software development methodology and the overall level of risk perceived by the project managers using these methodologies.

  19. Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Creswell John W Sage 320 £29 0761924426 0761924426 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The second edition of Creswell's book has been significantly revised and updated. The author clearly sets out three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. As someone who has used mixed methods in my research, it is refreshing to read a textbook that addresses this. The differences between the approaches are clearly identified and a rationale for using each methodological stance provided.

  20. Territorial development. A new approach to development processes for the economies of the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Pecqueur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to show how the elements of a (flexible and adaptable model of territorial development, whose roots are anchored in the analysis of coordination among pre-capitalist actors, can take on a more concrete form in developing economies. Our hypothesis is that the application of this model functions as a resurgence of pre-capitalist production relations, revalidated by local practices and renewed by territorial dynamics. Is such a return to pre-capitalist ways possible and realistic despite the obstacles and, if so, under what conditions? These are the questions this paper seeks to address, by the way of a specifically economic analysis focused on the dynamics of productive systems. On the first part, we review the fundamental principles of a model of territorial development based on a local system of actors, which assumes that the territory is “constructed” and is founded, according to our approach, on the principle of specification. On the second part, we assess the feasibility of this model in developing economies, remembering that we are starting from practices that are already old; practices involving risks and that assume certain conditions of implementation.

  1. Sustainable development through biomass utilization: A practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Malhotra

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) This paper is for folks involved in community development efforts targeted towards biomass utilization. Our approach to evaluate the potential for establishing enterprises that utilize locally available forest resources is tailored specifically to the needs of the local community. We evaluate the: 1. Technical feasibility and...

  2. A multi-faceted approach to research development (I) : Addressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominant discourses on research development in South Africa are characterised by a technical-rational approach combined with a focus on the individual. Working from the idea that research is best captured by the notion of communities of practice, we claim that more attention must be given to the building of intellectually ...

  3. Entrepreneurship Development: A People Change Approach To Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents an educational, training, and development approach that is focused on the need for change in the behaviour of the entrepreneurial stream, and the society in general, to attain true self-actualization and sustainability. The paper considers self actualization and sustainability as essentially ...

  4. Applications of Vygotsky's Sociocultural Approach for Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach to teachers' professional development (PD) that originates in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory (SCT), arguing that what Vygotsky claimed about students' learning in the school setting is applicable to the teachers and that the developmental theories of Vygotsky resting on the notions of social origin of mental…

  5. Life Span Approach to Growth and Human Development: A Broad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change in childhood. ... the paper draws the reader's attention to the fact that by adopting the life-span perspective, we gain insights into what our lives will be like as we grow into middle age or old age, who we are, how we came to be this way and ...

  6. Reasoning about Development: Essays on Amartya Sen's Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Wells (Thomas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOver the last 30 years the Indian philosopher-economist Amartya Sen has developed an original normative approach to the evaluation of individual and social well-being. The foundational concern of this ‘capability approach’ is the real freedom of individuals to achieve the kind of lives

  7. An Approach to Quality Estimation in Model-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to estimation of parameters for design space exploration in Model-Based Development, where synthesis of a system is done in two stages. Component qualities like space, execution time or power consumption are defined in a repository by platform dependent values. Connectors...

  8. A critical regionalist approach to speculative housing development in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    This is a design project submitted for the award of Master of Architecture. It applied a regionalist approach to the design of a series of apartments in Mexico. Its starting point was not a traditional layout, however, but the standard density levels and plot dimensions found in speculative middle-class housing developments in urban Mexico.

  9. Contemporary Militant Extremism: A Linguistic Approach to Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar; Higgins, Derrick; Saucier, Gerard; Knezevic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe procedures used in the development of a new scale of militant extremist mindset. A 2-step approach consisted of (a) linguistic analysis of the texts produced by known terrorist organizations and selection of statements from these texts that reflect the mindset of those belonging to these organizations and (b)…

  10. The Development of Dialectical Thinking As An Approach to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Basseches

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a description of dialectical thinking as a psychological phenomenon that reflects adult intellectual development. While relating this psychological phenomenon to the various dialectical philosophical perspectives from which the description is derived, the article conceptualizes dialectical thinking as a form of organization of thought, various aspects of which can be identified in individual adults' approaches to conceptualizing a range of problems, rather than as one particular stream of intellectual history. The article provides a range of examples of dialectical analyses, contrasting them with more formalistic analyses, in order to convey the power, adequacy, and significance of dialectical thinking for the sorts of challenges that this journal embraces. It suggests that events in all areas of life demand recognition of the limitations of closed-system approaches to analysis. Approaches based instead on the organizing principle of dialectic integrate dimensions of contradiction, change and system-transformation over time in a way that supports people's adaptation when structures under girding their sense of self/world coherence are challenged. Higher education and psychotherapy are considered as examples of potential contexts for adult intellectual development, and the conditions that foster such development in these contexts are discussed. The article as a whole makes the case for consciously attempting to foster such development in all our work as an approach to integration.

  11. The Development of Dialectical Thinking As An Approach to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Basseches

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a description of dialectical thinking as a psychological phenomenon that reflects adult intellectual development. While relating this psychological phenomenon to the various dialectical philosophical perspectives from which the description is derived, the article conceptualizes dialectical thinking as a form of organization of thought, various aspects of which can be identified in individual adults’ approaches to conceptualizing a range of problems, rather than as one particular stream of intellectual history. The article provides a range of examples of dialectical analyses, contrasting them with more formalistic analyses, in order to convey the power, adequacy, and significance of dialectical thinking for the sorts of challenges that this journal embraces. It suggests that events in all areas of life demand recognition of the limitations of closed-system approaches to analysis. Approaches based instead on the organizing principle of dialectic integrate dimensions of contradiction, change and system-transformation over time in a way that supports people’s adaptation when structures under girding their sense of self/world coherence are challenged. Higher education and psychotherapy are considered as examples of potential contexts for adult intellectual development, and the conditions that foster such development in these contexts are discussed. The article as a whole makes the case for consciously attempting to foster such development in all our work as an approach to integration.

  12. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A

    2005-01-01

    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this

  13. A systems approach to the economics of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragny, M.; Martinek, I.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear power plays a very important role in the long-term energy policy of Czechoslovakia. Its development is directly linked to the development of a nuclear power complex which includes, in addition to nuclear power itself, a series of new special nuclear production processes. The nuclear power complex is a large and highly complex technological and socio-economic scheme whose establishment requires substantial structural changes in the national economy. Accordingly, it is important to consider the economics of nuclear power development and management in relation to the development of the nuclear complex as a whole. Such an approach helps to reveal the interrelationship between the development of nuclear power and the development of the national economy as a whole, and makes it possible to determine the factors limiting development and also to establish the general economic necessity of introducing nuclear power production and ways of actively affecting it. (author)

  14. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.

  15. Generating Function Approach to the Derivation of Higher-Order Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanlav, Tugal; Chuluunbaatar, Ochbadrakh; Ulziibayar, Vandandoo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we propose a generating function method for constructing new two and three-point iterations with p (p = 4, 8) order of convergence. This approach allows us to derive a new family of optimal order iterative methods that include well known methods as special cases. Necessary and sufficient conditions for p-th (p = 4, 8) order convergence of the proposed iterations are given in terms of parameters τn and αn. We also propose some generating functions for τn and αn. We develop a unified representation of all optimal eighth-order methods. The order of convergence of the proposed methods is confirmed by numerical experiments.

  16. Paired comparisons analysis: an axiomatic approach to ranking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, J.; Hendrickx, Ruud; Lohmann, E.R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an axiomatic analysis of several ranking methods for general tournaments. We find that the ranking method obtained by applying maximum likelihood to the (Zermelo-)Bradley-Terry model, the most common method in statistics and psychology, is one of the ranking methods that

  17. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  18. An adaptive mesh refinement approach for average current nodal expansion method in 2-D rectangular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new adaptive h-refinement approach has been developed for a class of nodal method. ► The resulting system of nodal equations is more amenable to efficient numerical solution. ► The benefit of the approach is reducing computational efforts relative to the uniform fine mesh modeling. ► Spatially adaptive approach greatly enhances the accuracy of the solution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to develop a spatially adaptive coarse mesh strategy that progressively refines the nodes in appropriate regions of domain to solve the neutron balance equation by zeroth order nodal expansion method. A flux gradient based a posteriori estimation scheme has been utilized for checking the approximate solutions for various nodes. The relative surface net leakage of nodes has been considered as an assessment criterion. In this approach, the core module is called in by adaptive mesh generator to determine gradients of node surfaces flux to explore the possibility of node refinements in appropriate regions and directions of the problem. The benefit of the approach is reducing computational efforts relative to the uniform fine mesh modeling. For this purpose, a computer program ANRNE-2D, Adaptive Node Refinement Nodal Expansion, has been developed to solve neutron diffusion equation using average current nodal expansion method for 2D rectangular geometries. Implementing the adaptive algorithm confirms its superiority in enhancing the accuracy of the solution without using fine nodes throughout the domain and increasing the number of unknown solution. Some well-known benchmarks have been investigated and improvements are reported

  19. Feedback of reactor operating data to nuclear methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, R.L.; Kang, C.M.; Parkos, G.R.; Wolters, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The problems in obtaining power reactor data for reliable nuclear methods development and the major sources of power reactor data for this purpose are reviewed. Specific examples of the use of power reactor data in nuclear methods development are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations on the key elements of an effective program to use power reactor data in nuclear methods development

  20. Hydropower development priority using MCDM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyasilp, Thanaporn; Pongput, Kobkiat; Boonyasirikul, Thana

    2009-01-01

    Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin.

  1. Hydropower development priority using MCDM method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriyasilp, Thanaporn [Department of Civil Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pongput, Kobkiat [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Boonyasirikul, Thana [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi 11130 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin. (author)

  2. The regional approach and regional studies method in the process of geography teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendzhieva, Stela; Doikov, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We define the regional approach as a manner of relations among the global trends of development of the "Society-man-nature" system and the local differentiating level of knowledge. Conditionally, interactions interlace under the influence of the character of Geography as a science, education, approaches, goals and teaching methods. Global, national and local development differentiates in three concentric circles at the level of knowledge. It is determined as a conception of modern, complex and effective mechanism for young people, through which knowledge develops in regional historical and cultural perspective; self-consciousness for socio-economic and cultural integration is formed as a part of the. historical-geographical image of the native land. This way an attitude to the. native land is formed as a connecting construct between patriotism to the motherland and the same in global aspect. The possibility for integration and cooperation of the educative geographical content with all the local historical-geographical, regional, profession orientating, artistic, municipal and district institutions, is outlined. Contemporary geographical education appears to be a powerful and indispensable mechanism for organization of human sciences, while the regional approach and the application of the regional studies method stimulate and motivate the development and realization of optimal capacities for direct connection with the local structures and environments.

  3. SCOS 2: An object oriented software development approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Martin; Lynenskjold, Steen; Mueller, Christian

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control and Operations System 2 (SCOS 2), is intended to provide the generic mission control system infrastructure for future ESA missions. It represents a bold step forward in order to take advantage of state-of-the-art technology and current practices in the area of software engineering. Key features include: (1) use of object oriented analysis and design techniques; (2) use of UNIX, C++ and a distributed architecture as the enabling implementation technology; (3) goal of re-use for development, maintenance and mission specific software implementation; and (4) introduction of the concept of a spacecraft control model. This paper touches upon some of the traditional beliefs surrounding Object Oriented development and describes their relevance to SCOS 2. It gives rationale for why particular approaches were adopted and others not, and describes the impact of these decisions. The development approach followed is discussed, highlighting the evolutionary nature of the overall process and the iterative nature of the various tasks carried out. The emphasis of this paper is on the process of the development with the following being covered: (1) the three phases of the SCOS 2 project - prototyping & analysis, design & implementation and configuration / delivery of mission specific systems; (2) the close cooperation and continual interaction with the users during the development; (3) the management approach - the split between client staff, industry and some of the required project management activities; (4) the lifecycle adopted being an enhancement of the ESA PSS-05 standard with SCOS 2 specific activities and approaches defined; and (5) an examination of some of the difficulties encountered and the solutions adopted. Finally, the lessons learned from the SCOS 2 experience are highlighted, identifying those issues to be used as feedback into future developments of this nature. This paper does not intend to describe the finished product and its operation

  4. Constraining Unsaturated Hydraulic Parameters Using the Latin Hypercube Sampling Method and Coupled Hydrogeophysical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Khalil, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-01

    The coupled hydrogeophysical approach has proved to be a valuable tool for improving the use of geoelectrical data for hydrological model parameterization. In the coupled approach, hydrological parameters are directly inferred from geoelectrical measurements in a forward manner to eliminate the uncertainty connected to the independent inversion of electrical resistivity data. Several numerical studies have been conducted to demonstrate the advantages of a coupled approach; however, only a few attempts have been made to apply the coupled approach to actual field data. In this study, we developed a 1D coupled hydrogeophysical code to estimate the van Genuchten-Mualem model parameters, K s, n, θ r and α, from time-lapse vertical electrical sounding data collected during a constant inflow infiltration experiment. van Genuchten-Mualem parameters were sampled using the Latin hypercube sampling method to provide a full coverage of the range of each parameter from their distributions. By applying the coupled approach, vertical electrical sounding data were coupled to hydrological models inferred from van Genuchten-Mualem parameter samples to investigate the feasibility of constraining the hydrological model. The key approaches taken in the study are to (1) integrate electrical resistivity and hydrological data and avoiding data inversion, (2) estimate the total water mass recovery of electrical resistivity data and consider it in van Genuchten-Mualem parameters evaluation and (3) correct the influence of subsurface temperature fluctuations during the infiltration experiment on electrical resistivity data. The results of the study revealed that the coupled hydrogeophysical approach can improve the value of geophysical measurements in hydrological model parameterization. However, the approach cannot overcome the technical limitations of the geoelectrical method associated with resolution and of water mass recovery.

  5. Status and development of uranium prospection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.

    1978-01-01

    In radiometric prospection, gamma measuring equipment is widely used. Simple instruments, so-called scintillometers, can only measure total radiation while spectrometers permit separate measurements of uranium, thorium, or calcium via daughter products of their decay chains. Depending on the target investigated, airborne, carborne, or footborne methods are employed. In radon prospection the gaseous decay product radon is measured as a sign of hidden uranium enrichment in ground air or water from springs. Due to its high solubility, uranium is well suited for geochemical prospection where uranium concentrations in bodies of water, river sediments, soil and rock types are determined. There is a trend in uranium prospection towards the discovery of hidden orifications. Novel techniques, e.g. airborne geochemistry, isotope chemistry, tracer element measurement, etc. are being tested with a view to their suitability for uranium prospection. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  6. Development of fast neutron profiling method

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, T; Sanami, T; Yamazaki, T; Ibaraki, M; Hirasawa, Y; Hiroishi, T; Aoki, T; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the effects of neutron scattering and gamma-ray background in fast neutron imaging and the method to reduce them. As a profiling device, a combination of an imaging plate (IP) and a polypropylene film (CH sub 2) has been employed in this study. Good profiles were obtained by employing appropriate neutron energy, a CH sub 2 thickness and geometry for accelerator-based fast neutrons (5-14 MeV). The neutron flux was approx 3.5x10 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in the CH sub 2 -IP position. Furthermore, we are designing the device using a position-sensitive photomultiplier in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by obtaining the information of pulse height for particle selection together with position.

  7. Holistic approach to flutter clearance using classical methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Flutter clearance is usually regarded as a two step process: flutter analysis (including ground vibration testing, aerodynamic analysis and equation of motion solution), and flutter flight testing. The problem with this approach...

  8. New Concepts and methods for developing shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen; Bilberg, Arne; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    concept reduces the effort for providing and operating high quality and high functionality cell control solutions for the industry. The plans for the next generation industrial shop floor and cell controllers are to develop new concepts based on more distributed systems, which are more robust and agile...... with respect to changing demands, technological advances and daily operations. The scope of these systems are a network of co-operating cells as opposed to individually operated cells which are co-ordinated in a traditionally (hierarchical planning) manner. This new approach raises new demands......An industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implementation of computer based control and monitoring systems for production cells. This is primarily documented within automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. In order to support engineering of cell...

  9. Current Approaches to Develop a Live Vaccine against Leishmania majo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Yeganeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in 88 countries. Most of the patients after recovery from the infection develop a long-lived natural immunity against re-infection. Reactivation of leishmaniasis subsequent to suppression of the immune system due to HIV infection or administration of systemic immunosuppressive drugs, underscores the importance of developing new drugs and effective vaccine. Despite the many efforts that have been done, there is still no effective vaccine. Up to now, many candidate vaccines from three generations of the vaccine, including Live/killed vaccines, subunit vaccines, and DNA vaccines have been developed and studied. However the sophisticated vaccines, such as prime-boost DNA vaccines are introduced, the best results are obtained from live vaccines. As safety is the most important obstacle to the use of live vaccines, many different approaches have been used to enhance the safety of live vaccine candidates. In this short review, these approaches are summarized.

  10. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K.S.; Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  11. Reusable Component Model Development Approach for Parallel and Distributed Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Yao, Yiping; Chen, Huilong; Yao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Model reuse is a key issue to be resolved in parallel and distributed simulation at present. However, component models built by different domain experts usually have diversiform interfaces, couple tightly, and bind with simulation platforms closely. As a result, they are difficult to be reused across different simulation platforms and applications. To address the problem, this paper first proposed a reusable component model framework. Based on this framework, then our reusable model development approach is elaborated, which contains two phases: (1) domain experts create simulation computational modules observing three principles to achieve their independence; (2) model developer encapsulates these simulation computational modules with six standard service interfaces to improve their reusability. The case study of a radar model indicates that the model developed using our approach has good reusability and it is easy to be used in different simulation platforms and applications. PMID:24729751

  12. Deconstructive Misalignment: Archives, Events, and Humanities Approaches in Academic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor M. Holmes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using poetry, role play, readers’ theatre, and creative manipulations of space through yarn and paper weaving, a workshop in 2008 challenged one of educational development’s more pervasive and least questioned notions (“constructive alignment” associated most often with the work of John Biggs. This paper describes the reasoning behind using humanities approaches specifically in this case and more generally in the Challenging Academic Development Collective’s work, as well as problematising the notions of “experiment” and “results” by unarchiving and re-archiving such a nonce-event. The critical stakes in using an anti-empirical method are broached, and readers are encouraged to experience their own version of the emergent truths of such approaches by drawing their own conclusions. En 2008, par le biais de la poésie, du jeu de rôles, du théâtre lu et de manipulations créatrices de l’espace avec de la laine et des tissages en papier, un atelier a mis au défi une des notions les plus généralisées et les moins remises en question du développement éducatif, l’alignement constructif, le plus souvent associé aux travaux de John Biggs. Cet article décrit le raisonnement qui se cache sous l’utilisation des approches des humanités tout spécialement dans ce cas et de manière plus générale dans les travaux du Collectif sur le développement académique stimulant. L’article traite également de la problématique sur les notions d’« expérience » et de « résultats » en désarchivant et en réarchivant une telle circonstance. Les enjeux principaux de l’utilisation de cette méthode anti-empirique sont abordés et les lecteurs sont encouragés à faire l’expérience de leur propre version des vérités qui émergent de telles approches en tirant leurs propres conclusions.

  13. Developing a complex approach to health phenomena (step 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Myriam Patricia

    Health is a complex object for science and operative levels, partly because there are many approaches defining it but not scientifically sufficient or operatively accepted. This is relevant for health understanding but also for decision making on health related problems. "Determinants of Health" as a widely accepted theoretical proposal, identifies as problematic the reductionist view of health as the disease opposite, attempting to develop it positively according to WHO's definition, proposing a set of factors determining health outcomes. Though this allows a larger comprehension of health causes and effects, still has insufficiently defined theoretical statements and unproved assumptions which difficult understanding and effective actions orientation. Complexity deductive modeling since the insufficiently formalized frameworks, implies incorporating unmanageable object assumptions or reducing health broadness. Taking profit of Bogotá government adherence to DH proposal leading a health information system development, was possible inductive modeling since a systemic massive database (690.000 registries). In this way, DH theoretical statements about health components connectedness were explored by classic statistic approach, and by learning Bayesian networks from data (data mining). First approach showed understanding difficulties. Second was advantageous in approximating within and between determinants relationship structure. However, though DH introduces a systemic approach in considering diverse interacting elements is not empirically satisfactory to exhibit all the meaning of health complexity, because just matches analytic fashioned constructs depending on data expression. A strong networked model developing health complexity, needs the orientation by theoretical constructs as human agency and organization, to explore and understand emergent patterns of health.

  14. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  15. Methods and Protocols for Developing Prion Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniuk, Kristen; Taschuk, Ryan; Napper, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases denote a distinct form of infectivity that is based in the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into a pathological, infectious conformation (PrP(Sc)). Efforts to develop vaccines for prion diseases have been complicated by the potential dangers that are associated with induction of immune responses against a self-protein. As a consequence, there is considerable appeal for vaccines that specifically target the misfolded prion conformation. Such conformation-specific immunotherapy is made possible through the identification of vaccine targets (epitopes) that are exclusively presented as a consequence of misfolding. An immune response directed against these targets, termed disease-specific epitopes (DSEs), has the potential to spare the function of the native form of the protein while clearing, or neutralizing, the infectious isomer. Although identification of DSEs represents a critical first step in the induction of conformation-specific immune responses, substantial efforts are required to translate these targets into functional vaccines. Due to the poor immunogenicity that is inherent to self-proteins, and that is often associated with short peptides, substantial efforts are required to overcome tolerance-to-self and maximize the resultant immune response following DSE-based immunization. This often includes optimization of target sequences in terms of immunogenicity and development of effective formulation and delivery strategies for the associated peptides. Further, these vaccines must satisfy additional criteria from perspectives of specificity (PrP(C) vs. PrP(Sc)) and safety (antibody-induced template-driven misfolding of PrP(C)). The emphasis of this report is on the steps required to translate DSEs into prion vaccines and subsequent evaluation of the resulting immune responses.

  16. Managing supplier involvement in new product development: a portfolio approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; ten Pierick, E.

    2000-01-01

    Supplier involvement in new product development projects has become an increasingly popular method for improving project effectiveness (product costs and quality) and project efficiency (development costs and time). One of the key issues in managing this involvement is determining which type of

  17. A Financial Approach as an Alternative Organizational Development Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    applied Behavioral Science techniques. The classic definition by Richard Beckhard will be used throughout this thesis: Organizational Development is an...BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Argyris, C., Intervention Theory and Method, Addison- Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1970. 2. Beckhard , Richard , Organizational Development...Stragegies and Models, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1969. 3. Beckhard , Richard and Harris, Reuben T., Organizational Transitions: Managing

  18. Domain decomposition methods in FVM approach to gravity field modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macák, Marek

    2017-04-01

    The finite volume method (FVM) as a numerical method can be straightforwardly implemented for global or local gravity field modelling. This discretization method solves the geodetic boundary value problems in a space domain. In order to obtain precise numerical solutions, it usually requires very refined discretization leading to large-scale parallel computations. To optimize such computations, we present a special class of numerical techniques that are based on a physical decomposition of the global solution domain. The domain decomposition (DD) methods like the Multiplicative Schwarz Method and Additive Schwarz Method are very efficient methods for solving partial differential equations. We briefly present their mathematical formulations and we test their efficiency. Presented numerical experiments are dealing with gravity field modelling. Since there is no need to solve special interface problems between neighbouring subdomains, in our applications we use the overlapping DD methods.

  19. Energy valuation methods for biofuels in South Florida: Introduction to life cycle assessment and emergy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treese II, J. Van [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Amponsah, Nana [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose -Luis [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Here, recent changes in the United States requiring the use of ethanol in gasoline for most vehicular transportation have created discussion about important issues, such as shifting the use of certain plants from food production to energy supply, related federal subsidies, effects on soil, water and atmosphere resources, tradeoffs between food production and energy production, speculation about biofuels as a possible means for energy security, potential reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or development and expansion of biofuels industry. A sustainable approach to biofuel production requires understanding inputs (i.e., energy required to carry out a process, both natural and anthropogenic) and outputs (i.e., energy produced by that process) and cover the entire process, as well as environmental considerations that can be overlooked in a more traditional approach. This publication gives an overview of two methods for evaluating energy transformations in biofuels production: (1) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (2) Emergy Assessment (EA). The LCA approach involves measurements affecting greenhouse gases (GHG), which can be linked to the energy considerations used in the EA. Although these two methods have their basis in energy or GHG evaluations, their approaches can lead to a reliable judgment regarding a biofuel process. Using these two methods can ensure that the energy components are well understood and can help to evaluate the economic environmental component of a biofuel process. In turn, using these two evaluative tools will allow for decisions about biofuel processes that favor sustainability

  20. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  1. An approach to developing an integrated pyro processing simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Ko, I.W.; Choi, S.Y.; Kim, S.K.; Kim, I.T.; Lee, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text:Pyro processing has been studied for a decade as one of the promising fuel recycling options in Korea. We have built a pyro processing integrated inactive demonstration facility (PRIDE) to assess the feasibility of integrated pyro processing technology and scale-up issues of the processing equipment. Even though such facility cannot be replaced with a real integrated facility using spent nuclear fuel (SF), many insights can be obtained in terms of the worlds largest integrated pyro processing operation. In order to complement or overcome such limited test-based research, a pyro processing Modelling and simulation study began in 2011. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) suggested a Modelling architecture for the development of a multi-purpose pyro processing simulator consisting of three-tiered models: unit process, operation, and plant-level-model. The unit process model can be addressed using governing equations or empirical equations as a continuous system (CS). In contrast, the operation model describes the operational behaviors as a discrete event system (DES). The plant-level model is an integrated model of the unit process and an operation model with various analysis modules. An interface with different systems, the incorporation of different codes, a process-centered database design, and a dynamic material flow are discussed as necessary components for building a framework of the plant-level model. As a sample model that contains methods decoding the above engineering issues was thoroughly reviewed, the architecture for building the plant-level-model was verified. By analyzing a process and operation-combined model, we showed that the suggested approach is effective for comprehensively understanding an integrated dynamic material flow. This paper addressed the current status of the pyro processing Modelling and simulation activity at KAERI, and also predicted its path forward. (author)

  2. Development of an integrated configuration management/flight director system for piloted STOL approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, R. H.; Klein, R. H.; Johnson, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A system analysis method for the development of an integrated configuration management/flight director system for IFR STOL approaches is presented. Curved descending decelerating approach trajectories are considered. Considerable emphasis is placed on satisfying the pilot centered requirements (acceptable workload) as well as the usual guidance and control requirements (acceptable performance). The Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft was utilized to allow illustration by example, and to validate the analysis procedure via manned simulation.

  3. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga Yukiharu; Seki Hiroshi; Arita Setsuo

    1997-01-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators' demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators' demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  4. An Analysis of Language Teaching Approaches and Methods--Effectiveness and Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-xue; Shi, Jin-fang

    2007-01-01

    Language teaching approaches and methods have cast light on the language teaching theory and practice. There are still many controversies about their usefulness and appropriateness. This paper tries to analyze their effectiveness and weakness of several most influential teaching approaches and methods: Grammar-translation Method, Direct Method,…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL MATRIX APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna

    2012-07-01

    The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance. Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

  6. Object Oriented Approach to Software Development for LHC Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Tummers, B J; Day, C; Innocente, V; Mount, R; Visser, E; Burnett, T H; Balke, C

    2002-01-01

    % RD41 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to study the viability of the Object Oriented~(OO) approach for developing the code for LHC experiments. The authors of this proposal will learn the key issues of this approach:~~OO analysis and design. Several methodologies will be studied to select the most appropriate for the High Energy Physics case. Some Computer Aided Software Engineering tools and implementation languages will be evaluated. These studies will be carried out with various well-defined prototypes, some of which have been defined in a preceding study and some of which will be defined in the course of this R\\&D project. We propose to also study in this project how the OO approach enhances a different, and hopefully better, project management. Management tools will be tried and professional training will be organized.

  7. Development of the methodology and approaches to validate safety and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    The article compares the development of the methodology and approaches to validate the nuclear power plant safety and accident management in Russia and advanced industrial countries. It demonstrates that the development of methods of safety validation is dialectically related to the accumulation of the knowledge base on processes and events during NPP normal operation, transients and emergencies, including severe accidents. The article describes the Russian severe accident research program (1987-1996), the implementation of which allowed Russia to reach the world level of the safety validation efforts, presents future high-priority study areas. Problems related to possible approaches to the methodological accident management development are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Nonlinear inverse scattering methods for thermal- wave slice tomography: a wavelet domain approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 235 Forsyth Building, Boston, Massachusetts02115 (United States); Nicolaides, L.; Mandelis, A. [Photothermal and Optoelectronic Diagnostics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 Kings College Road, Toronto M5S3G8, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    A wavelet domain, nonlinear inverse scattering approach is presented for imaging subsurface defects in a material sample, given observations of scattered thermal waves. Unlike methods using the Born linearization, our inversion scheme is based on the full wave-field model describing the propagation of thermal waves. Multiresolution techniques are employed to regularize and to lower the computational burden of this ill-posed imaging problem. We use newly developed wavelet-based regularization methods to resolve better the edge structures of defects relative to reconstructions obtained with smoothness-type regularizers. A nonlinear approximation to the exact forward-scattering model is introduced to simplify the inversion with little loss in accuracy. We demonstrate this approach on cross-section imaging problems by using synthetically generated scattering data from transmission and backprojection geometries. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  9. A MOOC approach for training researchers in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Murugesan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an online course in research writing offered in a massive open online course (MOOC format for developing country researchers. The concepts of cognitive presence, teacher presence, and social presence informed the design of the course, with a philosophy of strong social interaction supported by guest facilitators. The course was developed with low-bandwidth elements and hosted on a Moodle site. It was offered twice as a MOOC and 2830 learners from more than 90 countries, mainly in the developing world, took part. The average completion rate was 53%. Female learners and learners who were active in the forums were more likely to complete the course. Our MOOC approach may be a useful model for continuing professional development training in the developing world.

  10. Envisioning and Implementing a Whole-School Youth Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Geiser

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Middle schools have the opportunity to positively impact the full development of young adolescents. Yet, initiatives that promote schools’ rigorous attention to specific academic outcomes can make it difficult to attend to other important and interconnected domains of adolescent development. How might middle schools intentionally situate academics within the broader frame of youth development? Youth in the Middle (YiM, a partnership between John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities (JGC at Stanford University and Kennedy Middle School in Redwood City, California, has pursued four areas of work that are central to developing a whole-school youth development approach. This article describes these work areas and offers preliminary evidence of progress.

  11. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Axelsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative solution methods to solve linear systems of equations were originally formulated as basic iteration methods of defect-correction type, commonly referred to as Richardson's iteration method. These methods developed further into various versions of splitting methods, including the successive overrelaxation (SOR method. Later, immensely important developments included convergence acceleration methods, such as the Chebyshev and conjugate gradient iteration methods and preconditioning methods of various forms. A major strive has been to find methods with a total computational complexity of optimal order, that is, proportional to the degrees of freedom involved in the equation. Methods that have turned out to have been particularly important for the further developments of linear equation solvers are surveyed. Some of them are presented in greater detail.

  12. The evaluation of student-centredness of teaching and learning: a new mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ana R; Sandars, John E; Alves, Palmira; Costa, Manuel J

    2014-08-14

    The aim of the study was to develop and consider the usefulness of a new mixed-methods approach to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on undergraduate medical courses. An essential paradigm for the evaluation was the coherence between how teachers conceptualise their practice (espoused theories) and their actual practice (theories-in-use). The context was a module within an integrated basic sciences course in an undergraduate medical degree programme. The programme had an explicit intention of providing a student-centred curriculum. A content analysis framework based on Weimer's dimensions of student-centred teaching was used to analyze data collected from individual interviews with seven teachers to identify espoused theories and 34h of classroom observations and one student focus group to identify theories-in-use. The interviewees were identified by purposeful sampling. The findings from the three methods were triangulated to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on the course. Different, but complementary, perspectives of the student-centredness of teaching and learning were identified by each method. The triangulation of the findings revealed coherence between the teachers' espoused theories and theories-in-use. A mixed-methods approach that combined classroom observations with interviews from a purposeful sample of teachers and students offered a useful evaluation of the extent of student-centredness of teaching and learning of this basic science course. Our case study suggests that this new approach is applicable to other courses in medical education.

  13. Interdisciplinary Approaches and Methods for Sustainable Transformation and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyun Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To increase the likelihood of success and sustainability, organizations must fundamentally reposition themselves and try to change current processes or create new products and services. One of the most effective approaches to find a solution for transformation and innovation is to learn from other domains where a solution for similar problems is already available. This paper briefly introduces the definition of and approaches to convergence of academic disciplines and industries, and overviews several representative convergence cases focusing on gamification for sustainable education, environments, and business managements.

  14. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  16. A Multicultural Competencies Approach to Developing Human Capital Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliscroft, Paul; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš; Šefčíková, Miriam; Kamenova, Joana Valery

    2012-12-01

    The globalisation phenomenon has been prevalent since the last decade of 20th century and remains a significant factor influencing both organisations and individuals today. Within a globalised business environment the effective management of multicultural aspects and differences has become imperative to ensure success. It is increasingly evident there is a need to develop a clear understanding of multicultural competencies in order to fully develop a strategic approach to human capital management (HCM). The adoption of a strategic approach is necessary to ensure a focus on the issues critical to success and competitive advantage including multicultural management, professional skills and knowledge management. This paper aims to identify the importance of intercultural management and the impact of globalisation upon international business.

  17. Bootstrap Approach to Comparison of Alternative Methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bootstrap simulation approach was used to generate values for endogenous variables of a simultaneous equation model popularly known as Keynesian Model of Income Determination. Three sample sizes 20, 30 and 40 each replicated 10, 20 and 30 times were considered. Four different estimation techniques: Ordinary ...

  18. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.; Rodgers, Theodore S.

    Each major trend in 20th-century second language teaching is explained, and similarities and differences are highlighted. An introductory chapter offers a brief history of second language teaching. The second chapter outlines a model for examining and comparing the different approaches. This model is used in subsequent chapters to describe methods…

  19. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with copper. Method: A coloured complex based on UV/Vis spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of losartan potassium concentration in pharmaceutical ...

  20. Development of soil microbiology methods: from respirometry to molecular approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriel, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1289-1297 ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Soil microbiology * Continuous cultivation * Microbial growth Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010

  1. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  2. Genome-Wide Approaches to Drosophila Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Frasch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the dorsal vessel in Drosophila is one of the first systems in which key mechanisms regulating cardiogenesis have been defined in great detail at the genetic and molecular level. Due to evolutionary conservation, these findings have also provided major inputs into studies of cardiogenesis in vertebrates. Many of the major components that control Drosophila cardiogenesis were discovered based on candidate gene approaches and their functions were defined by employing the outstanding genetic tools and molecular techniques available in this system. More recently, approaches have been taken that aim to interrogate the entire genome in order to identify novel components and describe genomic features that are pertinent to the regulation of heart development. Apart from classical forward genetic screens, the availability of the thoroughly annotated Drosophila genome sequence made new genome-wide approaches possible, which include the generation of massive numbers of RNA interference (RNAi reagents that were used in forward genetic screens, as well as studies of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the developing heart under normal and experimentally manipulated conditions. Moreover, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments have been performed with the aim to define the full set of genomic binding sites of the major cardiogenic transcription factors, their relevant target genes, and a more complete picture of the regulatory network that drives cardiogenesis. This review will give an overview on these genome-wide approaches to Drosophila heart development and on computational analyses of the obtained information that ultimately aim to provide a description of this process at the systems level.

  3. Risk-Based Approach to Developing National Residue Sampling Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee of the Food Safety Authority of Ireland

    2014-01-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and medicated feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the National Residue Control Plan. In the context of food sampling and residue testing for the National Residue Control Plan, there is firstly, the risk to human health from residues of chemical substances in food and secondly, the issue of non-compliance with regulations relating ...

  4. Development of a Conservative Model Validation Approach for Reliable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    conservativeness level , the conservative probability of failure obtained from Section 4 must be maintained. The mathematical formulation of conservative model... CIE 2015 August 2-5, 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [DRAFT] DETC2015-46982 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONSERVATIVE MODEL VALIDATION APPROACH FOR RELIABLE...PDF and a probability of failure are selected from these predicted output PDFs at a user-specified conservativeness level for validation. For

  5. The applying stakeholder approach to strategic management of territories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilshat Azamatovich Tazhitdinov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the aspects of the strategic management of socioeconomic development of territories in terms of stakeholder approach are discussed. The author's interpretation of the concept of stakeholder sub-region is proposed, and their classification into internal and external to the territorial socioeconomic system of sub-regional level is offered. The types of interests and types of resources stakeholders in the sub-region are identified, and at the same time the correlation of interests and resources allows to determine the groups (alliances stakeholders, which ensure the balance of interests depending on the certain objectives of the association. The conceptual stakeholder agent model of management of strategic territorial development within the hierarchical system of «region — sub-region — municipal formation,» is proposed. All stakeholders there are considered as the influence agents directing its own resources to provide a comprehensive approach to management territorial development. The interaction between all the influence agents of the «Region — Sub-region — municipal formation» is provided vertically and horizontally through the initialization of the development and implementation of strategic documents of the sub-region. Vertical interaction occurs between stakeholders such as government and municipal authorities being as a guideline, and the horizontal — between the rests of them being as a partnership. Within the proposed model, the concurrent engineering is implemented, which is a form of inter-municipal strategic cooperation of local government municipalities for the formation and analyzing a set of alternatives of the project activities in the sub-region in order to choose the best options. The proposed approach was tested in the development of medium-term comprehensive program of socioeconomic development of the Zauralye and sub-regions of the North-East of the Republic of Bashkortostan (2011–2015.

  6. Late-Developing Supernumerary Premolars: Analysis of Different Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paduano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series describes the different potential approaches to late-developing supernumerary premolars (LDSP. LDSP are supernumerary teeth (ST formed after the eruption of the permanent dentition; usually they develop in the premolar region of the upper and lower jaw. The choice to extract or to monitor the LDSP depends on many factors and has to be carefully planned due to the several risks that either the monitoring or the extraction could provoke. These four cases of LDSP showed different treatment plan alternatives derived from a scrupulous assessment of the clinical and radiographic information.

  7. Project Report on Development of a Safeguards Approach for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken an effort to develop a standard safeguards approach for international commercial pyroprocessing facilities. This report details progress for the fiscal year 2010 effort. A component by component diversion pathway analysis has been performed, and has led to insight on the mitigation needs and equipment development needed for a valid safeguards approach. The effort to develop an in-hot cell detection capability led to the digital cloud chamber, and more importantly, the significant potential scientific breakthrough of the inverse spectroscopy algorithm, including the ability to identify energy and spatial location of gamma ray emitting sources with a single, non-complex, stationary radiation detector system. Curium measurements were performed on historical and current samples at the FCF to attempt to determine the utility of using gross neutron counting for accountancy measurements. A solid cost estimate of equipment installation at FCF has been developed to guide proposals and cost allocations to use FCF as a test bed for safeguards measurement demonstrations. A combined MATLAB and MCNPX model has been developed to perform detector placement calculations around the electrorefiner. Early harvesting has occurred wherein the project team has been requested to provide pyroprocessing technology and safeguards short courses.

  8. THE METHODS DEVELOPMENT OF CALCULATION OF TUNNEL LINING RECTANGULAR SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kozhushko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods of computation of rectangular underground building developed last century and at the beginning of the 21st century with the purpose of exposing basic development directions of the given problem have been considered. The author's opinion concerning computation method development prospect of underground building of rectangular outline has been suggested.

  9. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  10. Student Oriented Approaches in the Teaching of Thermodynamics at Universities--Developing an Effective Course Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply current pedagogical research in order to develop an effective course and exercise structure for a physical chemistry thermodynamics course intended for second or third year university students of chemistry. A mixed-method approach was used to measure the impact the changes had on student learning. In its final…

  11. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  12. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  13. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  14. Simplified approaches to some nonoverlapping domain decomposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinchao

    1996-12-31

    An attempt will be made in this talk to present various domain decomposition methods in a way that is intuitively clear and technically coherent and concise. The basic framework used for analysis is the {open_quotes}parallel subspace correction{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}additive Schwarz{close_quotes} method, and other simple technical tools include {open_quotes}local-global{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}global-local{close_quotes} techniques, the formal one is for constructing subspace preconditioner based on a preconditioner on the whole space whereas the later one for constructing preconditioner on the whole space based on a subspace preconditioner. The domain decomposition methods discussed in this talk fall into two major categories: one, based on local Dirichlet problems, is related to the {open_quotes}substructuring method{close_quotes} and the other, based on local Neumann problems, is related to the {open_quotes}Neumann-Neumann method{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}balancing method{close_quotes}. All these methods will be presented in a systematic and coherent manner and the analysis for both two and three dimensional cases are carried out simultaneously. In particular, some intimate relationship between these algorithms are observed and some new variants of the algorithms are obtained.

  15. Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods

    OpenAIRE

    Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...

  16. Development of a screening approach for exploring cell factory potential through metabolic flux analysis and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thykær, Jette

    2012-01-01

    of the recombinant strains in order to evaluate their potential as fungal cell factories and for guiding further metabolic engineering strategies. To meet the demand for a fast and reliable method for physiological characterisation of fungal strains, a screening approach using a micro titer format was developed...... of the validation, already well described fungal strains were selected and tested using the described method and the developed method was subsequently used to test recombinant fungal strains producing the model polyketide 6-methylsalicylic acid. Diligent application of this strategy significantly reduces the cost...

  17. Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (II): an assessment of defined approaches *.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Allen, David; Ashikaga, Takao; Casey, Warren; Clouet, Elodie; Cluzel, Magalie; Desprez, Bertrand; Gellatly, Nichola; Göbel, Carsten; Kern, Petra S; Klaric, Martina; Kühnl, Jochen; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Mewes, Karsten; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Strickland, Judy; van Vliet, Erwin; Zang, Qingda; Petersohn, Dirk

    2018-02-23

    Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force (STTF) collected and generated data on 128 substances in multiple in vitro and in chemico skin sensitization assays selected based on a systematic assessment by the STTF. These assays, together with certain in silico predictions, are key components of various non-animal testing strategies that have been submitted to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as case studies for skin sensitization. Curated murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human skin sensitization data were used to evaluate the performance of six defined approaches, comprising eight non-animal testing strategies, for both hazard and potency characterization. Defined approaches examined included consensus methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machine models, Bayesian networks, and decision trees, most of which were reproduced using open source software tools. Multiple non-animal testing strategies incorporating in vitro, in chemico, and in silico inputs demonstrated equivalent or superior performance to the LLNA when compared to both animal and human data for skin sensitization.

  18. A multi-method approach to evaluate health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of the introduction and impact of health information systems (HIS) is a challenging task. As the implementation is a dynamic process, with diverse issues emerge at various stages of system introduction, it is challenge to weigh the contribution of various factors and differentiate the critical ones. A conceptual framework will be helpful in guiding the evaluation effort; otherwise data collection may not be comprehensive and accurate. This may again lead to inadequate interpretation of the phenomena under study. Based on comprehensive literature research and own practice of evaluating health information systems, the author proposes a multimethod approach that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative measurement and centered around DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model. This approach aims to quantify the performance of HIS and its impact, and provide comprehensive and accurate explanations about the casual relationships of the different factors. This approach will provide decision makers with accurate and actionable information for improving the performance of the introduced HIS.

  19. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  20. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  1. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Alan M. Goldberg; Andrew N. Rowan

    1987-01-01

    Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration...

  2. Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kedare, Sagar B.; Singh, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method offers the first approach for evaluating the antioxidant potential of a compound, an extract or other biological sources. This is the simplest method, wherein the prospective compound or extract is mixed with DPPH solution and absorbance is recorded after a defined period. However, with the advancement and sophistication in instrumental techniques, the method has undergone various modifications to suit the requirements, even...

  3. Cooperative technology development: An approach to advancing energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1989-09-01

    Technology development requires an enormous financial investment over a long period of time. Scarce national and corporate resources, the result of highly competitive markets, decreased profit margins, wide currency fluctuations, and growing debt, often preclude continuous development of energy technology by single entities, i.e., corporations, institutions, or nations. Although the energy needs of the developed world are generally being met by existing institutions, it is becoming increasingly clear that existing capital formation and technology transfer structures have failed to aid developing nations in meeting their growing electricity needs. This paper will describe a method for meeting the electricity needs of the developing world through technology transfer and international cooperative technology development. The role of nuclear power and the advanced passive plant design will be discussed. (author)

  4. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites, with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize the data range and variance of each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed, and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  5. Developing Automatic Multi-Objective Optimization Methods for Complex Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS, R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and multiobjective optimization of a magnetic actuator. By varying just 8 parameters of the magnetic actuator’s model the design space grows to more than 6 million configurations. Much more, the 8 objectives that must be optimized are conflicting and generate a huge objectives space, too. To cope with this complexity, we use advanced heuristic methods for Automatic Design Space Exploration. FADSE tool is one Automatic Design Space Exploration framework including different state of the art multi-objective meta-heuristics for solving NP-hard problems, which we used for the analysis and optimization of the COMSOL and MATLAB model of the magnetic actuator. We show that using a state of the art genetic multi-objective algorithm, response surface modelling methods and some machine learning techniques, the timing complexity of the design space exploration can be reduced, while still taking into consideration objective constraints so that various Pareto optimal configurations can be found. Using our developed approach, we were able to decrease the simulation time by at least a factor of 10, compared to a run that does all the simulations, while keeping prediction errors to around 1%.

  6. Development of the statisticlal analysis methods for managing setpoint drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. C.; Lim, T. J.

    2004-08-01

    The nuclear industry has generally accepted the statistical approach suggested in ISA-67.04(1994) for ensuring that the setpoints for safety-related instrumentation are established and maintained within the technical specification limits (NRC RG1.105, 1999). However, the current methodologies of the document may be insufficient to manage the setpoint drift of instrumentation devices, because they are basically designed to determine an instrument setpoint using statistical prediction techniques. In this report, we propose a new statistical analysis procedure composed of six steps for the management of the setpoint drift using the plant-specific as-found/as-left data of the instrumentation devices. For the applicability of the proposed method, an example is illustrated based on practical as-found/as-left data obtained from the channel functional test of a bistable at a one-month surveillance interval in a Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant. All analysis were performed using the SeDA(Setpoint Drift Analysis) program that has been developed in accordance with the new 6-step procedure. The use of more statistical graphic tools can facilitate the process of the previous setpoint drift evaluation. The scope of the drift analysis is enlarged by the adoption of non-parametric statistical methods from the view point of the methodology. Several statistical process control techniques will provide the plant staff with more efficiency for the management of the instrumentation device

  7. Management of Teacher Scientific-Methodical Work in Vocational Educational Institutions on the Basis of Project-Target Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuto, Elena A.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kozlova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the subject under analysis is determined by the lack of theoretical development of the problem of management of teacher scientific-methodical work in vocational educational institutions based upon innovative approaches in the framework of project paradigm. The purpose of the article is to develop and test a science-based…

  8. An Innovative Approach to Lower the Risk of Software Intensive Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    There are several agile methodologies and each has advantages that are dependent on the type of capability being developed. The scrum agile method is...constrained iterative approach. It also encourages rapid and flexible response to change. Scrum is an agile methodology used as an example that provides...allow real-time progress to be monitored. With an emphasis on affordability and short program timelines, agile methods like scrum reveal cost and

  9. Commuting by e-bike: a mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazier, Paul; van den Berg, A. E.; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the e-bike is one of the most important developments in transportation in recent years. When substituting for use of cars and public transportation, it can play an important role in the development of sustainable transport systems that support active, healthy lifestyles. However,

  10. Evaluating First Experiences with an Educational Computer Game: A multi-Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Obrist

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our evaluation approach for a specific case study, namely the evaluation of an early prototype of an educational game with children aged between 12 and 14 years. The main goal of this initial evaluation study was to explore children’s first impressions and experiences of the game on the one hand and to assess the students’ ideas and wishes for the further development of the game on the other hand. The main challenge for the evaluation activities was the selection of the appropriate methodological approach, taking into account children as a special user group. We opted for a combination of different, mainly qualitative and explorative methods that were reported beneficial for work with children in the human-computer interaction (HCI field. By presenting our multi-method approach, in particular the different steps and procedure within our study, other researchers can get inspirations for follow up activities when evaluating games with children as well as benefit from our experiences in exploring more collaborative methods and methodological combinations.

  11. An integrated approach to improving the parallel applications development process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watson, Gregory R [IBM; Tibbitts, Beth R [IBM

    2009-01-01

    The development of parallel applications is becoming increasingly important to a broad range of industries. Traditionally, parallel programming was a niche area that was primarily exploited by scientists trying to model extremely complicated physical phenomenon. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that continued hardware performance improvements through clock scaling and feature-size reduction are simply not going to be achievable for much longer. The hardware vendor's approach to addressing this issue is to employ parallelism through multi-processor and multi-core technologies. While there is little doubt that this approach produces scaling improvements, there are still many significant hurdles to be overcome before parallelism can be employed as a general replacement to more traditional programming techniques. The Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) Project was created in 2005 in an attempt to provide developers with new tools aimed at addressing some of the parallel development issues. Since then, the introduction of a new generation of peta-scale and multi-core systems has highlighted the need for such a platform. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges facing parallel application developers, present the current state of PTP, and provide a simple case study that demonstrates how PTP can be used to locate a potential deadlock situation in an MPI code.

  12. A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behaviour that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behaviour of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behaviour, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinalexperiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eyeintegrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for furtherfast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning.

  13. A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J; Shaw, P; Earland, K; Sheldon, M; Lee, M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning.

  14. Adapting participatory and agile software methods to participatory rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Andy; Rizvi, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents observations from a project that combines participatory rural development methods with participatory design techniques to support a farmers’ co-operative in Madhya Pradesh, India

  15. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  16. Investigation of performance of programming approaches and languages used for numerical simulation of granular material by the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevičius, R.; Džiugys, A.; Kačianauskas, R.; Maknickas, A.; Vislavičius, K.

    2006-09-01

    Performance of programming approaches and languages used for the development of software codes for numerical simulation of granular material dynamics by the discrete element method (DEM) is investigated. The granular material considered represents a space filled with discrete spherical visco-elastic particles, and the behaviour of material under imposed conditions is simulated using the DEM. The object-oriented programming approach (implemented via C++) was compared with the procedural approach (using FORTRAN 90 and OBJECT PASCAL) in order to test their efficiency. The identical neighbour-searching algorithm, contact forces model and time integration method were implemented in all versions of codes. Two identical representative examples of the dynamic behaviour of granular material on a personal computer (compatible with IBM PC) were solved. The results show that software based on procedural approach runs faster in compare with software based on OOP, and software developed by FORTRAN 90 runs faster in compare with software developed by OBJECT PASCAL.

  17. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRUDENTIAL BANKING SUPERVISION: PECULIARITIES OF METHODICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Іn the article the theoretical fundamentals of the prudential banking supervision effectiveness and substantiation of approaches to calculation of the integral indicator of supervisory system compliance with the Basel Committee Core Principles were investigated. The “functional effectiveness” and “institutional effectiveness” concepts of supervisory activity were suggested. The authors have defined the influence of supervisory organizing structure on GDP growth by groups of countries in the world. The list of priority measures focused on increase of the effectiveness of prudential supervisory activity was systematized to restore sustainability of the national banking sector.

  18. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...

  19. A Knowledge Engineering Approach to Develop Domain Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hongyan; Xu, Jianliang; Xiong, Jing; Wei, Moji

    2011-01-01

    Ontologies are one of the most popular and widespread means of knowledge representation and reuse. A few research groups have proposed a series of methodologies for developing their own standard ontologies. However, because this ontological construction concerns special fields, there is no standard method to build domain ontology. In this paper,…

  20. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.