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Sample records for approach esclerosis multiple

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinases in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Metaloproteinasas de matriz en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

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    Sergio González García

    Full Text Available Fundament: The proteolitic rupture of the extracellular matrix due to metalloproteinase 2 and 9 is one of the aspects that can influence in the alteration of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB in multiple sclerosis. Objective: To determine metalloproteinase activity with gelatinous activity in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. Methods: the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples taken from 31 patients suffering from multiple sclerosis and a control group formed by 21 patients without neurological disease. The metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activities in the cerebrospinal fluid were determined by zimográfica technique through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands were later analysed by their molecular weight and the relative metalloproteinase 9 activity was calculated. Total protein concentrations, albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG, the IgG rate and the Q rate were assessed to evaluate the IgG intrathecal and the functional state of the blood-brain barrier. Results: metalloproteinase 2 activity was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of all patients and control group. Metalloproteinase 9 activity was only found in the 61.3 % of the patients. The presence of relative metalloproteinase 9 activity was neither associated with the clinical variables nor the laboratory ones. An association was found between its presence and the oligoclonal bands in patients with multiple sclerosis. In those patients under immunomodular treatment it was presented with less frequency. Conclusions: There is a possible participation of Metalloproteinase 9 in the immunopathological mechanisms of the multiple sclerosis.

    Fundamento: La ruptura proteolítica de la matriz extracelular por las metaloproteinasas 2 y 9 es uno de los aspectos que puede influir en la alteración de la permeabilidad de la barrera hematoencefálica en la esclerosis m

  2. Compromiso neuronal en esclerosis múltiple Neuronal injury in multiple sclerosis

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    Jorge Correale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis múltiple (EM ha sido considerada clásicamente como una enfermedad desmielinizante. Si bien el compromiso neurodegenerativo fue previamente descripto, sólo recientemente ha sido enfatizado. Por estudios recientes se ha identificado la degeneración axonal como el mayor determinante de discapacidad neurológica irreversible en pacientes con EM. El daño axonal se inicia tempranamente y permanece silente durante años, la discapacidad neurológica se desarrolla cuando se alcanza cierto umbral de pérdida axonal y los mecanismos de compensación se agotan. Se han propuesto tres hipótesis para explicar el daño axonal: 1 El daño es causado por un proceso inflamatorio, 2 Existe una excesiva acumulación de Ca2+ intraaxonal, 3 Los axones desmielinizados evolucionan a un proceso degenerativo producto de la falta de soporte trófico provisto por la mielina o células formadoras de mielina. Si bien la EM fue tradicionalmente considerada como una enfermedad de la sustancia blanca, el proceso de desmielinización también ocurre en la corteza cerebral. Las lesiones corticales muestran injuria neuronal representada por transección de axones y dendritas, así como apoptosis de neuronas. Dado que los métodos convencionales de resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN son limitados en su capacidad para brindar información sobre el compromiso axonal en EM, procedimientos como tensor de difusión, espectroscopia por resonancia magnética, resonancia magnética funcional, y nuevas técnicas para medir atrofia han sido desarrollados recientemente para monitorear su evolución. El reconocimiento de que EM es en parte un proceso neurodegenerativo impone abordar de manera crítica la patogenia de la enfermedad, a fin de considerar nuevas estrategias de tratamiento.The concept of multiple sclerosis (MS as a demyelinating disease is deeply ingrained. Although the existence of a neurodegenerative component has always been apparent, it has only recently

  3. Nuevas perspectivas en el tratamiento de la Esclerosis múltiple New perspectives in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

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    C. Arcos Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la etiopatogenia y el pronóstico de la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM ha permitido desarrollar tratamientos nuevos y más eficaces. Las terapias actuales pueden dividirse en tres grandes grupos: los tratamientos del brote agudo, los modificadores del curso de la enfermedad y el tratamiento sintomático. Actualmente hay seis fármacos aprobados para el tratamiento de la EM en España, dos nuevos fármacos orales (Cladribina y Fingolimod y otros destinados a mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes (Fampridina y Sativex están pendientes de aprobación y varios en distintas fases de estudios clínicos que ofrecen perspectivas muy esperanzadoras.A best knowledge of etiopathogeny and prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis is allowing the development of new and more effective therapies. Current therapies are divided into three groups: treatments for the acute relapses, disease-modifying therapy and symptomatic treatment. There are six approved drugs available in Spain, also there are two oral new drugs (Cladribina and Fingolimod and others designed for improving the quality of life of these patients (Frampidina and Sativex waiting to be approved and some others in different stages of clinical trials that will offer encouraging perspectives in a near future.

  4. Nuevas perspectivas en el tratamiento de la Esclerosis múltiple New perspectives in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

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    C. Arcos Sánchez; F.T. Salinas Vela; M.N. Olmedilla González

    2011-01-01

    El conocimiento de la etiopatogenia y el pronóstico de la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) ha permitido desarrollar tratamientos nuevos y más eficaces. Las terapias actuales pueden dividirse en tres grandes grupos: los tratamientos del brote agudo, los modificadores del curso de la enfermedad y el tratamiento sintomático. Actualmente hay seis fármacos aprobados para el tratamiento de la EM en España, dos nuevos fármacos orales (Cladribina y Fingolimod) y otros destinados a mejorar la calidad de vida ...

  5. Esclerosis múltiple: alteraciones cognitivas y actividades de la vida diaria = Multiple sclerosis : cognitive impairments and activities of daily living

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    Alegre Ayala, Jorge

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLas alteraciones cognitivas ocasionadas por la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM dificultan el desempeño ocupacional de estos pacientes. No existe un patrón específico de deterioro cognitivo aunque son comunes las afectaciones de la memoria, los procesos atencionales, la velocidad de procesamiento de la información, las funciones ejecutivas, la fluidez verbal y la capacidad visuoespacial. Pese a no ser tan conocidos como los problemas físicos, los déficit cognitivos provocan limitaciones en la capacidad de estas personas para realizar sus actividades de la vida diaria (AVD. El artículo muestra explicaciones sobre las principales alteraciones cognitivas de la enfermedad y ejemplos de actividades de la vida diaria dañadas por éstas. SUMMARY Cognitive impairments caused by Multiple Sclerosis make these patients´ occupational performance difficult. It is not exist a specific pattern of cognitive injury although they are usual the affections in memory, attention process, speed of information processing, executive functions, verbal fluency and visual and spatial skills. Though are not so known like physical problems, the cognitive deficits provokes limitations in the ability of these persons to realize their activities of daily living. Article shows explains about principal cognitive impairments and examples of damage in the activities of daily living caused by Multiple Sclerosis.

  6. Esclerosis múltiple en una mujer fallecida por quemaduras en el incendio del domicilio Multiple sclerosis in a woman died by burns in a house fire

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    J. Lucena

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis múltiple (EM o esclerosis en placas es la más común de las enfermedades inflamatorias desmielinizantes del SNC y el trastorno neurológico más incapacitante en los adultos jóvenes. Se caracteriza por la aparición de lesiones focales diseminadas en la sustancia blanca denominadas placas en las que lo más llamativo es la pérdida de la mielina (desmielinización con preservación relativa de los axones. Es infrecuente que esta enfermedad entre en el campo de investigación médico-forense, ya que, habitualmente, está bien diagnosticada clínicamente y en caso de tener interés la confirmación del diagnóstico post-mortem se realizaría una autopsia clínica. Presentamos los hallazgos neuropatológicos de una mujer de 47 años, en situación de invalidez (silla de ruedas por una EM de 17 años de evolución, que fallece como consecuencia de las quemaduras producidas por un incendio en el domicilio.The multiple sclerosis (MS or plaque sclerosis is the most frequent of the inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the SNC and the most incapacitating neurological disorder in young adults. It is characterized by the presence of focal an scattered lesions in the white matter called plaques in which the hallmark is the loss of myelin (demyelination with the preservation of axons. It is uncommon that this disorder enters in the medico-legal field because, in general, has a very good clinical diagnosis and in case of interest to confirm the post-mortem diagnosis a clinical autopsy would be performed. We present the neuropathological findings of a woman aged 47 years, handicapped (wheel's chair due to MS with a progression of 17 years, who died by burns in a house fire.

  7. Esclerosis múltiple en una mujer fallecida por quemaduras en el incendio del domicilio Multiple sclerosis in a woman died by burns in a house fire

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    J. Lucena; M. Salguero; A. Rico; Blanco, M.; Marín, R; E. Barrero; F. Heredia

    2004-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) o esclerosis en placas es la más común de las enfermedades inflamatorias desmielinizantes del SNC y el trastorno neurológico más incapacitante en los adultos jóvenes. Se caracteriza por la aparición de lesiones focales diseminadas en la sustancia blanca denominadas placas en las que lo más llamativo es la pérdida de la mielina (desmielinización) con preservación relativa de los axones. Es infrecuente que esta enfermedad entre en el campo de investigación médico-for...

  8. Quantification of the usage of symptomatic treatment in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. Cuantificación del empleo del tratamiento sintomático en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

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    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinated disease which constitutes de first cause of neurological handicaps in young adult patients and has no curative treatment. There are other options in which treatment of great importance can be applied for each of the so many symptoms that may appear. Objective: To show the insufficient utilization of symptomatic treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: 47 patients were studied in a national consultation of multiple sclerosis in a two-year period. They were interviewed and examined. The data were collected in a survey and statistically processed opposing the specific signs and symptoms to the treatments used. Results: High percentages of patients with clinical manifestations and without the proper treatment for rigidity, weakness, ataxia, urinary retention and incontinence, sexual dysfunction, constipation, fatigue, pain and depression were found. Conclusions: It was already proved that there is an insufficient utilization of symptomatic treatment in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

    Fundamento: La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante crónica que constituye la principal causa de invalidez neurológica del adulto joven y no tiene tratamiento curativo; existen otras opciones dentro de las cuales es muy importante el tratamiento de cada uno de los muchos síntomas que pueden presentarse. Objetivo: Demostrar la insuficiente utilización del tratamiento sintomático en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple. Métodos: Se estudiaron 47 pacientes recibidos en una consulta nacional de esclerosis múltiple, en un periodo de dos años. Se interrogaron y examinaron. Los datos fueron recogidos en una encuesta y procesados estadísticamente contraponiendo los síntomas y signos específicos a los tratamientos utilizados

  9. Incapacidad laboral en esclerosis múltiple: a propósito de un caso Working disability in multiple sclerosis: a propos of a case

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    Gian C. Navarro Chumbes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Enfermera de 34 años de edad que acude a la Unidad Médica de Valoración de Incapacidades del INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social para valoración de Incapacidad Temporal (IT; diagnosticada de Esclerosis Múltiple (EM hace 10 años, presentó 6 brotes, por lo que requirió tratamiento con Acetato de Glatirámero y se le adaptó el puesto de trabajo. Actualmente tiene un EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale estimado de 1,0, y actualmente no está con tratamiento inmunomodulador. Este caso clínico lo que busca es conocer de qué manera se valora la incapacidad laboral en los casos de trabajadores que padecen de EM, asimismo cómo se determina el grado de menoscabo en función del EDSS y qué aspectos laborales son tomados en consideración.A 34-year old woman, nurse, who arrives to the Medical Assessment Disability Unit of SSNI (Social Security National Institute for to assess Temporary Disability (TD, she was diagnosed of Multiple Sclerosis (MS 10 years ago, she had 6 outbreaks and because of that she was treated with Glatiramer Acetate and also her workstation was adapted. At the moment she has an EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale of 1.0, and now she does not receive immunomodulator treatment. With this case report we want to know the way that labour disability is evaluated for workers that complain of MS, also how the damage degree is determined according to EDSS and what labour aspects are taken into consideration.

  10. Rol de las células T regulatorias en esclerosis múltiple Role of T-regulatory cells in multiple sclerosis

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    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis múltiple (EM es una enfermedad inflamatoria autoinmune desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central (SNC. La mayoría de las enfermedades autoinmunes se originan por la activación anormal de la respuesta inflamatoria contra auto-antígenos (la mayoría de ellos desconocidos a la fecha como consecuencia de la pérdida de la tolerancia periférica. Las células T-regulatorias constituyen un grupo esencial de linfocitos T encargados del mantenimiento de la tolerancia periférica, la prevención de enfermedades autoinmunes y la limitación de enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de la tolerancia periférica, las células T-regulatorias serían componentes cruciales en el escenario fisiopatológico de los procesos autoinmunes, incluyendo la EM. El presente trabajo recopila los conocimientos actuales sobre la función de las células T-regulatorias en la EM, la enfermedad autoinmune desmielinizante del SNC más prevalente en los seres humanos.Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Most of autoimmune diseases arise by an abnormal activation of the inflammatory response against self-antigens (most of them unknown up to date as a consequence of dysfunction in peripheral tolerance. Regulatory T-cells are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases and limiting chronic inflammatory conditions. Based on that knowledge, T-regulatory cells have emerged as a key component of the physiopathology of autoimmune diseases including MS. This review compiles the current knowledge on the role and function of T-regulatory cells in MS, the most prevalent CNS autoimmune disease in humans.

  11. Esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    2002-01-01

    Resumen: La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es la causa más frecuente de alteraciones neurológicas en los adultos jóvenes y de mediana edad; constituye la causa más frecuente de enfermedad por alteración de la mielina en el SNC. El presente trabajo intenta repasar de manera resumida el desarrollo histórico de la EM como cuadro clínico, haciendo especial hincapié en sus características clínicas, a menudo contradictorios, de la enfermedad. Uno de los objetivos del presente trabajo...

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinases in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Metaloproteinasas de matriz en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Fundament: The proteolitic rupture of the extracellular matrix due to metalloproteinase 2 and 9 is one of the aspects that can influence in the alteration of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis. Objective: To determine metalloproteinase activity with gelatinous activity in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. Methods: the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken fro...

  13. Analgesia epidural para el trabajo de parto en gestante con esclerosis múltiple Epidural analgesia during labour of a patient with multiple sclerosis

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    M.J. Mayorga Buiza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La Esclerosis Múltiple (EM, es una enfermedad del SNC siendo 2 veces más frecuente su aparición en mujeres, el 70% de ellas en edad fértil. Desde el punto de vista anestésico nos encontramos ante una enfermedad con elevada susceptibilidad neurológica que podría agravarse tanto por la propia cirugía, la técnica anestésica como por la medicación utilizada. Por otra parte se plantea como atender la demanda de analgesia para el trabajo de parto en mujeres con EM, que es el grupo de edad con mayor incidencia de la enfermedad. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años diagnosticada de esclerosis múltiples 3 años antes, forma recidivante, remitente. La paciente es ingresada en dilatación con 37 semanas de amenorrea, presentando una buena evolución del trabajo de parto y encontrándose el feto en situación longitudinal y presentación cefálica. Avisan al Servicio de Anestesia para valoración de la indicación de epidural para analgesia del parto. La gestante previamente había acudido a consulta de preanestesia donde se le había informado del riesgo beneficio de la técnica y en concreto en su caso, habiendo entendido perfectamente las posibles complicaciones derivadas de la misma y firmado el consentimiento informado. Nosotros hemos preferido utilizar una técnica locoregional, vía epidural considerando también el riesgo potencial de cesárea urgente, para evitar, dado el caso la realización de una técnica intraraquídea o una anestesia general, con las posibilidades de desencadenar un brote que tienen estas técnicas. Además de aportar confort a la paciente durante el trabajo de parto, proporcionar analgesia durante el mismo, disminuye por este motivo el estrés de la gestante pudiendo paralelamente evitar la aparición de un brote.Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS, and twice as prevalent in women, 70% of whom are of fertile age. From an anaesthetics point of view, due to it being a

  14. Incapacidad laboral en esclerosis múltiple: a propósito de un caso Working disability in multiple sclerosis: a propos of a case

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    Gian C. Navarro Chumbes; Marina Fernández Escribano; Ignacio Sánchez-Arcilla Conejo

    2010-01-01

    Enfermera de 34 años de edad que acude a la Unidad Médica de Valoración de Incapacidades del INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social) para valoración de Incapacidad Temporal (IT); diagnosticada de Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) hace 10 años, presentó 6 brotes, por lo que requirió tratamiento con Acetato de Glatirámero y se le adaptó el puesto de trabajo. Actualmente tiene un EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) estimado de 1,0, y actualmente no está con tratamiento inmunomodulador. Este cas...

  15. Esclerosis múltiple: alteraciones cognitivas y actividades de la vida diaria = Multiple sclerosis : cognitive impairments and activities of daily living

    OpenAIRE

    Alegre Ayala, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    RESUMENLas alteraciones cognitivas ocasionadas por la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) dificultan el desempeño ocupacional de estos pacientes. No existe un patrón específico de deterioro cognitivo aunque son comunes las afectaciones de la memoria, los procesos atencionales, la velocidad de procesamiento de la información, las funciones ejecutivas, la fluidez verbal y la capacidad visuoespacial. Pese a no ser tan conocidos como los problemas físicos, los déficit cognitivos provocan limitaciones en la ...

  16. Intensive Farmaco- Surveillance of Interferon Alpha 2b Recombinant in Multiple Sclerosis. Farmacovigilancia intensiva al interferón alfa 2b recombinante en la esclerosis múltiple.

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    Hailen Bobillo López

    recombinant was safe in the treatment of the multiple sclerosis in these patients.

     

    Fundamento: El interferón alfa 2b recombinante, de producción nacional, se utiliza en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades, entre ellas la esclerosis múltiple. Para su comercialización se necesita conocer su margen de seguridad. Objetivo: Evaluar las reacciones adversas del interferón alfa 2b recombinante en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple. Método: Durante el período comprendido entre 1996 y 2006, se revisaron las 70 historias clínicas y cuadernos de recogida de datos de los pacientes incluidos en el ensayo clínico nacional, fase IV aleatorizado, a doble ciegas, desarrollado en la Clínica de Esclerosis Múltiple del Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ de Cienfuegos. Con respecto al total de reacciones adversas manifestadas, se analizó tipo, tiempo de duración, empleo de tratamiento o no para contrarrestarlas, grado de intensidad (leve, moderada, grave o mortal y de causalidad (definitiva, probable, posible, condicional o no relacionada. Resultados: Del total de pacientes, 53 presentaron 207 reacciones adversas al interferón. Las más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, cefalea, escalofríos, artralgia, astenia y mialgia, siendo la mayoría efectos colaterales moderados y de carácter definitivo. En 197 pacientes el desenlace fue favorable. Conclusiones: El uso del interferón alfa 2β recombinante fue seguro en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple en estos pacientes.

  17. Descubriendo el significado de los fenómenos cronicidad, progresión y singularidad en el diagnóstico de la esclerosis múltiple Discovering the meaning of the phenomena of chronic disease, progression and singularity in the multiple sclerosis diagnosis

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    Virginia Salinas Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: Los pacientes asignarán un significado a fenómenos que definen la enfermedad en su vivencia ante el diagnóstico. Objetivo: Describir qué significa para los pacientes los fenómenos de cronicidad, singularidad y progresión en el diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple. Metodología: cualitativa fenomenológica descriptiva. Muestreo intencional en 13 participantes. Se realizó entrevistas en profundidad con guión semi-estructurado y análisis de contenido según método de Taylor-Bogdan. Resultados: El fenómeno crónico desde la esperanza en la investigación y el tándem brote-recaída-degenerativo como amenaza real. Los pacientes necesitan información veraz y positiva en el diagnóstico. Conclusiones: El fenómeno crónico está relacionado con la capacidad previa de ser sano con sentimientos de tristeza e impotencia. Entienden la progresión como degeneración con miedo e incertidumbre de futuro. La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desconocida en el diagnóstico y la califican de extraña o diferente para cada uno.Justification: The patients will assign a meaning and significance to define the disease in their experience about the diagnosis. Aim: Describe what it means for a person the phenomena of chronic disease, singularity and progression as a result of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis. Method: Qualitative methodology with phenomenological descriptive approach. It used intentional sampling up to thirteen participants. They were deeply interviewed with a half-organized outline and it carried out content analysis according to the Taylor-Bogdan method. Results: The chronic phenomenon in the hope in the research and the attack-relapse-degenerative tandem is a real threat. The patients need a truthful and positive information in the diagnosis. Conclusions: The chronic phenomenon is related to the previous capacity of being healthy with the feelings of sadness and impotence. They understand the progression like

  18. Seasonal distribution and evolving forms of multiple sclerosis patients diagnosed from April 2004 to November 2007 Distribución estacional y formas evolutivas de esclerosis múltiple en pacientes diagnosticados entre Abril del 2004 y Noviembre del 2007

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    Hermes Fundora-Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS was first reported in Cuba in 1965. The most frequent appearance is observed in the first six months of the year. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seasonal distribution and evolving forms of MS patients diagnosed with the disease between April 2004 and November 2007. METHOD: Twenty-one patients with suspected MS and 42 outbreaks were studied. Patients were classified according to Lublin and Revingold's criteria for clinical forms and according to McDonald. RESULTS: Most patients were classified in outbreak and remission and only two patients classified as primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. The higher number of outbreaks occurred in the first two quarters of the year. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to study further weather variables that may be related to the emergence of these outbreaks in our environment.INTRODUCCIÓN: La esclerosis múltiple (EM fue reportada en Cuba por primera vez en 1965. Se ha venido observando la aparición más frecuente en los primeros seis meses del año. OBJETIVO: Determinar la distribución estacional y formas evolutivas de EM en pacientes con diagnóstico de esta enfermedad entre abril 2004 y noviembre 2007. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 21 pacientes con sospecha de EM y un total de 42 brotes. Los pacientes fueron clasificados según los criterios de Lublin y Revingold para las formas evolutivas y según los criterios de McDonald. RESULTADOS: Solo dos pacientes clasificaron en la forma evolutiva progresiva primaria; los primeros dos trimestres del año fueron los de mayor número de brotes. CONCLUSIÓN: Se recomienda profundizar en las variables climatológicas que pudieran tener vínculo con la aparición de estos brotes en nuestro medio.

  19. Multiple correlation function approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-01-01

    The multiple correlation function approach is briefly presented and applied to investigate spin-echo signal attenuation due to restricted diffusion in simple geometries (slab, cylinder, and sphere) in the presence of surface relaxation. Exact and explicit representations for the zeroth and second moments of the total phase accumulated by diffusing spins are derived by using the Laplace transform summation technique. Within the Gaussian phrase approximation, these two moments determine the ...

  20. C3c intrathecal synthesis evaluation in patients with multiple sclerosis Evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

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    Bárbara Padilla-Docal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, inflammatory and progressive disease of the central nervous system in which local inflammatory injuries of the brain white matter appears, being the most outstanding feature the myeline loss (demyelination. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the complement system might be involved in the MS immunopathogeny favouring the mechanism intervening in the myelin destruction. METHOD: Samples of sera and CSF from twelve patients with a diagnosis of MS obtained at the moment of the admission to the hospital at the beginning of the break out, were collected. Levels of C3c and albumin in sera and in CSF were quantified using radial immunodiffusion plates. RESULTS: High values over 80% of intrathecal synthesis were obtained except in one of the patients. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal synthesis of C3c and its liberation to the CSF means that the activation of the complement system in any of the two ways has taken place, and that once performed its biological functions, has suffered a degradation process.INTRODUCCIÓN: La esclerosis múltiple (EM es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y progresiva del sistema nervioso central que cursa con la aparición de lesiones inflamatorias focales en la sustancia blanca cerebral, en las que lo más llamativo es la pérdida de mielina (desmielinización. OBJETIVO: Conocer si el sistema de complemento puede estar involucrado en la inmunopatogenia de la EM favoreciendo los mecanismos que median la destrucción de la mielina. MÉTODO: Se colectaron muestras de suero y LCR de doce pacientes con diagnóstico de EM obtenidas en el momento del ingreso al inicio del brote. Se cuantificaron los niveles de C3c y albúmina en suero y en LCR en placas de inmunodifusión radial. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron altos valores que superan el 80% de síntesis intratecal, menos en uno de los pacientes. CONCLUSION: La síntesis intratecal de C3c y su liberación al LCR significa que ha sucedido la activaci

  1. Adverse Reactions due to the Usage Ofadverse Effects due to the Usage of T biomodulina and corticotropin in Patients Suffering from Multiple Sclerosis Efectos adversos por el uso de la biomodulina T y la corticotropina en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

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    Lorenzo Gómez Morales

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: T biomodulina is a thymic natural product with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator action. Corticotropin is a steroid which is also used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Objetives: To compare the adverse effects of the biomodulina and corticotroprin in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Methods: Phase II clinical trial, open, randomized and controlled on 17 patients suffering from multiple sclerosis to whom the following treatment was applied: group one, 100mg IV biomodulina during 10 days, 20 mg the following 20 days; group two: 1 mg of corticotroprin during 10 days followed by 0,5 mg the very next 20 days. The adverse events were evaluated from the 10th day up to the 30th day classifying its intensity as absent, mild, moderate, severe, very severe. The duration and the type of event were also classified. Results: Safeness on 8 patients treated with biomodulina and 7 patients treated with cortcotropin were assessed. 40 adverse events took place: 24 patients in whose corticotropin was used, 16 in the treatment with biomodulina (80 and 53, 3% respectively, while the moderate adverse reactions in the usage of corticotropin were more frequent. The shorter period of time of the events was produced by biomodulina. Conclusions: The usage of biomodulina was safer in the treatment of multiple sclerosis because the adverse events as well as the period of time were less intense.
    Fundamento: La biomodulina T es unproducto natural tímico con acciónantinflamatoria y acción inmunomoduladora. La corticotropina es un esteroide utilizado también en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple. Objetivo: Comparar el comportamiento de efectos adversos de la biomodulina y la corticotropina en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple. Métodos: Ensayo clínico fase II, abierto

  2. Inmunopatología de la esclerosis múltiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Quintana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central y que es considerada una de las principales causas de discapacidad en jóvenes adultos. Las causas de la esclerosis múltiple son aún desconocidas, aunque se cree que una combinación de factores genéticos y ambientales resulta en una respuesta autoinmune que promueve la degeneración neuronal/axonal. En esta revisión se analiza la asociación entre la respuesta inmune y la neurodegeneración en la esclerosis múltiple.

  3. Estudio retrospectivo de la eficacia y seguridad del natalizumab en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, L.; Sa, J.; Sa, M.; Cerqueira, J; Martins-Silva, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. Los estudios han demostrado que el natalizumab constituye un tratamiento eficaz contra la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente (EMRR). Hasta la fecha, no habia datos de pacientes portugueses. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia y la seguridad del natalizumab en pacientes con EMRR atendidos en la practica clinica ordinaria en Portugal. Pacientes y metodos. Los datos clinicos de adultos con EMRR tratados con natalizumab en centros especializados de neurologia en Portugal ...

  4. Anestesia subaracnóidea para cesariana em paciente portadora de esclerose múltipla: relato de caso Anestesia subaracnoidea para cesárea en paciente portadora de esclerosis múltiple: relato de caso Subarachnoid anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with multiple sclerosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    ón de cesárea. Después de la monitorización se realizó anestesia subaracnoidea con bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbara (12,5 mg asociada a la morfina (0,1 mg. El procedimiento evolucionó sin interferencias y la paciente recibió su alta hospitalaria 48 horas después del parto sin empeoramiento de los síntomas preexistentes. CONCLUSIONES: El presente caso nos sugiere que la anestesia raquidea puede ser administrada en paciente portador de esclerosis múltiple sin la incidencia obligatoria de exacerbaciones agudas de los síntomas en el período postoperatorio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis is an acquired disease characterized by demyelinated areas in the brain and spinal cord. The clinical presentation depends on the anatomical areas involved. The main causes of death are infection, respiratory failure, and status epilepticus. It affects genetically predisposed patients after contact with environmental factors, especially viruses. The objective of this report was to present the anesthetic technique used in a patient with multiple sclerosis undergoing cesarean section. CASE REPORT: A 32-year old patient, 60 kg, with multiple sclerosis, treated with methylprednisolone, was admitted to the obstetric ward for a cesarean section. After monitoring, subarachnoid anesthesia was performed with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12.5 mg associated with morphine (0.1 mg. The procedure evolved without any intercurrences and the patient was discharged from the hospital 48 hours after delivery without worsening of her symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that spinal anesthesia can be administered in patients with multiple sclerosis without the acute worsening of their symptoms in the postoperative period.

  5. Inmunopatología de la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Francisco J.; Soledad Pérez-Sánchez; Farez, Mauricio F

    2014-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central y que es considerada una de las principales causas de discapacidad en jóvenes adultos. Las causas de la esclerosis múltiple son aún desconocidas, aunque se cree que una combinación de factores genéticos y ambientales resulta en una respuesta autoinmune que promueve la degeneración neuronal/axonal. En esta revisión se analiza la asociación entre la respuesta inmune y la neurodegeneració...

  6. Is tumor necrosis factor - 376a promoter polymorphism associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis? ¿El polimorfismo-376A del promotor del gen del factor de necrosis tumoral se asocia con una mayor susceptibilidad a padecer esclerosis múltiple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Kauffman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position -376 of the tumor necrosis factor á gene (TNFA has been associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS in Spain. However, no association was found in populations from the USA and The Netherlands. Here we investigate the association between the TNFA - 376A SNP and MS susceptibility in Argentinean patients with MS. The A/G genotype was found in 4.4% of patients (n=90 and in 4.8% of healthy individuals (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; confidence interval: 0.23- 3.84. Thus, no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies were found between healthy individuals and patients with MS in Argentina.Un polimorfismo de nucleótido único (SNP, por sus iniciales en inglés en la posición -376 del gen codificante del factor de necrosis tumoral á (TNFA ha sido asociado en España con un mayor riesgo a padecer esclerosis múltiple (EM. Sin embargo, esta asociación no fue encontrada en estudios hechos en poblaciones provenientes de los EE.UU. y Holanda. Aquí investigamos la asociación entre el SNP TNFA -376A y el desarrollo de EM en una población de pacientes argentinos con EM. El genotipo A/G fue encontrado en 4.4% de los pacientes (n=90 y en 4.8% de los controles sanos (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; intervalo de confianza: 0.23-3.84. En consecuencia, no encontramos diferencias en las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas entre los sujetos enfermos y los controles sanos en Argentina.

  7. Las variables meteorológicas no explican el gradiente norte-sur en la mortalidad por esclerosis múltiple en España Meteorological variables do not explain the North-South gradient in mortality from multiple sclerosis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Prieto-Salceda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comprobar si las variables meteorológicas justifican el gradiente norte-sur en la mortalidad por esclerosis múltiple (EM en España. Métodos: La tasa de mortalidad por EM ajustada por edad en cada provincia de 1975 a 1998 se correlacionó con la media anual de diferentes variables meteorológicas. Resultados: Las temperaturas mínima, media y máxima, el número medio de horas de sol y el número de días soleados se correlacionaron negativamente con la mortalidad por EM, mientras que la cantidad de lluvia se correlacionó positivamente con la EM. La mayor parte de las correlaciones desaparecen al ajustar por latitud. En cambio, la mortalidad por EM está asociada con la latitud incluso después de ajustar por los factores meteorológicos. Conclusión: El gradiente norte-sur en la mortalidad por EM en España no puede explicarse completamente por factores meteorológicos. Son necesarias otras hipótesis para justicar esta asociación.Objectives: To determine whether weather conditions explain the North-South gradient in multiple sclerosis (MS mortality described in Spain. Methods: The age-adjusted MS mortality rate by Spanish provinces from 1975 to 1998 was correlated with several climatic variables. Results: MS mortality was negatively correlated with minimum, average and maximum temperatures, the mean number of hours of sunshine, and the mean number of sunny days. A positive correlation was found with the average amount of rain. Most correlations disappeared after adjusting by latitude. However, MS mortality was associated with latitude after adjusting by climatic factors. Conclusions: The North-South gradient in MS mortality in Spain cannot be fully explained by weather differences. Therefore, other hypotheses are required to explain this association.

  8. Aspectos emocionales de la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN F. GODOY; Muela Martínez, José Antonio; Pérez, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar posibles alteraciones emocionales consecuentes o asociadas a la Esclerosis Múltiple. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos en la medida de autoeficacia social y clínicamente relevantes en depresión, ansiedad-rasgo y autoeficacia total.

  9. Estado actual de la esclerosis múltiple en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Dos estudios epidemiológicos de esclerosis múltiple (EM) la describen como de bajo riesgo en Colombia. Hay, sin embargo, nuevos sistemas de información que permiten una aproximación más precisa. El objetivo de este artículo es estimar la prevalencia nacional de EM, así como por regiones del país, y analizar los costos de los fármacos usados en Colombia.

  10. Quantification of the usage of symptomatic treatment in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. Cuantificación del empleo del tratamiento sintomático en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Erélido Hernández Valero

    2007-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinated disease which constitutes de first cause of neurological handicaps in young adult patients and has no curative treatment. There are other options in which treatment of great importance can be applied for each of the so many symptoms that may appear. Objective: To show the insufficient utilization of symptomatic treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  11. Perfil descritivo de esclerose múltipla com início até os 16 anos nos pacientes de um centro de referência do estado de São Paulo Perfil descriptivo de esclerosis múltiple con inicio hasta los 16 años de edad en los pacientes del centro de referencia del litoral de la provincia de São Paulo Descriptive profile of multiple sclerosis starting until the age of 16 in the reference center of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yára Dadalti Fragoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil de pacientes com esclerose múltipla iniciada até os 16 anos de idade no litoral do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Análise retrospectiva das características dos pacientes que tiveram o episódio inicial de esclerose múltipla até os 16 anos. Nesta situação encontravam-se nove meninas e quatro meninos (7,1% da população total de esclerose múltipla da região. A idade média por ocasião do diagnóstico foi de 13,9 anos (variação entre 8 e 16, sendo a média atual de 19,5 anos (12 a 28. A apresentação inicial da doença foi: ataxia (quatro casos, neurite óptica (dois, motora cortical (dois, sensitiva cortical (dois, distonia (dois e esclerose múltipla medular (um. Todos os pacientes iniciaram com a forma remitente-recorrente da esclerose múltipla e dois deles, atualmente, apresentam a forma progressiva secundária. COMENTÁRIOS: A esclerose múltipla com início até os 16 anos precisa ser adequadamente registrada e discutida entre pediatras, neurologistas e neuropediatras. Poucos médicos têm bom conhecimento desta condição e a demora no diagnóstico e no tratamento pode ter consequências devastadoras para essas crianças e adolescentes.OBJETIVO: Describir el perfil de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple iniciada hasta los 16 años de edad, en la región del litoral de la provincia de São Paulo, Brasil. DESCRIPCIÓN DE LOS CASOS: Análisis retrospectivo, a partir de los registros médicos, de las características de los pacientes que tuvieron episodio inicial de esclerosis multiple hasta los 16 años de edad. Fueron nueve muchachas y cuatro muchachos en esta situación (7,1% de la población total de esclerosis multiple en la región. El promedio de edad en el momento del diagnóstico fue de 13,9 años (variación 8-16, siendo el promedio de edad actual de 19,5 años (12-28. La presentación inicial de la enfermedad fue ataxia (4 casos, neuritis óptica (2 casos, motora

  12. Las variables meteorológicas no explican el gradiente norte-sur en la mortalidad por esclerosis múltiple en España Meteorological variables do not explain the North-South gradient in mortality from multiple sclerosis in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Dolores Prieto-Salceda; Paula Guerrero-Alonso; Javier Llorca

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Comprobar si las variables meteorológicas justifican el gradiente norte-sur en la mortalidad por esclerosis múltiple (EM) en España. Métodos: La tasa de mortalidad por EM ajustada por edad en cada provincia de 1975 a 1998 se correlacionó con la media anual de diferentes variables meteorológicas. Resultados: Las temperaturas mínima, media y máxima, el número medio de horas de sol y el número de días soleados se correlacionaron negativamente con la mortalidad por EM, mientras que la c...

  13. Descubriendo el significado de los fenómenos cronicidad, progresión y singularidad en el diagnóstico de la esclerosis múltiple Discovering the meaning of the phenomena of chronic disease, progression and singularity in the multiple sclerosis diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Salinas Pérez; Petra Rogero Anaya; Ana Mª Oña González; María Luisa Vergara Carrasco

    2012-01-01

    Justificación: Los pacientes asignarán un significado a fenómenos que definen la enfermedad en su vivencia ante el diagnóstico. Objetivo: Describir qué significa para los pacientes los fenómenos de cronicidad, singularidad y progresión en el diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple. Metodología: cualitativa fenomenológica descriptiva. Muestreo intencional en 13 participantes. Se realizó entrevistas en profundidad con guión semi-estructurado y análisis de contenido según método de Taylor-Bogdan. Res...

  14. Mapa de recursos sociosanitarios en esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Federación Española para la Lucha contra la Esclerosis Múltiple

    2011-01-01

    Según muestran datos recientes , en Europa hay unas 600.000 personas afectadas por la esclerosis múltiple y en España cerca de 45.000 , la mayoría mujeres . Esta enfermedad neurodegenerativa - de origen hasta ahora desconocido aunque se relaciona con mecanismos de autoinmunidad- provoca lesiones desmielinizantes e importantes alteraciones en el sistema nervioso central siendo , tras la epilepsia, la segunda enfermedad neurológica más frecuente entre los jóvenes.Los síntomas más fre...

  15. Neuropsicología de la Esclerosis Múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Mula, María

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio es una revisión amplia sobre los diferentes campos que integra la Esclerosis Múltiple con el fin de recopilar datos sobre el funcionamiento neuropsicológico de la enfermedad. Desarrollo. Las funciones neuropsicológicas más frecuentemente afectadas son la atención, la velocidad de procesamiento, la memoria de trabajo, la memoria verbal y visuoespacial, así como las funciones ejecutivas. A lo largo del tiempo se han ido creando varias baterías desarrolladas para valorar este deteri...

  16. Efeito da equoterapia na estabilidade postural de portadores de esclerose múltipla: estudo preliminar Efecto de la hipoterapia en la estabilidad postural de portadores de esclerosis múltiple: estudio preliminar Effect of hippotherapy on the postural stability of patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Mendonça Menezes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo se propôs a verificar se a estimulação por meio da equoterapia é capaz de desencadear alterações no controle postural de portadores de esclerose múltipla (EM. MÉTODO: Fizeram parte deste estudo 11 portadores de EM divididos em Grupo Intervenção (GI e Grupo Controle (GC. O GI foi inserido num programa de hipoterapia durante 4 meses, sendo conduzidas 2 sessões semanais com duração de 50 minutos cada. A estabilidade postural foi avaliada utilizando uma plataforma de força (para calcular o deslocamento do centro de pressão (COP, durante 30 segundos, em postura ereta quasi-estática, com olhos abertos e fechados, antes e após o treinamento com equoterapia. O tratamento estatístico foi feito através do ANOVA e Post hoc de Tukey com pOBJETIVO: El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar los efectos de la hipoterapia sobre el control postural en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM. MÉTODO: Hicieron parte de este estudio 11 portadores de EM divididos en Grupo Intervención (GI y Grupo Control (GC. El GI fue insertado en un programa de hipoterapia durante cuatro meses, siendo realizadas dos sesiones semanales con duración de 50 minutos cada una. La estabilidad postural fue evaluada utilizando una plataforma de fuerza (para calcular el desplazamiento del centro de presión (COP, durante 30 segundos en postura erecta casi-estática, con ojos abiertos y cerrados, antes y después del entrenamiento con hipoterapia. El tratamiento estadístico fue realizado a través de ANOVA y Post hoc de Tukey con pOBJECTIVE: This study intended to identify the effects of hippotherapy on the postural control of multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODS: Eleven MS patients were separated into two groups: Intervention Group (IG and Control Group (CG. Hippotherapy consisted of two 50-minute sessions each week for four months. Postural stability was evaluated before and after hippotherapy using a force plate to calculate the center of

  17. Programa piloto para pacientes beneficiarios de Fonasa, que padecen Esclerosis Multiple: Tratamiento con Inmunomoduladores en el Sistema Público de Salud de Chile. Informe del primer año, 10 de julio 2008-30 de Junio 2009 Pilot national treatment program for Multiple Sclerosis patients belonging to the public health care system of Chile (FONASA) with immunomodulating disease-modifying therapies: First year report from July 2008 to June 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Nogales-Gaete; Rodrigo Aracena C; Paula Agurto M; Sergio Cepeda Z; Claudia Figueroa; Carola González E; Dolores Tohá T; Soledad del Campo U; Rodrigo Salinas R; Verónica Medina U; David Sáez M; Rene Meza E; Alfonso Riquelme G; Gonzalo Arcos-Bustos; María Cristina Martínez T

    2010-01-01

    Introducción El presente documento corresponde al informe del primer año de trabajo operativo del "Programa piloto de tratamiento con inmunomoduladores, para pacientes beneficiarios de Fonasa1, que padecen esclerosis múltiple (EM)", elaborado por el equipo del centro de referencia nacional, para este programa, con sede en el Servicio de Neurología del Complejo Asistencial Barros Luco (CABL) del SSMS2. Dado su origen no incluye antecedentes del proceso de gestión ni toma de decisiones del nive...

  18. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  19. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    learning. The underlying question is `How should we partition the system - what is `local'?'. This book presents alternative ways of bringing submodels together,which lead to varying levels of performance and insight. Some are further developed for autonomous learning of parameters from data, while others...... into multiple smaller operating regimes each of which is associated a locally valid model orcontroller. This can often give a simplified and transparent nonlinear model or control representation. In addition, the local approach has computationaladvantages, it lends itself to adaptation and learning...

  20. Factores de riesgo en el inicio y desarrollo de la Esclerosis Múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Antolín Lobo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    La Esclerosis Múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante crónica, de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por el ataque del propio sistema inmunitario al Sistema Nervioso Central. Esta revisión bibliográfica descriptiva, se centra en el estudio de diferentes variables que actúan como factores de riesgo influyentes en el inicio y desarrollo de la enfermedad. Se decidió realizar esta investigación, por ser la Esclerosis Múltiple una de las principales causas de disca...

  1. Estudio de las micropartículas circulantes en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Nacarino, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad crónica del sistema nervioso central que tiene un presumible origen autoinmune. Generalmente se inicia en pacientes jóvenes, condicionando con el tiempo en muchos de los casos una relevante discapacidad. Un capítulo importante en los trabajos realizados en la esclerosis múltiple es el centrado en la búsqueda de nuevos biomarcadores en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y en la medici respuesta terapéutica. En los últimos años se ha estudiado el papel desta...

  2. Enfermería y Esclerosis Múltiple: Revisión bibliográfica.

    OpenAIRE

    Borjabad Cuesta, Belén

    2015-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es un trastorno crónico desmielinizante que constituye un importante problema de salud pública, ya que es una enfermedad progresiva e incapacitante, de gran impacto laboral, familiar, social y económico. Se pretende dar a conocer la enfermedad haciendo hincapié en los cuidados que se han de ofrecer a estos pacientes para mejorar su calidad de vida. El paciente de esclerosis múltiple necesita ser cuidado de forma integral por el profesional de enfermería, debido a su exp...

  3. Caracterización nutricional y de calidad de vida en pacientes de esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Guindo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Caracterizar el estado nutricional y la calidad de vida en pacientes de Esclerosis Múltiple (EM), y su relación con el grado de discapacidad física. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo y transversal, en el que se incluyeron 31 pacientes diagnosticados de Esclerosis Múltiple. Dichos pacientes pertenecían al Centro Integral de Enfermedades Neurológicas de la ciudad de Albacete o a la Asociación de Esclerosis Múltiple de Almería. Para la caracterizac...

  4. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  5. A Multiple Network Approach to Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto Bonacina; Marco D'Errico; Enrico Moretto; Silvana Stefani; Anna Torriero

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we consider Corporate Governance (CG) ties among companies from a multiple network perspective. Such a structure naturally arises from the close interrelation between the Shareholding Network (SH) and the Board of Directors network (BD). In order to capture the simultaneous effects of both networks on CG, we propose to model the CG multiple network structure via tensor analysis. In particular, we consider the TOPHITS model, based on the PARAFAC tensor decomposition, to show that...

  6. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  7. Multiple objectives application approach to waste minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清宇

    2002-01-01

    Besides economics and controllability, waste minimization has now become an obje ctive in designing chemical processes, and usually leads to high costs of invest ment and operation. An attempt was made to minimize waste discharged from chemic al reaction processes during the design and modification process while the opera tion conditions were also optimized to meet the requirements of technology and e conomics. Multiobjectives decision nonlinear programming (NLP) was employed to o ptimize the operation conditions of a chemical reaction process and reduce waste . A modeling language package-SPEEDUP was used to simulate the process. This p aper presents a case study of the benzene production process. The flowsheet factors affecting the economics and waste generation were examined. Constraints were imposed to reduce the number of objectives and carry out optimal calculations e asily. After comparisons of all possible solutions, best-compromise approach wa s applied to meet technological requirements and minimize waste.

  8. Multiple objectives application approach to waste minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清宇

    2002-01-01

    Besides econormics and controllability, waste minimization has now become an objective in designing chemical processes,and usually leads to high costs of investment and operation.An attempt was mede to minimize waste discharged from chemical reaction processes during the design and modification process while the operation conditions were also optimized to meet the requirements of technology and economics.Multiob-jectives decision nonlinear programming(NLP) was emplyed optimize the operation conditions of a chemical reaction process and reduce waste. A modeling package-SPEEDUP was used to simulate the process.This paper presents a case study of the benzenc production process.The flowsheer factors affecting the economics and waste generation were examined.Constraints were imposed to reduce the number of objectives and carry out optimal calculations easily.After comparisons of all possiblle solutions,best-compromise approach was applied to meet technological requirements and minimize waste.

  9. Tratamiento del equilibrio en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple: una revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Ramiro, Ana

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: Introducción: la alteración en el equilibrio es una de las causas que generan mayor discapacidad en los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple, lo que hace necesario el conocimiento de las diferentes técnicas de tratamiento existentes para paliarlo. Objetivo: revisar la literatura que estudia la efectividad de las diferentes técnicas más utilizadas y valorar los efectos producidos en el equilibrio de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple. Material y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda biblio...

  10. Apoptosis linfocitaria y efecto inmunomodulador de interferón beta en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Barcenilla Rodríguez, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad crónica desmielinizante caracterizada por la presencia de células inflamatorias en el sistema nervioso central. Aunque su causa primara todavía se desconoce, hay evidencias de que los linfocitos T y B tienen un papel patogénico en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Se ha demostrado la eficacia del interferón beta (IFN[beta]) en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple pero su mecanismo de acción continúa siendo una incógnita. Existen pocos estudios que ev...

  11. Reserva cognitiva y déficit en la planificación en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Mestas; Judith Salvador; Fernando Gordillo

    2012-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple afecta el sistema nervioso produciendo alteraciones cognitivas. La memoria es uno de los más afectados, no obstante la naturaleza ó factor primario de alteración aún no se clarifica. Objetivo: Estudia las diferencias en el procesamiento de la información verbal en un grupo de pacientes con esta patologíaa neurológica respecto a un grupo de control sano. Para ello se analizó el desempeño neuropsicológico de 16 pacientes con esclerosis múltiple de tipo remitente-...

  12. Cognición y emoción: su impacto en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Labiano Fontcuberta, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    La primera parte del estudio, en el que se incluyeron 157 pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente y 80 controles sanos, concluye que los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple presentan una regulación disfuncional de sus sentimientos de ira, ya que experimentan sentimientos de ira con más frecuencia y ante un mayor número de situaciones que la población general (Rasgo de Ira). Esta alteración emocional no es consecuencia de un proceso reactivo secundario a la discapacidad física inh...

  13. Esclerosis Múltiple en Pacientes Pediátricos: Fisiopatología, Diagnóstico y Manejo

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Mauricio Espitia Segura; Juan David Farfán Albarracín

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Revisar la literatura disponible sobre esclerosis múltiple en la población pediátrica.Métodos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura encontrada en las bases de datos Scopus y PubMed posterior al año 2000.Resultados y Conclusiones: La Esclerosis Múltiple es una enfermedad con una tasa de incidencia de 2 – 4 / 100.000 habitantes en Colombia, de la cual la población pediátrica representa entre 2,7 – 5% de los casos. Las causas que se han atribuido a la enfermedad son múltiples, incluye...

  14. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. We also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach.

  15. Hadronic and elementary multiplicity distributions in a geometrical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Valin, P; Menon, M J

    2000-01-01

    We construct the hadronic multiplicity distribution in terms of an elementary distribution (at given impact parameter) and the inelastic overlap function characterized by the observed BEL (Blacker-Edgier-Larger) behaviour. With suitable parametrizations for the elementary quantities, based on some geometrical arguments and the most recent data on e+e- annihilation, an excellent description of pp and p(bar)p inelastic multiplicity distributions at the highest energies is obtained. With this approach, we quantitatively correlate the violations of scalings in multiplicity distributions (Koba-Nielsen-Olesen) and elastic scattering (Geometrical) at high energies.

  16. Esclerosis lateral amiotrofica; complicaciones gastrointestinales en nutrición enteral domiciliaria

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ramírez Puerta; E. Yuste Ossorio; S. Narbona Galdó; N. Pérez Izquierdo; L. Peñas Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con el soporte nutricional enteral en los pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica que forman parte de nuestro programa de ventilación mecánica domiciliaria, haciendo especial hincapié en las gastrointestinales. Método: Estudio retrospectivo de tipo descriptivo de enfermos que se incluyeron en nuestro Programa de Ventilación Mecánica Domiciliaria (PVMD) dirigido por médicos intensivistas, mediante la revisión sistemática de historias clí...

  17. Eficacia y tolerabilidad de placebo y cannabinoides en esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Moreno, M. Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Introducció. L'esclerosi múltiple (EM) és una malaltia neurodegenerativa caracteritzada per la inflamació i la destrucció de la mielina al sistema nerviós central (SNC). Es presenta principalment en adults joves, considerant-se la primera causa de discapacitat en aquesta població. Els cannabinoides presenten efectes analgèsics i antiespàstics; i estan aprovats pel tractament d'aquests símptomes. Objectius. Realitzar una revisió sistemàtica i metaanàlisi dels estudis clínics aleatoritzats que ...

  18. Ejercicio físico en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Etxebeste Díez, Ane

    2013-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es la principal causa de incapacidad neurológica en adultos jóvenes y de mediana edad. Es una enfermedad desmielinizante del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC), cuya evolución es impredecible y sus efectos y síntomas son muy variados. Su principal observación anatomopatológica es la destrucción inmunitaria de la mielina. La fatiga es un síntoma muy común en estos pacientes, lo cual ha provocado durante muchos años que éstos fueran personas inactivas. Objetivos: E...

  19. Representaciones simbólicas de los pacientes que padecen esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Rebollo, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral buscaba indagar en la pregunta que surge cuando la enfermedad, la Esclerosis Múltiple en este caso, sorprende a los pacientes en los años más productivos de sus vidas, cuando empiezan a planificar su futuro, su proyecto de vida y les obliga a cambiar su trayectoria vital. Las vivencias y experiencias de estas personas desde una aproximación cualitativa han permitido acercarnos a descubrir, conocer e interpretar los significados del padecimiento a través del discurso d...

  20. Esclerosis múltiple, calidad de vida y atención sociosanitaria

    OpenAIRE

    José Carrón; Javier Arza

    2013-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa. Se caracteriza por presentar una gran variabilidad de síntomas y por evolucionar en forma de crisis o brotes. Históricamente se han observado divergencias en los datos sobre su prevalencia. Según los datos manejados en este estudio, puede afirmarse que la prevalencia se da, al menos, en 78 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes para Navarra, y que alcanza los 144 casos en el conjunto del Estado español. Esas cifras revelan que los datos u...

  1. Informe del Estudio. Actividad Física y Deporte en Esclerosis Múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Esclerosis Múltiple España

    2016-01-01

    Tradicionalmente, el ejercicio como parte del abordaje de la Esclerosis Múltiple ha sido infrautilizado y objeto de controversia. A menudo, los médicos recomendaban que se evitara realizar ejercicio físico a las personas con esta enfermedad, debido sobre todo al incremento de la temperatura corporal asociada al deporte y vinculada a su vez con el empeoramiento de síntomas asociados a la enfermedad (discapacidad visual y paresis), así como a la fatiga, otro de los síntomas más comunes y discap...

  2. Esclerosis múltiple en España: realidad, necesidades sociales y calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Federación Española de Lucha contra la Esclerosis Múltiple (FELEM)

    2007-01-01

    Se calcula que en España hay alrededor de 40.000 pacientes de esclerosis múltiple, una enfermedad de difícil diagnóstico y que puede llegar a ser muy discapacitante. Con el fin de conocer mejor a este colectivo y de sensibilizar a la población general sobre esta dolencia, el Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales ha encargado el presente estudio. En él se han empleado técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas para recoger información de cuatro agentes sociales implicados en este trastorno: las ...

  3. Esclerosis múltiple: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Franquis González, Juan Heriberto; Sierra Ojeda, Sonia; Espinosa Mondaza, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es una patología, inflamatoría, autoinmune, desmielinizante y crónica que afecta al sistema nervioso central. Este daño en la mielina se traduce en un mal funcionamiento de las fibras nerviosas. Se ha presentado en individuos genéticamente susceptibles e involucra factores inmunológicos y mediadores de la respuesta inmune así como la posibilidad de relación con factores ambientales y agentes virales. Se caracteriza por ataques recurrentes multifocales de signos y síntom...

  4. New approaches to the ecological risk assessment of multiple stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Van Den Paul J.; Choung, Catherine Bo; Landis, Wayne; Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Pettigrove, Vincent; Scanes, Peter; Smith, Rachael; Stauber, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    So as to assess how emerging science and new tools can be applied to study multiple stressors at a large (ecosystem) scale and to facilitate greater integration of approaches among different scientific disciplines, a workshop was organised on 10-12 September 2014 at the Sydney Institute of Marine

  5. Multiple Comparisons in Genetic Association Studies: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Mallick, Himel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple comparisons or multiple testing has been viewed as a thorny issue in genetic association studies aiming to detect disease-associated genetic variants from a large number of genotyped variants. We alleviate the problem of multiple comparisons by proposing a hierarchical modeling approach that is fundamentally different from the existing methods. The proposed hierarchical models simultaneously fit as many variables as possible and shrink unimportant effects towards zero. Thus, the hierarchical models yield more efficient estimates of parameters than the traditional methods that analyze genetic variants separately, and also coherently address the multiple comparisons problem due to largely reducing the effective number of genetic effects and the number of statistically ‘significant’ effects. We develop a method for computing the effective number of genetic effects in hierarchical generalized linear models, and propose a new adjustment for multiple comparisons, the hierarchical Bonferroni correction, based on the effective number of genetic effects. Our approach not only increases the power to detect disease-associated variants but also controls the Type I error. We illustrate and evaluate our method with real and simulated data sets from genetic association studies. The method has been implemented in our freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). PMID:24259248

  6. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in...... two separated networks (one for pickups and one for deliveries). Repacking is not allowed, but the items can be packed in several rows in the container, such that each row can be considered a LIFO stack, but no mutual constraints exist between the rows. Two different neighbourhood structures are...

  7. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in...... two separated networks (one for pickups and one for deliveries). Repacking is not allowed, but the items can be packed in several rows in the container, such that each row can be considered a LIFO stack, but no mutual constraints exist between the rows. Two different neighbourhood structures are...

  8. A Multiple Model Approach to Modeling Based on LPF Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Input-output data fitting methods are often used for unknown-structure nonlinear system modeling. Based on model-on-demand tactics, a multiple model approach to modeling for nonlinear systems is presented. The basic idea is to find out, from vast historical system input-output data sets, some data sets matching with the current working point, then to develop a local model using Local Polynomial Fitting (LPF) algorithm. With the change of working points, multiple local models are built, which realize the exact modeling for the global system. By comparing to other methods, the simulation results show good performance for its simple, effective and reliable estimation.``

  9. SOME NEUROCHEMICAL DISTURBANCES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Markelov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe data presented in this manuscript suggest a pivotal role of the central nervous system (CNS in the regulation of immune status. We describe here that some neurochemical disturbances may provoke development of various diseases including multiple sclerosis. Some theoretic and practical backgrounds, how to improve the multiple sclerosis sufferers and patients with other autoimmune disorders, are also given.RESUMENLos datos que presentamos en este manuscrito, sugieren un papel guia del sistema nervioso central (SNC en la regulación del estado inmune. Describimos aquí que varias alteraciones neuroquímicas pueden provocar el desarrollo de varias enfermedades, incluyendo esclerosis múltiple. También se comenta acerca del trasfondo teórico y práctico, y cómo mejorar a víctimas y pacientes con esclerosis múltiple y otras alteraciones autoinmunes.

  10. Departures from optimality when pursuing multiple approach or avoidance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Timothy; Yeo, Gillian; Neal, Andrew; Farrell, Simon

    2016-07-01

    This article examines how people depart from optimality during multiple-goal pursuit. The authors operationalized optimality using dynamic programming, which is a mathematical model used to calculate expected value in multistage decisions. Drawing on prospect theory, they predicted that people are risk-averse when pursuing approach goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the best position than the dynamic programming model suggests is optimal. The authors predicted that people are risk-seeking when pursuing avoidance goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the worst position than is optimal. These predictions were supported by results from an experimental paradigm in which participants made a series of prioritization decisions while pursuing either 2 approach or 2 avoidance goals. This research demonstrates the usefulness of using decision-making theories and normative models to understand multiple-goal pursuit. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963081

  11. Multiple, sclerosis: clinical feature, pathogenesis and current therapeutical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. Caused by central nervous system demyelination and axonal damage varying clinical signs do occur either with relapsing-remitting or with chronic progressive course. Based on pathogenetic considerations immunomodulative and immunosuppressive therapeutical approaches are used to limit the disease progression. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria, pathogenetical considerations, and consecutive therapeutical interventions are summarized. (orig.)

  12. A Distributed Hunting Approach for Multiple Autonomous Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Cao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel distributed hunting approach for multiple autonomous robots in unstructured mode‐free environments, which is based on effective sectors and local sensing, is proposed in this paper. The visual information, encoder and sonar data are integrated in the robot’s local frame, and the effective sector is introduced. The hunting task is modelled as three states: search state, round‐obstacle state, and hunting state, and the corresponding switching conditions and control strategies are given. A form of cooperation will emerge where the robots interact only locally with each other. The evader, whose motion is a priori unknown to the robots, adopts an escape strategy to avoid being captured. The approach is scalable and may cope with problems of communication and wheel slippage. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified through experiments with a team of wheeled robots.

  13. An Unsupervised Approach for Mining Multiple Web Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITHA RANI INTURI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Well Trained Record matching methods such as SVM, OSVM, PEBL, and Christen offers better performances when mining and filtering duplicate query results from multiple web databases. They require huge training data sets for prelearning. Unsupervised Duplicate Detection (UDD a query-dependent record matching method that requires no pre training was developed earlier. Non duplicate records from the same source can be used as training examples so for a given query UDD uses two cooperating classifiers, a weighted component similarity summing classifier and an SVM classifier that iteratively identifies duplicates in the query results from multiple Web databases. To optimize its performance in String Similarity calculations during Information Retrievals (IR, we propose the generalized Levenshtein distance algorithms. Experimental results show that our approach is comparable to previous works that requires huge training examples.

  14. Condition Monitoring of Railway Vehicle Suspension Using Multiple Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirotaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This paper demonstrates the possibility to detect suspension failures of railway vehicles using a multiple-model approach from on-board measurement data. The railway vehicle model used in this study includes lateral and yaw motions of wheelsets and bogie, and the lateral motion of the vehicle body. These motions are measured by on-board sensors for lateral acceleration and yaw rate. The detection algorithm is formulated based on the interacting multiple-model (IMM) algorithm adding a method updating estimation model. The IMM method has been applied for detecting faults in vehicle suspension systems in a simulation study. The mode probabilities and states of vehicle suspension systems are estimated based on a Kalman filter (KF). This algorithm is evaluated in simulation examples. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm effectively detects on-board faults of railway vehicle suspension systems in realistic situation.

  15. Evaluación neuropsicológica en 129 pacientes chilenos con esclerosis múltiple recurrente remitente previo a inicio de fármacos inmunomoduladores Neuropsychological assessment of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis prior to the use of immunomodulatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nogales-Gaete

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The detection of cognitive changes (CC and psychiatric disorders in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS-RR contributes to patient clinical monitoring. Aim: To assess the frequency and characteristics of CC and psychiatric disorders in Chilean patients with MS-RR, before starting immunomodulatory treatment. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of data that was obtained following a standard assessment protocol. It consisted in the application of the Expanded Disability Status Scale of Kurtzke (EDSS, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC, fatigue intensity scale of Krupp, brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological Rao (BRN-R and Hamilton's depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results: We evaluated 129 patients aged between 12 and 60 years of age (69% women. Ninetyfour percent of patients had eight or more years of schooling. The average EDSS score was 2.83. CC were detected in 62% of participants, in at least one subtest of the BRN-R. The main changes were verbal memory and speed in the processing information. The frequency of cognitive impairment (CI, defined as at least two BRN-R subtests altered, was 36%. The figures decreased to 17% when significant major depression or associated fatigue were excluded. Depressive symptoms were observed in 58% and anxiety in 76.7%. Conclusions: The results are consistent with those described in the literature. The type of instruments used in the investigation of CC and the definition of CI in MS should be standardized.

  16. Feedback structure based entropy approach for multiple-model estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-tu Han; Xue Anke; Guo Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    The variable-structure multiple-model (VSMM) approach, one of the multiple-model (MM) methods, is a popular and effective approach in handling problems with mode uncertainties. The model sequence set adaptation (MSA) is the key to design a better VSMM. However, MSA methods in the literature have big room to improve both theoretically and practically. To this end, we propose a feedback structure based entropy approach that could find the model sequence sets with the smallest size under certain conditions. The filtered data are fed back in real time and can be used by the minimum entropy (ME) based VSMM algorithms, i.e., MEVSMM. Firstly, the full Markov chains are used to achieve optimal solutions. Secondly, the myopic method together with particle filter (PF) and the challenge match algorithm are also used to achieve sub-optimal solutions, a trade-off between practicability and optimality. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm provides not only refined model sets but also a good robustness margin and very high accuracy.

  17. A Multiple LSPs Approach to Secure Data in MPLS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Alouneh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available MPLS security is an evolving issue which has been raised by many researchers and service providers. The basic architecture of MPLS network does not provide security services such as encryption. Therefore, MPLS does not protect the confidentiality of data transmitted. This paper provides a mechanism to enhance the security in MPLS networks by proposing a modified (k, n Threshold Secret Sharing scheme where the n shares obtained are send over multiple disjoint paths. We have implemented our approach to measure its time overhead on packet transmission.

  18. Random Multiplication Approaches Uniform Measure in Finite Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James; Zaslow, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In order to study how well a finite group might be generated by repeated random multiplications, P. Diaconis suggested the following urn model. An urn contains some balls labeled by elements which generate a group G. Two are drawn at random with replacement and a ball labeled with the group product (in the order they were picked) is added to the urn. We give a proof of his conjecture that the limiting fraction of balls labeled by each group element almost surely approaches 1/|G|.

  19. El perfil neuropsicológico en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    La Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) es la enfermedad neurológica no traumática más común entre personas jóvenes y adultos en etapas medias de la vida. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar el perfil neuropsicológico de un grupo de sujetos con EM. A ochenta sujetos con diagnóstico de EM y 40 sujetos sanos se les administró una batería de evaluación neuropsicológica. El grupo de personas con EM presentó puntuaciones más bajas en todas las pruebas y, en el 84% de las variables medidas (1...

  20. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  1. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  2. Reserva cognitiva y déficit en la planificación en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Mestas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La esclerosis múltiple afecta el sistema nervioso produciendo alteraciones cognitivas. La memoria es uno de los más afectados, no obstante la naturaleza ó factor primario de alteración aún no se clarifica. Objetivo: Estudia las diferencias en el procesamiento de la información verbal en un grupo de pacientes con esta patologíaa neurológica respecto a un grupo de control sano. Para ello se analizó el desempeño neuropsicológico de 16 pacientes con esclerosis múltiple de tipo remitente-recurrente y un grupo de control equiparado en las variables sociodemográficas. A los dos grupos se les aplic? el Test de Aprendizaje Verbal España-Complutense, y se realizó una comparación entre diversos índices de la prueba, además de un análisis de correlaciones entre las variables socio-demográficas del grupo experimental para identificar algún factor protector. Resultados: el grupo de esclerosis múltiple obtuvo rendimientos inferiores en los índices analizados respecto al de control, además de una correlación positiva entre años de escolaridad y el inicio de la enfermedad y entre el inicio de la enfermedad y la ocupación. Los datos encontrados parecen indicar que los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple tienen poca capacidad de planificación, que incide de manera directa en su desempeño en tareas de memoria y aprendizaje.

  3. Promoting return of function in multiple sclerosis: An integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacias, Mar; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination, axonal degeneration and progressive brain atrophy. Most of the currently available disease modifying agents proved to be very effective in managing the relapse rate, however progressive neuronal damage continues to occur and leads to progressive accumulation of irreversible disability. For this reason, any therapeutic strategy aimed at restoration of function must take into account not only immunomodulation, but also axonal protection and new myelin formation. We further highlight the importance of an holistic approach, which considers the variability of therapeutic responsiveness as the result of the interplay between genetic differences and the epigenome, which is in turn affected by gender, age and differences in life style including diet, exercise, smoking and social interaction. PMID:24363985

  4. Phylo: a citizen science approach for improving multiple sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kawrykow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying "crowd sourcing" techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of "human-brain peta-flops" of computation that are spent every day playing games

  5. Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use…

  6. El reibergrama en el análisis del líquido cefalorraquídeo y el diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Calcaño, Inés María

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Conocer la utilidad diagnóstica del Reibergrama, en la determinación de síntesis intratecal de IgG en pacientes sospechosos de Esclerosis Múltiple, contrastándolo con otras pruebas complementarias utilizadas para el diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple en términos de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo positivo. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, epidemiológico y de corte transversal en el período comprendido entre Abril 2...

  7. Significación en el diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple y experiencia ante el descubrimiento de la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Pérez, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Busca describir los significados de la vivencia del diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple como enfermedad crónica, singular y progresiva, y analizar e interpretar la experiencia que viven estos pacientes desde que experimentan síntomas y hasta el reconocimiento de la enfermedad. La población son pacientes con esclerosis múltiple de la Unidad de Neuroinmunología del Hospital Carlos Haya de Málaga. La muestra total fue de 25 participantes. Tuvo un diseño cualitativo fenomenológico descriptivo, y e...

  8. Jóvenes con esclerosis múltiple y vida activa. Detección de estrategias para una autogestión eficaz de la enfermedad.

    OpenAIRE

    Federación Española para la Lucha contra la Esclerosis Múltiple

    2012-01-01

    Este documento de trabajo elaborado por Esclerosis Múltiple España – FELEM para el Real Patronato sobre Discapacidad pretende ser un punto de partida para el acercamiento y el análisis de la situación y necesidades de los jóvenes con Esclerosis Múltiple, sus dificultades relacionadas con la atención sociosanitaria, la vivencia personal y familiar, su situación en el mercado de trabajo, etc. Todo ello, con el objetivo de detectar estrategias para una autogestión eficaz de su enfermedad, como s...

  9. [Cormorbidity in multiple sclerosis and its therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Bonaventura Casanova

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-term chronic disease, in which intercurrent processes develop three times more frequently in affected individuals than in persons without MS. Knowledge of the comorbidity of MS, its definition and measurement (Charlson index) improves patient management. Acting on comorbid conditions delays the progression of disability, which is intimately linked to the number of concurrent processes and with health states and habits. Moreover, the presence of comorbidities delays the diagnosis of MS, which in turn delays the start of treatment. The main comorbidity found in MS includes other autoimmune diseases (thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or pemphigus) but can also include general diseases, such as asthma or osteomuscular alterations, and, in particular, psychiatric disturbances. All these alterations should be evaluated with multidimensional scales (Disability Expectancy Table, DET), which allow more accurate determination of the patient's real clinical course and quality of life. These scales also allow identification of how MS, concurrent and intercurrent processes occurring during the clinical course, and the treatment provided affect patients with MS. An overall approach to patients' health status helps to improve quality of life. PMID:25732944

  10. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew

    2014-09-16

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources.

  11. Valor del grosor de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina medido mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica como marcador de daño neuroaxonal en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    López Lizcano, Ruth María

    2012-01-01

    Estudio del valor del grosor de la Capa de Fibras Nerviosas de la Retina (CFNR) a lo largo de un año como marcador de daño neuroaxonal en pacientes con distintos estadios de Esclerosis Múltiple (EM): pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado (CIS) que es el estadio más inicial de enfermedad desmielinizante, pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente (EMRR) y pacientes con esclerosis múltiple primaria-progresiva (EMPP) frente a sujetos sanos. Estudio de las posibles correlaciones exis...

  12. Multiple elliptic hypergeometric series --An approach from the Cauchy determinant--

    OpenAIRE

    Kajihara, Yasushi; Noumi, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    A multiple generalization of elliptic hypergeometric series is investigated and a duality transformation for multiple hypergeometric series is proposed. Our duality transformation obtained from an identity arising from the Cauchy determinant formula for Weierstrass sigma functions, by spcialization of a particular form.

  13. An Holistic Approach for Counsellors: Embracing Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Rosslyn; O'Brien, Patrick John

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a range of therapeutic modalities used by counsellors of children and positions those modalities within Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Research by O'Brien ("Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence and its implications for the counselling of children." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of…

  14. Función ejecutiva y uso de estrategias semánticas en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Introzzi, Isabel; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo analizamos el uso de estrategias semánticas en una tarea de aprendizaje de palabras en pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple, y evaluamos la posible influencia del funcionamiento ejecutivo sobre esta tarea. Se trabaja con un grupo clínico (n=36) y un grupo control (n=36) equiparados por edad y nivel educativo. Se proporcionó a los sujetos 5 ensayos de aprendizaje y se analizó la cantidad de estrategias semánticas nuevas implementadas en cada uno de los ensayos; además, se utilizar...

  15. Ventilación mecánica no invasiva en un paciente con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Revilla, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica es una enfermedad neuromuscular, de naturaleza progresiva, cuya principal característica clínica es la debilidad y la atrofia muscular. Los tratamientos de los que se disponen para esta enfermedad son muy limitados y de carácter paliativo. Entre ellos, predomina la ventilación mecánica no invasiva mediante la cual, se obtienen efectos beneficiosos en la mecánica respiratoria del paciente. En este tipo de terapias, el papel de enfermería es pr...

  16. Estudio del proteoma sináptico en ratones modelo de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Casañas Díaz, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad devastadora e incurable cuyos primeros síntomas se manifiestan como debilidad y “repentina torpeza” en las actividades cotidianas, que progresa irremisiblemente en pocos años hasta producir la muerte. En la base de estos síntomas, subyace la progresiva muerte de las motoneuronas espinales (y de las neuronas motoras corticales). Así, su avance conduce progresivamente a la parálisis de los miembros inferiores, el tronco, los miembros sup...

  17. Alteraciones de la función visual como marcadores pronósticos en esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Pérez, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    ANTECEDENTES La Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa inmuno-mediada del sistema nervioso central, que produce daño neuro axonal responsable de discapacidad. La vía visual es uno de los sistemas más frecuentemente afectados en la EM, dicho daño puede ser evaluado y monitorizado mediante la exploración neuro-oftalmológica. HIPÓTESIS El daño en la vía visual es frecuente en la EM y es representativo de su grado de actividad y gravedad. El examen de la vía ...

  18. Esclerosis múltiple: análisis de necesidades y calidad de vida de los afectados y su entorno

    OpenAIRE

    José Carrón Sánchez; Javier Arza Porras

    2013-01-01

    La evolución en el paradigma desde el que se contempla la discapacidad, y en concreto la esclerosis múltiple, ha estado marcada por los cambios en el concepto de salud, en el avance en los derechos sociales subjetivos y en la implantación progresiva de un modelo inclusivo para su abordaje. Con esta investigación se pretende responder a las preguntas de ese nuevo paradigma, revisando la situación epidemiológica, los estudios anteriores, y el desarrollo de una metodología complementaria desde l...

  19. Caracterización de SNP de susceptibilidad en dos microRNA relacionados con la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cuesta Etxeberria, Maialen

    2016-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad crónica autoinmune y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central caracterizada por las lesiones o placas escleróticas que presentan sus pacientes. Estas placas se forman como consecuencia de una desmielinización focal aguda e inflamatoria asociada a una posible pérdida axonal con una posterior remielinización.La función de estas moléculas de RNA, compuestas por 22 nucleótidos aproximadamente, es regular la expresión génica, bien degradando el mRNA,...

  20. Revisión Sistemática y Crítica de la disartria en la Esclerosis Múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Esta Revisión Bibliográfica parte de diversas descripciones de casos de pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple, recogidas en 26 artículos. Objetivo: Se pretende revisar la literatura médica disponible sobre aspectos logopédicos relacionados con la enfermedad y conocer el tratamiento asociado a esos síntomas. Metodología: Revisión Sistemática en bases de datos Pubmed y Ebscohost de estudios de casos que hagan referencia a sintomatología asociada, especialmente relac...

  1. Fatiga en esclerosis múltiple aspectos clínicos, biológicos y radiológicos /

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez Lara, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad inmunomediada del sistema nervioso central. Más del 50% de pacientes presenta fatiga relacionada con la EM, y este síntoma puede llegar a ser el más discapacitante. En los últimos años se ha publicado una enorme cantidad de trabajos que intenta aclarar datos sobre la etiología y el tratamiento de la fatiga en EM, pero las conclusiones nos ayudan poco en el día a día. La presente tesis recoge cuatro trabajos destinados a conocer mejor aspectos rela...

  2. Adherencia a los tratamientos inmunomoduladores en los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente recurrente. Propuestas para mejorar el cumplimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo Tello, Cristina; Codina Francisco, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    L'adherència a immunomoduladors en esclerosi múltiple és d'interès. OBJECTIU: Elaborar eines per millorar l'adherència MÈTODE: Reunió amb investigadors per avaluar els factors associats amb la no-adherència als immunomoduladors. RESULTATS: Es van acordar les recomanacions per neuròlegs i pacients i els qüestionaris a passar a l'inici del tractament i durant el seguiment per identificar els pacients probablement no adherents CONCLUSIÓ: L'adherència es considera essencial. Els professionals san...

  3. Aspectos emocionales y calidad de vida en pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes: el caso de la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Arbinaga Ibarzábal, Félix

    2003-01-01

    El trabajo pretende conocer las características de un grupo de 17 enfermos con Esclerosis Múltiple en aspectos como depresión, ansiedad, sensibilidad a la ansiedad y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Mediante la utilización del Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI) se observa que el 58,8% presenta algún nivel de depresión; mostrando puntuaciones superiores a las de la población normativa (p

  4. Esclerosis múltiple: Realidad, necesidades sociales y calidad de vida. Estudio comparado España-Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Villota, Sandra; Alamany, Laia; Giambastiani, María Paz

    2009-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación y sensibilización tiene como principal finalidad el análisis de los diferentes aspectos que están incidiendo en la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas por esta enfermedad, las posibles problemáticas derivadas de ello, la detección de las necesidades sociales y de recursos sanitarios que sean más decisivas para el colectivo en Argentina y todo ello comparándolo con la realidad española. De ello, y aprovechando sinergias en la lucha contra la Esclerosis Múlt...

  5. Uso de esteronitronas para el tratamiento y prevención del ictus o accidente cerebrovascular, enfermedades de alzheimer, parkinson y esclerosis lateral amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Contelles, José Luis; Alcázar González, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Uso y preparación de esteronitronas con alta permeabilidad a la barrera hematoencefálica, capacidad antioxidante y neuroprotectora, como potenciales fármacos para el tratamiento del ictus o accidente cerebrovascular, enfermedades de Alzheimer, Parkinson y esclerosis lateral amiotrófica.

  6. Multiple Intelligences within the Cross-Curricular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula Vaiou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was realized in a Greek 6th grade State Primary School class and was based on Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, which was first introduced in 1983. More particularly, it was explored to what extent the young learners possess multiple intelligences through the use of a specially-designed questionnaire and a series of interviews. The findings of the above have served as a tool to the construction of a project work based on students’ learning preferences within a cross-curricular framework, easily applicable to the Greek State School curriculum. All learners were activated to participate within a school environment that traditionally promotes linguistic and mathematical skills matching dominant multiple intelligences or a combination of some of them to thematic units already taught by Greek teachers. The suggested project was assessed through observation and student portfolio, showing that the young learners’ multiple intelligences were exploited to a great extent, promoting the learning process satisfactorily. The results of this study can provide a contribution to the literature of multiple intelligences in the Greek reality and suggest a need for further consideration and exploration in the field. Finally, the researcher of this study hopes the present work could function as a springboard for more elaborated studies in the future.

  7. Multiple Intelligences within the Cross-Curricular Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anthoula Vaiou

    2010-01-01

    The present study was realized in a Greek 6th grade State Primary School class and was based on Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, which was first introduced in 1983. More particularly, it was explored to what extent the young learners possess multiple intelligences through the use of a specially-designed questionnaire and a series of interviews. The findings of the above have served as a tool to the construction of a project work based on students’ learning preferences within...

  8. Control design approaches for nonlinear systems using multiple models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong ZHAI; Shumin FEI; Feipeng DA

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to realize control for some complex nonlinear systems operated in different operating regions.Based on developing local models for different operating regions of the process, a novel algorithm using multiple models is proposed. It utilizes dynamic model bank to establish multiple local models, and their membership functions are defined according to respective regions. Then the nonlinear system is approximated to a weighted combination of the local models.The stability of the nonlinear system is proven. Finally, simulations are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Esclerosis lateral amiotrofica; complicaciones gastrointestinales en nutrición enteral domiciliaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramírez Puerta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con el soporte nutricional enteral en los pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica que forman parte de nuestro programa de ventilación mecánica domiciliaria, haciendo especial hincapié en las gastrointestinales. Método: Estudio retrospectivo de tipo descriptivo de enfermos que se incluyeron en nuestro Programa de Ventilación Mecánica Domiciliaria (PVMD dirigido por médicos intensivistas, mediante la revisión sistemática de historias clínicas (procedentes de una base de datos de Microsoft Access, durante los años 2004-2011. Resultados: Entre los años 2004-2011 se siguieron 73 pacientes con diagnostico de Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: 34 de ellos (46,6% rechazaron el aporte nutricional a través de gastrostomía o de sonda nasogástrica, mientras que 39 (53,4% aceptaron su colocación. De los 39 pacientes en los que se inició la NED: 20 eran mujeres mujeres (51,3%. La edad media de los pacienes fue de 60,6 + 13,4 años (IC 95% 56,464,8. Los diagnósticos al ingreso en el PVMD fueron: ELA, 21 casos (53,8%, y ELA con afectación bulbar, 18 (43,1%. Se alimentaron a través de GEP 34 pacientes (87,2%, con gastrostomía quirúrgica 3 (7,7% y mediante sonda nasogástrica 3 (7,7%. La gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica se realizó tras la inclusión de los pacientes en el programa, con una media días de 222,7 + 356,6 (IC 95% 110,8-334,7. En pacientes con ELA la media fue de 271,4 + 449,5 días (IC 95% 130,3-412,1, con ELA y afectación bulbar de 126,4 + 131,3 días (IC 95% 90-172,6. El recambio de sonda fue de 7,3 + 4,8 meses (IC 95% 4-10,6. La nutrición enteral tuvo una duración media de 578,6 + 872,9 días (IC 95% 304,7-852,6. Se hallaron complicaciones en 35 pacientes (89,7%, y solamente en 4, no se encontró ninguna (10,3%. Ver tabla II. El estreñimiento se manifestó, después del inicio de la NE, en 30 pacientes (76,9%; sin embargo, ya existía previamente en 18 de

  10. Need for multiple approaches in collaborative software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to share software and reintegrate it into new applications presents a difficult but important challenge. Component-based development as an approach to this problem is receiving much attention in professional journals and academic curricula. However, there are many other approaches to collaborative software development that might be more appropriate. This paper reviews a few of these approaches and discusses criteria for the conditions and contexts in which these alternative approaches might be more appropriate. This paper complements the discussion of context-based development team organizations and processes. Examples from a small development team that interacts with a larger professional community are analyzed

  11. Ecological Capability Assessment for Multiple-Use in Forest Areas Using GIS- Based Multiple Criteria Decision Making Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sasan Babaie-Kafaky; Asadollah Mataji; Naser A. Sani

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: A valuable Source of plant and animal various species in the west of Iran is Zagros forests that, misuses by foresters and local societies has caused severe degradation. In this study, forest areas ecological assessment was carried out with a (GIS)-based MCDM approach for multiple-use planning in order to reduce degradation and improving sustainability. Approach: All of possible land uses were evaluated separately. The AHP was used to defining weight of criteria and sub-cri...

  12. Promoting return of function in multiple sclerosis: An integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gacias, Mar; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination, axonal degeneration and progressive brain atrophy. Most of the currently available disease modifying agents proved to be very effective in managing the relapse rate, however progressive neuronal damage continues to occur and leads to progressive accumulation of irreversible disability. For this reason, any therapeutic strategy aimed at restoration of function must take into account not only immunomodulation, but also...

  13. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  14. AN APPROACH FOR COMMON INTERFACE FOR MULTIPLE ONLINE BANKING (CIMOBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Rekha Gurajala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work was initiated with a main objective of providing progressively higher degree of security in online banking (web bank ing for future generation Internet banking. The underlying knowledge models are represented using petrinet formalism in all the phases and systems. The plan is also represented using petrinets. Hierarchical timed petrinets (HTPN is used for our modeling, since it captures the temporal requirements of the real time online banking operations as well as facilitates the modeling of the large-scale system with multiple levels of abstraction. The necessary primitives for the plan representation includi ng concurrency, synchronization, temporal, activity sequencing, mutual exclusion, resource constraints and decision making actions are defined using petrinet constructs. The static and dynamic actions as well as resource modeling are illustrated using timed petri net model, developed using HPsim tool. Planning a petrinet framework is one of the easy understandable ways of representing complex problems and various issues involved. We have presented some simulation models for representing the complex web-banking model which is common for multiple banks.

  15. New approaches in the management of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie J Barten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Laurie J Barten1, Douglas R Allington1, Kendra A Procacci2, Michael P Rivey11The University of Montana and Community Medical Center, Missoula, MT, USA; 2The University of Montana School of Pharmacy, Missoula, MT, USAAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by an extensive and complex immune response. Scientific advances have occurred in immunology, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and clinical assessment tools, and recent discovery of unique therapeutic targets has spurred numerous Phase II and Phase III clinical trials. Reductions in MS relapse rates and improvements in T2 or gadolinium-enhancing lesion burdens have been reported from Phase III trials that include fingolimod, alemtuzumab, cladribine, and rituximab. Promising Phase II trial data exist for teriflunomide, daclizumab, laquinimod, and fumarate. The optimism created by these favorable findings must be tempered with evaluation of the adverse effect profile produced by these new agents. Given the discovery of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with the use of natalizumab, ongoing vigilance for rare and life-threatening reactions due to new agents should be paramount. Patients with MS often experience difficulty with ambulation, spasticity, and cognition. Recent clinical trial data from two Phase III dalfampridine-SR trials indicate certain patients receive benefits in ambulation. This article provides an overview of data from clinical trials of newer agents of potential benefit in MS.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, Phase II trials, Phase III trials, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, monoclonal antibody

  16. A Self-Correcting Approach to Multiple-Choice Exams Improves Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grühn, Daniel; Cheng, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Montepare suggested the use of a self-correcting approach to multiple-choice tests: Students first take the exam as usual, but are allowed to hand in a self-corrected version afterwards. The idea of this approach is that the additional interaction with the material may foster further learning. To examine whether such an approach actually improves…

  17. Diagnosis of Multiple Fixture Faults in Multiple-Station Manufacturing Processes Based on State Space Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兆青; 来新民; 林忠钦

    2004-01-01

    Dimensional quality is one of the most critical challenges in industries, which uses the multistage manufacturing process (MMP) such as assembly and machining for automotive and aerospace industries. According to investigations, fixture faults accounted for 72% of all the dimensional faults. Previous studies focused on only one fault or multiple faults occurred in one station or one fault in multiple stations, but these cases rarely appear in the real manufacturing. This paper presents a method for diagnosis of multiple fixture faults in the multi-station manufacturing process. The proposed method is based on the state space model of the MMP processes, which carries the information of the fixture layout geometry and sensor position. To identify the root cause, three continuous steps were used: a) development of the state space model and the construction of the statistics variables on offline mode, b) measurement of the coordinate measuring machines data on online mode and calculation of the statistics variables, and c) diagnostic algorithm for identifying the root cause. The presented paper integrates the state space model of the manufacturing processes and hypothesis test considering the impact of the measure noises. A case study verifies the proposed method.

  18. Vital Approach to Transition: Slovene Multiple Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Winbauer Catana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a multiple case study to suggest the effectiveness in application of an integrated model for the design of sustainable change strategies in high velocity environments and organizations. The model integrates awareness of current organizational cultural characteristics with leadership intent and strategy formation. The cultural analysis provides a lens through which diverse organizational values are exposed and stakeholders can assess organizational alignment with the external environment, organizational mission and future vision. Using the inherent differentiation of values as creative tensions, strategies are formulated for purposeful change to improve alignment. Leadership inquiry is used to suggest an alignment of personal intent with the strategic initiatives to project sustainable change. This Values, Inquiry, and Tensions Alignment for Leadership model (VITAL is applied as an intervention sequence which provides information, direction, and motivation for sustainable change in transition organizations and environments.

  19. Molecular Approach to Targeted Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbet, Gajanan V

    2016-01-01

    The development and evolution of targeted therapy to any disease require the identification of targets amenable to treatment of patients. Here the pathogenetic signalling systems involved in multiple sclerosis are scrutinised to locate nodes of deregulation and dysfunction in order to devise strategies of drug development for targeted intervention. Oliogoclonal bands (OCB) are isoelectric focusing profiles of immunoglobulins synthesised in the central nervous system. OCBs enable the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis with high sensitivity and specificity and are related to the course of the disease and progression. The OCB patterns can be linked with the expression of angiogenic molecular species. Angiogenic signalling which has also been implicated in demyelination provides the option of using angiogenesis inhibitors in disease control. The PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt axis has emerged with a key role in myelination with its demonstrable links with mTOR mediated transcription of downstream target genes. Inflammatory signals and innate and acquired immunity from the activation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) responsive genes are considered. NF-κB signalling could be implicated in myelination. The transcription factor STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) and the EBV (Epstein- Barr virus) transcription factor BZLF1 contributing significantly to the disease process are a major environmental factor linked to MS. EBV can activate TGF (transforming growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) signalling. EBV microRNAs are reviewed as signalling mediators of pathogenesis. Stem cell transplantation therapy has lately gained much credence, so the current status of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell therapy is reviewed with emphasis on the differential expression immune-related genes and operation of signalling systems. PMID:26560895

  20. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eKhanfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®, the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures.

  1. A unified approach for revealing multiple balance recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Yeh, Chih-Kuo

    2015-12-01

    In human balance recovery, different strategies have been proposed with generally overlooked knee motions but extensive focus on the ankle, hip, and step strategies. It is not well understood whether maintaining balance is regulated at the lower "muscular-articular" level of coordinating segment joints or at a higher level of controlling whole body dynamics. Whether balance control is to minimize joint degrees of freedom (DOF) or utilize all the available DOF also remains unclear. This study aimed to use a realistic musculoskeletal human model to identify multiple balance recovery strategies with a single optimization criterion. Movements were driven by neural excitations (which activated muscle force generation) and were assumed to be symmetric. Balance recoveries were simulated with forward-inclined straight body postures as the initial conditions. When the position of the toes was fixed, balance was regained with virtually straight knees and mixed ankle/hip strategies. Under a severely perturbed condition, use of the forward hop strategy after releasing the fixed-toes constraint indicated spontaneous recruitment or suppression of DOF, which mimicked functions of optimally computed CNS commands in humans. The results also indicated that increase/decrease in the number of DOF depends on the imposed perturbation intensity and movement constraints. PMID:26519905

  2. Aggregating Metadata from Multiple Archives: a Non-VO Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyn, S. D. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) tool at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects taken with a large number of ground-based and space-based telescopes. (Gwyn et al. 2012). The ever-growing list of telescopes includes HST, Subaru, CFHT, Gemini, SDSS, AAT, NEAT, NOAO, WISE and the ING and ESO telescopes. The first step in constructing SSOIS is to agregate the metadata from the various archives. An effective search requires the RA, Dec, and time of the exposure, and the field of view of the instrument. The archives are extremely hetergeneous; in some cases the interface dates back to the 1990s. After scraping these archives, four lessons have been learned: 1) The more primitive the archive, the easier it is to scrape. 2) Simple Image Access Protocol (SIAP) is not an effective means of scraping archives. 3) When scraping an archive with multiple queries, the queries should be done by time rather by than sky position. 4) Retrieving the metadata is relatively easy, the hard work is in the quality control and understanding each telescope/instrument.

  3. Multiple approaches to assess pectin binding to galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Dongyang; Yan, Jingmin; Sun, Chongliang; Zhou, Yifa; Tai, Guihua

    2016-10-01

    Although several approaches have been used to evaluate binding of carbohydrates to lectins, results are not always comparable, especially with larger polysaccharides. Here, we quantitatively assessed and compared binding of pectin-derived polysaccharides to galectin-3 (Gal-3) using five methods: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), bio-layer interferometry (BLI), fluorescence polarization (FP), competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbance (cFLISA), and the well-known cell-based hemagglutination assay (G3H). Our studies revealed that whereas Gal-3-pectin binding parameters determined by SPR and BLI were comparable and correlated with inhibitory potencies from the G3H assay, results using FP and cFLISA assays were highly variable and depended greatly on the probe and mass of the polysaccharide. In the cFLISA assay, for example, pectins showed no inhibition when using the DTAF-labeled asialofetuin probe, but did when using a DTAF-labeled pectin probe. And the FP approach with the DTAF-lactose probe did not work on polysaccharides and large galactan chains, although it did work well with smaller galactans. Nevertheless, even though results derived from all of these methods are in general agreement, derived KD, IC50, and MIC values do differ. Our results reflect the variability using various techniques and therefore will be useful to investigators who are developing pectin-derived Gal-3 antagonists as anti-cancer agents. PMID:27328612

  4. The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks - Formulation and heuristic solution approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks and presents four different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The double TSP with multiple stacks is concerned with determining the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in two separated networks...

  5. Multiple neural network approaches to clinical expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Derek F.

    1990-08-01

    We briefly review the concept of computer aided medical diagnosis and more extensively review the the existing literature on neural network applications in the field. Neural networks can function as simple expert systems for diagnosis or prognosis. Using a public database we develop a neural network for the diagnosis of a major presenting symptom while discussing the development process and possible approaches. MEDICAL EXPERTS SYSTEMS COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS Biomedicine is an incredibly diverse and multidisciplinary field and it is not surprising that neural networks with their many applications are finding more and more applications in the highly non-linear field of biomedicine. I want to concentrate on neural networks as medical expert systems for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Expert Systems started out as a set of computerized " ifthen" rules. Everything was reduced to boolean logic and the promised land of computer experts was said to be in sight. It never came. Why? First the computer code explodes as the number of " ifs" increases. All the " ifs" have to interact. Second experts are not very good at reducing expertise to language. It turns out that experts recognize patterns and have non-verbal left-brain intuition decision processes. Third learning by example rather than learning by rule is the way natural brains works and making computers work by rule-learning is hideously labor intensive. Neural networks can learn from example. They learn the results

  6. Novel approaches to understanding carbon redistribution at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer; Beniston, Joshua; Lal, Rattan; Horrocks, Claire; Collins, Adrian; Mariappen, Sankar; Quine, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Established biogeochemical techniques are used to trace organic inputs typically derived directly or indirectly from plants into soils, sediments and water using lipid biomarkers. Recently, advances in bulk and compound specific stable 13C isotope analyses have provided novel ways of exploring the source and residence times of organic matter in soils using the natural abundance stable 13C isotope signature of C3 and C4 plant end member values. However, the application of biogeochemical source tracing technologies at the molecular level at field to catchment scales has been slow to develop because of perceived problems with dilution of molecular-scale signals. This paper describes the results of recent experiments in natural and agricultural environments in the UK (Collins et al., 2013; Dungait et al., 2013) and United States (Beniston et al., submitted) that have successfully applied new tracing techniques using stable 13C isotope and complementary approaches to explore the transport of sediment-bound organic carbon at a range of scales from the small plot (m2) to field (ha) and small catchment (10's ha). References Beniston et al (submitted) The effects of crop residue removal on soil erosion and macronutrient dynamics on soils under no till for 42 years. Biogeosciences Collins et al (2013) Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England. Science of the Total Environment 456-457, 181-195. Dungait et al (2013) Microbial responses to the erosional redistribution of soil organic carbon in arable fields. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 60, 195-201. Puttock et al (2012) Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C4-C3 semi-arid vegetation transitions. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26, 2386-2392.

  7. Strongly and weakly directed approaches to teaching multiple representation use in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosengrant

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Good use of multiple representations is considered key to learning physics, and so there is considerable motivation both to learn how students use multiple representations when solving problems and to learn how best to teach problem solving using multiple representations. In this study of two large-lecture algebra-based physics courses at the University of Colorado (CU and Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, we address both issues. Students in each of the two courses solved five common electrostatics problems of varying difficulty, and we examine their solutions to clarify the relationship between multiple representation use and performance on problems involving free-body diagrams. We also compare our data across the courses, since the two physics-education-research-based courses take substantially different approaches to teaching the use of multiple representations. The course at Rutgers takes a strongly directed approach, emphasizing specific heuristics and problem-solving strategies. The course at CU takes a weakly directed approach, modeling good problem solving without teaching a specific strategy. We find that, in both courses, students make extensive use of multiple representations, and that this use (when both complete and correct is associated with significantly increased performance. Some minor differences in representation use exist, and are consistent with the types of instruction given. Most significant are the strong and broad similarities in the results, suggesting that either instructional approach or a combination thereof can be useful for helping students learn to use multiple representations for problem solving and concept development.

  8. Ecological Capability Assessment for Multiple-Use in Forest Areas Using GIS- Based Multiple Criteria Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Babaie-Kafaky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A valuable Source of plant and animal various species in the west of Iran is Zagros forests that, misuses by foresters and local societies has caused severe degradation. In this study, forest areas ecological assessment was carried out with a (GIS-based MCDM approach for multiple-use planning in order to reduce degradation and improving sustainability. Approach: All of possible land uses were evaluated separately. The AHP was used to defining weight of criteria and sub-criteria. Sub-criteria were mapped at GIS environment using available data, fieldwork and IRSp6 data. A priority map for each land use was created using GIS-based WLC model. The final priority map was produced of overlying all priority maps. Ecological capability map were generated with editing priority map using present land use map, IRSp6 data, forest laws and fieldwork. Results: The Weights of criteria and sub- criteria was defined for all land uses with CRConclusion: The results of this study showed that various land uses meaning multiple-use can be exist in area study that executing of those will be cause decreasing of foresters dependence to forest trees, decreasing of degradation and forest sustainability. Thus, this integrated approach could be benefit forest planners and decision makers. Recommendation: Through this study, we aimed at suggesting to forest management and other stakeholders an approach that is scientifically sound and practical.

  9. Función cognitiva en la esclerosis múltiple: correlatos neurofisiológicos y herramientas de evaluación neuropsicológica

    OpenAIRE

    López Góngora, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria, desmielinizante y neurodegenerativa del sistema nervioso central y principal causa de discapacidad en el adulto joven. Aunque su causa es desconocida, se ha observado que se desarrolla en personas con una susceptibilidad genética que se exponen a ciertos factores medioambientales. En la historia natural de la enfermedad, las alteraciones cognitivas son frecuentes y se manifiestan en un 40 a 65% de pacientes. Están presentes desde...

  10. Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: ¿es el astrocito la célula primariamente dañada?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto E. Sica

    2013-01-01

    La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es considerada una enfermedad primaria de las motoneuronas. Ninguno de los procesos que conforman su patogenia ha probado ser su causa. Tampoco pudo demostrarse que factores ambientales la originen. Las neuronas mueren por apoptosis, hecho que abre la posibilidad de que ello sea debido a cambios en su ambiente, sin que constituyan el blanco directo de la noxa que ocasiona la enfermedad. El examen del medio que circunda a las motoneuronas encuentra a los...

  11. Fostering Analogical Transfer: The Multiple Components Approach to Algebra Word Problem Solving in a Chemistry Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2012-01-01

    Holyoak and Koh (1987) and Holyoak (1984) propose four critical tasks for analogical transfer to occur in problem solving. A study was conducted to test this hypothesis by comparing a multiple components (MC) approach against worked examples (WE) in helping students to solve algebra word problems in chemistry classes. The MC approach incorporated…

  12. Limited Multiple-Writer: An Approach to Dealing with False Sharing in Software DSMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢向辉; 韩承德

    2000-01-01

    False sharing is one of the most important factors impacting the performance of DSM (distributed shared memory) systems. The single-writer ap proach is simple, but it cannot avoid the ping-pong effect of the data page thrashing, while the multiple-writer approach is effective for false sharing but with high cost. This paper proposes a new approach, called limited multiple-writer (LMW) to han dling multiple writers in software DSM. It distinguishes two kinds of multiple-writer as lock-based form and barrier-based form, and handles them with different policies. It discards the Twin and Diff in traditional multiple-writer approach, and simplifies the implementation of niultiple-writer in software DSM systems. The implementa tion of LMW in a CVM (Coherent Virtual Machine) software DSM system, which is based on a network of workstations, is introduced. Evaluation results show that for some applications such as SOR (Successive Over-Relaxation), LU (Lower triangular and Upper triangular), FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation), and IS (Integer Sorting), LMW provides a significant reduction inexecution time (11%, 16%, 33% and 46%) compared with the traditional multiple-writer approach on the platform.

  13. A Note on the Group-theoretic Approach to Fast Matrix Multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Hedtke, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 COHN and UMANS introduced a group-theoretic approach to fast matrix multiplication. This involves finding large subsets S, T and U of a group G satisfying the Triple Product Property (TPP) as a means to bound the exponent $\\omega$ of the matrix multiplication. We show that S, T and U may be be assumed to contain the identity and be otherwise disjoint. We also give a much shorter proof of the upper bound |S|+|T|+|U| <= |G|+2.

  14. Convergence peculiarities of lattice summation upon multiple charge spreading generalizing the Bertaut approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kholopov, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Within investigating the multiple charge spreading generalizing the Bertaut approach, a set of confined spreading functions with a polynomial behaviour, but defined so as to enhance the rate of convergence of Coulomb series even upon a single spreading, is proposed. It is shown that multiple spreading is ultimately effective especially in the case when the spreading functions of neighbouring point charges overlap. In the cases of a simple exponential and a Gaussian spreading functions the eff...

  15. Summative integrative multiple choice examinations: Do they promote or prevent deep learning approaches?

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelbauer, Monika

    2009-01-01

    [english] Numerous studies provide evidence that the learning approach of students has an influence on their academic performance in examinations. As part of the 2001 reform of the medical curriculum at the Medical University of Vienna, a new assessment system was implemented for knowledge testing that predominantly relies on multiple-choice examinations. The principal purpose of this study was to clarify the question to what extent this rather strong concentration on multiple-choice questio...

  16. An agent-based negotiation approach for balancing multiple coupled control domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umair, Aisha; Clausen, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    . The proposed approach can solve negotiation problems with interdependent issues across multiple coupled control domains. We demonstrate our approach by solving a coordination problem where a Combined Heat and Power Plant must allocate electricity for three commercial greenhouses to ensure the required......Solving multi-objective multi-issue negotiation problems involving interdependent issues distributed among multiple control domains is inherent to most non-trivial cyber-physical systems. In these systems, the coordinated operation of interconnected subsystems performing autonomous control is...

  17. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers: Comparison of Two Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable......, dividing all other output quantities by the selected output quantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochastic ray production frontier (SR) which transforms the output quantities into their Euclidean distance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates......, on average none of the approaches is superior. However, considerable differences are found between the estimates at single replications. In the case of zero values in the output quantities, the SR clearly outperforms the OD, although this advantage nearly vanishes when zeros are replaced by a small number....

  18. Influencia de las hormonas sexuales en mujeres con esclerosis múltiple durante la memoria de trabajo y la activación cerebral medida con mapeo electroencefalográfico

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Silva; Silvia Solis; Elba Pérez; Oscar A. Martínez

    2012-01-01

    La Esclerosis Múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante del Sistema Nervioso Central, que se presenta con más frecuencia en mujeres, lo cual sugiere que las hormonas sexuales parecen modular la manifestación de la sintomatología. La actividad electroencefalografíca no ha sido evaluada en mujeres con Esclerosis Múltiple durante el procesamiento de Memoria de Trabajo y su estado hormonal. Los registros se realizaron en las fases folicular y lútea del ciclo menstrual de manera simu...

  19. Valor diagnóstico y pronóstico de la evaluación de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Latorre, Raquel; Polo Llorens, Vicente; Frezzotti, Pablo; García Martín, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El tema principal de las cuatro publicaciones internacionales que componen esta tesis doctoral se centra en el estudio de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple como método para mejorar y acelerar el proceso diagnóstico así como el seguimiento y la monitorización de esta enfermedad. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo donde se incluyeron 150 sujetos con esclerosis múltiple y 150 sujetos sanos. El protoc...

  20. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  1. Seismic soil-structure interaction analysis of embedded multiple buildings using the hybrid continuum impedance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis has been performed for a site with deeply embedded multiple power block structures. The new method employed combines the computational advantages of the Continuum Impedance Approach together with the Substructure Deletion/Boundary Element Method to accurately predict the 3-Dimensional seismic response of structures. (author)

  2. Multiple Solutions Approach (MSA): Conceptions and Practices of Primary School Teachers in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabie, Michael Johnson; Raheem, Kolawole; Agbemaka, John Bijou; Sabtiwu, Rufai

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the curriculum guidelines and primary school teachers' conceptions and practices of the Multiple Solutions Approach (MSA) in teaching mathematics using basic qualitative research design. Informal conversation interviews (ICIs), observations, video and document analyses were used to collect data. Participants included a purposive…

  3. Esclerosis múltiple: análisis de necesidades y calidad de vida de los afectados y su entorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carrón Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La evolución en el paradigma desde el que se contempla la discapacidad, y en concreto la esclerosis múltiple, ha estado marcada por los cambios en el concepto de salud, en el avance en los derechos sociales subjetivos y en la implantación progresiva de un modelo inclusivo para su abordaje. Con esta investigación se pretende responder a las preguntas de ese nuevo paradigma, revisando la situación epidemiológica, los estudios anteriores, y el desarrollo de una metodología complementaria desde lo cuantitativo y lo cualitativo. El trabajo de campo –desarrollado en el ámbito de la Comunidad Foral de Navarra– y su posterior análisis nos ofrece una prevalencia considerablemente mayor que la habitualmente manejada hasta ahora, un perfil con características bastante estables en el que destaca el importante grado incapacitante y su correlato socioeconómico, y el aumento en los tratamientos farmacológicos respecto a datos anteriores. La ausencia de una respuesta curativa y el avance en las terapias paliativas exigen, como paso ineludible, la necesidad de poner el foco en aquellos aspectos que mejoren la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y su entorno.

  4. A novel approach to multiple sequence alignment using hadoop data grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha Sadasivam, G; Baktavatchalam, G

    2010-01-01

    Multiple alignment of protein sequences helps to determine evolutionary linkage and to predict molecular structures. The factors to be considered while aligning multiple sequences are speed and accuracy of alignment. Although dynamic programming algorithms produce accurate alignments, they are computation intensive. In this paper we propose a time efficient approach to sequence alignment that also produces quality alignment. The dynamic nature of the algorithm coupled with data and computational parallelism of hadoop data grids improves the accuracy and speed of sequence alignment. The principle of block splitting in hadoop coupled with its scalability facilitates alignment of very large sequences. PMID:21224205

  5. Tratamiento fisioterápico en la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Revisión bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Bravo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Dentro de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas progresivas se encuentra la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA), considerada una enfermedad devastadora debido a su carácter progresivo e invalidante, que lleva al paciente a una completa dependencia en cuestión de años e, inevitablemente, a la muerte. Supone un problema importante de salud por el tremendo sufrimiento que causa a pacientes y familiares. Sin embargo, con una correcta coordinación multidisciplinar aumentar la supervivencia en ci...

  6. Efecto de la inhibición dual de GSK-3 y PDE-7 en un modelo murino de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Atencia Cibreiro, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    La Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa en la que mueren progresivamente las neuronas motoras de la corteza cerebral y la médula, con la consiguiente atrofia de los músculos inervados por ellas. Si bien últimamente han aparecido distintos modelos animales para el estudio de la ELA, los ratones que sobre-expresan el gen SOD1 humano con la mutación G93A, son los más utilizados. Estos son los animales que empleamos en nuestro estudio, en el cual evaluamos un i...

  7. Perfil clínico y neuropsicológico en una muestra de pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ela) en Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Botero , César Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es la más frecuente del grupo de las enfermedades motoneuronales, aunque inicialmente se había considerado que estaba circunscrita a las neuronas del asta ventral y la corteza motora, nuevos hallazgos han demostrado la clara asociación con la demencia frontotemporal (DFT). Se ha reportado que hasta un 51% de los pacientes con ELA presentan algún grado de compromiso cognoscitivo. Resultados: Se reclutaron 7 pacientes con diagnóstico de E...

  8. Caracterización de las células madre satélite musculares en un modelo murino de Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Martínez, Raquel; Osta Pinzolas, María Rosario

    2012-01-01

    La Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa caracterizada por la pérdida de neuronas motoras. Debido a su estrecha relación con el mantenimiento y supervivencia de las neuronas motoras, el músculo esquelético se ha revelado como un elemento esencial en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha realizado un estudio de la capacidad de respuesta del músculo esquelético y de sus células madre satélite en el modelo murino de ELA SOD1-G93A. Se ha d...

  9. Estudio del virus JC, agente causal de la leucoencafalopatía multifocal progresiva, en pacientes de esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente tratados con Natalizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Mozo, María Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad desmielinizante inflamatoria crónica que afecta al sistema nervioso central (SNC) y cuyo origen es presumiblemente autoinmune, siendo en los países desarrollados la segunda causa de discapacidad entre personas jóvenes después de los accidentes de tráfico. Durante los últimos años se han desarrollado, o actualmente están en ensayo clínico, una gran cantidad de fármacos para tratar esta patología. Entre todos ellos cabe destacar natalizumab, u...

  10. Relación entre soporte social y TIC´s en cuidadores familiares de personas con Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Melenge Díaz, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa devastadora que se manifiesta por debilidad muscular y produce dificultades progresivas de movilización, comunicación, alimentación y, en última instancia, respiración, creando una dependencia creciente de familiares y de otros cuidadores La experiencia de cuidado demanda esfuerzo físico, emocional y social requiriendo todo tipo de apoyos, en especial aquellos que brinda la tecnología para proveer soport...

  11. Estrés y afrontamiento en pacientes afectados de esclerosis múltiple. Estudio comparativo con población comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Silvia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    La Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa que lleva implícita no sólo limitaciones físicas, sino también numerosos estresores psicosociales. Los objetivos de este estudio son: 1) analizar los problemas más comúnmente narrados por afectados de EM, la intensidad de estrés que les generan, el grado de control percibido sobre ellos y las estrategias de afrontamiento que utilizan para minimizar su impacto 2) contrastar el nivel de estrés, de control sobre el estresor y el uso...

  12. La fatiga y los trastornos cognitivos asociados a la esclerosis múltiple. Aspectos a considerar en el abordaje de Fisioterapia.

    OpenAIRE

    Concejero Gómez de Salazar, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo establece una visión general de la esclerosis múltiple tratando los siguientes puntos: Concepto, historia, diagnóstico, anatomía, epidemiología, etiología, pronóstico y alteraciones asociadas. Se centra en los trastornos motores, en los cognitivos y en la fatiga para estudiar las posibles repercusiones en el tratamiento de Fisioterapia. Bajo la perspectiva de un equipo interdisciplinar se desarrollan unas pautas que puedan ayudar al fisioterapeuta en el manejo del paciente con E...

  13. Búsqueda de biomarcadores asociados con la respuesta al tratamiento con interferón-beta en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente

    OpenAIRE

    Comabella López, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    El interferón-beta (IFNβ) es un tratamiento parcialmente efectivo en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente (EMRR). Disminuye el número de brotes y reduce la actividad y carga lesional de la enfermedad medidas por resonancia magnética. Sin embargo, el coste del IFNβ es elevado, el tratamiento tiene efectos secundarios y, sobretodo, existe una proporción relativamente importante de pacientes que no responden al mismo. En la actualidad, no disponemos de biomarcadores que se pued...

  14. Genética de la esclerosis múltiple: papel del HLA-DRB1 en la susceptibilidad y expresión fenotípica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Pinel, Lucía María

    2010-01-01

    [spa] La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad debida a factores genéticos y ambientales. Se ha demostrado que existe agregación familiar y que los genes del haplotipo HLA-DR2 son los que mayoritariamente se asocian con la susceptibilidad a padecer la enfermedad. Si el fenotipo clínico se ve modificado en las formas familiares de EM respecto a las esporádicas o debido a determinados genes es un tema de constante estudio. HIPÓTESIS: Si existen diferencias clínicas entre formas familiares ...

  15. Estrategias de resolución del PASAT en pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple y viabilidad de una versión corta del test

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelina Cores; Sandra Vanotti; Paula Moyano; Mabel Osorio; Daniel Politis; Orlando Garcea

    2011-01-01

    El PASAT es una herramienta de evaluación neuropsicológica frecuentemente implementada en la clínica de pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple (EM). Este estudio se propone analizar las estrategias de resolución del PASAT y establecer la sensibilidad de una versión corta de 30 ítems y otra de 20 ítems en pacientes con EM. Metodología: Se administró una batería neuropsicológica a 38 pacientes con EM curso recaídas y remisiones y 32 voluntarios sanos de similar edad y escolaridad. Resultados: El PAS...

  16. Estudio inmunológico en la esclerosis múltiple familiar citocinas, moléculas de adhesión y receptores de quimiocinas /

    OpenAIRE

    Malagelada Seckler, Ana

    2004-01-01

    En la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) existe una agregación familiar que viene demostrada por la mayor incidencia de la enfermedad en los familiares de los pacientes, la elevada concordancia en los gemelos monocigotos y la existencia de una susceptibilidad genética ligada a determinados haplotipos del sistema HLA. Por otro lado, existen evidencias del carácter autoinmune de la EM y el aumento de la incidencia de otras enfermedades autoinmunes en los familiares de los pacientes. Hemos querido comprob...

  17. Estudio de factores predictores precoces de la respuesta al tratamiento con interferón beta en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Conesa, Mercedes Pilar; Ara Callizo, José Ramón; Velilla Marco, José

    2009-01-01

    Uno de los principales tratamientos de la esclerosis múltiple (EM) es el Interferón. Un 30% de los pacientes no responden al mismo. Nuestra hipótesis es que los cambios precoces inducidos por Interferón en el colesterol, los triglicéridos y el ácido úrico son predictores de respuesta al tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo que incluyó 150 pacientes con EM que iban a iniciar tratamiento con Interferón beta. Se realizaron controles clínicos y analíticos previos al tratam...

  18. On the Interaction Between Multiple Paths and Wireless Mesh Networks Scheduler Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrì

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-path routing allows building and use of multiple paths for routing between a source-destination pair. This paper investigates the problem of selecting multiple routing paths to provide better reliability and load balancing in wireless mesh networks with stationary nodes. Previous work has investigated the use of additional data redundancy to improve the throughput of the network. In these specific cases, node disjoint-ness property of the multiple paths is required. In this work we investigate multipath routing without packet duplication, and no disjointed paths for achieving better performance in terms of packet delivery rate and low delay. We propose a very simple reactive on-demand distance vector routing protocol. Multiple paths built through this approach are loop-free. In order to better exploit resources redundancy (with the term resources redundancy we mean the possibility to exploit more nodes to send data packets, it is our belief that a routing protocol cannot be independent of the MAC layer. For this reason, we evaluated our routing protocol on four different MAC approaches specifically designed for Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. Firstly, we implemented the Coordinated Distributed Scheduler scheme of the Std. IEEE 802.16. Secondly, since some parameters have been left unstandardized in this scheme, we proposed an enhanced version of the CDS, in which a simple and dynamic criterion has been designed to set one of these parameters. Furthermore, we proposed two different scheduling schemes called Randomized- MAC (R-MAC and Distributed Scheduling Scheme (DSS. We evaluated the impact of multiple paths in respect of the single path on all the scheduler schemes cited above. Results show as the simple routing approach is effective with every MAC protocol considered.

  19. The multiple viewpoints as approach to information retrieval within collaborative development context

    CERN Document Server

    Geryville, Hichem; Bouras, Abdelaziz; Sapidis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, to achieve competitive advantage, the industrial companies are considering that success is sustained to great product development. That is to manage the product throughout its entire lifecycle. Achieving this goal requires a tight collaboration between actors from a wide variety of domains, using different software tools producing various product data types and formats. The actors' collaboration is mainly based on the exchange /share product information. The representation of the actors' viewpoints is the underlying requirement of the collaborative product development. The multiple viewpoints approach was designed to provide an organizational framework following the actors' perspectives in the collaboration, and their relationships. The approach acknowledges the inevitability of multiple integration of product information as different views, promotes gathering of actors' interest, and encourages retrieved adequate information while providing support for integration through PLM and/or SCM collaborati...

  20. A multiple endpoint approach to predict the hepatotoxicity of pharmaceuticals in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Truisi, Germaine Loredana

    2014-01-01

    A new approach was evaluated to predict the hepatotoxic potential of pharmaceuticals. For this purpose, primary rat and human hepatocytes cultured in an optimised sandwich configuration were used; thus, allowing the long-term, repeat-dosing of drugs. The strategy based on the evaluation of multiple endpoints, including cytotoxicity, biokinetic profiling, transcriptomics and proteomics. Pharmaceuticals with known toxicities and pharmacokinetic properties were used as model compounds.

  1. Identifying differential expression in multiple SAGE libraries: an overdispersed log-linear model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler Thomas B; Tomfohr John K; Lu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background In testing for differential gene expression involving multiple serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries, it is critical to account for both between and within library variation. Several methods have been proposed, including the t test, tw test, and an overdispersed logistic regression approach. The merits of these tests, however, have not been fully evaluated. Questions still remain on whether further improvements can be made. Results In this article, we introdu...

  2. Inhibition Plasticity in Older Adults: Practice and Transfer Effects Using a Multiple Task Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Andrea J.; Lixia Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine plasticity of inhibition, as indexed by practice effects of inhibition tasks and the associated transfer effects, using a multiple task approach in healthy older adults. Method. Forty-eight healthy older adults were evenly assigned to either a practice group or a no-contact control group. All participants completed pretest (2.5 hours) and posttest (2 hours) sessions, with a 2-week interval in between. During the 2-week interval, only the practice group completed six 30-m...

  3. A Hybrid Approach for Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Surface Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyu Fu; Jianfang Jiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the coordination control of multiple marine vessels in different operational modes. Based on hybrid control theory, a novel coordinated formation control approach is proposed. The proposed method comprises several continuous state controllers and discrete event logics. Continuous controllers for coordinated formation, coordinated dynamic positioning and coordinated path following are designed, and an appropriate weighting function is given to switch between these contr...

  4. Field theoretical approach to proton-nucleus reactions: II-Multiple-step excitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field theoretical formulation to multiple step excitation process in proton-nucleus collision within the context of a relativistic eikonal approach is presented. A closed form expression for the double differential cross section can be obtained whose structure is very simple and makes the physics transparent. Glauber's formulation of the same process is obtained as a limit of ours and the necessary approximations are studied and discussed. (author)

  5. CAMBer: an approach to support comparative analysis of multiple bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a large amount of inconsistency in gene structure annotations of bacterial strains. This inconsistency is a frustrating impedance to effective comparative genomic analysis of bacterial strains in promising applications such as gaining insights into bacterial drug resistance. Results Here, we propose CAMBer as an approach to support comparative analysis of multiple bacterial strains. CAMBer produces what we called multigene families. Each multigene family reveals genes that...

  6. Behavioral Landscapes and Change in Behavioral Landscapes: A Multiple Time-Scale Density Distribution Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Nilam; Coccia, Michael; Conroy,David; Lorek, Amy; Orland, Brian; Pincus, Aaron; Sliwinski, Martin; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In developmental arenas, it is well accepted that multiple observations are needed to obtain a robust characterization of individuals’ behavioral tendencies across time and context. In this paper, we fuse core ideas from the study of lifespan development with intraindividual variability based approaches to personality and methods used to characterize the topography of geographic landscapes. We generalize the notion of density distributions into bivariate and multivariate space and draw parall...

  7. Multiple regression approach to mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on sib-pair data: a theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Momiao; Guo, Sunwei

    2000-01-01

    The interval mapping method has been shown to be a powerful tool for mapping QTL. However, it is still a challenge to perform a simultaneous analysis of several linked QTLs, and to isolate multiple linked QTLs. To circumvent these problems, multiple regression analysis has been suggested for experimental species. In this paper, the multiple regression approach is extended to human sib-pair data through multiple regression of the squared difference in trait values between two...

  8. An optimization based sampling approach for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rurui; Li, Yu; Lu, Di; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Huicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of an epsilon-dominance non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII) as a sampling approach with an aim to improving sampling efficiency for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). The effectiveness of ɛ-NSGAII based sampling is demonstrated compared with Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) through analyzing sampling efficiency, multiple metrics performance, parameter uncertainty and flood forecasting uncertainty with a case study of flood forecasting uncertainty evaluation based on Xinanjiang model (XAJ) for Qing River reservoir, China. Results obtained demonstrate the following advantages of the ɛ-NSGAII based sampling approach in comparison to LHS: (1) The former performs more effective and efficient than LHS, for example the simulation time required to generate 1000 behavioral parameter sets is shorter by 9 times; (2) The Pareto tradeoffs between metrics are demonstrated clearly with the solutions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling, also their Pareto optimal values are better than those of LHS, which means better forecasting accuracy of ɛ-NSGAII parameter sets; (3) The parameter posterior distributions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling are concentrated in the appropriate ranges rather than uniform, which accords with their physical significance, also parameter uncertainties are reduced significantly; (4) The forecasted floods are close to the observations as evaluated by three measures: the normalized total flow outside the uncertainty intervals (FOUI), average relative band-width (RB) and average deviation amplitude (D). The flood forecasting uncertainty is also reduced a lot with ɛ-NSGAII based sampling. This study provides a new sampling approach to improve multiple metrics uncertainty analysis under the framework of GLUE, and could be used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of parameter sets under multiple conflicting metrics in the uncertainty analysis process.

  9. Multiple-method approaches for quantifying fine sediment dynamics in river catchments over contemporary timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the patterns and processes of contemporary fine sediment dynamics in river catchments constitutes a key research challenge for catchment scientists. Such knowledge has considerable value for the targeting of management resources to reduce excess fine sediment supply and its impacts on water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Many past studies tended to focus on a single compartment of the fine sediment cascade and utilised a limited range of research methods. For more holistic understanding, the use of multiple-method approaches is required to provide data on the sources, transfer, storage, and transit times of fine sediment in river catchments. Such approaches would allow scientists to better conceptualise catchment processes controlling the movement of fine sediment across a range of spatial scales. It may also enhance the scientific quality of catchment-scale studies through the acquisition of multiple lines of evidence concerning a particular research problem. The specific combination of fine sediment tracing and fingerprinting procedures with catchment sediment flux measurements and sediment budget modelling has considerable potential to enhance our knowledge of contemporary sediment dynamics. This combination of techniques offers complementary information and the opportunity to compare datasets, such as estimates of catchment sediment source contributions obtained using sediment tracers with direct measurements of sediment fluxes or catchment model outputs. This contribution explores the potential for such combinations of methods to yield distinctive insights not otherwise available from the use of only one of these techniques. It draws on published examples of multiple-method studies by the author from small agricultural and wildfire-affected forest catchments (1-2 km2) in south-east Australia and from larger agricultural river catchments (38-920 km2) in south-west England. It will also identify possible directions for catchment research based

  10. Selection of Microstrip Patch Antenna Substrate for WLAN Application Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a material selection approach for selecting microstrip patch antenna substrate for WLAN applications using multiple attribute decision making (MADM approach. In this paper, different microwave dielectric materials for substrate and their properties like relative permittivity, quality factor, and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency are taken into consideration and MADM approach is applied to select the best material for microstrip patch antenna. It is observed that Pb0.6Ca0.4ZrO3 is the best material for the antenna substrate in MPA for WLAN applications. It was observed that the proposed result is in accordance with the experimental finding thus justifying the validity of the proposed study.

  11. Caracterización de la esclerosis tuberosa en pacientes que consultan al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Nicanor Cabrera Hémer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis tuberosa (ET es una enfermedad autosómica dominante, que afecta muchos sistemas y cursa con diversas manifestaciones clínicas, entre ellas epilepsia, retardo mental y lesiones cutáneas. Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo para contribuir a la caracterización de la esclerosis tuberosa en Medellín, Colombia. Se revisaron 21 historias, 62% mujeres y 38% hombres; la edad media al momento del diagnóstico fue 23 meses, todos los pacientes tenían epilepsia y lesiones cutáneas, las crisis más frecuentes fueron las parciales con generalización secundaria (66%, 47% tuvieron espasmos infantiles, la mayoría presentaron dos o más tipos de crisis (90%. Todos los pacientes recibieron anticonvulsivantes, los más frecuentemente utilizados fueron: fenobarbital, ácido valproico, vigabatrina, carbamazepina y clonazepam. En general, la mayoría de los pacientes requirieron varios medicamentos durante la evolución de su enfermedad y los pocos que lograron un adecuado control de la epilepsia, lo hicieron con anticonvulsivantes de primera generación. CONCLUSIÓN:las características de nuestra serie son similares a las reportadas en la literatura mundial. Los antiepilépticos de primera generación siguen siendo la principal herramienta terapéutica para el tratamiento inicial de los pacientes Medellín.

  12. A parallel approach of COFFEE objective function to multiple sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafalon, G. F. D.; Visotaky, J. M. V.; Amorim, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.; Neves, L. A.; de Souza, R. C. G.; Machado, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The computational tools to assist genomic analyzes show even more necessary due to fast increasing of data amount available. With high computational costs of deterministic algorithms for sequence alignments, many works concentrate their efforts in the development of heuristic approaches to multiple sequence alignments. However, the selection of an approach, which offers solutions with good biological significance and feasible execution time, is a great challenge. Thus, this work aims to show the parallelization of the processing steps of MSA-GA tool using multithread paradigm in the execution of COFFEE objective function. The standard objective function implemented in the tool is the Weighted Sum of Pairs (WSP), which produces some distortions in the final alignments when sequences sets with low similarity are aligned. Then, in studies previously performed we implemented the COFFEE objective function in the tool to smooth these distortions. Although the nature of COFFEE objective function implies in the increasing of execution time, this approach presents points, which can be executed in parallel. With the improvements implemented in this work, we can verify the execution time of new approach is 24% faster than the sequential approach with COFFEE. Moreover, the COFFEE multithreaded approach is more efficient than WSP, because besides it is slightly fast, its biological results are better.

  13. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  14. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A Novel Approach to Simultaneous Acquisition of Multiple ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay K; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: "Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic" (ANGEL), for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs)-the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300, and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of 10 neurocognitive variables over the course of three "game" levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs. response-inhibition; responses to easy vs. difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs. ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools) that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions. PMID:26858586

  15. Malformaciones venosas orofaciales de bajo flujo: esclerosis endoluminal con láser de diodo Low-flow orofacial venous malformations: endoluminal sclerosis with a diode laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Puche Torres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las anomalías vasculares son procesos frecuentes que se localizan en más del 50% de los casos en la región de la cabeza y el cuello. Las técnicas clásicas de tratamiento, tales como la cirugía y la esclerosis química, han dado paso a modernas técnicas menos invasivas, tales como el láser Nd:YAG. Por otra parte, se ha utilizado con éxito el láser de diodo (980 nm para el tratamiento de varices mediante esclerosis endoluminal. Nuestra propuesta es la utilización del láser de diodo (l 980 nm para provocar una esclerosis por fotocoagulación intralesional de las malformaciones venosas de bajo flujo dada la capacidad de este láser de ser transmitido por fibra óptica. Objetivo: Exponer nuestros resultados en el tratamiento de malformaciones venosas de bajo flujo (MVBF orofaciales mediante la terapéutica de esclerosis endoluminal con láser de diodo. Material y métodos: Revisamos 84 pacientes que presentaban MVBF orofaciales tratados con láser de diodo. Describimos la técnica de realización y se muestran los resultados postoperatorios a corto plazo. Resultados: Tras un periodo de seguimiento no inferior a 12 meses se constató curación en el 95,24% aplicando una o dos sesiones y solamente en 4 casos se objetivó recidiva. Concluimos que la técnica de esclerosis endoluminal con láser de diodo de MVBF en el área orofacial se constituye como una nueva técnica de tratamiento, mínimamente invasiva, ambulatoria, y que permite la resolución de los casos sin tener que recurrir a cirugías más agresivas y con excelentes resultados funcionales y estéticos.Background: Vascular anomalies are common processes that involve the head and neck region in more than 50% of the cases. Traditional treatment options such as surgery and chemical sclerosis have given way to modern less-invasive techniques, including Nd:YAG laser treatment. On the other hand, 980 nm laser diode has been successfully used for the endovenous sclerosis

  16. Electromagnetic imaging of multiple-scattering small objects: non-iterative analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method and the least squares method are applied to solve the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem of determining the locations and polarization tensors of a collection of small objects embedded in a known background medium. Based on the analysis of induced electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed MUSIC method is able to deal with some special scenarios, due to the shapes and materials of objects, to which the standard MUSIC doesn't apply. After the locations of objects are obtained, the nonlinear inverse problem of determining the polarization tensors of objects accounting for multiple scattering between objects is solved by a non-iterative analytical approach based on the least squares method

  17. Multiple Stressors and Ecological Complexity Require A New Approach to Coral Reef Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Hagan Pendleton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, climate change, and other environmental stressors threaten coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend upon them. New science reveals that these multiple stressors interact and may affect a multitude of physiological and ecological processes in complex ways. The interaction of multiple stressors and ecological complexity may mean that the negative effects on coral reef ecosystems will happen sooner and be more severe than previously thought. Yet, most research on the effects of global change on coral reefs focus on one or few stressors and pathways or outcomes (e.g. bleaching. Based on a critical review of the literature, we call for a regionally targeted strategy of mesocosm-level research that addresses this complexity and provides more realistic projections about coral reef impacts in the face of global environmental change. We believe similar approaches are needed for other ecosystems that face global environmental change.

  18. Fault Detection of Railway Vehicle Suspension Systems Using Multiple-Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Tsunashima, Hitoshi; Marumo, Yoshitaka

    This paper demonstrates the possibility to detect suspension failures of railway vehicles using a multiple-model approach from on-board measurement data. The railway vehicle model used includes the lateral and yaw motions of the wheelsets and bogie, and the lateral motion of the vehicle body, with sensors measuring the lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the bogie, and lateral acceleration of the body. The detection algorithm is formulated based on the Interacting Multiple-Model (IMM) algorithm. The IMM method has been applied for detecting faults in vehicle suspension systems in a simulation study. The mode probabilities and states of vehicle suspension systems are estimated based on a Kalman Filter (KF). This algorithm is evaluated in simulation examples. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm effectively detects on-board faults of railway vehicle suspension systems.

  19. Optimal planning of multiple distributed generation sources in distribution networks: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A new hybrid PSO for optimal DGs placement and sizing. → Statistical analysis to fine tune PSO parameters. → Novel constraint handling mechanism to handle different constraints types. - Abstract: An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is presented for optimal planning of multiple distributed generation sources (DG). This problem can be divided into two sub-problems: the DG optimal size (continuous optimization) and location (discrete optimization) to minimize real power losses. The proposed approach addresses the two sub-problems simultaneously using an enhanced PSO algorithm capable of handling multiple DG planning in a single run. A design of experiment is used to fine tune the proposed approach via proper analysis of PSO parameters interaction. The proposed algorithm treats the problem constraints differently by adopting a radial power flow algorithm to satisfy the equality constraints, i.e. power flows in distribution networks, while the inequality constraints are handled by making use of some of the PSO features. The proposed algorithm was tested on the practical 69-bus power distribution system. Different test cases were considered to validate the proposed approach consistency in detecting optimal or near optimal solution. Results are compared with those of Sequential Quadratic Programming.

  20. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  1. Drug induced mortality: a multiple cause approach on Italian causes of death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grippo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related mortality is a complex phenomenon that has several health, social and economic effects. In this paper trends of drug-induced mortality in Italy are analysed. Two approaches have been followed: the traditional analysis of the underlying cause of death (UC (data refers to the Istat mortality database from 1980 to 2011, and the multiple cause (MCanalysis, that is the analysis of all conditions reported on the death certificate (data for 2003-2011 period.Methods: Data presented in this paper are based on the Italian mortality register. The selection of Icd codes used for the analysis follows the definition of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Using different indicators (crude and standardized rates, ratio multiple to underlying, the results obtained from the two approaches (UC and MC have been compared. Moreover, as a measure of association between drug-related causes and specific conditions on the death certificate, an estimation of the age-standardized relative risk (RR has been used.Results: In the years 2009-2011, the total number of certificates whit mention of drug use was 1,293, 60% higher than the number UC based. The groups of conditions more strongly associated with drug-related causes are the mental and behavioral disorders (especially alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liver, AIDS and endocarditis.Conclusions : The analysis based on multiple cause approach shows, for the first time, a more detailed picture of the drug related death; it allows to better describe the mortality profiles and to re-evaluate  the contribution of a specific cause to death.

  2. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  3. Adjusted permutation method for multiple attribute decision making with meta-heuristic solution approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Karimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The permutation method of multiple attribute decision making has two significant deficiencies: high computational time and wrong priority output in some problem instances. In this paper, a novel permutation method called adjusted permutation method (APM is proposed to compensate deficiencies of conventional permutation method. We propose Tabu search (TS and particle swarm optimization (PSO to find suitable solutions at a reasonable computational time for large problem instances. The proposed method is examined using some numerical examples to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The preliminary results show that both approaches provide competent solutions in relatively reasonable amounts of time while TS performs better to solve APM.

  4. Stepwise approach to establishing multiple outreach laboratory information system-electronic medical record interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Labranche, Wayne; Lareau, William

    2010-01-01

    Clinical laboratory outreach business is changing as more physician practices adopt an electronic medical record (EMR). Physician connectivity with the laboratory information system (LIS) is consequently becoming more important. However, there are no reports available to assist the informatician with establishing and maintaining outreach LIS-EMR connectivity. A four-stage scheme is presented that was successfully employed to establish unidirectional and bidirectional interfaces with multiple physician EMRs. This approach involves planning (step 1), followed by interface building (step 2) with subsequent testing (step 3), and finally ongoing maintenance (step 4). The role of organized project management, software as a service (SAAS), and alternate solutions for outreach connectivity are discussed. PMID:20805958

  5. A new approach to handle additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurement for ? LPV filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Márcio J.; Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a general framework to cope with full-order ? linear parameter-varying (LPV) filter design subject to inexactly measured parameters. The main novelty is the ability of handling additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurements, for both continuous and discrete-time LPV systems, in a unified approach. By conveniently modelling scheduling parameters and uncertainties affecting the measurements, the ? filter design problem can be expressed in terms of robust matrix inequalities that become linear when two scalar parameters are fixed. Therefore, the proposed conditions can be efficiently solved through linear matrix inequality relaxations based on polynomial solutions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the improved efficiency of the proposed approach when compared to other methods and, more important, its capability to deal with scenarios where the available strategies in the literature cannot be used.

  6. Filter multiplexing by use of spatial Code Division Multiple Access approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mendlovic, David; Monreal, Javier Garcia

    2003-02-10

    The increasing popularity of optical communication has also brought a demand for a broader bandwidth. The trend, naturally, was to implement methods from traditional electronic communication. One of the most effective traditional methods is Code Division Multiple Access. In this research, we suggest the use of this approach for spatial coding applied to images. The approach is to multiplex several filters into one plane while keeping their mutual orthogonality. It is shown that if the filters are limited by their bandwidth, the output of all the filters can be sampled in the original image resolution and fully recovered through an all-optical setup. The theoretical analysis of such a setup is verified in an experimental demonstration. PMID:12593478

  7. Prediction Approach of Critical Node Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making for Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting critical nodes of Opportunistic Sensor Network (OSN can help us not only to improve network performance but also to decrease the cost in network maintenance. However, existing ways of predicting critical nodes in static network are not suitable for OSN. In this paper, the conceptions of critical nodes, region contribution, and cut-vertex in multiregion OSN are defined. We propose an approach to predict critical node for OSN, which is based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM. It takes RC to present the dependence of regions on Ferry nodes. TOPSIS algorithm is employed to find out Ferry node with maximum comprehensive contribution, which is a critical node. The experimental results show that, in different scenarios, this approach can predict the critical nodes of OSN better.

  8. Hierarchical approach to optimization of parallel matrix multiplication on large-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2014-03-04

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Many state-of-the-art parallel algorithms, which are widely used in scientific applications executed on high-end computing systems, were designed in the twentieth century with relatively small-scale parallelism in mind. Indeed, while in 1990s a system with few hundred cores was considered a powerful supercomputer, modern top supercomputers have millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical approach to optimization of message-passing parallel algorithms for execution on large-scale distributed-memory systems. The idea is to reduce the communication cost by introducing hierarchy and hence more parallelism in the communication scheme. We apply this approach to SUMMA, the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm for matrix–matrix multiplication, and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the modified Hierarchical SUMMA significantly improves the communication cost and the overall performance on large-scale platforms.

  9. Portuguese children exposure to multiple mycotoxins through food consumption: toward a holistic approach for multiple mycotoxins risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Ricardo; Martins, Carla; Vasco, Elsa; Pinhão, M.; Loureiro, Susana; De Silva, M. J; Alvito, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals at once from a variety of sources, and human risk assessment of multiple chemicals poses several challenges to scientists, risk assessors and risk managers. Ingestion of food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants, namely mycotoxins, especially for vulnerable population groups, as children. A lack of sufficient data regarding mycotoxins children risk assessment, could contribute to an inaccuracy of the estimated risk. Efforts m...

  10. Why is the Arkavathy River drying? A multiple hypothesis approach in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S.; Madhyastha, K.; Penny, G.; Jeremiah, K.; Lele, S.

    2015-01-01

    The developing world faces unique challenges in achieving water security as it is disproportionately exposed to stressors such as climate change while also undergoing demographic growth, agricultural intensification and industrialization. Investigative approaches are needed that can inform sound policy development and planning to address the water security challenge in the context of data scarcity. We investigated the "predictions under change" problem in the Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy sub-basin in South India. River inflows into the TG Halli reservoir have declined since the 1970s, and the reservoir is currently operating at only 20% of its built capacity. The mechanisms responsible for the drying of the river are not understood, resulting in uncoordinated and potentially counter-productive management responses. The objective of this study was to investigate potential explanations of the drying trend and thus obtain predictive insight. We used a multiple working hypothesis approach to investigate the decline in inflow into TG Halli reservoir. Five hypotheses were tested using data from field surveys and reliable secondary sources: (1) changes in rainfall amount, timing and storm intensity, (2) rising temperatures, (3) increased groundwater extraction, (4) expansion of eucalyptus plantations, and (5) increased fragmentation of the river channel. Our results indicate that proximate anthropogenic drivers of change such as groundwater pumping, expansion of eucalyptus plantations, and to a lesser extent channel fragmentation, are much more likely to have caused the decline in surface flows in the TG Halli catchment than changing climate. The case study shows that direct human interventions play a significant role in altering the hydrology of watersheds. The multiple working hypotheses approach presents a systematic way to quantify the relative contributions of anthropogenic drivers to hydrologic change. The approach not only yields a

  11. The need for comprehensive vulnerability approaches to mirror the multiplicity in mountain hazard risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for vulnerability quantification. By taking a natural scientific approach we argue that a large number of studies have focused either on damage-loss functions for individual mountain hazards or on semi-quantitative indicator-based approaches for multiple hazards (hazard chains). However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these approaches, as well as among theories originating in natural and social sciences, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms in risk management, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability have to be more comprehensively addressed in the future with respect to mountain hazards in Europe and beyond. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. If vulnerability and its counterpart, resilience, is analysed and evaluated by using such a comprehensive approach, a better understanding of the vulnerability-influencing parameters could be achieved, taking into account the interdependencies and interactions between the disciplinary foci. As a result, three key issues should be addressed in future research: (1) Vulnerability requires a new perspective on the relationship between society and environment: not as a duality, but more as a mutually constitutive relationship (including methods for assessment). (2) There is a need for concepts of vulnerability that emphasise the dynamics of temporal and spatial scales, particularly with respect to Global Change processes in mountain regions. (3

  12. Why is the Arkavathy River drying? A multiple hypothesis approach in a data scarce region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The developing world faces unique challenges in achieving water security as it is disproportionately exposed to stressors such as climate change while also undergoing demographic growth, agricultural intensification and industrialization. Investigative approaches are needed that can inform sound policy development and planning to address the water security challenge in the context of data scarcity. We investigated the "predictions under change" problem in the Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli catchment of the Arkavathy sub-basin in South India. River inflows into the TG Halli reservoir have declined since the 1970s, and the reservoir is currently operating at only 20% of its built capacity. The mechanisms responsible for the drying of the river are not understood, resulting in uncoordinated and potentially counter-productive management responses. The objective of this study was to investigate potential explanations of the drying trend and thus obtain predictive insight. We used a multiple working hypothesis approach to investigate the decline in inflow into TG Halli reservoir. Five hypotheses were tested using data from field surveys and reliable secondary sources: (1 changes in rainfall amount, timing and storm intensity, (2 rising temperatures, (3 increased groundwater extraction, (4 expansion of eucalyptus plantations, and (5 increased fragmentation of the river channel. Our results indicate that proximate anthropogenic drivers of change such as groundwater pumping, expansion of eucalyptus plantations, and to a lesser extent channel fragmentation, are much more likely to have caused the decline in surface flows in the TG Halli catchment than changing climate. The case study shows that direct human interventions play a significant role in altering the hydrology of watersheds. The multiple working hypotheses approach presents a systematic way to quantify the relative contributions of anthropogenic drivers to hydrologic change. The approach not only

  13. Identifying differential expression in multiple SAGE libraries: an overdispersed log-linear model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In testing for differential gene expression involving multiple serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE libraries, it is critical to account for both between and within library variation. Several methods have been proposed, including the t test, tw test, and an overdispersed logistic regression approach. The merits of these tests, however, have not been fully evaluated. Questions still remain on whether further improvements can be made. Results In this article, we introduce an overdispersed log-linear model approach to analyzing SAGE; we evaluate and compare its performance with three other tests: the two-sample t test, tw test and another based on overdispersed logistic linear regression. Analysis of simulated and real datasets show that both the log-linear and logistic overdispersion methods generally perform better than the t and tw tests; the log-linear method is further found to have better performance than the logistic method, showing equal or higher statistical power over a range of parameter values and with different data distributions. Conclusion Overdispersed log-linear models provide an attractive and reliable framework for analyzing SAGE experiments involving multiple libraries. For convenience, the implementation of this method is available through a user-friendly web-interface available at http://www.cbcb.duke.edu/sage.

  14. The Influence of Multiple Intelligence Approach on the Physical Education Learning towards for Character Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roesdiyanto Roesdiyanto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to know the influence of the learning methods using the multiple intelligence approach towards the learning outcomes of early childhood students. This research uses the pre-experimental research design using static group comparison. The population was kindergarten children in Pasuruhan, Kediri, Blitar, Malang, Batu, Malang Region, consisted of 36 kindergarten schools, with the samples taken of 240 children from 12 kindergartens. The analysis uses one way ANOVA, with F value is set at the significant level ? = 0.05. Results show that learning methods using the multiple intelligence approach significantly influence (F=3.818, p<0.05 student‘s learning outcomes. Further analysis also show that there are significant influences on aspects of assesment of the learning outcomes on the areas of society development and environment (F.= 60.636, p<0.05, creativity (F=50.957, p<0.05 and physical and health development (F=51.979, p<0.05.

  15. Inhibition Plasticity in Older Adults: Practice and Transfer Effects Using a Multiple Task Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Andrea J.; Yang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine plasticity of inhibition, as indexed by practice effects of inhibition tasks and the associated transfer effects, using a multiple task approach in healthy older adults. Method. Forty-eight healthy older adults were evenly assigned to either a practice group or a no-contact control group. All participants completed pretest (2.5 hours) and posttest (2 hours) sessions, with a 2-week interval in between. During the 2-week interval, only the practice group completed six 30-minute practice sessions (three sessions per week for two consecutive weeks) of three lab-based inhibition tasks. Results. All three inhibition tasks demonstrated significant improvement across practice sessions, suggesting practice-induced plasticity. The benefit, however, only transferred to near-near tasks. The results are inconclusive with regard to the near-far and far-far transfer effects. Discussion. This study further extends literature on practice effects of inhibition in older adults by using a multiple task approach. Together with previous work, the current study suggests that older adults are able to improve inhibition performance through practice and transfer the practice gains to tasks that overlap in both target cognitive ability and task structure (i.e., near-near tasks). PMID:26885407

  16. Hybrid integer coded differential evolution - dynamic programming approach for economic load dispatch with multiple fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel and efficient approach through a hybrid integer coded differential evolution - dynamic programming (ICDEDP) scheme to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. A dynamic programming (DP) based simplified recursive algorithm is developed for optimal scheduling of the generating units in the ED problem. The proposed hybrid scheme is developed in such a way that an integer coded differential evolution (ICDE) is acting as a main optimizer to identify the optimal fuel options, and the DP is used to find the fitness of each agent in the population of the ICDE, which makes a quick decision to direct the search towards the optimal region. The hybrid ICDEDP decision vector consists of a sequence of integer numbers representing the fuel options of each unit to optimize quality of search and computation time. A gene swap operator is introduced in the proposed algorithm to improve its convergence characteristics. In order to show the efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed hybrid ICDEDP approach has been examined and tested with numerical results using the ten generation unit economic dispatch problem with multiple fuel options. The test result shows that the proposed hybrid ICDEDP algorithm has high quality solution, superior convergence characteristics and shorter computation time

  17. AN EFFECTIVE MULTIPLE CRITERIA APPROACH TO INFRASTRUCTURE RECONSTRUCTION IN DEVASTATED COUNTRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.A.NIGIM; K.W.HIPEL; G.B.SMITH

    2006-01-01

    Infrastructure facilities in many countries have been repeatedly subjected to natural or human-induced disasters. International aid institutions, such as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United States Aid International Development (USAID), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the World Bank International Aid Development (IDA), are endeavoring to assist in the reconstruction of devastated countries. Development institutions normally face the problem of selecting and implementing relevant priority infrastructure projects that are needed in various sectors. Usually there are also several key local players in the decision making process. In many cases, these main decision makers have contradictory objectives that lead to conflict and thereby hamper the reconstruction process. In response to this kind of problem, an effective approach has been developed within the field of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), that can assist decision makers in prioritizing projects to meet specified goals and objectives. Using the AHP approach, the problem of selecting infrastructure projects is dealt with systematically when applying this flexible MCDA technique. This approach takes into account possible uncertainties and social discrepancies, and can use the judgments of the decision makers themselves when there is a lack of technical or historical data. Decision makers from international financial aid institutions, donor agencies, governmental and the local community can utilize this proposed approach.

  18. A rapid, automated approach to optimisation of multiple reaction monitoring conditions for quantitative bioanalytical mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, D M

    2001-01-01

    An improvement to the procedure for the rapid optimisation of mass spectrometry (PROMS), for the development of multiple reaction methods (MRM) for quantitative bioanalytical liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), is presented. PROMS is an automated protocol that uses flow-injection analysis (FIA) and AppleScripts to create methods and acquire the data for optimisation. The protocol determines the optimum orifice potential, the MRM conditions for each compound, and finally creates the MRM methods needed for sample analysis. The sensitivities of the MRM methods created by PROMS approach those created manually. MRM method development using PROMS currently takes less than three minutes per compound compared to at least fifteen minutes manually. To further enhance throughput, approaches to MRM optimisation using one injection per compound, two injections per pool of five compounds and one injection per pool of five compounds have been investigated. No significant difference in the optimised instrumental parameters for MRM methods were found between the original PROMS approach and these new methods, which are up to ten times faster. The time taken for an AppleScript to determine the optimum conditions and build the MRM methods is the same with all approaches. PMID:11596136

  19. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. PMID:26299194

  20. Breeding approaches in simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance of maize in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to the influence of abiotic and biotic stress factors, maize production faces serious constraints. Among the agro-ecological conditions, the main constraints are: lack and poor distribution of rainfall; low soil fertility; diseases (maize streak virus, downy mildew, leaf blights, rusts, gray leaf spot, stem/cob rots and pests (borers and storage pests. Among the socio-economic production constraints are: poor economy, serious shortage of trained manpower; insufficient management expertise, lack of use of improved varieties and poor cultivation practices. To develop desirable varieties, and thus consequently alleviate some of these constraints, appropriate breeding approaches and field-based methodologies in selection for multiple stress tolerance, were implemented. These approaches are mainly based on: a Crossing selected genotypes with more desirable stress tolerant and other agronomic traits; b Using the disease/pest spreader row method, combined with testing and selection of created progenies under strong to intermediate pressure of drought and low soil fertility in nurseries; and c Evaluation of the varieties developed in multi-location trials under low and "normal" inputs. These approaches provide testing and selection of large number of progenies, which is required for simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance. Data obtained revealed that remarkable improvement of the traits under selection was achieved. Biggest progress was obtained in selection for maize streak virus and downy mildew resistance, flintiness and earliness. In the case of drought stress, statistical analyses revealed significant negative correlation between yield and anthesis-silking interval, and between yield and days to silk, but positive correlation between yield and grain weight per ear.

  1. Predicting manual arm strength: A direct comparison between artificial neural network and multiple regression approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2016-02-29

    In ergonomics, strength prediction has typically been accomplished using linked-segment biomechanical models, and independent estimates of strength about each axis of the wrist, elbow and shoulder joints. It has recently been shown that multiple regression approaches, using the simple task-relevant inputs of hand location and force direction, may be a better method for predicting manual arm strength (MAS) capabilities. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) also serve as a powerful data fitting approach, but their application to occupational biomechanics and ergonomics is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a direct comparison between ANN and regression models, by evaluating their ability to predict MAS with identical sets of development and validation MAS data. Multi-directional MAS data were obtained from 95 healthy female participants at 36 hand locations within the reach envelope. ANN and regression models were developed using a random, but identical, sample of 85% of the MAS data (n=456). The remaining 15% of the data (n=80) were used to validate the two approaches. When compared to the development data, the ANN predictions had a much higher explained variance (90.2% vs. 66.5%) and much lower RMSD (9.3N vs. 17.2N), vs. the regression model. The ANN also performed better with the independent validation data (r(2)=78.6%, RMSD=15.1) compared to the regression approach (r(2)=65.3%, RMSD=18.6N). These results suggest that ANNs provide a more accurate and robust alternative to regression approaches, and should be considered more often in biomechanics and ergonomics evaluations. PMID:26876987

  2. A Novel Approach to Multiple Sequence Alignment Using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huazheng; He, Zhongshi; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2016-03-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental and key step for implementing other tasks in bioinformatics, such as phylogenetic analyses, identification of conserved motifs and domains, structure prediction, etc. Despite the fact that there are many methods to implement MSA, biologically perfect alignment approaches are not found hitherto. This paper proposes a novel idea to perform MSA, where MSA is treated as a multiobjective optimization problem. A famous multiobjective evolutionary algorithm framework based on decomposition is applied for solving MSA, named MOMSA. In the MOMSA algorithm, we develop a new population initialization method and a novel mutation operator. We compare the performance of MOMSA with several alignment methods based on evolutionary algorithms, including VDGA, GAPAM, and IMSA, and also with state-of-the-art progressive alignment approaches, such as MSAprobs, Probalign, MAFFT, Procons, Clustal omega, T-Coffee, Kalign2, MUSCLE, FSA, Dialign, PRANK, and CLUSTALW. These alignment algorithms are tested on benchmark datasets BAliBASE 2.0 and BAliBASE 3.0. Experimental results show that MOMSA can obtain the significantly better alignments than VDGA, GAPAM on the most of test cases by statistical analyses, produce better alignments than IMSA in terms of TC scores, and also indicate that MOMSA is comparable with the leading progressive alignment approaches in terms of quality of alignments. PMID:25700475

  3. Mt. Etna ground deformation detected by SISTEM approach using GPS data and multiple SAR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Chiara; Sansosti, Eugenio; Pepe, Susi; Solaro, Giuseppe; Casu, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio; Ruch, Joel; Nobile, Adriano; Zoffoli, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The availability of both multiple SAR datasets and GPS stations over Mt. Etna during the 2009-2010 time span, allowed us to apply the SISTEM integration in order to capture a more complete figure of the ground deformation affecting the volcano. In particular we use both ascending and descending views of C-band ENVISAT and X-band COSMO-SkyMed sensors, and the ascending view of L-band ALOS sensors. The SAR data have been analyzed by using a time series approach, based on the SBAS technique. Moreover, thanks to the availability of dense (105 benchmarks) geodetic in situ data collected on Mt. Etna, it was possible to validate and integrate the SAR data with the GPS ground deformation data applying the SISTEM approach. The SISTEM approach simultaneously integrates all the available datasets (i.e. GPS displacement vectors on sparse benchmarks and SAR displacement maps), providing a high-resolution 3D displacement map by taking advantage of the positive features of each datasets, i.e. the availability of multiple view geometries of COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT data, together with the high temporal and spatial resolution of the COSMO-SkyMed data, the good coherence of ALOS L-band interferometric data, and the full 3D displacement components provided by GPS with sub-cm accuracy level. The preliminary results are consistent with the geophysical and volcanological background knowledge of the Mt. Etna dynamic during the 2009-2010 period, showing a general inflation of the entire volcanic edifice coupled with the ESE sliding of the eastern and southeastern flank. The displacement pattern, resulting by applying the SISTEM integration method, provides an accurate spatial characterization of ground deformation, well constrained by the multiple SAR data and ground GPS measurements. ALOS and COSMO-SkyMed SAR data were acquired in the framework of SAR4Volcanoes research project under Italian Space Agency agreement n. I/034/11/0. The ENVISAT data were acquired in the framework ESA CAT.1

  4. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: A COMMUNITY-BASED REHABILITATION APPROACH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram LAKHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities (ID and multiple disabilities (MD in regular schools in India is extremely poor. One of the key objectives of community-based rehabilitation (CBR is to include ID & MD children in regular schools. This study attempted to find out association with age, ID severity, poverty, gender, parent education, population, and multiple disabilities comprising one or more disorders cerebral palsy, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders with inclusion among 259 children in Barwani Block of Barwani District in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Aim: Inclusion of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities in regular schools through CBR approach in India.Method: Chi square test was conducted to investigate association between inclusion and predictor variables ID categories, age, gender, poverty level, parent education, population type and multiple disabilities. Result: Inclusion was possible for borderline 2(66.4%, mild 54(68.3%, moderate 18(18.2%, and age range from 5 to 12 years 63 (43%. Children living in poor families 63 (30.6%, not poor 11(18.9%, parental edu­ca­ti­on none 52 (26%, primary level 11 (65%, midd­le school 10 (48% high school 0 (0% and bachelor degree 1(7%, female 34 (27.9%, male 40 (29.2%, tribal 40 (28.7%, non-tribal 34(28.3% and multiple disabled with cerebral palsy 1(1.2%, epilepsy 3 (4.8% and psychiatry disorders 12 (22.6% were able to receive inclusive education. Sig­ni­ficant difference in inclusion among ID ca­te­gories (c2=99.8, p < 0.001, poverty (c2=3.37, p 0.044, parental education (c2=23.7, p < 0.001, MD CP (c2=43.9, p < 0.001 and epilepsy (c2=22.4, p < 0.001 were seen.Conclusion: Inclusion through CBR is feasible and acceptable in poor rural settings in India. CBR can facilitate inclusion of children with borderline, mild and moderate categories by involving their parents, teachers and community members.

  5. A user-friendly forest model with a multiplicative mathematical structure: a Bayesian approach to calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagnara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest models are being increasingly used to study ecosystem functioning, through the reproduction of carbon fluxes and productivity in very different forests all over the world. Over the last two decades, the need for simple and "easy to use" models for practical applications, characterized by few parameters and equations, has become clear, and some have been developed for this purpose. These models aim to represent the main drivers underlying forest ecosystem processes while being applicable to the widest possible range of forest ecosystems. Recently, it has also become clear that model performance should not be assessed only in terms of accuracy of estimations and predictions, but also in terms of estimates of model uncertainties. Therefore, the Bayesian approach has increasingly been applied to calibrate forest models, with the aim of estimating the uncertainty of their results, and of comparing their performances. Some forest models, considered to be user-friendly, rely on a multiplicative or quasi-multiplicative mathematical structure, which is known to cause problems during the calibration process, mainly due to high correlations between parameters. In a Bayesian framework using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling this is likely to impair the reaching of a proper convergence of the chains and the sampling from the correct posterior distribution. Here we show two methods to reach proper convergence when using a forest model with a multiplicative structure, applying different algorithms with different number of iterations during the Markov Chain Monte Carlo or a two-steps calibration. The results showed that recently proposed algorithms for adaptive calibration do not confer a clear advantage over the Metropolis–Hastings Random Walk algorithm for the forest model used here. Moreover, the calibration remains time consuming and mathematically difficult, so advantages of using a fast and user-friendly model can be lost due to the calibration

  6. A multivariate partial least squares approach to joint association analysis for multiple correlated traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xu; Wenming Hu; Zefeng Yang; Chenwu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Many complex traits are highly correlated rather than independent. By taking the correlation structure of multiple traits into account, joint association analyses can achieve both higher statistical power and more accurate estimation. To develop a statistical approach to joint association analysis that includes allele detection and genetic effect estimation, we combined multivariate partial least squares regression with variable selection strategies and selected the optimal model using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). We then performed extensive simulations under varying heritabilities and sample sizes to compare the performance achieved using our method with those obtained by single-trait multilocus methods. Joint association analysis has measurable advantages over single-trait methods, as it exhibits superior gene detection power, especially for pleiotropic genes. Sample size, heritability, polymorphic information content (PIC), and magnitude of gene effects influence the statistical power, accuracy and precision of effect estimation by the joint association analysis.

  7. Joint Optimization Approach of Maintenance and Production Planning for a Multiple-Product Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mifdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of maintenance and production planning for randomly failing multiple-product manufacturing system. The latter consists of one machine which produces several types of products in order to satisfy random demands corresponding to every type of product. At any given time, the machine can only produce one type of product and then switches to another one. The purpose of this study is to establish sequentially an economical production plan and an optimal maintenance strategy, taking into account the influence of the production rate on the system’s degradation. Analytical models are developed in order to find the production plan and the preventive maintenance strategy which minimizes sequentially the total production/inventory cost and then the total maintenance cost. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  8. The Evidential Reasoning Approach for Multiple Decision Analysis Using Normal Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, normal cloud model and evidential reasoning (E-R approach is used in multiple attribute decision analysis (MADA problems. Different attributes Belief function are represented by cloud model interval. Using cloud model generating algorithm, belief degree interval is obtained without numerical computation. In addition, it is reasonable and it accords with humans mind. Evidential reasoning algorithm is also used to incorporate different attributes interval in different ranks. Maximum and minimum in belief degree interval is computed by software. Then aggregative index number of attribute value is computed. Things rank is decided by the index number. In the example, trucks integrated performances are analysed. Simulation results further illustrate the effectiveness of the design method.

  9. Multiple Triangulation Analysis: another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Z. Zhou

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Another approach (Multiple Triangulation Analysis, MTA is presented to determine the orientation of magnetic flux rope, based on 4-point measurements. A 2-D flux rope model is used to examine the accuracy of the MTA technique in a theoretical way. It is found that the precision of the estimated orientation is dependent on both the spacecraft separation and the constellation path relative to the flux rope structure. However, the MTA error range can be shown to be smaller than that of the traditional MVA technique. As an application to real Cluster data, several flux rope events on 26 January 2001 are analyzed using MTA, to obtain their orientations. The results are compared with the ones obtained by several other methods which also yield flux rope orientation. The estimated axis orientations are shown to be fairly close, suggesting the reliability of the MTA method.

  10. An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa

    2015-12-07

    This paper addresses the filtering problem in large-dimensional systems, in which conventional particle filters (PFs) remain computationally prohibitive owing to the large number of particles needed to obtain reasonable performances. To overcome this drawback, a class of multiple particle filters (MPFs) has been recently introduced in which the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces, and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. In this paper, we adopt the variational Bayesian (VB) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs to be generated. In a numerical test, the proposed VBMPF behaves better than the PF and MPF.

  11. Optimal investment under multiple defaults risk: a BSDE-decomposition approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Ying; Pham, Huyên

    2011-01-01

    We study an optimal investment problem under contagion risk in a financial model subject to multiple jumps and defaults. The global market information is formulated as progressive enlargement of a default-free Brownian filtration, and the dependence of default times is modelled by a conditional density hypothesis. In this It\\^o-jump process model, we give a decomposition of the corresponding stochastic control problem into stochastic control problems in the default-free filtration, which are determined in a backward induction. The dynamic programming method leads to a backward recursive system of quadratic Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs) in Brownian filtration, and our main result is to prove under fairly general conditions the existence and uniqueness of a solution to this system, which characterizes explicitly the value function and optimal strategies to the optimal investment problem. We illustrate our solutions approach with some numerical tests emphasizing the impact of default intensi...

  12. Diffuse Interface Methods for Multiple Phase Materials: An Energetic Variational Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brannick, J; Qian, T; Sun, H

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a diffuse interface model for describing the dynamics of mixtures involving multiple (two or more) phases. The coupled hydrodynamical system is derived through an energetic variational approach. The total energy of the system includes the kinetic energy and the mixing (interfacial) energies. The least action principle (or the principle of virtual work) is applied to derive the conservative part of the dynamics, with a focus on the reversible part of the stress tensor arising from the mixing energies. The dissipative part of the dynamics is then introduced through a dissipation function in the energy law, in line with the Onsager principle of least energy dissipation. The final system, formed by a set of coupled time-dependent partial differential equations, reflects a balance among various conservative and dissipative forces and governs the evolution of velocity and phase fields. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, a few two-dimensional simulations have been car...

  13. Material Selection for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Baghel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs provide a potential alternative to conventional p-n junction photovoltaic devices. The semiconductor thin film plays a crucial role in the working of DSC. This paper aims at formulating a process for the selection of optimum semiconductor material for nanostructured thin film using multiple attribute decision making (MADM approach. Various possible available semiconducting materials and their properties like band gap, cost, mobility, rate of electron injection, and static dielectric constant are considered and MADM technique is applied to select the best suited material. It was found that, out of all possible candidates, titanium dioxide (TiO2 is the best semiconductor material for application in DSC. It was observed that the proposed results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  14. Exploring finite density QCD phase transition with canonical approach -Power of multiple precision computation-

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Shotaro

    2015-01-01

    The canonical approach for finite density lattice QCD has a numerical instability. This instability makes it difficult to use the method reliably at the finite real chemical potential region. We studied this instability in detail and found that it is caused by the cancellation of significant digits. In order to reduce the effect of this cancellation, we adopt the multiple precision calculation for our discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) program, and we get the canonical partition function Zc(n,T) with required accuracy. From the obtained Zc(n,T), we calculate Lee--Yang zero distribution varying the number of significant digits. As a result, some curves surround the origin in the fugacity plane, but they are moved by varying the number of significant digits. Hence, we conclude that these curves are pseudo phase transition lines, and not real ones.

  15. Stepwise approach to establishing multiple outreach laboratory information system-electronic medical record interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Pantanowitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical laboratory outreach business is changing as more physician practices adopt an electronic medical record (EMR. Physician connectivity with the laboratory information system (LIS is consequently becoming more important. However, there are no reports available to assist the informatician with establishing and maintaining outreach LIS-EMR connectivity. A four-stage scheme is presented that was successfully employed to establish unidirectional and bidirectional interfaces with multiple physician EMRs. This approach involves planning (step 1, followed by interface building (step 2 with subsequent testing (step 3, and finally ongoing maintenance (step 4. The role of organized project management, software as a service (SAAS, and alternate solutions for outreach connectivity are discussed.

  16. A quantitative approach for integrating multiple lines of evidence for the evaluation of environmental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J. Schleier III

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis often considers multiple lines of evidence during the decision making process. Researchers and government agencies have advocated for quantitative weight-of-evidence approaches in which multiple lines of evidence can be considered when estimating risk. Therefore, we utilized Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to integrate several human-health risk assessment, biomonitoring, and epidemiology studies that have been conducted for two common insecticides (malathion and permethrin used for adult mosquito management to generate an overall estimate of risk quotient (RQ. The utility of the Bayesian inference for risk management is that the estimated risk represents a probability distribution from which the probability of exceeding a threshold can be estimated. The mean RQs after all studies were incorporated were 0.4386, with a variance of 0.0163 for malathion and 0.3281 with a variance of 0.0083 for permethrin. After taking into account all of the evidence available on the risks of ULV insecticides, the probability that malathion or permethrin would exceed a level of concern was less than 0.0001. Bayesian estimates can substantially improve decisions by allowing decision makers to estimate the probability that a risk will exceed a level of concern by considering seemingly disparate lines of evidence.

  17. A vision-based navigation approach with multiple radial shape marks for indoor aircraft locating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Haoyin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since GPS signals are unavailable for indoor navigation, current research mainly focuses on vision-based locating with a single mark. An obvious disadvantage with this approach is that locating will fail when the mark cannot be seen. The use of multiple marks can solve this problem. However, the extra process to design and identify different marks will significantly increase system complexity. In this paper, a novel vision-based locating method is proposed by using marks with feature points arranged in a radial shape. The feature points of the marks consist of inner points and outer points. The positions of the inner points are the same in all marks, while the positions of the outer points are different in different marks. Unlike traditional camera locating methods (the PnP methods, the proposed method can calculate the camera location and the positions of the outer points simultaneously. Then the calculation results of the positions of the outer points are used to identify the mark. This method can make navigation with multiple marks more efficient. Simulations and real world experiments are carried out, and their results show that the proposed method is fast, accurate and robust to noise.

  18. Systematic Analysis of the Multiple Bioactivities of Green Tea through a Network Pharmacology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple beneficial health effects of green tea. Polyphenolics are the most biologically active components of green tea. Many targets can be targeted or affected by polyphenolics. In this study, we excavated all of the targets of green tea polyphenolics (GTPs though literature mining and target calculation and analyzed the multiple pharmacology actions of green tea comprehensively through a network pharmacology approach. In the end, a total of 200 Homo sapiens targets were identified for fifteen GTPs. These targets were classified into six groups according to their related disease, which included cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, muscular disease, and inflammation. Moreover, these targets mapped into 143 KEGG pathways, 26 of which were more enriched, as determined though pathway enrichment analysis and target-pathway network analysis. Among the identified pathways, 20 pathways were selected for analyzing the mechanisms of green tea in these diseases. Overall, this study systematically illustrated the mechanisms of the pleiotropic activity of green tea by analyzing the corresponding “drug-target-pathway-disease” interaction network.

  19. Análisis de procesos de codificación y recuperación en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Canet Juric; María Laura Andrés; María Richard ́s

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue el estudio exhaustivo de los procesos mnésicos en un grupo de pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple (EM). La teoría clásica sobre el tema considera que en esta patología se producen defectos en los procesos de recuperación de la memoria episódica. Estudios recientes aportan evidencia a favor de una hipótesis alternativa que atribuye el origen del trastorno mnésico a una alteración en los procesos de codificación y organización de la informa...

  20. Towards ecosystem accounting: a comprehensive approach to modelling multiple hydrological ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Duku

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. In spite of the progress made in mapping and quantifying hydrological ecosystem services, several key issues must be addressed if ecohydrological modelling approaches are to be aligned with ecosystem accounting. They include modelling hydrological ecosystem services with adequate spatiotemporal detail and accuracy at aggregated scales to support ecosystem accounting, distinguishing between service capacity and service flow, and linking ecohydrological processes to the supply of dependent hydrological ecosystem services. We present a spatially explicit approach, which is consistent with ecosystem accounting, for mapping and quantifying service capacity and service flow of multiple hydrological ecosystem services. A grid-based setup of a modified Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT, SWAT Landscape, is first used to simulate the watershed ecohydrology. Model outputs are then post-processed to map and quantify hydrological ecosystem services and to set up biophysical ecosystem accounts. Trend analysis statistical tests are conducted on service capacity accounts to track changes in the potential to provide service flows. Ecohydrological modelling to support ecosystem accounting requires appropriate decisions regarding model process inclusion, physical and mathematical representation, spatial heterogeneity, temporal resolution, and model accuracy. We demonstrate this approach in the Upper Ouémé watershed in Benin. Our analyses show that integrating hydrological ecosystem services in an ecosystem accounting framework provides relevant information on ecosystems and hydrological ecosystem services at appropriate scales suitable for decision-making. Our analyses further identify priority areas important for maintaining hydrological ecosystem services as well as trends in hydrological ecosystem services supply over time.

  1. Case Studies on an Approach to Multiple Autonomous Vehicle Motion Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K. Liu; X. Wu; G. Paul; G. Dissanayake

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a series of case studies on a novel Simultaneous Path and Motion Planning (SiPaMoP) approach[1] to multiple autonomous or Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) motion coordination in bidirectional networks. The SiPaMoP approach plans collision-free paths for vehicles based on the principle of shortest path by dynamically changing the vehicles' paths, traveling speeds or waiting times, whichever gives the shortest traveling time. It integrates path planning, collision avoidance and motion planning into a comprehensive model and optimizes the vehicles' path and motion to minimize the completion time of a set of tasks. Five case studies, i.e., head-on collision avoidance,catching-up collision avoidance, buffer node generation and collision avoidance, prioritybased motion coordination, and safety distance based planning, are presented. The results demonstrated that the method can effectively plan the path and motion for a team of autonomous vehicles or AGVs, and solve the problems of traffic congestion and collision under various conditions.

  2. A heuristic approach using multiple criteria for environmentally benign 3PLs selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, Elif

    2005-11-01

    Maintaining competitiveness in an environment where price and quality differences between competing products are disappearing depends on the company's ability to reduce costs and supply time. Timely responses to rapidly changing market conditions require an efficient Supply Chain Management (SCM). Outsourcing logistics to third-party logistics service providers (3PLs) is one commonly used way of increasing the efficiency of logistics operations, while creating a more "core competency focused" business environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient. Due to recent environmental regulations and growing public awareness regarding environmental issues, 3PLs need to be not only efficient but also environmentally benign to maintain companies' competitiveness. Even though an efficient and environmentally benign combination of 3PLs can theoretically be obtained using exhaustive search algorithms, heuristics approaches to the selection process may be superior in terms of the computational complexity. In this paper, a hybrid approach that combines a multiple criteria Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Linear Physical Weighting Algorithm (LPPW) to be used in efficient and environmentally benign 3PLs is proposed. A numerical example is also provided to illustrate the method and the analyses.

  3. A marginal rank-based inverse normal transformation approach to comparing multiple clinical trial endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoyu; Li, Huiyun; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-08-30

    The increase in incidence of obesity and chronic diseases and their health care costs have raised the importance of quality diet on the health policy agendas. The healthy eating index is an important measure for diet quality which consists of 12 components derived from ratios of dependent variables with distributions hard to specify, measurement errors and excessive zero observations difficult to model parametrically. Hypothesis testing involving data of such nature poses challenges because the widely used multiple comparison procedures such as Hotelling's T(2) test and Bonferroni correction may suffer from substantial loss of efficiency. We propose a marginal rank-based inverse normal transformation approach to normalizing the marginal distribution of the data before employing a multivariate test procedure. Extensive simulation was conducted to demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to adequately control the type I error rate as well as increase the power of the test, with data particularly from non-symmetric or heavy-tailed distributions. The methods are exemplified with data from a dietary intervention study for type I diabetic children. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26990442

  4. A Fisher Kernel Approach for Multiple Instance Based Object Retrieval in Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRONICA, I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated surveillance system that exploits the Fisher Kernel representation in the context of multiple-instance object retrieval task. The proposed algorithm has the main purpose of tracking a list of persons in several video sources, using only few training examples. In the first step, the Fisher Kernel representation describes a set of features as the derivative with respect to the log-likelihood of the generative probability distribution that models the feature distribution. Then, we learn the generative probability distribution over all features extracted from a reduced set of relevant frames. The proposed approach shows significant improvements and we demonstrate that Fisher kernels are well suited for this task. We demonstrate the generality of our approach in terms of features by conducting an extensive evaluation with a broad range of keypoints features. Also, we evaluate our method on two standard video surveillance datasets attaining superior results comparing to state-of-the-art object recognition algorithms.

  5. A multiple metrics approach to prioritizing strategies for measuring and managing reactive nitrogen in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.; Moomaw, William R.; Liptzin, Daniel; Gramig, Benjamin M.; Reeling, Carson; Meyer, Johanna; Hurley, Kathleen

    2016-06-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle exceeds the safe planetary boundary for the use of reactive nitrogen (Nr). We complement global analysis by analyzing regional mass flows and the relative consequences of multiple chemical forms of Nr as they ‘cascade’ through multiple environmental media. The goals of this paper are (1) to identify the amounts of Nr that flow through a specific nitrogen rich region, (2) develop multiple metrics to characterize and compare multiple forms of Nr and the different damages that they cause, and (3) to use these metrics to assess the most societally acceptable and cost effective means for addressing the many dimensions of Nr damage. This paper uses a multiple metrics approach that in addition to mass flows considers economic damage, health and mitigation costs and qualitative damages to evaluate options for mitigating Nr flows in California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Most analysis focuses attention on agricultural Nr because it is the largest flow in terms of mass. In contrast, the multiple metrics approach identifies mobile source Nr emissions as creating the most economic and health damage in the SJV. Emissions of Nr from mobile sources are smaller than those from crop agriculture and dairy in the SJV, but the benefits of abatement are greater because of reduced health impacts from air pollution, and abatement costs are lower. Our findings illustrate the benefit of a comprehensive multiple metrics approach to Nr management.

  6. A minimally invasive multiple marker approach allows highly efficient detection of meningioma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meese Eckart

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective frameworks that permit an accurate diagnosis of tumors, especially in their early stages, remains a grand challenge in the field of bioinformatics. Our approach uses statistical learning techniques applied to multiple antigen tumor antigen markers utilizing the immune system as a very sensitive marker of molecular pathological processes. For validation purposes we choose the intracranial meningioma tumors as model system since they occur very frequently, are mostly benign, and are genetically stable. Results A total of 183 blood samples from 93 meningioma patients (WHO stages I-III and 90 healthy controls were screened for seroreactivity with a set of 57 meningioma-associated antigens. We tested several established statistical learning methods on the resulting reactivity patterns using 10-fold cross validation. The best performance was achieved by Naïve Bayes Classifiers. With this classification method, our framework, called Minimally Invasive Multiple Marker (MIMM approach, yielded a specificity of 96.2%, a sensitivity of 84.5%, and an accuracy of 90.3%, the respective area under the ROC curve was 0.957. Detailed analysis revealed that prediction performs particularly well on low-grade (WHO I tumors, consistent with our goal of early stage tumor detection. For these tumors the best classification result with a specificity of 97.5%, a sensitivity of 91.3%, an accuracy of 95.6%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.971 was achieved using a set of 12 antigen markers only. This antigen set was detected by a subset selection method based on Mutual Information. Remarkably, our study proves that the inclusion of non-specific antigens, detected not only in tumor but also in normal sera, increases the performance significantly, since non-specific antigens contribute additional diagnostic information. Conclusion Our approach offers the possibility to screen members of risk groups as a matter of routine

  7. A multi-disciplinary approach for the integrated assessment of multiple risks in delta areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of climate change related risks is notoriously difficult due to the complex and uncertain combinations of hazardous events that might happen, the multiplicity of physical processes involved, the continuous changes and interactions of environmental and socio-economic systems. One important challenge lies in predicting and modelling cascades of natural and man -made hazard events which can be triggered by climate change, encompassing different spatial and temporal scales. Another regard the potentially difficult integration of environmental, social and economic disciplines in the multi-risk concept. Finally, the effective interaction between scientists and stakeholders is essential to ensure that multi-risk knowledge is translated into efficient adaptation and management strategies. The assessment is even more complex at the scale of deltaic systems which are particularly vulnerable to global environmental changes, due to the fragile equilibrium between the presence of valuable natural ecosystems and relevant economic activities. Improving our capacity to assess the combined effects of multiple hazards (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surges, reduction in sediment load, local subsidence, saltwater intrusion) is therefore essential to identify timely opportunities for adaptation. A holistic multi-risk approach is here proposed to integrate terminology, metrics and methodologies from different research fields (i.e. environmental, social and economic sciences) thus creating shared knowledge areas to advance multi risk assessment and management in delta regions. A first testing of the approach, including the application of Bayesian network analysis for the assessment of impacts of climate change on key natural systems (e.g. wetlands, protected areas, beaches) and socio-economic activities (e.g. agriculture, tourism), is applied in the Po river delta in Northern Italy. The approach is based on a bottom-up process involving local stakeholders early in different

  8. A Novel 3D Reconstruction Approach from Uncalibrated Multiple Views Based on Homography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on a kind of 3D object shape reconstruction from images and put forward a metric approach to recover the object based on slicing planes by homography transformation and image consistency between multiple images.  This approach done here eliminates the requirement for camera calibration, the estimation of the fundamental matrix, feature matches and pose estimation. We adopt a set of hypothetical planes to intersect the reconstructed object to obtain every slicing plane of the reconstructed object by homography transformation and recover it to 3D adding vanishing points by the constraints of silhouette and the scene. The experiment shows that the approach is much validated, and something useful is obtained. topological changes of 2D curves, we adopt a physically-based 2D level set model to animate the evolution and propagation of the interface. We build a level set equation to model the evolution of the interface. In addition, to handle the large scale virtual environment correctly in our physically-based level set model, an image-based 2D voxelization method is proposed in the paper. In the voxelization method, the virtual environment will be converted to boundary conditions when solving the level set equation. Finally, the water pollutants diffusion phenomenon is simulated on large scale water surface by merging the interface animation results as well as the large scale virtual environment. Animation results about the algae propagation phenomenon in Taihu Lake show that our method is intuitively to be implemented and very convenient to produce visually interesting results.

  9. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals. PMID:22632290

  10. Multiple charge spreading as a generalization of the Bertaut approach to lattice summation of Coulomb series in crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kholopov, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    The Bertaut approach associated with charge spreading so as to enhance the rate of convergence of Coulomb series in crystals is extended to the case of an arbitrary multiple spreading with a given initial spreading function. It is shown that the effect of spreading may in general be treated as a uniform transformation of space, providing that zero mean potential as a universal spatial property is sustained. As a result, electrostatic potentials driven by different orders of multiple spreading...

  11. Fault detection and isolation of a dual spool gas turbine engine using dynamic neural networks and multiple model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sadough Vanini, Z.N.; K Khorasani; Meskin, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme for an aircraft jet engine is developed. The proposed FDI system is based on the multiple model approach and utilizes dynamic neural networks (DNNs) to accomplish this goal. Towards this end, multiple DNNs are constructed to learn the nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft jet engine. Each DNN corresponds to a specific operating mode of the healthy engine or the faulty condition of the jet engine. Using residuals obtained by comparing ea...

  12. Multiple scattering of electrons in solids and molecules: A cluster-model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the simulation of electron scattering and diffraction in solids and molecules within the cluster approach is presented with explicit applications to photoelectron diffraction, electron scattering in molecules, and low-energy electron diffraction. No approximations are made beyond the muffin-tin model, and, in particular, an exact representation of the free-electron Green function is used. All multiple-scattering paths are accounted for up to an order of scattering that ensures convergence. The method relies upon a convenient separation of the free-electron Green function in rotation matrices and translations along the z axis, which greatly reduces the computation time and storage demand. The evaluation of the multiple-scattering expansion is implemented using the fully convergent recursion method, which permits one to perform an iterative refinement of the final-state wave function, as expressed in the basis set of spherical harmonics attached to each atom of the cluster. Examples are offered in which the direct multiple-scattering expansion and the more elaborated simultaneous relaxation method fail to converge, whereas the recursion method leads to convergence. The computation time needed by the resulting computer program of electron diffraction in atomic clusters to determine the self-consistently scattered wave function is proportional to N2(lmax+1)3, where N is the number of atoms in the cluster and lmax is the maximum angular momentum for which the scattering phase shifts take non-negligible values. Within this method it is possible to establish that in practical cases N>1000 might be needed for a convergence of the cluster size, although the angular averaging inherent in many experiments may reduce this. The recursion method was also modified to reduce the effort in computing angular distributions of photoelectrons and low-energy diffracted electrons, which now require negligible time for each angle of emission once the wave function has been

  13. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  14. Individual exposure to air pollution and lung function in Korea: spatial analysis using multiple exposure approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2010-11-01

    Interpolation methods can estimate individual-level exposures to air pollution from ambient monitors; however, few studies have evaluated how different approaches may affect health risk estimates. We applied multiple methods of estimating exposure for several air pollutants. We investigated how different methods of estimating exposure may influence health effect estimates in a case study of lung function data, forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC), for 2102 cohort subjects in Ulsan, Korea, for 2003-2007. Measurements from 13 monitors for particulate matter inverse distance weighting, and kriging. We assessed associations between pollutants and lung function in linear regression models, controlling for age, sex, and body mass index. Cross-validation indicated that kriging provided the most accurate estimated exposures. FVC was associated with all air pollutants under all methods of estimating exposure. Only ozone was associated with FEV1. An 11 ppb increase in lag-0-2 8-h maximum ozone was associated with a 6.1% (95% confidence interval 5.0, 7.3%) decrease in FVC and a 0.50% (95% confidence interval 0.03, 0.96%) decrease in FEV1, based on kriged exposures. Central health effect estimates were generally higher using exposures based on averaging across all monitors or kriging. Results based on the nearest monitor approach had the lowest variance. Findings suggest that spatial interpolation methods may provide better estimates than monitoring values alone by reflecting the spatial variability of individual-level exposures and generating estimates for locations without monitors. PMID:20832787

  15. Streamflow Forecasting using Satellite Products: A Benchmark Approach. Can We Reduce Uncertainty by using Multiple Products and Multiple Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Gupta, H.; Valdes, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time satellite precipitation products can be used to drive hydrologic forecasts in downstream areas of poorly gauged basins. We present an improved approach to hydrologic modeling using satellite precipitation estimates to reduce uncertainty, consisting of: (1) bias-correction of satellite products, (2) re-calibration of hydrologic models using bias-corrected estimates, (3) bias-correction of streamflow outputs, and (4) plotting of uncertainty intervals. In addition, we evaluate the benefits of multi-product and model forecasts using four satellite precipitation products (CHIRPS, CMORPH, TMPA, and PERSIANN-CCS) to drive two hydrologic models (HYMOD and HBV-EDU), generating eight forecasts from different model-product-combinations following the approach described above. These probabilistic forecasts are then merged in an attempt to produce an improved forecast with higher accuracy and smaller uncertainty. These methods are applied in the Mara Basin in Kenya, facing serious water sustainability challenges, in an effort to support water management decisions balancing human and environmental needs, as part of the NASA SERVIR Applied Sciences Team.

  16. Examination of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis: A problem-orientated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarland Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has brought in several benefits to the study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. It provides accurate measurement of disease activity, facilitates precise diagnosis, and aid in the assessment of newer therapies. The imaging guidelines for MS are broadly divided in to approaches for imaging patients with suspected MS or clinically isolated syndromes (CIS or for monitoring patients with established MS. In this review, the technical aspects of MR imaging for MS are briefly discussed. The imaging process need to capture the twin aspects of acute MS viz. the autoimmune acute inflammatory process and the neurodegenerative process. Gadolinium enhanced MRI can identify acute inflammatory lesions precisely. The commonly applied MRI marker of disease progression is brain atrophy. Whole brain magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS are two other techniques use to monitor disease progression. A variety of imaging techniques such as Double Inversion Recovery (DIR, Spoiled Gradient Recalled (SPGR acquisition, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR have been utilized to study the cortical changes in MS. MRI is now extensively used in the Phase I, II and III clinical trials of new therapies. As the technical aspects of MRI advance rapidly, and higher field strengths become available, it is hoped that the impact of MRI on our understanding of MS will be even more profound in the next decade.

  17. Allocation of police posts in a medium-sized city: a multiple criteria approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Miller Gois de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in violent crime rates implies a need for strategies to protect the population. Public safety policies should be focused on preventive security, which has the potential to reduce crime rates. The allocation of the police observation posts contributes to an increase in safety. However, given limited resources, the number of observation units has reduced in most Brazilian cities. Therefore, efficient allocation of these resources is necessary to ensure rational use of security agents. Several aspects influence decisions related to where to install these units, complicating this process. The multiple criteria approach is appropriate in this type of decision-making process, because it allows the decision maker to generate and consolidate knowledge. The results indicate that the most suitable neighborhoods are those with higher rates of violence and greater social gaps. This work presents some benefits to the area of public security, since it formalizes tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. The information contained in this study may be made available to other public administrators who need to make this kind of decision.

  18. Drug repurposing: a systematic approach to evaluate candidate oral neuroprotective interventions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M Vesterinen

    Full Text Available To develop and implement an evidence based framework to select, from drugs already licenced, candidate oral neuroprotective drugs to be tested in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.Systematic review of clinical studies of oral putative neuroprotective therapies in MS and four other neurodegenerative diseases with shared pathological features, followed by systematic review and meta-analyses of the in vivo experimental data for those interventions. We presented summary data to an international multi-disciplinary committee, which assessed each drug in turn using pre-specified criteria including consideration of mechanism of action.We identified a short list of fifty-two candidate interventions. After review of all clinical and pre-clinical evidence we identified ibudilast, riluzole, amiloride, pirfenidone, fluoxetine, oxcarbazepine, and the polyunsaturated fatty-acid class (Linoleic Acid, Lipoic acid; Omega-3 fatty acid, Max EPA oil as lead candidates for clinical evaluation.We demonstrate a standardised and systematic approach to candidate identification for drug rescue and repurposing trials that can be applied widely to neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. The EarthLabs Climate Series: Approaching Climate Literacy From Multiple Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Ellins, K.; McNeal, K.; Bardar, E. W.; Youngman, E.; Lockwood, J.; Dunlap, C.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthLabs Climate Series is a set of four distinct but related high school curriculum modules that help build student and teacher understanding of our planet's complex climate system. The web-based, freely available curriculum modules include a rich set of resources for teachers, and are tied together by a common set of climate related themes that include: 1) the Earth system with the complexities of its positive and negative feedback loops; 2) the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate, weather, and other Earth system processes occur; and 3) the recurring question, "How do we know what we know about Earth's past and present climate?" which addresses proxy data and scientific instrumentation. The four modules (Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Biosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate Detectives) approach climate literacy from different contexts, and have provided teachers of biology, chemistry, marine science, environmental science, and earth science with opportunities to address climate science by selecting a module that best supplements the content of their particular course. This presentation will highlight the four curriculum modules in the Climate Series, the multiple pathways they offer teachers for introducing climate science into their existing courses, and the two newest elements of the series: the Climate Series Intro, which holds an extensive set of climate related resources for teachers; and the Climate Detectives module, which is based on the 2013 expedition of the Joides Resolution to collect cores from the seafloor below the Gulf of Alaska.

  20. On Thermally Interacting Multiple Boreholes with Variable Heating Strength: Comparison between Analytical and Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with variable heat flux along the borehole length. In the analytical approach, a line source of heat with a finite length is used to model the conduction of heat in the soil surrounding the boreholes. In the numerical method, a finite volume method in a three dimensional meshed domain is used. In order to determine the heat flux boundary condition, the analytical quasi-three-dimensional solution to the heat transfer problem of the U-tube configuration inside the borehole is used. This solution takes into account the variation in heating strength along the borehole length due to the temperature variation of the fluid running in the U-tube. Thus, critical depths at which thermal interaction occurs can be determined. Finally, in order to examine the validity of the numerical method, a comparison is made with the results of line source method.

  1. Green's Method Approach for Solving the Hermitized Atmospheric Diffusion Equation with Multiple Sources and Eddy Diffusivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional generalized (self-adjoint) atmospheric diffusion equation can be solved analytically. Where the source strength is located at any where within the region of interest, and with arbitrary power- law function of wind speed and eddy diffusivities. The Greens method approach is utilized, where the Green's function is splitting into two factors, As a result of the hermeticity the solution of the diffusion equation can be expressed exact, as a multiple of source and the two factors of the Green's function, vertical dispersion factor, and cross wind dispersion factor. The two factors of the Green's function are derived analytically in which, the Green's of the diffusion equation is splitting into two pair of two-dimensional differential equations, by using: separation of variables, Bessel equation, and transform the dependent and independent variables, and the cosine transformation. All amenable cases are adopted such as: Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorption), and mixed boundary conditions. Gaussian plume model is extracted in all the previously cases

  2. A New Approach to the Multiple Contingency Principle Employed in Criticality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has become common practice to make use of the multiple contingency principle in all cases where criticality safety depends primarily on controlled rather than inherent parameters. This rule makes use of the fact that the simultaneous occurrence of several independent and unlikely events has a very low probability. If applied in the usual way by merely counting the number of contingencies, this rule has two essentially weak points: firstly, there is no clear definition of what may be considered an acceptable contingency; secondly, no relationship is established between the potential consequences of an accident and the acceptable probability of its occurrence. To overcome these deficiencies, each contingency is given a weight factor, which is related to the logarithm of its failure probability. This permits the ''addition'' of contingencies and determination of the probability of a certain chain of events which could lead to an accident. It is then possible to limit the probability of a nuclear excursion to a low but finite value which can be adjusted to the conceivable consequence of such an accident. This approach does not eliminate the need to use experience and technical judgement in assessing the reliability of equipment components or human actions. However, it is believed to facilitate a systematic and uniform safety analysis of a complex plant. (author)

  3. A High Performance Computing approach to model multiple Rayleigh scattering in the Earth atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssens, Ghislain; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Mateshivili, Nina; Vanhellemont, filip; fussen, didier; pieroux, didier

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols in the Earth atmosphere from light scattering measurements typically involves an iterative inversion algorithm. A key part of this algorithm is its forward model, which takes care of calculating the amount of light that the remote sensing instrument will see, for any assumed atmosphere composition. The forward model is usually an atmospheric radiative transfer code. It is a serious challenge for a radiative transfer code to be, at the same time, sufficiently accurate and sufficiently fast, so that it can be included in the iterative retrieval loop of an operational service. An accurate code must be able to calculate multiple Rayleigh scattering (important in the UV and/or at lower altitudes) by the air in a spherical atmosphere. This is something that currently only a Monte Carlo algorithm can do. However, any Monte Carlo code is far too slow to be included in the retrieval loop, even if we make use of the currently available HPC power. We report some first results that were obtained by a new solution to this old problem. We first use a HPC cluster to tabulate multiple Rayleigh scattering in a standard Earth atmosphere, using a Monte Carlo code, as function of 6 parameters (albedo, view zenith angle, solar zenith angle, relative azimuth angle, altitude and wavelength). Then, a well chosen empirical function is fitted on the tabulated data. From this function, correction factors are derived and appropriately inserted in a fast single scattering algorithm, which so effectively becomes a multiple scattering algorithm. Since the evaluation of the empirical function is also very fast, we end up with a radiative transfer code that is both accurate and sufficiently fast for operational data production. Our conclusion is that commonly available and affordable HPC systems can still not directly solve the retrieval problem with sufficient accuracy in real time. However, the above described two step approach now becomes

  4. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. PMID:25288586

  5. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding. PMID:26769347

  6. Multiple Learning Approaches in the Professional Development of School Leaders -- Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Self-assessment and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephan Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the use of multiple learning approaches and different modes and types of learning in the (continuous) professional development (PD) of school leaders, particularly the use of self-assessment and feedback. First, formats and multiple approaches to professional learning are described. Second, a possible approach to…

  7. Predicting relapsing-remitting dynamics in multiple sclerosis using discrete distribution models: a population approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Velez de Mendizabal

    Full Text Available Relapsing-remitting dynamics are a hallmark of autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS. A clinical relapse in MS reflects an acute focal inflammatory event in the central nervous system that affects signal conduction by damaging myelinated axons. Those events are evident in T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as contrast enhancing lesions (CEL. CEL dynamics are considered unpredictable and are characterized by high intra- and inter-patient variability. Here, a population approach (nonlinear mixed-effects models was applied to analyse of CEL progression, aiming to propose a model that adequately captures CEL dynamics.We explored several discrete distribution models to CEL counts observed in nine MS patients undergoing a monthly MRI for 48 months. All patients were enrolled in the study free of immunosuppressive drugs, except for intravenous methylprednisolone or oral prednisone taper for a clinical relapse. Analyses were performed with the nonlinear mixed-effect modelling software NONMEM 7.2. Although several models were able to adequately characterize the observed CEL dynamics, the negative binomial distribution model had the best predictive ability. Significant improvements in fitting were observed when the CEL counts from previous months were incorporated to predict the current month's CEL count. The predictive capacity of the model was validated using a second cohort of fourteen patients who underwent monthly MRIs during 6-months. This analysis also identified and quantified the effect of steroids for the relapse treatment.The model was able to characterize the observed relapsing-remitting CEL dynamic and to quantify the inter-patient variability. Moreover, the nature of the effect of steroid treatment suggested that this therapy helps resolve older CELs yet does not affect newly appearing active lesions in that month. This model could be used for design of future longitudinal studies and clinical trials, as

  8. Harmonisation of variables names prior to conducting statistical analyses with multiple datasets: an automated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch-Capblanch Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data requirements by governments, donors and the international community to measure health and development achievements have increased in the last decade. Datasets produced in surveys conducted in several countries and years are often combined to analyse time trends and geographical patterns of demographic and health related indicators. However, since not all datasets have the same structure, variables definitions and codes, they have to be harmonised prior to submitting them to the statistical analyses. Manually searching, renaming and recoding variables are extremely tedious and prone to errors tasks, overall when the number of datasets and variables are large. This article presents an automated approach to harmonise variables names across several datasets, which optimises the search of variables, minimises manual inputs and reduces the risk of error. Results Three consecutive algorithms are applied iteratively to search for each variable of interest for the analyses in all datasets. The first search (A captures particular cases that could not be solved in an automated way in the search iterations; the second search (B is run if search A produced no hits and identifies variables the labels of which contain certain key terms defined by the user. If this search produces no hits, a third one (C is run to retrieve variables which have been identified in other surveys, as an illustration. For each variable of interest, the outputs of these engines can be (O1 a single best matching variable is found, (O2 more than one matching variable is found or (O3 not matching variables are found. Output O2 is solved by user judgement. Examples using four variables are presented showing that the searches have a 100% sensitivity and specificity after a second iteration. Conclusion Efficient and tested automated algorithms should be used to support the harmonisation process needed to analyse multiple datasets. This is especially relevant when

  9. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman, 2002; Curtis, 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7± 30.1 gC m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 gC m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its own merits and

  10. Multiple model approach to evaluation of accelerated carbonation for steelmaking slag in a slurry reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Lu; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-07-01

    Basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) exhibits highly alkaline properties due to its high calcium content, which is beneficial to carbonation reaction. In this study, accelerated carbonation of BOFS was evaluated under different reaction times, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios in a slurry reactor. CO2 mass balance within the slurry reactor was carried out to validate the technical feasibility of fixing gaseous CO2 into solid precipitates. After that, a multiple model approach, i.e., theoretical kinetics and empirical surface model, for carbonation reaction was presented to determine the maximal carbonation conversion of BOFS in a slurry reactor. On one hand, the reaction kinetics of BOFS carbonation was evaluated by the shrinking core model (SCM). Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as a reaction product through the scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses, which provided the rationale of applying the SCM in this study. The rate-limiting step of carbonation was found to be ash-diffusion controlled, and the effective diffusivity for carbonation of BOFS in a slurry reactor were determined accordingly. On the other hand, the carbonation conversion of BOFS was predicted by the response surface methodology (RSM) via a nonlinear mathematical programming. According to the experimental data, the highest carbonation conversion of BOFS achieved was 57% under an L/S ratio of 20 mL g(-1), a CO2 flow rate of 0.1 L min(-1), and a pressure of 101.3 kPa at 50 °C for 120 min. Furthermore, the applications and limitations of SCM and RSM were examined and exemplified by the carbonation of steelmaking slags. PMID:27038901

  11. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR THE CORRECTION OF BIOAEROSOL DATA COLLECTED WITH MULTIPLE JET IMPACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple jet impactors are routinely used to measure airborne microbial concentrations in a variety of work and residential environments. nalyses of data collected with these units, however, should account for the possibility of multiple impactions at single sites. ata are usuall...

  12. (Re-) Framing Authenticity: Considering Multiple Social Identities Using Autoethnographic and Intersectional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan R.; Kim, Yoolee Choe; Skendall, Kristan Cilente

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this autoethnographic study was to explore the lived experience of identity construction and negotiation of multiple identities using an intersectional framework. Results present examples of the troublesome nature of authenticity as multiple identities were negotiated and managed based upon context and the influence of power and…

  13. A multiple-plane approach to measure the structural properties of functionally active regions in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Garfinkel, Sarah N; King, Anthony P; Angstadt, Mike; Dennis, Michael J; Xie, Hong; Welsh, Robert C; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Liberzon, Israel

    2010-02-15

    Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide the means of studying both the structural and the functional properties of various brain regions, allowing us to address the relationship between the structural changes in human brain regions and the activity of these regions. However, analytical approaches combining functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) information are still far from optimal. In order to improve the accuracy of measurement of structural properties in active regions, the current study tested a new analytical approach that repeated a surface-based analysis at multiple planes crossing different depths of cortex. Twelve subjects underwent a fear conditioning study. During these tasks, fMRI and sMRI scans were acquired. The fMRI images were carefully registered to the sMRI images with an additional correction for cortical borders. The fMRI images were then analyzed with the new multiple-plane surface-based approach as compared to the volume-based approach, and the cortical thickness and volume of an active region were measured. The results suggested (1) using an additional correction for cortical borders and an intermediate template image produced an acceptable registration of fMRI and sMRI images; (2) surface-based analysis at multiple depths of cortex revealed more activity than the same analysis at any single depth; (3) projection of active surface vertices in a ribbon fashion improved active volume estimates; and (4) correction with gray matter segmentation removed non-cortical regions from the volumetric measurement of active regions. In conclusion, the new multiple-plane surface-based analysis approaches produce improved measurement of cortical thickness and volume of active brain regions. These results support the use of novel approaches for combined analysis of functional and structural neuroimaging. PMID:19922802

  14. Evaluación morfológica y morfométrica de neuroimágenes retinianas y cerebrales como factor pronóstico de la función visual en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Llorca Cardeñosa, Ana

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de esta tesis doctoral es estudiar la proporción de pérdida neurológica en el tiempo a nivel cerebral y retiniano en relación con la deficiencia sensorial y motora en pacientes diagnosticados de esclerosis múltiple. La muestra está constituida por 35 pacientes clasificados en tres grupos en función del subtipo de enfermedad (síndromes clínicos aislados, formas remitentes-recurrentes y formas progresivas) diagnosticados de esclerosis múltiple según los criterios de McDonal...

  15. Tailor-made rehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb robots for acute stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke. PMID:26478988

  16. Field data and numerical modeling: A multiple lines of evidence approach for assessing vapor intrusion exposure risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine K; McClean, Michael D; Suuberg, Eric M; Moradi, Ali; Roghani, Mohammadyousef; Ames, Jennifer; Friguglietti, Leigh; Indeglia, Paul A; Shen, Rui; Yao, Yijun; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2016-06-15

    USEPA recommends a multiple lines of evidence approach to make informed decisions at vapor intrusion sites because the vapor intrusion pathway is notoriously difficult to characterize. Our study uses this approach by incorporating groundwater, soil gas, indoor air field measurements and numerical models to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure risks in a Metro-Boston neighborhood known to exhibit lower than anticipated indoor air concentrations based on groundwater concentrations. We collected and evaluated five rounds of field sampling data over the period of one year. Field data results show a steep gradient in soil gas concentrations near the groundwater surface; however as the depth decreases, soil gas concentration gradients also decrease. Together, the field data and the numerical model results suggest that a subsurface feature is limiting vapor transport into indoor air spaces at the study site and that groundwater concentrations are not appropriate indicators of vapor intrusion exposure risks in this neighborhood. This research also reveals the importance of including relevant physical models when evaluating vapor intrusion exposure risks using the multiple lines of evidence approach. Overall, the findings provide insight about how the multiple lines of evidence approach can be used to inform decisions by using field data collected using regulatory-relevant sampling techniques, and a well-established 3-D vapor intrusion model. PMID:26977535

  17. A geospatial modelling approach to predict seagrass habitat recovery under multiple stressor regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of estuarine seagrass habitats requires a clear understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We have developed and demonstrated a geospatial modeling a...

  18. A multiple covariance approach to PLS regression with several predictor groups: Structural Equation Exploratory Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, Xavier; Verron, Thomas; Cazes, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A variable group Y is assumed to depend upon R thematic variable groups X 1, >..., X R . We assume that components in Y depend linearly upon components in the Xr's. In this work, we propose a multiple covariance criterion which extends that of PLS regression to this multiple predictor groups situation. On this criterion, we build a PLS-type exploratory method - Structural Equation Exploratory Regression (SEER) - that allows to simultaneously perform dimension reduction in groups and investiga...

  19. Angular width of Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering: an path-integral approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Visible Cherenkov radiation can offers a method of the measurement of the velocity of a charged particles. The angular width of the radiation is important since it determines the resolution of the velocity measurement. In this article, the angular width of Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering is calculated through the path-integral method, and and the analytical expressions are presented. The condition that multiple scattering process dominates the angular distribution is obtained.

  20. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: A COMMUNITY-BASED REHABILITATION APPROACH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhan, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and multiple disabilities (MD) in regular schools in India is extremely poor. One of the key objectives of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is to include ID & MD children in regular schools. This study attempted to find out association with age, ID severity, poverty, gender, parent education, population, and multiple disabilities comprising one or more disorders cerebral palsy, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders with in...

  1. Comparisons of responses of multiple supported nuclear piping systems between random vibration approach and deterministic dynamic analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservatism issues of deterministic dynamic analysis methods practiced in the nuclear industry for multiply supported piping systems are investigated by a comparison study of responses using Random-Vibration-Modal-Time-History (RVMTH) approach and deterministic Modal Time History (MTH) together with Independent Support Motion (ISM) method. An indirect comparison is also made between RVMTH and a deterministic Multiple Modal Time History (MMTH) method using the comparison results between ISM and MMTH methods available in the literature. A simple model and a realistic model having typical features of nuclear buildings and piping systems are used for the comparison study. Both the primary buildings and secondary cascaded piping are modeled as deterministic, linear, Multiple Degrees of Freedom (MDOF), viscously damped systems that can be analyzed using a standard eigenvalue approach. Seismic excitations are modeled deterministically, as per NRC guidelines, and also as non-stationary, non-white, correlated, and vector-valued random processes

  2. Public forest policy development in New Brunswick, Canada: multiple streams approach, advocacy coalition framework, and the role of science

    OpenAIRE

    William F. A. Anderson; MacLean, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In a 15-year case study, we used the multiple streams approach (MSA) and the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) to examine a controversial industry-led proposal for increased harvest of Crown forests in New Brunswick, Canada, in an adversarial policy subsystem. Study participants were queried on their perceptions of policy problems and reasons for community attention, the relationship between science and policy, and whether policy decisions were consistent with scientific understanding. Thema...

  3. Economic Sustainability in Relation to Demographic Decline of Celtic Agglomerations in Central Europe: Multiple-Scenario Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olševičová, K.; Danielisová, Alžběta

    Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2014. ISBN N. [Social Simulation Conference 2014 - Simulating the Past to Understand Human History. Barcelona (ES), 01.09.2014-05.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/0926 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : social simulation * multiple scenario approach * system dynamics * oppida * late Iron Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://fawlty.uab. cat /SSC2014/SPUHH/socialsimulation2014_106.pdf

  4. A New Approach to Design Graph Based Search Engine for Multiple Domains Using Different Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2011-01-01

    Search Engine has become a major tool for searching any information from the World Wide Web (WWW). While searching the huge digital library available in the WWW, every effort is made to retrieve the most relevant results. But in WWW majority of the Web pages are in HTML format and there are no such tags which tells the crawler to find any specific domain. To find more relevant result we use Ontology for that particular domain. If we are working with multiple domains then we use multiple ontologies. Now in order to design a domain specific search engine for multiple domains, crawler must crawl through the domain specific Web pages in the WWW according to the predefined ontologies.

  5. One-dimensional multiple-well oscillators: A time-dependent quantum mechanical approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neetu Gupta; Amlan K Roy; B M Deb

    2002-10-01

    Time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) is solved numerically to calculate the ground- and first three excited-state energies, expectation values $\\langle x^{2j}\\rangle$, $j=1,2,\\ldots,6$ and probability densities of quantum mechanical multiple-well oscillators. An imaginary-time evolution technique, coupled with the minimization of energy expectation value to reach a global minimum, subject to orthogonality constraint (for excited states) has been employed. Pseudodegeneracy in symmetric, deep multiple-well potentials, probability densities and the effect of an asymmetry parameter on pseudodegeneracy are discussed.

  6. A New Approach to Design Graph Based Search Engine for Multiple Domains Using Different Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Sinha, Sukanta

    2011-01-01

    Search Engine has become a major tool for searching any information from the World Wide Web (WWW). While searching the huge digital library available in the WWW, every effort is made to retrieve the most relevant results. But in WWW majority of the Web pages are in HTML format and there are no such tags which tells the crawler to find any specific domain. To find more relevant result we use Ontology for that particular domain. If we are working with multiple domains then we use multiple ontol...

  7. Alteración de la autofagia y su modulación por una dieta rica en lípidos en un modelo murino de Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Oliván García, Sara; Osta Pinzolas, María Rosario; Calvo Royo, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    La Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa que se caracteriza por una afectación y pérdida selectiva de las motoneuronas y por una progresiva debilidad muscular. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos causantes de esta enfermedad no se conocen todavía, pero en los últimos años, entre las muchas teorías propuestas, se postula que la acumulación de proteínas anormalmente plegadas podría estar relacionada con el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Los dos principales mecanismo...

  8. Estudio en fase I de utilización de las células madre de médula ósea autólogas en pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Blanquer Blanquer, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Nuestro objetivo fue comprobar la seguridad de la infusión intraespinal de células mononucleadas de médula ósea autóloga (BMNCs) y buscar signos de neurotrofismo celular en pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Realizamos un ensayo fase I, infundiendo BMNCs en el cordón posterior medular. La seguridad se definió como la ausencia de eventos adversos severos relacionados con el tratamiento. Incluimos once pacientes. No hubo eventos adversos severos relacionados con el tratamiento....

  9. Complejo nódulo subependimario-astrocitoma subependimario gigantocelular en niños con esclerosis tuberosa Subependymal nodules-subependymal giant cell astrocytoma complex in children with tuberous sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Bongiorni; Hugo A. Arroyo; Fabiana Lubienicki

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo fue describir las características clínico imagenológicas de niños con esclerosis tuberosa que presentaron el complejo Nódulo Subependimario (NS)-Astrocitoma Subependimario Gigantocelular(ASGC) y analizar el comportamiento evolutivo de dicho "complejo" para detectar precozmente su crecimiento y evitar las complicaciones de la hipertensión endocraneana (HTE). Evaluamos 22 pacientes con diagnóstico anátomo patológico de ASGC. El diagnóstico del tumor se realizó a una media de 10.1 añ...

  10. Función de las metalotioneínas en la patogenia de la encefalomielitis autoinmune experimental y de la esclerosis múltiple. Implicaciones terapéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo Ruiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    [spa] La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central (SNC) siendo la principal causa de discapacidad en adultos jóvenes después de los traumatismos. Su prevalencia en nuestra área geográfica es aproximadamente 60-70 pacientes cada 100.000 habitantes. La causa de la enfermedad es aún desconocida y se han implicado tanto factores genéticos como ambientales. Se considera que es una enfermedad mediada por el sistema inmunitario, ...

  11. Megadosis de metilprednisolona oral frente a intravenosa para el brote de esclerosis múltiple comparación de la eficacia clínica y radiológica /

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo Tello, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    La mayoría de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM) sufrirán, sobretodo al principio de su enfermedad, episodios subagudos de déficit neurológico (brotes), de los que se recuperarán en mayor o menor medida. Minimizar el riesgo de padecer un brote es el pilar en el que se basan las terapias actuales para la EM, pero ninguna de las disponibles es capaz de evitarlo por completo, por lo que el tratamiento adecuado del brote, que persigue acortar su duración y mejorar su recuperación, sigue s...

  12. Potenciales evocados endógenos en esclerosis múltiple. Forma remitente, y su correlación con el análisis cuantitativo de las alteraciones funcionales. Neuropsicológicas, electrofisiológicas y estructurales

    OpenAIRE

    Viñuela Fernández, Félix

    1997-01-01

    Se estudiaron 30 enfermos con Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) clínicamente definida forma recidivante-remitente, y 30 controles con edad, escolaridad, y distribución por sexos similares. En el grupo de pacientes, el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad fue 8,73+-6,13 años, y la EDSS 2,33+-1,00 puntos. En todos los sujetos se realizó un estudio neuropsicológico (Programa Integrado Exploración Neuropsicológica), psicopatológico (Beck, MMPI) y electrofisiológico (Potenciales evocados auditivos exógeno...

  13. Análisis de la capacidad vital forzada como indicador de inicio de ventilación no invasiva en enfermos con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    La Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa de causa desconocida que se caracteriza por la pérdida de neuronas motoras en la médula espinal, el tronco cerebral y la corteza motora. Como consecuencia se produce un debilitamiento progresivo de los músculos de las extremidades, bulbares, torácicos y abdominales. La consecuencia directa de este hecho tiene repercusiones sobre la morbimortalidad en los pacientes con ELA. Ésta se constituye principalmente por problem...

  14. Using a Multiple Perspectives Framework: A Methodological Approach to Analyse Complex and Contradictory Interview Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta

    2014-01-01

    In this article I describe how a multiple perspectives framework drawn from the field of social work informed my analysis of interview data obtained from Australian preservice teachers who had gone on an international study trip. One incident recounted differently by three separate interviewees meant that the sometimes-similar and…

  15. Multiple Classifier Systems in Texton-Based Approach for the Classification of CT Images of Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, Saher B.;

    2011-01-01

    .e., texton size and k value in k-means. Our results show that while aggregation of single decisions by SVMs over various k values using multiple classifier systems helps to improve the results compared to single SVMs, combining over different texton sizes is not beneficial. The performance of the proposed...

  16. Implementing Transdisciplinary Services for Students with Multiple Handicaps: One District's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrol, M. Jane; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A school district in Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada) implemented a transdisciplinary team to provide services for students with multiple handicaps. The team comprises a special education teacher, speech/language pathologist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and teacher aides. This paper describes team member roles and responsibilities,…

  17. Clinical Practice Improvement Approach in Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore methods examining patient complexity and therapy interventions in relation to functional outcomes from an inpatient multiple sclerosis (MS) rehabilitation program. Retrospective and prospective data for 24 consecutive inpatients at a tertiary rehabilitation facility assessed (i)…

  18. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  19. Enriching Student Concept Images: Teaching and Learning Fractions through a Multiple-Embodiment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A.; Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how fifth-grade children's concept images of the unit fractions represented by the symbols 1/2, 1/3/ and 1/4 changed as a result of their participation in an instructional intervention based on multiple embodiments of fraction concepts. The participants' concept images were examined through pre- and post-teaching written…

  20. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis: a review for a multimodal approach in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sa, João Carlos Correia; Airas, Laura; Bartholome, Emmanuel; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Mattle, Heinrich; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; O'Riordan, Jonathan; Sellebjerg, Finn; Stankoff, Bruno; Vass, Karl; Walczak, Agata; Wiendl, Heinz; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2011-01-01

    As more investigations into factors affecting the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are undertaken, it is becoming increasingly apparent that certain comorbidities and associated symptoms commonly found in these patients differ in incidence, pathophysiology and other factors...

  1. Towards ecosystem accounting: a comprehensive approach to modelling multiple hydrological ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    C. Duku; H. Rathjens; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. In spite of the progress made in mapping and quantifying hydrological ecosystem services, several key issues must be addressed if ecohydrological modelling approaches are to be aligned with ecosystem accounting. They include modelling hydrological ecosystem services with adequate spatiotemporal detail and accuracy at aggregated ...

  2. Multiple Regression Analysis of Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Approaches, and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research in educational psychology has explored student approaches to learning (SAL) and epistemological beliefs within the theoretical framework of self-regulated learning. The focus of this research study seeks to explore the predictiveness of learning approaches and epistemological beliefs on students' self-regulatory…

  3. EU ETS market interactions: The case for multiple hypothesis testing approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of EUA and CER price interactions over EU ETS Phase II period. • Application and comparision of multiple hypothesis testing (MHT) procodures. • Term structure interactions within EUA and CER forward curves shown to exist. • Interactions between EUA and CER markets shown to exist. • Differences in alternative MHT procedures examined, particularly conservativeness. - Abstract: As the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) enters into the post-2012 Phase III period that runs to 2020, a timely assessment of European Union Allowance (EUA) and Certified Emissions Reduction (CER) price interactions over the Phase II period is presented. Vector autoregression and Granger causality testing is employed for this analysis. As a key contribution to the existing literature, the paper sets out the case for the application of sophisticated multiple hypothesis testing (MHT) procedures to control for the multiple comparisons problem, whereby under naive analysis the identification of significant results from performing multiple simultaneous hypothesis tests may occur by pure chance alone. Two classifications of procedures are employed to control for the multiple comparisons problem in the vector autoregression and Granger causality tests performed: (i) generalised familywise error rate procedures and (ii) false discovery proportion procedures. Over the latter part of Phase II, the generalised familywise error rate procedures show evidence of term structure interactions within both the EUA and CER forward curves. Interactions between the EUA and CER markets are also shown to exist. All of this evidence points to the improved structural reforms to Phase III of the EU ETS that include the extended greenhouse gas coverage, extended sectoral coverage (including aviation), single EU-wide emissions cap, introduction of auctioning and tighter offset limits. However, a word of caution is sounded as the false discovery proportion procedures fail to

  4. Adaptive management of applications across multiple clouds: The SeaClouds Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Brogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available How to deploy and manage, in an efficient and adaptive way, complex applications across multiple heterogeneous cloud platforms is one of the problems that have emerged with the cloud revolution. In this paper we present context, motivations and objectives of the EU research project SeaClouds, which aims at enabling a seamless adaptive multi-cloud management of complex applications by supporting the distribution, monitoring and migration of application modules over multiple heterogeneous cloud platforms. After positioning SeaClouds with respect to related cloud initiatives, we present the SeaClouds architecture and discuss some of its aspect, such as the use of the OASIS standard TOSCA and the compatibility with the OASIS CAMP initiative.

  5. NEW APPROACHES FOR COMPUTING DYNAMIC LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF MULTIPLE COOPERATING ROBOTIC MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A novel unified method for computing the dynamic load-carrying capacity(DLCC) of multiple cooperating robotic manipulators is developed.In this method,the kinematic constraints and the governing dynamic equations of the multiple robot system are formulated in the joint space by using the method of transference of dependence from one set of generalized coordinates to another,and the virtual work principle,which includes the readily available dynamics and joint torques of individual manipulators,and the dynamic of payload.Based on this dynamic model,the upper limit of the DLCC at any points on a given trajectory is obtained by solving a small-size linear programming problem.This method is conceptually straightforward,and it is applicable also to the cases of multi-fingered robot hands and multi-legged walking machines.

  6. On Resource Allocation in Fading Multiple Access Channels - An Efficient Approximate Projection Approach

    CERN Document Server

    ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of rate and power allocation in a multiple-access channel. Our objective is to obtain rate and power allocation policies that maximize a general concave utility function of average transmission rates on the information theoretic capacity region of the multiple-access channel. Our policies does not require queue-length information. We consider several different scenarios. First, we address the utility maximization problem in a nonfading channel to obtain the optimal operating rates, and present an iterative gradient projection algorithm that uses approximate projection. By exploiting the polymatroid structure of the capacity region, we show that the approximate projection can be implemented in time polynomial in the number of users. Second, we consider resource allocation in a fading channel. Optimal rate and power allocation policies are presented for the case that power control is possible and channel statistics are available. For the case that transmission power is fixed and channel ...

  7. Multiple model approach and experimental validation of a residential air-to-air heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Garde, Francois; Garde, François; Boyer, Harry; Pignolet, Florence; Lucas, Franck; Brau, Jean

    1997-01-01

    International audience The beginning of this work is the achievement of a design tool, which is a multiple model software called " CODYRUN ", suitable for professionnals and usable by researchers. The original aspect of this software is that the designer has at his disposal a wide panel of choices between different heat transfer models More precisely, it consists in a multizone software integrating both natural ventilation and moisture tranfers . This software is developed on PC micro comp...

  8. New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Paul F SmithDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: Cannabinoids such as Cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CBMEs) are increasingly being used in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). They have been shown to have a beneficial effect on spasticity; however, this evidence is largely based on subjective rating scales. Objective measurements using the Ashworth scale have tended to show...

  9. A needs-driven approach to expatriate adjustment and career development: a multiple mentoring perspective

    OpenAIRE

    John M Mezias; Terri A Scandura

    2005-01-01

    Although effective in improving socialization, development, and retention in the US domestic context, mentoring would likely benefit expatriates and their firms, but it remains theoretically underdeveloped in the international context. We develop a theory of international mentoring by integrating current perspectives on protean and boundaryless careers with the literature on mentoring and expatriates. Expatriates need multiple mentors to assist their adjustment and development during the pre-...

  10. A multiple-imputation based approach to sensitivity analysis and effectiveness assessment in longitudinal clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome Ayele, Birhanu; Lipkovich, Ilya; Molenberghs, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig H

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effects of a drug as actually taken (effectiveness) and when taken as directed (efficacy). The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the statistical performance of a method referred to as placebo multiple imputation (pMI) as an estimator of effectiveness and as a worst reasonable case sensitivity analysis in assessing efficacy. The pMI method assumes the statistical behavior of placebo- and drug-treated patients after dropout is the statistica...

  11. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, Lesther A.; Litson, Kaylee; Lockhart, Ginger; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates vario...

  12. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Riccio; Rocco Rossano; Grazia Maria Liuzzi

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify...

  13. Design and evaluation of an optimization based approach to multiple burst admission control for cdma2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, VKN; Kwok, YK

    2001-01-01

    In our recent study, we have formulated the burst admission control problem for wideband CDMA systems as an integer programming problem. In this paper, we propose and analyze the performance of a novel burst admission technique, called the multiple-burst admission-spatial dimension algorithm (MBA-SD) to judiciously allocate the previous channels in wideband CDMA systems to burst requests. Both the forward link and the reverse link burst requests are considered and the system is simulated by d...

  14. A Virtual Motion Camouflage Approach for Cooperative Trajectory Planning of Multiple UCAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqiang Gu; Lincheng Shen; Jing Chen; Yu Zhang; Wanpeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates cooperative trajectory planning of multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles (multi-UCAV) in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. By integrating an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraint models, and a multicriterion objective function, the problem is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTOCP). Then, a virtual motion camouflage (VMC) for cooperative trajectory planning of multi-UCAV, co...

  15. A Grey Theory Based Multiple Attribute Approach for R&D Project Portfolio Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Rupak Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the research and development (R&D) project portfolio selection problem is introduced as a multiple attribute decision making problem. Recognizing and modeling the project interdependencies provide valuable cost savings and other greater benefits to organizations. Therefore, besides conventional attributes like cost and outcome, different type of interdependencies are also considered as attributes. Since the decision makers’ preferences on the project alternatives or attributes ...

  16. Improving Multiple Sequence Alignments by Revising Sequence Families with Alignment Scoring Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Levchuk, Aleksandr O.

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing the functional, structural, and evolutionary relationships of biological sequences is an important task in modern genomics and computational biology. Most of these applications involve the assembly of sequence families by similarity searching, subsequent formation of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and downstream phylogenetic analyses. Especially, MSAs play a central role in this modeling workflow. Thus, the quality of the MSAs is of critical importance for its success. In ...

  17. Bone disease in multiple myeloma and precursor disease: novel diagnostic approaches and implications on clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Minter, Alex R; Korde, Neha; TAN, ESTHER; Landgren, Ola

    2011-01-01

    The manifestations of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) can have devastating clinical effects and increase mortality. Recent studies demonstrate that patients with the precursor conditions smoldering MM (SMM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) show evidence of bone disease and increased risk of fractures. The understanding of the pathogenesis of bone disease in MM has expanded in recent years. The traditional skeletal survey will probably be re...

  18. A Latent Variable Approach for Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Data from Multiple Microarray Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnaiyan Arul M.; Shen Ronglai; Choi Hyungwon; Ghosh Debashis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background With the explosion in data generated using microarray technology by different investigators working on similar experiments, it is of interest to combine results across multiple studies. Results In this article, we describe a general probabilistic framework for combining high-throughput genomic data from several related microarray experiments using mixture models. A key feature of the model is the use of latent variables that represent quantities that can be combined across...

  19. Stepwise approach to establishing multiple outreach laboratory information system-electronic medical record interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liron Pantanowitz; Wayne LaBranche; William Lareau

    2010-01-01

    Clinical laboratory outreach business is changing as more physician practices adopt an electronic medical record (EMR). Physician connectivity with the laboratory information system (LIS) is consequently becoming more important. However, there are no reports available to assist the informatician with establishing and maintaining outreach LIS-EMR connectivity. A four-stage scheme is presented that was successfully employed to establish unidirectional and bidirectional interfaces with multiple ...

  20. A Global Optimization Approach for Solving Generalized Nonlinear Multiplicative Programming Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Peng Yang; Pei-Ping Shen; Yong-Gang Pei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a global optimization algorithm for solving globally the generalized nonlinear multiplicative programming (MP) with a nonconvex constraint set. The algorithm uses a branch and bound scheme based on an equivalently reverse convex programming problem. As a result, in the computation procedure the main work is solving a series of linear programs that do not grow in size from iterations to iterations. Further several key strategies are proposed to enhance solution production, ...

  1. MGNC-CNN: A Simple Approach to Exploiting Multiple Word Embeddings for Sentence Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ye; Roller, Stephen; Wallace, Byron

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel, simple convolution neural network (CNN) architecture - multi-group norm constraint CNN (MGNC-CNN) that capitalizes on multiple sets of word embeddings for sentence classification. MGNC-CNN extracts features from input embedding sets independently and then joins these at the penultimate layer in the network to form a final feature vector. We then adopt a group regularization strategy that differentially penalizes weights associated with the subcomponents generated from th...

  2. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  3. Climate change, livelihoods and the multiple determinants of water adequacy: two approaches at regional to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Inadequate access to water is already a problem in many regions of the world and processes of global change are expected to further exacerbate the situation. Many aspects determine the adequacy of water resources: beside actual physical water stress, where the resource itself is limited, economic and social water stress can be experienced if access to resource is limited by inadequate infrastructure, political or financial constraints. To assess the adequacy of water availability for human use, integrated approaches are needed that allow to view the multiple determinants in conjunction and provide sound results as a basis for informed decisions. This contribution proposes two parts of an integrated approach to look at the multiple dimensions of water scarcity at regional to global scale. These were developed in a joint project with the German Development Agency (GIZ). It first outlines the AHEAD approach to measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development, implemented at global scale and at national resolution. This first approach allows viewing impacts of climate change, e.g. changes in water availability, within the wider context of AHEAD conditions. A specific focus lies on the uncertainties in projections of climate change and future water availability. As adequate water access is not determined by water availability alone, in a second step we develop an approach to assess the water requirements for different sectors in more detail, including aspects of quantity, quality as well as access, in an integrated way. This more detailed approach is exemplified at region-scale in Indonesia and South Africa. Our results show that in many regions of the world, water scarcity is a limitation to AHEAD conditions in many countries, regardless of differing modelling output. The more detailed assessments highlight the relevance of additional aspects to assess the adequacy of water for human use, showing that in many regions, quality and

  4. Assessing the safety effects of multiple roadside treatments using parametric and nonparametric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the safety effectiveness of multiple roadside elements on roadway segments by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs) using the cross-sectional method. To consider the nonlinearity in crash predictors, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models. The MARS is one of the promising data mining techniques due to its ability to consider the interaction impact of more than one variables and nonlinearity of predictors simultaneously. The CMFs were developed for four roadside elements (driveway density, poles density, distance to poles, and distance to trees) and combined safety effects of multiple treatments were interpreted by the interaction terms from the MARS models. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 were collected for rural undivided four-lane roadways in Florida for different crash types and severity levels. The results show that the safety effects decrease as density of driveways and roadside poles increase. The estimated CMFs also indicate that increasing distance to roadside poles and trees reduces crashes. The study demonstrates that the GNMs show slightly better model fitness than negative binomial (NB) models. Moreover, the MARS models outperformed NB and GNM models due to its strength to reflect the nonlinearity of crash predictors and interaction impacts among variables under different ranges. Therefore, it can be recommended that the CMFs are estimated using MARS when there are nonlinear relationships between crash rate and roadway characteristics, and interaction impacts among multiple treatments. PMID:26291920

  5. Newtonian Imperialist Competitve Approach to Optimizing Observation of Multiple Target Points in Multisensor Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afghan-Toloee, A.; Heidari, A. A.; Joibari, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The problem of specifying the minimum number of sensors to deploy in a certain area to face multiple targets has been generally studied in the literatures. In this paper, we are arguing the multi-sensors deployment problem (MDP). The Multi-sensor placement problem can be clarified as minimizing the cost required to cover the multi target points in the area. We propose a more feasible method for the multi-sensor placement problem. Our method makes provision the high coverage of grid based placements while minimizing the cost as discovered in perimeter placement techniques. The NICA algorithm as improved ICA (Imperialist Competitive Algorithm) is used to decrease the performance time to explore an enough solution compared to other meta-heuristic schemes such as GA, PSO and ICA. A three dimensional area is used for clarify the multiple target and placement points, making provision x, y, and z computations in the observation algorithm. A structure of model for the multi-sensor placement problem is proposed: The problem is constructed as an optimization problem with the objective to minimize the cost while covering all multiple target points upon a given probability of observation tolerance.

  6. NEWTONIAN IMPERIALIST COMPETITVE APPROACH TO OPTIMIZING OBSERVATION OF MULTIPLE TARGET POINTS IN MULTISENSOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afghan-Toloee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of specifying the minimum number of sensors to deploy in a certain area to face multiple targets has been generally studied in the literatures. In this paper, we are arguing the multi-sensors deployment problem (MDP. The Multi-sensor placement problem can be clarified as minimizing the cost required to cover the multi target points in the area. We propose a more feasible method for the multi-sensor placement problem. Our method makes provision the high coverage of grid based placements while minimizing the cost as discovered in perimeter placement techniques. The NICA algorithm as improved ICA (Imperialist Competitive Algorithm is used to decrease the performance time to explore an enough solution compared to other meta-heuristic schemes such as GA, PSO and ICA. A three dimensional area is used for clarify the multiple target and placement points, making provision x, y, and z computations in the observation algorithm. A structure of model for the multi-sensor placement problem is proposed: The problem is constructed as an optimization problem with the objective to minimize the cost while covering all multiple target points upon a given probability of observation tolerance.

  7. Music Learning in the Early Years: Interdisciplinary Approaches based on Multiple Intelligences

    OpenAIRE

    Economidou Stavrou, Natassa; Chrysostomou, Smaragda; Socratous, Harris

    2011-01-01

    The unity of knowledge represents an old idea with new manifestations. During the last decades integrated approaches in teaching and learning have become increasingly popular. Applications of integrative approaches between the arts and other school subjects exist in many countries around the world, offering insights into the problems and challenges that such efforts can result into. In this paper a short review of the relevant literature in support of integrative curricula, as well as problem...

  8. Integrating Multiple Knowledge Sources to Disambiguate Word Sense: An Exemplar-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Hwee Tou; Lee, Hian Beng

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for word sense disambiguation (WSD) using an exemplar-based learning algorithm. This approach integrates a diverse set of knowledge sources to disambiguate word sense, including part of speech of neighboring words, morphological form, the unordered set of surrounding words, local collocations, and verb-object syntactic relation. We tested our WSD program, named {\\sc Lexas}, on both a common data set used in previous work, as well as on a large sense-ta...

  9. The interactive business case approach for multiple land use: more efficiency, less costs!

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, R.J.M.; Ellen, G.J.; Heijden, van der, C.A.M.; Lamoen, van, F.; Melisie, E.J.; Peerdeman, K.; Wind, M.H.A.; Paalman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes Interactive Business Case Approach (IBCA) in a participatory planning setting concerning multifunctional land use, as an instrument for climate adaptation strategies. Multifunctional land use is an solution to optimize the use of scare spatial resources, especially in densely populated areas such as the Netherlands. Multifunctional land use is also a strategy to deal with the effects of climate change and social economic trends. The goal of IBCA is to provide an approach ...

  10. A UNIVERSAL APPROACH FOR CONTINUOUS OR DISCRETE NONLINEAR PROGRAMMINGS WITH MULTIPLE VARIABLES AND CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A universal numerical approach for nonlinear mathematic programming problems is presented with an application of ratios of first-order differentials/differences of objective functions to constraint functions with respect to design variables. This approach can be efficiently used to solve continuous and, in particular, discrete programmings with arbitrary design variables and constraints. As a search method, this approach requires only computations of the functions and their partial derivatives or differences with respect to design variables, rather than any solution of mathematic equations. The present approach has been applied on many numerical examples as well as on some classical operational problems such as one-dimensional and two-dimensional knap-sack problems, one-dimensional and two-dimensional resource-distribution problems, problems of working reliability of composite systems and loading problems of machine, and more efficient and reliable solutions are obtained than traditional methods. The present approach can be used without limitation of modeling scales of the problem. Optimum solutions can be guaranteed as long as the objective function,constraint functions and their first-order derivatives/differences exist in the feasible domain or feasible set. There are no failures of convergence and instability when this approach is adopted.

  11. The contribution of a niche-based approach to ecological risk assessment: Using macroinvertebrate species under multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose that a niche-based experimental approach at population level could be used to solve some uncertainties in traditional approaches in ecotoxicology. We tested this approach in the context of multiple stressors (i.e. chemical and physical) in a selection of six run-of-river reservoirs with different levels of sediment contamination and associated upstream and downstream river sites. A niche-based approach was tested using three functional traits (habitat, food preferences and body size) and discrepancy between the realized and theoretical niches. We first identified three groups of taxa and then recorded differences along the disturbance gradients, such as an increase in competition, a narrowing of spatial and trophic niche breadth (e.g. of Leuctra major and Gammarus pulex), a widening of spatial niche breadth (e.g. of Ephemerella ignita), a greater proportion of small individuals (e.g. of G. pulex) and a decreasing or an increasing (e.g. L. major) discrepancy between realized and theoretical niches. -- Highlights: • We test a niche-based approach for ecological risk assessment methodologies. • We explore inter-population variability of functional traits of macroinvertebrates species. • Competition, habitat occupancy, diet and size vary significantly. • Discrepancy between niches increases significantly with the metal contamination. • Niches shifts reveal population vulnerability. -- Niche-based approach provides early indicators of disturbance and relevant endpoints to impacts on communities and ecosystem functioning

  12. Multiple-Use Services as an Alternative to Rural Water Supply Services: A Characterisation of the Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Smits

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-use services (MUS have recently gained increased attention as an alternative form of providing rural water services in an integrated manner. This stems from the growing recognition that users anyway tend to use water systems for multiple purposes. This paper aims to characterise this practice on the basis of case evidence collected in eight countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The cases show that people almost universally use water for both domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. Although seldom the main source of people’s income or food production, these activities are of considerable importance for people’s livelihoods. The extent to which people use water for multiple purposes is closely related to the level of access to water expressed in the form of a water ladder in this paper. The case studies presented demonstrate how access is created by different types and combinations of well-known technologies. Additional financial and management measures are required to ensure sustainability of services. Despite the practical feasibility of the MUS approach, it is not yet widely applied by service providers and sector agencies due to observed barriers in institutional uptake. A better characterisation of MUS, alongside a learning-driven stakeholder process was able to overcome some of these barriers and improve the consideration of multiple uses of water in policy and practice.

  13. Ansiedad y depresión en la esclerosis múltiple remitente-recidivante: relación con las alteraciones neuropsicológicas y la percepción subjetiva de deterioro cognitivo en pacientes con discapacidad mínima/leve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Olivares-Pérez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La ansiedad y la depresión son trastornos psiquiátricos vinculados a la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM. Sin embargo, la ansiedad no ha sido prácticamente estudiada. Objetivos. Examinar la asociación de ambos trastornos con el deterioro neuropsicológico y su contribución a la autopercepción de deterioro cognitivo. Sujetos y métodos. Se estudiaron 33 pacientes con EM Remitente-Recidivante y niveles de discapacidad mínima-leve. Instrumentos: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire; Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests. El examen neuropsicológico se aplicó a 67 controles. Resultados. La ansiedad y la depresión no están relacionadas con el deterioro neuropsicológico. La gravedad de la sintomatología ansiosa está especialmente asociada a una menor duración de la EM. Ansiedad y depresión están altamente correlacionadas y ambas predicen la percepción subjetiva de deterioro. La capacidad predictiva del HADS-total sobre la percepción subjetiva de deterioro fue similar a la obtenida por las subescalas de ansiedad y depresión por separado. Conclusiones. La autopercepción de deterioro cognitivo en la EMRR con discapacidad mínima podría estar relacionada con un factor de malestar psicológico general compartido por la ansiedad y la depresión. Nuestros resultados resaltan la importancia de detectar y tratar la sintomatología ansiosa en fases iniciales de la EM.

  14. A dynamic programming approach for the alignment of signal peaks in multiple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McConville Malcolm J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS is a robust platform for the profiling of certain classes of small molecules in biological samples. When multiple samples are profiled, including replicates of the same sample and/or different sample states, one needs to account for retention time drifts between experiments. This can be achieved either by the alignment of chromatographic profiles prior to peak detection, or by matching signal peaks after they have been extracted from chromatogram data matrices. Automated retention time correction is particularly important in non-targeted profiling studies. Results A new approach for matching signal peaks based on dynamic programming is presented. The proposed approach relies on both peak retention times and mass spectra. The alignment of more than two peak lists involves three steps: (1 all possible pairs of peak lists are aligned, and similarity of each pair of peak lists is estimated; (2 the guide tree is built based on the similarity between the peak lists; (3 peak lists are progressively aligned starting with the two most similar peak lists, following the guide tree until all peak lists are exhausted. When two or more experiments are performed on different sample states and each consisting of multiple replicates, peak lists within each set of replicate experiments are aligned first (within-state alignment, and subsequently the resulting alignments are aligned themselves (between-state alignment. When more than two sets of replicate experiments are present, the between-state alignment also employs the guide tree. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach on GC-MS metabolic profiling experiments acquired on wild-type and mutant Leishmania mexicana parasites. Conclusion We propose a progressive method to match signal peaks across multiple GC-MS experiments based on dynamic programming. A sensitive peak similarity function is proposed to balance peak retention time and peak

  15. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or γ-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results

  16. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.

  17. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  18. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spill, Fabian, E-mail: fspill@bu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guerrero, Pilar [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Alarcon, Tomas [Centre de Recerca Matematica, Campus de Bellaterra, Edifici C, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Maini, Philip K. [Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Byrne, Helen [Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Computational Biology Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries.

  19. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries

  20. A coagulation-powdered activated carbon-ultrafiltration - Multiple barrier approach for removing toxins from two Australian cyanobacterial blooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Mike B., E-mail: mike.dixon@sawater.com.au [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, GPO Box 1751, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Richard, Yann [School of Chemistry, Physics and Electronics, 48 Blvd du 11 Nov 1918, BP 2077-69616, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ho, Lionel [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, GPO Box 1751, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Chow, Christopher W.K. [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, GPO Box 1751, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); O' Neill, Brian K. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Newcombe, Gayle [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, GPO Box 1751, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia)

    2011-02-28

    Cyanobacteria are a major problem for the world wide water industry as they can produce metabolites toxic to humans in addition to taste and odour compounds that make drinking water aesthetically displeasing. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins from drinking water is important to avoid serious illness in consumers. This objective can be confidently achieved through the application of the multiple barrier approach to drinking water quality and safety. In this study the use of a multiple barrier approach incorporating coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of intracellular and extracellular cyanobacterial toxins from two naturally occurring blooms in South Australia. Also investigated was the impact of these treatments on the UF flux. In this multibarrier approach, coagulation was used to remove the cells and thus the intracellular toxin while PAC was used for extracellular toxin adsorption and finally the UF was used for floc, PAC and cell removal. Cyanobacterial cells were completely removed using the UF membrane alone and when used in conjunction with coagulation. Extracellular toxins were removed to varying degrees by PAC addition. UF flux deteriorated dramatically during a trial with a very high cell concentration; however, the flux was improved by coagulation and PAC addition.

  1. A coagulation-powdered activated carbon-ultrafiltration - Multiple barrier approach for removing toxins from two Australian cyanobacterial blooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanobacteria are a major problem for the world wide water industry as they can produce metabolites toxic to humans in addition to taste and odour compounds that make drinking water aesthetically displeasing. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins from drinking water is important to avoid serious illness in consumers. This objective can be confidently achieved through the application of the multiple barrier approach to drinking water quality and safety. In this study the use of a multiple barrier approach incorporating coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of intracellular and extracellular cyanobacterial toxins from two naturally occurring blooms in South Australia. Also investigated was the impact of these treatments on the UF flux. In this multibarrier approach, coagulation was used to remove the cells and thus the intracellular toxin while PAC was used for extracellular toxin adsorption and finally the UF was used for floc, PAC and cell removal. Cyanobacterial cells were completely removed using the UF membrane alone and when used in conjunction with coagulation. Extracellular toxins were removed to varying degrees by PAC addition. UF flux deteriorated dramatically during a trial with a very high cell concentration; however, the flux was improved by coagulation and PAC addition.

  2. A coagulation-powdered activated carbon-ultrafiltration--multiple barrier approach for removing toxins from two Australian cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike B; Richard, Yann; Ho, Lionel; Chow, Christopher W K; O'Neill, Brian K; Newcombe, Gayle

    2011-02-28

    Cyanobacteria are a major problem for the world wide water industry as they can produce metabolites toxic to humans in addition to taste and odour compounds that make drinking water aesthetically displeasing. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins from drinking water is important to avoid serious illness in consumers. This objective can be confidently achieved through the application of the multiple barrier approach to drinking water quality and safety. In this study the use of a multiple barrier approach incorporating coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of intracellular and extracellular cyanobacterial toxins from two naturally occurring blooms in South Australia. Also investigated was the impact of these treatments on the UF flux. In this multibarrier approach, coagulation was used to remove the cells and thus the intracellular toxin while PAC was used for extracellular toxin adsorption and finally the UF was used for floc, PAC and cell removal. Cyanobacterial cells were completely removed using the UF membrane alone and when used in conjunction with coagulation. Extracellular toxins were removed to varying degrees by PAC addition. UF flux deteriorated dramatically during a trial with a very high cell concentration; however, the flux was improved by coagulation and PAC addition. PMID:21227576

  3. Detecting a Weak Association by Testing its Multiple Perturbations: a Data Mining Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Tzu Lo; Wen-Chung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Many risk factors/interventions in epidemiologic/biomedical studies are of minuscule effects. To detect such weak associations, one needs a study with a very large sample size (the number of subjects, n). The n of a study can be increased but unfortunately only to an extent. Here, we propose a novel method which hinges on increasing sample size in a different direction–the total number of variables (p). We construct a p-based ‘multiple perturbation test', and conduct power calculations and co...

  4. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis: a review for a multimodal approach in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sa, João Carlos Correia; Airas, Laura; Bartholome, Emmanuel; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Mattle, Heinrich; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; O'Riordan, Jonathan; Sellebjerg, Finn; Stankoff, Bruno; Vass, Karl; Walczak, Agata; Wiendl, Heinz; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2011-01-01

    As more investigations into factors affecting the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are undertaken, it is becoming increasingly apparent that certain comorbidities and associated symptoms commonly found in these patients differ in incidence, pathophysiology and other factors....... This information gap adds further complexity to disease management and represents an unmet need in MS, particularly as early recognition and treatment of these conditions can improve patient outcomes. In this manuscript, we sought to review the literature on the comorbidities and symptoms of MS and to...... summarize the evidence for treatments that have been or may be used to alleviate them....

  5. Multiple-scattering approach to the x-ray-absorption spectra of perovskite-type compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Michihide; Muramatsu, Shinji; Sugiura, Chikara

    1988-04-01

    The metal K x-ray-absorption near-edge structure has been calculated for the first time from a multiple-scattering formalism for the perovskite-type compounds KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KZnF3. The calculation includes the effects of a core hole and of Madelung corrections for crystal potentials. It is shown that the results including the lifetime-broadening effect are in good agreement with the experiment of Shulman et al.

  6. Quantum correlation approach to criticality in the XX spin chain with multiple interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the quantum critical behavior in the XX spin chain with a XZY-YZX type multiple interaction by means of quantum correlation (Concurrence C, quantum discord DQ and geometric discord DG). Around the critical point, the values of these quantum correlations and corresponding derivatives are investigated numerically and analytically. The results show that the non-analyticity property of the concurrence cannot signal well the quantum phase transition, but both the quantum discord and geometric discord can characterize the critical behavior in such model exactly.

  7. An alarm filtering system for an automated process: a multiple-agent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the supervision process of industrial installations is more and more complex involving the automation of their control. A malfunction generates an avalanche of alarms. The operator, in charge of the supervision, must face the incident and execute right actions to recover a normal situation. Generally, he is drowned under the great number of alarms. Our aim, in the frame of our researches, is to perform an alarm filtering system for an automated metro line, to help the operator finding the main alarm responsible for the malfunction. Our works are divided into two parts, both dealing with study and development of an alarm filtering system but using two different approaches. The first part is developed in the frame of the SARA project (an operator assistance system for an automated metro line) which is an expert system prototype helping the operators of a command center. In this part, a centralized approach has been used representing the events with a single event graph and using a global procedure to perform diagnosis. This approach has itself shown its limits. In the second part of our works, we have considered the distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) techniques, and more especially the multi-agent approach. The multi-agent approach has been motivated by the natural distribution of the metro line equipment and by the fact that each equipment has its own local control and knowledge. Thus, each equipment has been considered as an autonomous agent. Through agents cooperation, the system is able to determine the main alarm and the faulty equipment responsible for the incident. A prototype, written in SPIRAL (a tool for knowledge-based system) is running on a workstation. This prototype has allowed the concretization and the validation of our multi-agent approach. (author)

  8. A novel approach for multiple mobile objects path planning: Parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Wang, Hongwei; Zamirian, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach containing two steps to determine conflict-free paths for mobile objects in two and three dimensions with moving obstacles. Firstly, the shortest path of each object is set as goal function which is subject to collision-avoidance criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration constraints. This problem is formulated as calculus of variation problem (CVP). Using parametrization method, CVP is converted to time-varying nonlinear programming problems (TNLPP) and then resolved. Secondly, move sequence of object is assigned by priority scheme; conflicts are resolved by multilevel conflict resolution strategy. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples.

  9. Integrating Multiple Knowledge Sources to Disambiguate Word Sense An Exemplar-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, H T; Ng, Hwee Tou; Lee, Hian Beng

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for word sense disambiguation (WSD) using an exemplar-based learning algorithm. This approach integrates a diverse set of knowledge sources to disambiguate word sense, including part of speech of neighboring words, morphological form, the unordered set of surrounding words, local collocations, and verb-object syntactic relation. We tested our WSD program, named {\\sc Lexas}, on both a common data set used in previous work, as well as on a large sense-tagged corpus that we separately constructed. better than the most frequent heuristic on the highly ambiguous words in the large corpus tagged with the refined senses of {\\sc WordNet}.

  10. New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul F SmithDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: Cannabinoids such as Cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CBMEs are increasingly being used in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS. They have been shown to have a beneficial effect on spasticity; however, this evidence is largely based on subjective rating scales. Objective measurements using the Ashworth scale have tended to show no significant effect; however, the validity of this scale has been questioned. The available clinical trial data suggest that the adverse side effects associated with using CBMEs are generally mild, such as dry mouth, dizziness, somnolence, nausea and intoxication. However, most of these trials were run over a period of months and it is possible that other adverse side effects could develop with long-term use. There may be reason to be concerned about the use of therapeutic cannabinoids by adolescents, people predisposed to psychosis and pregnant women.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, spasticity, cannabinoids, Cannabis

  11. Practical Approaches to the Use of Lenalidomide in Multiple Myeloma: A Canadian Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Reece

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, lenalidomide combined with dexamethasone (Len/Dex is approved for use in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM. Our expert panel sought to provide an up-to-date practical guide on the use of lenalidomide in the managing RRMM within the Canadian clinical setting, including management of common adverse events (AEs. The panel concluded that safe, effective administration of Len/Dex treatment involves the following steps: (1 lenalidomide dose adjustment based on creatinine clearance and the extent of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, (2 dexamethasone administered at 20–40 mg/week, and (3 continuation of treatment until disease progression or until toxicity persists despite dose reduction. Based on available evidence, the following precautions should reduce the risk of common Len/Dex AEs: (1 all patients treated with Len/Dex should receive thromboprophylaxis, (2 erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs should be used cautiously, and (3 females of child-bearing potential and males in contact with such females must use multiple contraception methods. Finally, while Len/Dex can be administered irrespective of prior therapy and in all prognostic subsets, patients with chromosomal deletion 17(p13 have less favorable outcomes with all treatments, including Len/Dex. New directions for the use of lenalidomide in RRMM are also considered.

  12. MSblender: A probabilistic approach for integrating peptide identifications from multiple database search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taejoon; Choi, Hyungwon; Vogel, Christine; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Marcotte, Edward M

    2011-07-01

    Shotgun proteomics using mass spectrometry is a powerful method for protein identification but suffers limited sensitivity in complex samples. Integrating peptide identifications from multiple database search engines is a promising strategy to increase the number of peptide identifications and reduce the volume of unassigned tandem mass spectra. Existing methods pool statistical significance scores such as p-values or posterior probabilities of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) from multiple search engines after high scoring peptides have been assigned to spectra, but these methods lack reliable control of identification error rates as data are integrated from different search engines. We developed a statistically coherent method for integrative analysis, termed MSblender. MSblender converts raw search scores from search engines into a probability score for every possible PSM and properly accounts for the correlation between search scores. The method reliably estimates false discovery rates and identifies more PSMs than any single search engine at the same false discovery rate. Increased identifications increment spectral counts for most proteins and allow quantification of proteins that would not have been quantified by individual search engines. We also demonstrate that enhanced quantification contributes to improve sensitivity in differential expression analyses. PMID:21488652

  13. A Fault-Tolerant Multiple Sensor Fusion Approach Applied to UAV Attitude Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensor fusion design framework is presented with the objective of improving the overall multisensor measurement system performance and achieving graceful degradation following individual sensor failures. The Unscented Information Filter (UIF is used to provide a useful tool for combining information from multiple sources. A two-step off-line and on-line calibration procedure refines sensor error models and improves the measurement performance. A Fault Detection and Identification (FDI scheme crosschecks sensor measurements and simultaneously monitors sensor biases. Low-quality or faulty sensor readings are then rejected from the final sensor fusion process. The attitude estimation problem is used as a case study for the multiple sensor fusion algorithm design, with information provided by a set of low-cost rate gyroscopes, accelerometers, magnetometers, and a single-frequency GPS receiver’s position and velocity solution. Flight data collected with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV research test bed verifies the sensor fusion, adaptation, and fault-tolerance capabilities of the designed sensor fusion algorithm.

  14. A novel approach for multiple mobile objects path planning: Parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new approach containing two steps to determine conflict-free paths for mobile objects in two and three dimensions with moving obstacles. Firstly, the shortest path of each object is set as goal function which is subject to collision-avoidance criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration constraints. This problem is formulated as calculus of variation problem (CVP). Using parametrization method, CVP is converted to time-varying nonlinear programming problems (TNLPP) and then resolved. Secondly, move sequence of object is assigned by priority scheme; conflicts are resolved by multilevel conflict resolution strategy. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples. -- Highlights: ► Approach with parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy is proposed. ► Approach fits for multi-object paths planning in two and three dimensions. ► Single object path planning and multi-object conflict resolution are orderly used. ► Path of each object obtained with parameterization method in the first phase. ► Conflict-free paths gained by multi-object conflict resolution in the second phase.

  15. A microarray approach for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pathogen detection microarray was developed for simultaneous detection of the four most prominent foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. The approach utilized 14 species-specific gene targets to design a variety...

  16. Identifying multiple outliers in linear regression: robust fit and clustering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research provides a clustering based approach for determining potential candidates for outliers. This is modification of the method proposed by Serbert et. al (1988). It is based on using the single linkage clustering algorithm to group the standardized predicted and residual values of data set fit by least trimmed of squares (LTS). (Author)

  17. A novel approach for multiple mobile objects path planning: Parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yong, E-mail: myongdl@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Institute of Systems Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Wang, Hongwei, E-mail: hwwang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Institute of Systems Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Zamirian, M., E-mail: zamirianm@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-09

    We present a new approach containing two steps to determine conflict-free paths for mobile objects in two and three dimensions with moving obstacles. Firstly, the shortest path of each object is set as goal function which is subject to collision-avoidance criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration constraints. This problem is formulated as calculus of variation problem (CVP). Using parametrization method, CVP is converted to time-varying nonlinear programming problems (TNLPP) and then resolved. Secondly, move sequence of object is assigned by priority scheme; conflicts are resolved by multilevel conflict resolution strategy. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples. -- Highlights: ► Approach with parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy is proposed. ► Approach fits for multi-object paths planning in two and three dimensions. ► Single object path planning and multi-object conflict resolution are orderly used. ► Path of each object obtained with parameterization method in the first phase. ► Conflict-free paths gained by multi-object conflict resolution in the second phase.

  18. A symbolic approach to multiple zeta values at the negative integers

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, V. H.; Jiu, L.; Vignat , C.

    2015-01-01

    Symbolic computation techniques are used to derive some closed form expressions for an analytic continuation of the Euler-Zagier zeta function evaluated at the negative integers as recently proposed by B. Sadaoui. This approach allows to compute explicitly some contiguity identities, recurrences on the depth of the zeta values and generating functions.

  19. Towards ecosystem accounting: a comprehensive approach to modelling multiple hydrological ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    C. Duku; H. Rathjens; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment–economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support ecosystem accounting requires considering among others physical and mathematical representation of ecohydrological processes, spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystem, temporal resolu...

  20. Fostering Creativity: A Multiple Intelligences Approach to Designing Learning in Undergraduate Fine Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela; Cripps, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum and pedagogy in undergraduate fine art can promote an approach to learning creativity that is more about being an artist than knowing about art. Lecturers can provide a road map for developing particular dispositions, in relation to student ideas and perceptions, to foster personalised creativity. This requires that lecturers have an…

  1. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Group Formation in Collaborative Learning Considering Multiple Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian; Ovalle, Demetrio A.; Vicari, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Considering that group formation is one of the key processes in collaborative learning, the aim of this paper is to propose a method based on a genetic algorithm approach for achieving inter-homogeneous and intra-heterogeneous groups. The main feature of such a method is that it allows for the consideration of as many student characteristics as…

  2. The interactive business case approach for multiple land use: more efficiency, less costs!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. Franssen; G.J. Ellen; G.M.A. van der Heijden; F. van Lamoen; E.J. Melisie; K. Peerdeman; M.H.A. Wind; M. Paalman

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes Interactive Business Case Approach (IBCA) in a participatory planning setting concerning multifunctional land use, as an instrument for climate adaptation strategies. Multifunctional land use is an solution to optimize the use of scare spatial resources, especially in densely po

  3. Multiple-Viewpoints Based Requirements Engineering Approaches%基于多视点的需求工程方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎祥; 黄浩; 石莉; 张戈; 李超

    2000-01-01

    Requirements specification is one of the most important problems in software development. The main objective of the requirements engineering is to provide a model of what is needed in a clear, precise, unambiguous and consistent statement of the system to be specified. Viewpoints are seen as a means for separating concerns in software development in accordance with a variety of criteria, which has a significant role in achieving a successful system. The paper is a survey of the current multiple viewpoints based requirements approaches; a simple example of a distributed multimedia conferencing system is used to demonstrate them.

  4. Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a Time-Resolved Transmission Matrix approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mounaix, Mickael; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We report a method to characterize the propagation of an ultrashort pulse of light through a multiple scattering medium by measuring its time-resolved transmission matrix. This method is based on the use of a spatial light modulator together with a coherent time-gated detection of the transmitted speckle field. Using this matrix, we demonstrate the focusing of the scattered pulse at any arbitrary position in space and time after the medium. Our approach opens new perspectives for both fundamental studies and applications in imaging and coherent control in disordered media.

  5. Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: ¿es el astrocito la célula primariamente dañada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA es considerada una enfermedad primaria de las motoneuronas. Ninguno de los procesos que conforman su patogenia ha probado ser su causa. Tampoco pudo demostrarse que factores ambientales la originen. Las neuronas mueren por apoptosis, hecho que abre la posibilidad de que ello sea debido a cambios en su ambiente, sin que constituyan el blanco directo de la noxa que ocasiona la enfermedad. El examen del medio que circunda a las motoneuronas encuentra a los astrocitos como responsables de su bienestar. Éstos son células plásticas, adaptan su función al tipo de neurona con la que se relacionan, cada población astrocitaria es única; si fuera afectada, las neuronas que le son dependientes padecerían. En el caso de las motoneuronas, esta circunstancia llevaría a la alteración de la producción astrocitaria de neurotransmisores y transportadores y a la carencia de nutrientes y factores tróficos que le suministran. Para explicar por qué en la ELA los síntomas se trasladan de un grupo muscular al vecino, observación correlacionada con lo que ocurre en las neuronas motoras corticales y espinales, la hipótesis aquí sostenida sugiere que el factor causante migra de un astrocito a otro, lesionándolos y privando a las motoneuronas del cuidado que le prodigan. También propone que una proteína del astrocito se pliega defectuosamente, transformándose en infecciosa e induciendo el plegamiento errado de sus similares normales, trasladándose entre los astrocitos protoplásmicos y a los astrocitos fibrosos que rodean la vía piramidal, utilizando para ello las sinapsis de hendidura.

  6. Estrategias de resolución del PASAT en pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple y viabilidad de una versión corta del test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Cores

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El PASAT es una herramienta de evaluación neuropsicológica frecuentemente implementada en la clínica de pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple (EM. Este estudio se propone analizar las estrategias de resolución del PASAT y establecer la sensibilidad de una versión corta de 30 ítems y otra de 20 ítems en pacientes con EM. Metodología: Se administró una batería neuropsicológica a 38 pacientes con EM curso recaídas y remisiones y 32 voluntarios sanos de similar edad y escolaridad. Resultados: El PASAT-3 diferenció significativamente el grupo EM del grupo control en el total de respuestas correctas (Z = -2,714, p = ,007, chunkings (Z = -2,478, p = ,013 y díadas (Z = -2,647, p = ,008. El efecto de tamaño para todos los puntajes fue moderado. Respecto de la versión de 60 ítems, la versión de 30 ítems demostró una sensibilidad del 85%, con solo dos falsos negativos y la versión de 20 ítems logró una sensibilidad del 57%. Discusión: La puntuación de chunks y díadas es útil para medir las estrategias de resolución de la tarea. La versión corta del test de 30 ítems es una medida apropiada para su uso en la clínica neuropsicológica.

  7. Neuropsychological syndromes in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Moreno, Mª José; Cerezo García, Marta; Marasescu, Raluca; Pinel González, Ana; López Álvarez, Laudino; Aladro Benito, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Síndromes neuropsicológicos en la esclerosis múltiple. Antecedentes: entre el 45-65% de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM) manifiestan déficits cognitivos en velocidad de procesamiento de la información (VPI), atención, memoria, funciones ejecutivas (FE) y visuoconstrucción. La alteración del lenguaje y la gnosis visual es infrecuente y poco reconocida. El objetivo es la descripción cognitiva, clínica y radiológica de cinco pacientes con EM con síndromes neuropsicológicos (SNPS). Méto...

  8. Observer performance in detecting multiple radiographic signals: prediction and analysis using a generalized ROC approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, C.E.; Starr, S.J.; Lusted, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    The theories of decision processes and signal detection provide a framework for the evaluation of observer performance. Some radiologic procedures involve a search for multiple similar lesions, as in gallstone or pneumoconiosis examinations. A model is presented which attempts to predict, from the conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve describing the detectability of a single visual signal in a radiograph, observer performance in an experiment requiring detection of more than one such signal. An experiment is described which tests the validity of this model for the case of detecting the presence of zero, one, or two low-contrast radiographic images of a two-mm.-diameter lucite bead embedded in radiographic mottle. Results from six observers, including three radiologists, confirm the validity of the model and suggest that human observer performance for relatively complex detection tasks can be predicted from the results of simpler experiments.

  9. A Bayesian Game-Theoretic Approach for Distributed Resource Allocation in Fading Multiple Access Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoning He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian game-theoretic model is developed to design and analyze the resource allocation problem in K-user fading multiple access channels (MACs, where the users are assumed to selfishly maximize their average achievable rates with incomplete information about the fading channel gains. In such a game-theoretic study, the central question is whether a Bayesian equilibrium exists, and if so, whether the network operates efficiently at the equilibrium point. We prove that there exists exactly one Bayesian equilibrium in our game. Furthermore, we study the network sum-rate maximization problem by assuming that the users coordinate according to a symmetric strategy profile. This result also serves as an upper bound for the Bayesian equilibrium. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the network efficiency at the unique Bayesian equilibrium and to compare it with other strategies.

  10. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Riccio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a molecular basis for the nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at molecular level the effect of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease.

  11. Monte Carlo wave packet approach to dissociative multiple ionization in diatomic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    A detailed description of the Monte Carlo wave packet technique applied to dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules in short intense laser pulses is presented. The Monte Carlo wave packet technique relies on the Born-Oppenheimer separation of electronic and nuclear dynamics and...... provides a consistent theoretical framework for treating simultaneously both ionization and dissociation. By simulating the detection of continuum electrons and collapsing the system onto either the neutral, singly ionized or doubly ionized states in every time step the nuclear dynamics can be solved...... computational effort is restricted and the model is applicable to any molecular system where electronic Born-Oppenheimer curves, dipole moment functions, and ionization rates as a function of nuclear coordinates can be determined....

  12. Power-Performance Tradeoffs in Wide Dynamic Range Image Sensors with Multiple Reset Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Spivak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of solutions for widening the dynamic range (DR of CMOS image sensors have been proposed throughout the years. These solutions can be categorized into different groups according to the principle used for DR widening. One of the methods, which is based on autonomous control over the integration time, was implemented by our group. We proposed the multiple resets algorithm, which was successfully implemented in three generations of WDR image sensors. While achieving the same goal of widening the DR of the sensor, each of the implemented imagers had a different architecture, and therefore presented different performance and power figures. This paper reviews designs of the aforementioned sensors and presents a comprehensive analysis of their power consumption. Power-performance tradeoffs are also discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are presented.

  13. A Rate-Distortion Exponent Approach to Multiple Decoding Attempts for Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Phong S; Narayanan, Krishna R

    2010-01-01

    Algorithms based on multiple decoding attempts of Reed-Solomon (RS)codes have recently attracted new attention. Choosing decoding candidates based on rate-distortion (R-D) theory, as proposed previously by the authors, currently provides the best performance-versus-complexity trade-off. In this paper, an analysis based on the rate-distortion exponent (RDE) is used to directly minimize the exponential decay rate of the error probability. This enables rigorous bounds on the error probability for finite-length RS codes and leads to modest performance gains. As a byproduct, a numerical method is derived that computes the rate-distortion exponent for independent non-identical sources. Analytical results are given for errors/erasures decoding.

  14. Pinning Synchronization of Directed Networks With Switching Topologies: A Multiple Lyapunov Functions Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guanghui; Yu, Wenwu; Hu, Guoqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Xinghuo

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the global pinning synchronization problem for a class of complex networks with switching directed topologies. The common assumption in the existing related literature that each possible network topology contains a directed spanning tree is removed in this paper. Using tools from M -matrix theory and stability analysis of the switched nonlinear systems, a new kind of network topology-dependent multiple Lyapunov functions is proposed for analyzing the synchronization behavior of the whole network. It is theoretically shown that the global pinning synchronization in switched complex networks can be ensured if some nodes are appropriately pinned and the coupling is carefully selected. Interesting issues of how many and which nodes should be pinned for possibly realizing global synchronization are further addressed. Finally, some numerical simulations on coupled neural networks are provided to verify the theoretical results. PMID:26595418

  15. Enriching student concept images: Teaching and learning fractions through a multiple-embodiment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A. (Ken); Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated how fifth-grade children's concept images of the unit fractions represented by the symbols , , and changed as a result of their participation in an instructional intervention based on multiple embodiments of fraction concepts. The participants' concept images were examined through pre- and post-teaching written questions and pre- and post-teaching one-to-one verbal interview questions. Results showed that at the pre-teaching stage, the student concept images of unit fractions were very narrow and mainly linked to area models. However, after the instructional intervention, the fifth graders were able to select and apply a variety of models in response to unit fraction tasks, and their concept images of unit fractions were enriched and linked to capacity, perimeter, linear and discrete models, as well as to area models. Their performances on tests had improved, and their conceptual understandings of unit fractions had developed.

  16. Therapeutic Approach to the Management of Pediatric Demyelinating Disease: Multiple Sclerosis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Banwell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    Acquired pediatric demyelinating diseases manifest acutely with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or with various other acute deficits in focal or polyfocal areas of the central nervous system. Patients may experience a monophasic illness (as in the case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or one that may manifest as a chronic, relapsing disease [e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS)]. The diagnosis of pediatric MS and other demyelinating disorders of childhood has been facilitated by consensus statements regarding diagnostic definitions. Treatment of pediatric MS has been modeled after data obtained from clinical trials in adult-onset MS. There are now an increasing number of new therapeutic agents for MS, and many will be formally studied for use in pediatric patients. There are important efficacy and safety concerns regarding the use of these therapies in children and young adults. This review will discuss acute management as well as chronic immunotherapies in acquired pediatric demyelination. PMID:26496907

  17. A NOVEL EXPLORING APPROACH OF CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY BY MULTIPLE EMULSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Shivjee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled multiplication and spread of abnormal forms of the body's own cells, leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths in 2008. Most common cancers are Lung, Liver, Colon, Rectum, Breast Ovarian & Prostate cause the most deaths each year. Lung cancer is the most frequent lethal cancer, 1.4 million cases per year by use of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen. Attempts to treat tumors with the single agents are often disappointing. A single drug usually kills the most sensitive population of cells in a tumor, leaving a resistant fraction unharmes and still dividing. Therefore, each time the same agent is readministered, the tumor becomes more resistant and the treatment less efficacious. The parenteral Sustained release dosage forms are most effective and common form of delivery for active drug substance & designed to achieve a prolonged therapeutic effect by continuously releasing medication over extended period of time after administration of single dose. For this reason whatever drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in term of compliance but also for potential to improve the quality of the therapy. Such reduction in the frequency of drug is achieved, by the use of specific formulation technologies that guarantee that the release of the active drug substance happens in a slow and predictable manner. Multiple emulsions of w/o/w and o/w/o type are becoming popular since an additional reservoir is presented to the drug for partitioning which can effectively retard it release rate.

  18. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction-diffusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen

    2015-10-01

    Reaction-diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction-diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model.

  19. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction-diffusion models.

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Reaction-diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction-diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model.

  20. Multiple Features Based Approach to Extract Bio-molecular Event Triggers Using Conditional Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Majumder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP is to capture biomedical phenomena from textual data by extracting relevant entities, information and relations between biomedical entities (i.e. proteins and genes. In general, in most of the published papers, only binary relations were extracted. In a recent past, the focus is shifted towards extracting more complex relations in the form of bio-molecular events that may include several entities or other relations. In this paper we propose an approach that enables event trigger extraction of relatively complex bio-molecular events. We approach this problem as a detection of bio-molecular event trigger using the well-known algorithm, namely Conditional Random Field (CRF. We apply our experiments on development set. It shows the overall average recall, precision and F-measure values of 64.27504%, 69.97559% and 67.00429%, respectively for the event detection.

  1. Hybrid Framework Using Multiple-Filters and an Embedded Approach for an Efficient Selection and Classification of Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Huerta, Edmundo; Hernandez-Montiel, Alberto; Caporal, Roberto-Morales; Lopez, Marco Arjona

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid framework composed of two stages for gene selection and classification of DNA microarray data is proposed. At the first stage, five traditional statistical methods are combined for preliminary gene selection (Multiple Fusion Filter). Then, different relevant gene subsets are selected by using an embedded Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). A gene subset, consisting of the most relevant genes, is obtained from this process, by analyzing the frequency of each gene in the different gene subsets. Finally, the most frequent genes are evaluated by the embedded approach to obtain a final relevant small gene subset with high performance. The proposed method is tested in four DNA microarray datasets. From simulation study, it is observed that the proposed approach works better than other methods reported in the literature. PMID:26336138

  2. Collision-free Multiple Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles Cooperative Trajectory Planning for Time-critical Missions using Differential Flatness Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the cooperative trajectory planning for multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. Firstly, the collision-free cooperative trajectory planning problem for time-critical missions is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTP-OCP, which is based on an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraints model, and a multi-criteria objective function. Next, a planning algorithm based on the differential flatness, B-spline curves and nonlinear programming is designed to solve the CTP-OCP. In particular, the notion of the virtual time is introduced to deal with the temporal constraints. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by two typical scenarios and the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed planning approach.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.2999

  3. Multiple Feature Fusion Based on Co-Training Approach and Time Regularization for Place Classification in Wearable Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislavs Dovgalecs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of video acquired with a wearable camera is a challenge that multimedia community is facing with the proliferation of such sensors in various applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic visual place recognition in a weakly constrained environment, targeting the indexing of video streams by topological place recognition. We propose to combine several machine learning approaches in a time regularized framework for image-based place recognition indoors. The framework combines the power of multiple visual cues and integrates the temporal continuity information of video. We extend it with computationally efficient semisupervised method leveraging unlabeled video sequences for an improved indexing performance. The proposed approach was applied on challenging video corpora. Experiments on a public and a real-world video sequence databases show the gain brought by the different stages of the method.

  4. Stakeholder Theory As an Ethical Approach to Effective Management: applying the theory to multiple contexts

    OpenAIRE

    JEFFREY S. HARRISON; R. Edward Freeman; Mônica Cavalcanti Sá de Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective – This article provides a brief overview of stakeholder theory, clears up some widely held misconceptions, explains the importance of examining stakeholder theory from a variety of international perspectives and how this type of research will advance management theory, and introduces the other articles in the special issue. Design/methodology/approach – Some of the foundational ideas of stakeholder theory are discussed, leading to arguments about the importance of the theory ...

  5. Comparison of heuristic approaches for the multiple depot vehicle scheduling problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pepin, A.S.; Desaulniers, Guy; Hertz, Alain; Huisman, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGiven a set of timetabled tasks, the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem is a well-known problem that consists of determining least-cost schedules for vehicles assigned to several depots such that each task is accomplished exactly once by a vehicle. In this paper, we propose to compare the performance of five different heuristic approaches for this problem, namely, a heuristic \\\\mip solver, a Lagrangian heuristic, a column generation heuristic, a large neighborhood search heuri...

  6. Developing the Mental Health Workforce: Review and Application of Training Approaches from Multiple Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Kerns, Suzanne E. U.; Bruns, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies specifically designed to facilitate the training of mental health practitioners in evidence-based practices (EBPs) have lagged behind the development of the interventions themselves. The current paper draws from an interdisciplinary literature (including medical training, adult education, and teacher training) to identify useful training and support approaches as well as important conceptual frameworks that may be applied to training in mental health. Theory and research findings a...

  7. A report on multiple approaches to the S. Frutuoso of Montélios Chapel survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, L.; Fontes, Luís Fernando Oliveira; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Catalão, Sofia; Botica, Natália; Agostinho, F.

    2008-01-01

    Approaching one of the goals for this project, the systematization of survey methods and processes supported by low cost digital photogrammetry and 3D laser scanning, case studies are being used to create the bases for a minimum system of survey and documentation of Architectural Heritage. Our focus is defining a reference framework both in the context of Architectural Conservation, directed towards analysis and diagnosis, as well as in the Archaeology of Architecture context, per...

  8. Multiple Approaches to Characterizing Nano-Pore Structure of Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Gao, Z.; Ewing, R. P.; Dultz, S.; Kaufmann, J.; Hamamoto, S.; Webber, B.; Ding, M.

    2013-12-01

    Microscopic characteristics of porous media - pore shape, pore-size distribution, and pore connectivity - control fluid flow and mass transport. This presentation discusses various approaches to investigating nano-pore structure of Barnett shale, with its implications in gas production behavior. The innovative approaches include imbibition, tracer diffusion, edge-accessible porosity, porosimetry (mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen and water vapor sorption isotherms, and nuclear magnetic resonance cyroporometry), and imaging (Wood's metal impregnation followed with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, and small angle neutron scattering). Results show that the shale pores are predominantly in the nm size range, with measured median pore-throat diameters about 5 nm. But small pore size is not the major contributor to low gas recovery; rather, the low mass diffusivity appears to be caused by low pore connectivity of Barnett shale. Chemical diffusion in sparsely-connected pore spaces is not well described by classical Fickian behavior; anomalous behavior is suggested by percolation theory, and confirmed by results of imbibition and diffusion tests. Our evolving complementary approaches, with their several advantages and disadvantages, provide a rich toolbox for tackling the nano-pore structure characteristics of shales and other natural rocks.

  9. A Generic Multiple Reaction Monitoring Based Approach for Plant Flavonoids Profiling Using a Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Yan, Ru

    2014-06-01

    Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant secondary metabolites serving a variety of functions in plants and associating with a number of health benefits for humans. Typically, they are co-identified with many other secondary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. The limited data quality of untargeted workflow calls for a shift from the breadth-first to the depth-first screening strategy when a specific biosynthetic pathway is focused on. Here we introduce a generic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approach for flavonoids profiling in plants using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTrap) mass spectrometer. The approach includes four steps: (1) preliminary profiling of major aglycones by multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI); (2) glycones profiling by precursor ion triggered EPI scan (PI-EPI) of major aglycones; (3) comprehensive aglycones profiling by combining MIM-EPI and neutral loss triggered EPI scan (NL-EPI) of major glycone; (4) in-depth flavonoids profiling by MRM-EPI with elaborated MRM transitions. Particularly, incorporation of the NH3 loss and sugar elimination proved to be very informative and confirmative for flavonoids screening. This approach was applied for profiling flavonoids in Astragali radix ( Huangqi), a famous herb widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in China. In total, 421 flavonoids were tentatively characterized, among which less than 40 have been previously reported in this medicinal plant. This MRM-based approach provides versatility and sensitivity that required for flavonoids profiling in plants and serves as a useful tool for plant metabolomics.

  10. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  11. A study on the regulatory approach of KNGR multiple failure events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kweon, Y. C.; Kang, H. J.; Lee, S. J.; Cheong, D. Y.; Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. K. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College of Cultural studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of containment bypass during multiple steam generator tube failure issue for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which is a part of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : the Multiple Steam Generator Tube Repture(MSGTR) event has never been occurred in the history of commercial nuclear reactor operation but single Steam Generator Tube Rupture(SGTR) event is reported to occur every two years. A probabilistic safety analysis study on MSGTR event, however, show its probability of occurrence is to be the same order as the design basis accidents such as LACA. In this regard, the ability of NPPs to cope with MSGTR event is required. Some requirements on initial and boundary conditions are suggested to be used in the analyses of NPPs during MSGTR events. The items that should be considered in establishing regulatory requirements are summarized as follows : the analyses of MSGTR events should be performed by a best-estimate method with normal full power conditions except initial reactor power of 102%, all safety- and non-safety grade systems and components are assumed to be available only in automatic mode, tube ruptures are assumed to occur at the steam generator which is in the loop connected with a pressurizer, guillotine-type tube raptures are assumed near tube sheet on hot-leg side, the results of 1-5 tube ruptures should be compared, an appropriate break flow model should be used and critical flow model can be compared, an appropriate break flow model should be used and critical flow model can be used if needed, operator response time should be based on ANSI/ANS-51.1-1983 and ANSI/ANS-58.8-1984, acceptance criteria should be stated in terms of MSSV lift time as well as radiological consequences. It is recommended that some analyses should be carried out in order to figure out the effects of tube rupture modelling methods. A single

  12. In vivo imaging of system xc- as a novel approach to monitor multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Abraham; Szczupak, Boguslaw; Arrieta, Ander [CIC biomaGUNE, Molecular Imaging Unit, San Sebastian (Spain); Vazquez-Villoldo, Nuria; Soria, Federico N.; Domercq, Maria; Matute, Carlos [University of the Basque Country, Department of Neurosciences, Leioa (Spain); UPV/EHU, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Zamudio (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Leioa (Spain); Gomez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi [CIC biomaGUNE, Molecular Imaging Unit, San Sebastian (Spain); CIC biomaGUNE, Radiochemistry and Nuclear Imaging, San Sebastian (Spain); Padro, Daniel; Plaza-Garcia, Sandra; Reese, Torsten [CIC biomaGUNE, Molecular Imaging Unit, San Sebastian (Spain); CIC biomaGUNE, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Glutamate excitotoxicity contributes to oligodendroglial and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis pathology. Extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain is controlled by cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-), a membrane antiporter that imports cystine and releases glutamate. Despite this, the system xc{sup -} activity and its connection to the inflammatory reaction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely unknown. Longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with 2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG), [{sup 11}C]-(R)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-1(1-methylpropyl) -3-isoquinolinecarbox amide ([{sup 11}C]PK11195) and (4S)-4-(3-{sup 18}F-fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate ([{sup 18}F]FSPG) were carried out during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction in rats. [{sup 18}F]FSPG showed a significant increase of system xc{sup -} function in the lumbar section of the spinal cord at 14 days post immunization (dpi) that stands in agreement with the neurological symptoms and ventricle edema formation at this time point. Likewise, [{sup 18}F]FDG did not show significant changes in glucose metabolism throughout central nervous system and [{sup 11}C]PK11195 evidenced a significant increase of microglial/macrophage activation in spinal cord and cerebellum 2 weeks after EAE induction. Therefore, [{sup 18}F]FSPG showed a major capacity to discriminate regions of the central nervous system affected by the MS in comparison to [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 11}C]PK11195. Additionally, clodronate-treated rats showed a depletion in microglial population and [{sup 18}F]FSPG PET signal in spinal cord confirming a link between neuroinflammatory reaction and cystine/glutamate antiporter activity in EAE rats. Altogether, these results suggest that in vivo PET imaging of system xc{sup -} could become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of MS. (orig.)

  13. A study on the regulatory approach of KNGR multiple failure events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of containment bypass during multiple steam generator tube failure issue for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which is a part of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : the Multiple Steam Generator Tube Repture(MSGTR) event has never been occurred in the history of commercial nuclear reactor operation but single Steam Generator Tube Rupture(SGTR) event is reported to occur every two years. A probabilistic safety analysis study on MSGTR event, however, show its probability of occurrence is to be the same order as the design basis accidents such as LACA. In this regard, the ability of NPPs to cope with MSGTR event is required. Some requirements on initial and boundary conditions are suggested to be used in the analyses of NPPs during MSGTR events. The items that should be considered in establishing regulatory requirements are summarized as follows : the analyses of MSGTR events should be performed by a best-estimate method with normal full power conditions except initial reactor power of 102%, all safety- and non-safety grade systems and components are assumed to be available only in automatic mode, tube ruptures are assumed to occur at the steam generator which is in the loop connected with a pressurizer, guillotine-type tube raptures are assumed near tube sheet on hot-leg side, the results of 1-5 tube ruptures should be compared, an appropriate break flow model should be used and critical flow model can be compared, an appropriate break flow model should be used and critical flow model can be used if needed, operator response time should be based on ANSI/ANS-51.1-1983 and ANSI/ANS-58.8-1984, acceptance criteria should be stated in terms of MSSV lift time as well as radiological consequences. It is recommended that some analyses should be carried out in order to figure out the effects of tube rupture modelling methods. A single

  14. BI-LEVEL, MULTI –LEVEL MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION MAKING AND TOPSIS APPROACH-THEORY, APPLICATIONS AND SOFTWARE: A LITERATURE REVIEW (2005-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek H. M. Abou-El-Enien; Shereen Fathy El-Feky

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the theory, applications and software of Bi-level, Multi –Level Multiple Criteria Decision Making and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity Ideal Solution) Approach.

  15. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D. [EURATOM-CEA Association (DSM-DRFC), CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Moreau, D. [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ariola, M. [EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE Association, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Cordoliani, V. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Tala, T. [EURATOM-Tekes Association, VTT Processes (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  16. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  17. Epigenetic Modulating Agents as a New Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Ken, E-mail: kemaes@vub.ac.be; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els [Department of Hematology and Immunology, Myeloma Center Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussel (Belgium); Van Riet, Ivan [Stem Cell Laboratory, Department Clinical Hematology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium); Vanderkerken, Karin; De Bruyne, Elke, E-mail: kemaes@vub.ac.be [Department of Hematology and Immunology, Myeloma Center Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Epigenetic aberrations play a crucial role in development and progression in cancer, including MM. To target these aberrations, epigenetic modulating agents, such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are under intense investigation in solid and hematological cancers. A clinical benefit of the use of these agents as single agents and in combination regimens has been suggested based on numerous studies in pre-clinical tumor models, including MM models. The mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood but appear to involve a combination of true epigenetic changes and cytotoxic actions. In addition, the interactions with the BM niche are also affected by epigenetic modulating agents that will further determine the in vivo efficacy and thus patient outcome. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying the anti-tumor activity of the epigenetic drugs will lead to more rational drug combinations. This review focuses on the involvement of epigenetic changes in MM pathogenesis and how the use of DNMTi and HDACi affect the myeloma tumor itself and its interactions with the microenvironment.

  18. A Multiple Model Approach to Track Head Orientation With Delta Quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi; Bradley, Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Virtual reality and augmented reality environments using helmet-mounted displays create a sense of immersion by closely coupling user head motion to display content. Delays in the presentation of visual information can destroy the sense of presence in the simulation environment when it causes a lag in the display response to user head motion. The effect of display lag can be minimized by predicting head orientation, allowing the system to have sufficient time to counteract the delay. In this paper, anew head orientation prediction technique is proposed that uses a multiple delta quaternion (DQ) extended Kalman filter to track angular head velocity and angular head acceleration. This method is independent of the device used for orientation measurement, relying on quaternion orientation as the only measurement data. A new orientation prediction algorithm is proposed that estimates future head orientation as a function of the current orientation measurement and a predicted change in orientation, using the velocity and acceleration estimates. Extensive experimentation shows that the new method improves head orientation prediction when compared to single filter DQ prediction. PMID:22692926

  19. Classification of Hypertrophy of Labia Minora: Consideration of a Multiple Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo I

    2015-11-01

    Labia minora hypertrophy of unknown and under-reported incidence in the general population is considered a variant of normal anatomy. Its origin is multi-factorial including genetic, hormonal, and infectious factors, and voluntary elongation of the labiae minorae in some cultures. Consults with patients bothered by this condition have been increasing with patients complaining of poor aesthetics and symptoms such as difficulty with vaginal secretions, vulvovaginitis, chronic irritation, and superficial dyspareunia, all of which can have a negative effect on these patients' sexuality and self esteem. Surgical management of labial hypertrophy is an option for women with these physical complaints or aesthetic issues. Labia minora hypertrophy can consist of multiple components, including the clitoral hood, lateral prepuce, frenulum, and the body of the labia minora. To date, there is not a consensus in the literature with respect to the classification and definition of varying grades of hypertrophy, aside from measurement of the length in centimeters. In order to offer patients the most appropriate surgical technique, an objective and understandable classification that can be used as part of the preoperative evaluation is necessary. Such a classification should have the aim of offering patients the best cosmetic and functional results with the fewest complications. PMID:26680395

  20. Study on the regulatory approach of KNGR multiple steam generator tube rupture events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kweon, Y. C.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Cheong, D. Y.; Park, T. J.; Lee, M. G.; Cheon, Y. H. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, J. H. [Baekseok College of Cultural Studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-15

    The scope and contents performed in this project are as follows : firstly, reviews of the structure and contents of local and foreign regulatory requirements as well as analysis of design features related to safety improvement and containment bypass during multiple steam generator tube failure of advanced reactors of domestic and foreign countries. Secondly, analyses of the state-of-the-art of the development of local and foreign regulatory requirements, research trends, design features and safety goals of advanced reactors, especially for technical issues related to the containment bypass during MSGTR event. Thirdly, analyses of the event of MSGTR for the KNGR using MAS 1.4 which is the best-estimate system code developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Errors in input-decks established last year have been corrected during this analysis. Fourthly, assessment of the effects of several parameters on the consequences following a MSGTR event. Tube rupture location, selection of affected steam generator, tube modeling method, discharge coefficient (C{sub D}) are examined. Fifthly, establishment of regulatory direction of technical issues related to the containment bypass during MSGTR event.

  1. Epigenetic Modulating Agents as a New Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Epigenetic aberrations play a crucial role in development and progression in cancer, including MM. To target these aberrations, epigenetic modulating agents, such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are under intense investigation in solid and hematological cancers. A clinical benefit of the use of these agents as single agents and in combination regimens has been suggested based on numerous studies in pre-clinical tumor models, including MM models. The mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood but appear to involve a combination of true epigenetic changes and cytotoxic actions. In addition, the interactions with the BM niche are also affected by epigenetic modulating agents that will further determine the in vivo efficacy and thus patient outcome. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying the anti-tumor activity of the epigenetic drugs will lead to more rational drug combinations. This review focuses on the involvement of epigenetic changes in MM pathogenesis and how the use of DNMTi and HDACi affect the myeloma tumor itself and its interactions with the microenvironment

  2. Controlling activated processes of nonadiabatically, periodically driven dynamical systems: a multiple scale perturbation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim

    2012-06-21

    We arrive at the escape rate from a metastable state for a system of Brownian particles driven periodically by a space dependent, rapidly oscillating external perturbation (with frequency ω) in one dimension (one of the most important class of nonequilibrium system). Though the problem may seem to be time-dependent, and is poised on the extreme opposite side of adiabaticity, there exists a multiple scale perturbation theory ("Kapitza window") by means of which the dynamics can be treated in terms of an effective time-independent potential that is derived as an expansion in orders of 1/ω to the order ω(-3). The resulting time-independent equation is then used to calculate the escape rate of physical systems from a metastable state induced by external monochromatic field in the moderate-to-large damping limit and to investigate the effect of ω on the resulting rate in conjunction with the thermal energy. With large value of ω, we find that the environment with moderate-to-large damping impedes the escape process of the particle while high amplitude of the periodic driving force allows the particle to cross the barrier with a large escape rate. A comparison of our theoretical expression with numerical simulation gives a satisfactory agreement. PMID:22779605

  3. Nurses’ Perspective on Approaches to Limit Flu-Like Symptoms During Interferon Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavin, Jill; Brillante, Raquel T.; Costello, Kathleen; Hartley, Gail C.; Hartley, Kay; Namey, Marie; O'Leary, Shirley; Remington, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several interferon beta (IFNβ) formulations are approved for first-line use as disease-modifying therapies to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Systemic post-injection reactions, often termed flu-like symptoms (FLS), occur in approximately half of all patients treated with IFNβs and can affect adherence to therapy. These symptoms, which include pyrexia, chills, malaise, myalgia, and headaches, usually resolve within 24 hours or persist intermittently following each injection. Because FLS, which usually occur early in the treatment course and diminish over time, are a primary cause of nonadherence to IFNβ therapy, it is important to employ strategies that can attenuate these side effects. Methods: To identify interventions effective in limiting FLS, a panel of United States–based nurses with expertise in MS patient care was convened and a literature review completed. Results: Panel consensus was reached on specific interventions that can attenuate FLS. These prevention and mitigation strategies include dose titration, analgesia, and optimal injection timing, as well as other techniques that panel members have found useful in their clinical practice experience. Conclusions: These measures, in addition to effective patient education, will help to reduce the incidence of FLS secondary to IFNβ therapy, improve patient medication adherence, and positively affect long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:24688355

  4. A Latent Variable Approach for Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Data from Multiple Microarray Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnaiyan Arul M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the explosion in data generated using microarray technology by different investigators working on similar experiments, it is of interest to combine results across multiple studies. Results In this article, we describe a general probabilistic framework for combining high-throughput genomic data from several related microarray experiments using mixture models. A key feature of the model is the use of latent variables that represent quantities that can be combined across diverse platforms. We consider two methods for estimation of an index termed the probability of expression (POE. The first, reported in previous work by the authors, involves Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC techniques. The second method is a faster algorithm based on the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. The methods are illustrated with application to a meta-analysis of datasets for metastatic cancer. Conclusion The statistical methods described in the paper are available as an R package, metaArray 1.8.1, which is at Bioconductor, whose URL is http://www.bioconductor.org/.

  5. Intracolonic multiple pebbles in young adults: Radiographic imaging and conventional approach to a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Eryilmaz; Orkun Ozturk; Oner Mentes; Kenan Soylu; Murat Durusu; K(o)ksal Oner

    2006-01-01

    Most of the foreign bodies detected in adult gastrointestinal systems are accidentally swallowed pins. In this study, we presented a case with intracolonic multiple pebbles. A 20-year-old man was admitted to emergency surgery policlinic for abdominal pain for 2 d without any alleviation or aggravation. His upright plain abdominal radiographic imaging revealed about 30-40 overt dense opacities in lumen of colonic segments, with oval and well shaped contours, each approximately 1cm x 1cm in size. The multiplanar reconstructions and threedimensional images combined with sectional screening showed that all pebbles had passed completely into the colon and no foreign bodies had remained in the ileal segments. On psychiatric assessment, he was found to have immature personality features, difficulty in overcoming stressors and adaptation disorder. He recovered by conservative management and radiographic monitoring applied during his follow-up. Thus, it can be concluded that, in differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in adult ages, though less frequently seen than in children,gastrointestinal system foreign bodies should always be kept in mind and it should be considered that ingestion of pebbles may be one of the factors contributing to abdominal pain particularly in young adults with psychiatric problems. In such cases suspected of having foreign bodies which cannot be detected by plain films, abdominal tomography can be an alternative for diagnostic imaging.

  6. Formalized Conflicts Detection Based on the Analysis of Multiple Emails: An Approach Combining Statistics and Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Chahnez; Curé, Olivier; Salzano, Gabriella; Smaïli, Kamel

    In Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), it is crucial for project leaders to detect conflicting situations as early as possible. Generally, this task is performed manually by studying a set of documents exchanged between team members. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged automatic solution that identifies documents, subjects and actors involved in relational conflicts. Our approach detects conflicts in emails, probably the most popular type of documents in CSCW, but the methods used can handle other text-based documents. These methods rely on the combination of statistical and ontological operations. The proposed solution is decomposed in several steps: (i) we enrich a simple negative emotion ontology with terms occuring in the corpus of emails, (ii) we categorize each conflicting email according to the concepts of this ontology and (iii) we identify emails, subjects and team members involved in conflicting emails using possibilistic description logic and a set of proposed measures. Each of these steps are evaluated and validated on concrete examples. Moreover, this approach's framework is generic and can be easily adapted to domains other than conflicts, e.g. security issues, and extended with operations making use of our proposed set of measures.

  7. Supervised pre-processing approaches in multiple class variables classification for fish recruitment forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, José Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A multi-species approach to fisheries management requires taking into account the interactions between species in order to improve recruitment forecasting of the fish species. Recent advances in Bayesian networks direct the learning of models with several interrelated variables to be forecasted simultaneously. These models are known as multi-dimensional Bayesian network classifiers (MDBNs). Pre-processing steps are critical for the posterior learning of the model in these kinds of domains. Therefore, in the present study, a set of \\'state-of-the-art\\' uni-dimensional pre-processing methods, within the categories of missing data imputation, feature discretization and feature subset selection, are adapted to be used with MDBNs. A framework that includes the proposed multi-dimensional supervised pre-processing methods, coupled with a MDBN classifier, is tested with synthetic datasets and the real domain of fish recruitment forecasting. The correctly forecasting of three fish species (anchovy, sardine and hake) simultaneously is doubled (from 17.3% to 29.5%) using the multi-dimensional approach in comparison to mono-species models. The probability assessments also show high improvement reducing the average error (estimated by means of Brier score) from 0.35 to 0.27. Finally, these differences are superior to the forecasting of species by pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A computational approach for understanding immune response to multiple epitopes based on optimal control formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Yang, Ruoting; Zhang, Mingjun; Xia, Henian

    2010-12-01

    The immune system does not response in equal probability to every epitope of an invader. We investigate the immune system's decision making process using optimal control principles. Mathematically, this formulation requires the solution of a two-point boundary-value problem, which is a challenging task especially when the control variables are bounded. In this work, we develop a computational approach based on the shooting technique for bounded optimal control problems. We then utilize the computational approach to carry out extensive numerical studies on a simple immune response model of two competing controls. Numerical solutions demonstrate that the results of optimal control depend on the objective function, the limitations on control inputs, as well as the amounts of peptides. Moreover, the state space of peptides can be divided into different regions according the properties of the solutions. The developed algorithm not only provides a useful tool for understanding decision making strategies of the immune system but can also be utilized to solve other complex optimal control problems.

  9. MultiDK: A Multiple Descriptor Multiple Kernel Approach for Molecular Discovery and Its Application to The Discovery of Organic Flow Battery Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiple descriptor multiple kernel (MultiDK) method for efficient molecular discovery using machine learning. We show that the MultiDK method improves both the speed and the accuracy of molecular property prediction. We apply the method to the discovery of electrolyte molecules for aqueous redox flow batteries. Using \\emph{multiple-type - as opposed to single-type - descriptors}, more relevant features for machine learning can be obtained. Following the principle of the 'wisdom of the crowds', the combination of multiple-type descriptors significantly boosts prediction performance. Moreover, MultiDK can exploit irregularities between molecular structure and property relations better than the linear regression method by employing multiple kernels - more than one kernel functions for a set of the input descriptors. The multiple kernels consist of the Tanimoto similarity function and a linear kernel for a set of binary descriptors and a set of non-binary descriptors, respectively. Using MultiDK, we...

  10. A Multiple-player-game Approach to Agricultural Water Use in Regions of Seasonal Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.

    2013-12-01

    In the wide distributed regions of seasonal drought, conflicts of water allocation between multiple stakeholders (which means water consumers and policy makers) are frequent and severe problems. These conflicts become extremely serious in the dry seasons, and are ultimately caused by an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. Meanwhile, these stakeholders are often both competitors and cooperators in water saving problems, because water is a type of public resource. Conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in

  11. Institutional Fit and River Basin Governance: a New Approach Using Multiple Composite Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion that effective environmental governance depends in part on achieving a reasonable fit between institutional arrangements and the features of ecosystems and their interconnections with users has been central to much thinking about social-ecological systems for more than a decade. Based on expert consultations this study proposes a set of six dimensions of fit for water governance regimes and then empirically explores variation in measures of these in 28 case studies of national parts of river basins in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa drawing on a database compiled by the Twin2Go project. The six measures capture different but potentially important dimensions of fit: allocation, integration, conservation, basinization, participation, and adaptation. Based on combinations of responses to a standard questionnaire filled in by groups of experts in each basin we derived quantitative measures for each indicator. Substantial variation in these measures of fit was apparent among basins in developing and developed countries. Geographical location is not a barrier to high institutional fit; but within basins different measures of fit often diverge. This suggests it is difficult, but not impossible, to simultaneously achieve a high fit against multiple challenging conditions. Comparing multidimensional fit profiles give a sense of how well water governance regimes are equipped for dealing with a range of natural resource and use-related conditions and suggests areas for priority intervention. The findings of this study thus confirm and help explain previous work that has concluded that context is important for understanding the variable consequences of institutional reform on water governance practices as well as on social and environmental outcomes.

  12. Ensemble approach combining multiple methods improves human transcription start site prediction

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background The computational prediction of transcription start sites is an important unsolved problem. Some recent progress has been made, but many promoters, particularly those not associated with CpG islands, are still difficult to locate using current methods. These methods use different features and training sets, along with a variety of machine learning techniques and result in different prediction sets. Results We demonstrate the heterogeneity of current prediction sets, and take advantage of this heterogeneity to construct a two-level classifier (\\'Profisi Ensemble\\') using predictions from 7 programs, along with 2 other data sources. Support vector machines using \\'full\\' and \\'reduced\\' data sets are combined in an either\\/or approach. We achieve a 14% increase in performance over the current state-of-the-art, as benchmarked by a third-party tool. Conclusions Supervised learning methods are a useful way to combine predictions from diverse sources.

  13. A Multiple Source Approach to Organisational Justice: The Role of the Organisation, Supervisors, Coworkers, and Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.

  14. Towards an integrated, multiple constraint approach. Assessing the regional carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full carbon accounting for regions as a whole, considering all fluxes and transports, is ultimately the only real hope if we are to manage global CO2 emissions. Many methods exist to estimate parts of the carbon budget, but none is yet available to measure carbon fluxes directly at regional scales. Atmospheric Boundary-Layer budgeting methods do have this potential. In the winter of 2000, an international workshop was held in Gubbio, Italy, to discuss ways to advance from the pilot experiments that have been carried out on these methods. First, the meeting helped to advance the methodology and clarify its objectives, requirements and merits. But more importantly, the outcome of the meeting was that atmospheric budget methods should be part of an integrative approach, in which data and model results of very different kinds and from very different scales all provide constraints for estimating the net carbon exchange of a region. Several international projects are now operating to achieve this goal

  15. ADMET Evaluation in Drug Discovery. 16. Predicting hERG Blockers by Combining Multiple Pharmacophores and Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangquan; Sun, Huiyong; Liu, Hui; Li, Dan; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-08-01

    Blockade of human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) channel by compounds may lead to drug-induced QT prolongation, arrhythmia, and Torsades de Pointes (TdP), and therefore reliable prediction of hERG liability in the early stages of drug design is quite important to reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity-related attritions in the later development stages. In this study, pharmacophore modeling and machine learning approaches were combined to construct classification models to distinguish hERG active from inactive compounds based on a diverse data set. First, an optimal ensemble of pharmacophore hypotheses that had good capability to differentiate hERG active from inactive compounds was identified by the recursive partitioning (RP) approach. Then, the naive Bayesian classification (NBC) and support vector machine (SVM) approaches were employed to construct classification models by integrating multiple important pharmacophore hypotheses. The integrated classification models showed improved predictive capability over any single pharmacophore hypothesis, suggesting that the broad binding polyspecificity of hERG can only be well characterized by multiple pharmacophores. The best SVM model achieved the prediction accuracies of 84.7% for the training set and 82.1% for the external test set. Notably, the accuracies for the hERG blockers and nonblockers in the test set reached 83.6% and 78.2%, respectively. Analysis of significant pharmacophores helps to understand the multimechanisms of action of hERG blockers. We believe that the combination of pharmacophore modeling and SVM is a powerful strategy to develop reliable theoretical models for the prediction of potential hERG liability. PMID:27379394

  16. Manipulation of orthogonal neural systems together in electrophysiological recordings: the MONSTER approach to simultaneous assessment of multiple neurocognitive dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenman, Emily S; Luck, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a powerful tool in understanding and evaluating cognitive, affective, motor, and sensory processing in both healthy and pathological samples. A typical ERP recording session takes considerable time but is designed to isolate only 1-2 components. Although this is appropriate for most basic science purposes, it is an inefficient approach for measuring the broad set of neurocognitive functions that may be disrupted in a neurological or psychiatric disease. The present study provides a framework for more efficiently evaluating multiple neural processes in a single experimental paradigm through the manipulation of functionally orthogonal dimensions. We describe the general MONSTER (Manipulation of Orthogonal Neural Systems Together in Electrophysiological Recordings) approach and explain how it can be adapted to investigate a variety of neurocognitive domains, ERP components, and neural processes of interest. We also demonstrate how this approach can be used to assess group differences by providing data from an implementation of the MONSTER approach in younger (18-30 y of age) and older (65-85 y of age) adult samples. This specific implementation of the MONSTER framework assesses 4 separate neural processes in the visual domain: (1) early sensory processing, using the C1 wave; (2) shifts of covert attention, with the N2pc component; (3) categorization, with the P3 component; and (4) self-monitoring, with the error-related negativity. Although the MONSTER approach is primarily described in the context of ERP experiments, it could also be adapted easily for use with functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22080495

  17. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. King

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation, bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS, and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008 during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe were the lowest (0.5–1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–8 μmol Fe:mol C, followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3–7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17–57 μmol Fe:mol C, and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8–21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–136 μmol Fe:mol C. During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272, the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277. Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  18. Environmental emergency response plans (EERPs): A single plan approach to satisfy multiple regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs

  19. New Geo-location Approach Based on Camera Coordinates and Common Points on Multiple Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiaxiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of traditional unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV geo-location based on single image is too low to meet the needs of precise strike. In this paper, a new UAV geo-location method is presented. The mathematical models are constructed by linearization of the collinearity equations to iteratively compute the pose angles and focal length of the camera. At least three images of the target, along with at least three identifiable common points among the images, are needed for reckoning camera pose angles and focal length. The three dimensional (3D coordinates of ground target are calculated using forward intersection. The new method can get the target coordinates with no dependence on digital elevation model (DEM and the measured values of camera pose angles, therefore two of the three primary error sources in the traditional UAV target location approach are eliminated. Simulation and real image experiment results show that the accuracy of the estimated target location is close to that of the UAV position, and that target location error is within 5m circular error probable (CEP on condition that the UAV is navigated by differential global positioning systems (DGPS.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.43-48, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1483

  20. A multiple fine-scale satellite-derived landscape approach: example of bluetongue modelling in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guis, Hélène; Tran, Annelise; Mauny, Frédéric; Baldet, Thierry; Barragué, Bruno; Gerbier, Guillaume; Viel, Jean-François; Roger, François; de La Rocque, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Landscape ecology is seldom used in epidemiology. The aim of this study is to assess the possible improvements that can be derived from the use of landscape approaches on several scales when exploring local differences in disease distribution, using bluetongue (BT) in Corsica as an example. The environment of BT-free and BT-infected sheep farms is described on a fine scale, using high resolution satellite images and a digital elevation model. Land-coverage is characterised by classifying the satellite image. Landscape metrics are calculated to quantify the number, diversity, length of edge and connectance of vegetation patches. The environment is described for three sizes of buffers around the farms. The models are tested with and without landscape metrics to see if such metrics improve the models. Internal and external validation of the models is performed and the relative impact of scale versus variables on the discriminatory ability of the models is explored. Results show that for all scales and irrespective of the number of parameters included, models with landscape metrics perform better than those without. The 1-km buffer model combines both the best scale of application and the best set of variables. It has a good discriminating ability and good sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20422549

  1. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  2. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  3. A scenario-based modeling approach for emergency evacuation management and risk analysis under multiple uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming method is developed. ► It is useful for nuclear emergency management practices under uncertainties. ► It can schedule optimal routes with maximizing evacuees during a finite time. ► Scenario-based analysis enhances robustness in controlling system risk. ► The method will help to improve the capability of disaster responses. -- Abstract: Nuclear emergency evacuation is important to prevent radioactive harms by hazardous materials and to limit the accidents’ consequences; however, uncertainties are involved in the components and processes of such a management system. In the study, an interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming (IJIP) method is developed for emergency evacuation management under uncertainties. Optimization techniques of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and joint-probabilistic constrained (JPC) programming are incorporated into an integer linear programming framework, so that the approach can deal with uncertainties expressed as joint probability and interval values. The IJIP method can schedule the optimal routes to guarantee the maximum population evacuated away from the effected zone during a finite time. Furthermore, it can also facilitate post optimization analysis to enhance robustness in controlling system violation risk imposed on the joint-probabilistic constraints. The developed method has been applied to a case study of nuclear emergency management; meanwhile, a number of scenarios under different system conditions have been analyzed. It is indicated that the solutions are useful for evacuation management practices. The result of the IJIP method can not only help to raise the capability of disaster responses in a systematic manner, but also provide an insight into complex relationships among evacuation planning, resources utilizations, policy requirements and system risks

  4. Multiple origins of endosymbiosis within the Enterobacteriaceae (γ-Proteobacteria: convergence of complex phylogenetic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husník Filip

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae gave rise to a variety of symbiotic forms, from the loosely associated commensals, often designated as secondary (S symbionts, to obligate mutualists, called primary (P symbionts. Determination of the evolutionary processes behind this phenomenon has long been hampered by the unreliability of phylogenetic reconstructions within this group of bacteria. The main reasons have been the absence of sufficient data, the highly derived nature of the symbiont genomes and lack of appropriate phylogenetic methods. Due to the extremely aberrant nature of their DNA, the symbiotic lineages within Enterobacteriaceae form long branches and tend to cluster as a monophyletic group. This state of phylogenetic uncertainty is now improving with an increasing number of complete bacterial genomes and development of new methods. In this study, we address the monophyly versus polyphyly of enterobacterial symbionts by exploring a multigene matrix within a complex phylogenetic framework. Results We assembled the richest taxon sampling of Enterobacteriaceae to date (50 taxa, 69 orthologous genes with no missing data and analyzed both nucleic and amino acid data sets using several probabilistic methods. We particularly focused on the long-branch attraction-reducing methods, such as a nucleotide and amino acid data recoding and exclusion (including our new approach and slow-fast analysis, taxa exclusion and usage of complex evolutionary models, such as nonhomogeneous model and models accounting for site-specific features of protein evolution (CAT and CAT+GTR. Our data strongly suggest independent origins of four symbiotic clusters; the first is formed by Hamiltonella and Regiella (S-symbionts placed as a sister clade to Yersinia, the second comprises Arsenophonus and Riesia (S- and P-symbionts as a sister clade to Proteus, the third Sodalis, Baumannia, Blochmannia and Wigglesworthia (S- and P-symbionts as a sister

  5. Multiple Pancreaticoduodenal Penetrating Gunshot Trauma Evolving into Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis. A Combined Surgical and Minimally Invasive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Testini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Shotgun injuries are the cause of increasing surgical problems related to the proliferation of firearms. Gunshot pancreaticoduodenal traumas are unusual in urban trauma units. Their management remains complex because of the absence of standardized, universal guidelines for treatment and the high incidence of associated lesions of major vessels as well as of other gastrointestinal structures. Surgical treatment is still controversial, and the possibilities offered by the safe and effective miniinvasive techniques seem to open new, articulated perspectives for the treatment of pancreaticoduodenal injury complications. Case report We present the case of a 27- year-old man with multiple penetrating gunshot trauma evolving into acute necrotizing pancreatitis, treated by combining a surgical with a mini-invasive approach. At admission, he presented a Glasgow Coma Score of 4 due to severe hemorrhagic shock. First, surgical hemostasis, duodenogastric resection, multiple intestinal resections, peripancreatic and thoracic drainage were carried out as emergency procedures. On the 12th postoperative day, the patient underwent re-surgery with toilette, external duodenal drainage with Foley tube and peripancreatic drainage repositioning as a result of a duodenal perforation due to acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Eight days later, following the accidental removal of the peripancreatic drains, a CT scan was done showing a considerable collection of fluid in the epiploon retrocavity. Percutaneous CT-guided drainage was performed by inserting an 8.5 Fr pigtail catheter, thus avoiding further reoperation. The patient was successfully discharged on the 80th postoperative day. Conclusions The treatment of multiple pancreaticoduodenal penetrating gunshot traumas should focus on multidisciplinary surgical and minimally invasive treatment to optimize organ recovery.

  6. Some experiments with a savings heuristic and a tabu search approach for the vehicle routing problem with multiple deliverymen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a variant of the vehicle routing problem that allows the assignment of multiple deliverymen to one or more routes. A practical motivation for this variant arises, for example, in the distribution of beverages in highly dense urban areas, characterized by the difficulty in serving daily requests within regular working day hours with a single deliveryman per vehicle. We present a mathematical model and a savings algorithm in order to generate low cost routes that maximize the number of requests served in compliance with the maximum route time. The impact of the extra deliverymen on the solutions provided by the proposed heuristic is assessed by means of sets of generated examples based on classical instances of literature. It is also presented the results obtained by an adaptation of a tabu search approach from the literature.

  7. A multiple-method approach to flood assessment at a low-level radioactive waste site in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood hazard analysis on alluvial fans using Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) method are not limited to the FEMA Alluvial Fan Methodology (FEMA AFM). Flood hazard delineations using a combination of methods provide a more thorough assessment that using only the FEMA AFM. Other FEMA-accepted methods, such as the HEC-2 model for shallow concentrated flow and the Manning Equation for sheetflow, may be more appropriate. A flood assessment using a multiple-method approach was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard in this arid region. Understanding the limitations and assumptions of these methods is important to determine which method is applicable and when a method can provide reasonable results

  8. On switching H∞ controllers for nuclear steam generator water level: A multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor control of the steam generator (SG) water level in the secondary circuit of a nuclear power plant can lead to frequent reactor shutdowns. From the viewpoint of economic operation, it is critical to keep the water level of SG in well control. This paper presents a new framework for addressing this problem based on switching control to linear parameter varying (LPV) systems. A family of LPV controllers are designed, and each of them is suitable for a specific operating range. Under the admissible switching logic, the closed-loop system remains stable and achieves prescribed H∞ performance in the entire operating range. The approach is based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions, which is less conservative than the employment of a single Lyapunov function. The switching LPV control scheme is then applied to the level control problem

  9. Numerical Evaluation and Optimization of Multiple Hydraulically Fractured Parameters Using a Flow-Stress-Damage Coupled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-factor analysis and optimization play a critical role in the the ability to maximizethe stimulated reservoir volume (SRV and the success of economic shale gas production. In this paper, taking the typical continental naturally fractured silty laminae shale in China as anexample, response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize multiple hydraulic fracturing parameters to maximize the stimulated area in combination with numerical modeling based on the coupled flow-stress-damage (FSD approach. This paper demonstrates hydraulic fracturing effectiveness by defining two indicesnamelythe stimulated reservoir area (SRA and stimulated silty laminae area (SLA. Seven uncertain parameters, such as laminae thickness, spacing, dip angle, cohesion, internal friction angle (IFA, in situ stress difference (SD, and an operational parameter-injection rate (IR with a reasonable range based on silty Laminae Shale, Southeastern Ordos Basin, are used to fit a response of SRA and SLA as the objective function, and finally identity the optimum design under the parameters based on simultaneously maximizingSRA and SLA. In addition, asensitivity analysis of the influential factors is conducted for SRA and SLA. The aim of the study is to improve the artificial ability to control the fracturing network by means of multi-parameteroptimization. This work promises to provide insights into the effective exploitation of unconventional shale gas reservoirs via optimization of the fracturing design for continental shale, Southeastern Ordos Basin, China.

  10. A model-based approach to determine the long-term effects of multiple interacting stressors on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Julie C; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    The interaction between multiple stressors on Caribbean coral reefs, namely, fishing effort and hurricane impacts, is a key element in the future sustainability of reefs. We develop an analytic model of coral-algal interactions and explicitly consider grazing by herbivorous reef fish. Further, we consider changes in structural complexity, or rugosity, in addition to the direct impacts of hurricanes, which are implemented as stochastic jump processes. The model simulations consider various levels of fishing effort corresponding to' several hurricane frequencies and impact levels dependent on geographic location. We focus on relatively short time scales so we do not explicitly include changes in ocean temperature, chemistry, or sea level rise. The general features of our approach would, however, apply to these other stressors and to the management of other systems in the face of multiple stressors. It is determined that the appropriate management policy, either local reef restoration or fisheries management, greatly depends on hurricane frequency and impact level. For sufficiently low hurricane impact and macroalgal growth rate, our results indicate that regions with lower-frequency hurricanes require stricter fishing regulations, whereas management in regions with higher-frequency hurricanes might be less concerned with enhancing grazing and instead consider whether local-scale restorative activities to increase vertical structure are cost-effective. PMID:22073655

  11. New probabilistic fracture mechanics approach with neural network-based crack modeling: Its application to multiple cracks problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on efficient utilization and life extension of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have become increasingly important since ages of the first-generation NPPs are approaching their design lives. In order to predict a remaining life of each plant, it is necessary to select those critical components that strongly influence the plant life, and to evaluate their remaining lives by considering aging effects of materials and other factors. This paper proposes a new method to incorporate sophisticated crack models, such as interaction and coalescence of multiple surface cracks, into probabilistic fracture mechanism (PFM) computer programs using neural networks. First, hundreds of finite element (FE) calculations of a plate containing multiple surface cracks are performed by parametrically changing crack parameters such as sizes and locations. A fully automated 3D FE analysis system is effectively utilized here. Second, the back-propagation neural network is trained using the FE solutions, i.e. crack parameters vs. their corresponding stress intensity factors (SIFs). After a sufficient number of training iterations, the network attains an ability to promptly output SIFs for arbitrary combinations of crack parameters. The well trained network is then incorporated into the parallel PFM program which runs on one of massively parallel computers composed of 512 processing units. To demonstrate its fundamental performances, the present computer program is applied to evaluate failure probabilities of aged reactor pressure vessels considering interaction and coalescence of two dissimilar semi-elliptical surface cracks

  12. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  13. Projecte EM-Line!: programa de rehabilitación cognitiva para pacientes afectados de esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Gich Fullà, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis are motor, sensitive, cerebellar and cognitive alterations. It evolves with a high degree of physical and cognitive disability. The “EM-line! Project” has its origins in the need to provide effective treatment for cognitive problems given that a gap in cognitive treatment was detected, especially at the onset of the disease. For this reason, the main objective of the “EM-line! Project” was: To supply free cognitive rehabilitation materials th...

  14. A decision analysis approach to climate adaptation: comparing multiple pathways for multi-decadal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. B.; Little, L.

    2013-12-01

    Policy planners around the world are required to consider the implications of adapting to climatic change across spatial contexts and decadal timeframes. However, local level information for planning is often poorly defined, even though climate adaptation decision-making is made at this scale. This is especially true when considering sea level rise and coastal impacts of climate change. We present a simple approach using sea level rise simulations paired with adaptation scenarios to assess a range of adaptation options available to local councils dealing with issues of beach recession under present and future sea level rise and storm surge. Erosion and beach recession pose a large socioeconomic risk to coastal communities because of the loss of key coastal infrastructure. We examine the well-known adaptation technique of beach nourishment and assess various timings and amounts of beach nourishment at decadal time spans in relation to beach recession impacts. The objective was to identify an adaptation strategy that would allow for a low frequency of management interventions, the maintenance of beach width, and the ability to minimize variation in beach width over the 2010 to 2100 simulation period. 1000 replications of each adaptation option were produced against the 90 year simulation in order to model the ability each adaptation option to achieve the three key objectives. Three sets of adaptation scenarios were identified. Within each scenario, a number of adaptation options were tested. The three scenarios were: 1) Fixed periodic beach replenishment of specific amounts at 20 and 50 year intervals, 2) Beach replenishment to the initial beach width based on trigger levels of recession (5m, 10m, 20m), and 3) Fixed period beach replenishment of a variable amount at decadal intervals (every 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 years). For each adaptation option, we show the effectiveness of each beach replenishment scenario to maintain beach width and consider the implications of more

  15. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  16. Identification of novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv using integrated approach of multiple computational algorithms and experimental analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria interacting with eukaryotic host express adhesins on their surface. These adhesins aid in bacterial attachment to the host cell receptors during colonization. A few adhesins such as Heparin binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA, Apa, Malate Synthase of M. tuberculosis have been identified using specific experimental interaction models based on the biological knowledge of the pathogen. In the present work, we carried out computational screening for adhesins of M. tuberculosis. We used an integrated computational approach using SPAAN for predicting adhesins, PSORTb, SubLoc and LocTree for extracellular localization, and BLAST for verifying non-similarity to human proteins. These steps are among the first of reverse vaccinology. Multiple claims and attacks from different algorithms were processed through argumentative approach. Additional filtration criteria included selection for proteins with low molecular weights and absence of literature reports. We examined binding potential of the selected proteins using an image based ELISA. The protein Rv2599 (membrane protein binds to human fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Rv3717 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and Rv0309 (L,D-transpeptidase bind to fibronectin and laminin. We report Rv2599 (membrane protein, Rv0309 and Rv3717 as novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our results expand the number of known adhesins of M. tuberculosis and suggest their regulated expression in different stages.

  17. Dimensión respiratoria de la escala ALSFRS-R y la función respiratoria en la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica Respiratory domain of revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Functional Rating Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. Lima; Fernando A. Pessolano; Monteiro, Sergio G; Eduardo L. De Vito

    2009-01-01

    Virtualmente todos los pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica tendrán disnea, que es quizá el síntoma más penoso de esta devastadora enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue correlacionar la dimensión respiratoria de la escala ALSFRS-R, la capacidad vital forzada y las presiones estáticas máximas bucales. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 20 pacientes consecutivos sin disnea durante 24 meses. El puntaje total de la escala ALSFRS-R disminuyó de 34.3 ± 10.3 a 22.1 ± 8.0 (p = 0.0325); la c...

  18. Diseño y evaluación de un modelo experimental para esclerosis lateral amiotrófica esporádica mediante el efecto citotóxico del líquido celfalorraquídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Sánchez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa caracterizada por una lesión y muerte selectiva de las motoneuronas en cerebro, tronco cerebral y médula espinal, que causa una pérdida de la función motora progresiva. La mayoría de los casos de ELA son esporádicos (SALS). Aproximadamente un 10% de los casos de ELA tienen historia familiar (FALS) y de ellos, un 20% están asociados a una mutación en la SOD1 (Rosen, 1993). Desconocemos cuáles son las vías patogénicas implica...

  19. Estudios de resonancia magnética y técnicas electrofisiológicas para evaluar y predecir la discapacidad en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Llufriu Duran, Sara

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis se basa en cuatro artículos originales y un artículo de revisión que pertenecen a una misma línea de trabajo: el uso de técnicas de resonancia magnética (RM) y electrofisiológicas para evaluar y predecir la discapacidad física o cognitiva en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM). En primer lugar, a través de RM convencional se ha evaluado el comportamiento radiológico de determinados patrones de lesiones cerebrales y su asociación con una peor evolución de la discapaci...

  20. Why is the Arkavathy River drying? A multiple-hypothesis approach in a data-scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S.; Madhyastha, K.; Penny, G.; Jeremiah, K.; Lele, S.

    2015-04-01

    Water planning decisions are only as good as our ability to explain historical trends and make reasonable predictions of future water availability. But predicting water availability can be a challenge in rapidly growing regions, where human modifications of land and waterscapes are changing the hydrologic system. Yet, many regions of the world lack the long-term hydrologic monitoring records needed to understand past changes and predict future trends. We investigated this "predictions under change" problem in the data-scarce Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy sub-basin in southern India. Inflows into TG Halli reservoir have declined sharply since the 1970s. The causes of the drying are poorly understood, resulting in misdirected or counter-productive management responses. Five plausible hypotheses that could explain the decline were tested using data from field surveys and secondary sources: (1) changes in rainfall amount, seasonality and intensity; (2) increases in temperature; (3) groundwater extraction; (4) expansion of eucalyptus plantations; and (5) fragmentation of the river channel. Our results suggest that groundwater pumping, expansion of eucalyptus plantations and, to a lesser extent, channel fragmentation are much more likely to have caused the decline in surface flows in the TG Halli catchment than changing climate. The multiple-hypothesis approach presents a systematic way to quantify the relative contributions of proximate anthropogenic and climate drivers to hydrological change. The approach not only makes a meaningful contribution to the policy debate but also helps prioritize and design future research. The approach is a first step to conducting use-inspired socio-hydrologic research in a watershed.

  1. Public forest policy development in New Brunswick, Canada: multiple streams approach, advocacy coalition framework, and the role of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. A. Anderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a 15-year case study, we used the multiple streams approach (MSA and the advocacy coalition framework (ACF to examine a controversial industry-led proposal for increased harvest of Crown forests in New Brunswick, Canada, in an adversarial policy subsystem. Study participants were queried on their perceptions of policy problems and reasons for community attention, the relationship between science and policy, and whether policy decisions were consistent with scientific understanding. Thematic analysis was used to examine interview data for evidence of Kingdon's MSA and Sabatier's ACF. During public hearings of a Legislative Select Committee on Wood Supply, two competing policy alternatives emerged. The first, put forward by the forest industry coalition, advocated an intensive forest management approach in support of a competitive industry. The second, supported by the conservation coalition, largely made up of scientists and environmental groups, focused on adaptive management, an ecosystem approach, and greater public input. This counterproposal forestalled the industry from placing its proposal on the government 2005 decision agenda. However, in 2014, the government unexpectedly adopted essentially the same industry proposal. Although the MSA provided a better explanation of the factors critical to the 2014 policy change, i.e., a declining provincial economy and a change of key government personnel, the ACF offered a nuanced perspective on the need for a professional forum to facilitate policy-oriented learning across competing coalitions. In 2014, the lack of such a forum and a closed process limited policy alternatives considered by elected officials. Results also emphasize the importance of how legislators choose to interact with experts and scientists, particularly within an adversarial subsystem, especially when a powerful coalition develops ways to limit the access to decision makers by competing coalitions.

  2. Influencia de las hormonas sexuales en mujeres con esclerosis múltiple durante la memoria de trabajo y la activación cerebral medida con mapeo electroencefalográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La Esclerosis Múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante del Sistema Nervioso Central, que se presenta con más frecuencia en mujeres, lo cual sugiere que las hormonas sexuales parecen modular la manifestación de la sintomatología. La actividad electroencefalografíca no ha sido evaluada en mujeres con Esclerosis Múltiple durante el procesamiento de Memoria de Trabajo y su estado hormonal. Los registros se realizaron en las fases folicular y lútea del ciclo menstrual de manera simultánea la tarea cognitiva y el electroencefalograma, además se correlacionaron con los niveles hormonales. La fase lútea mostró una ejecución mejor con un mayor número de categorías alcanzadas (p<0.004, un menor número de errores perseverativos (p<0.003 y un mayor número de ensayos para alcanzar una categoría (p<0.011, se asoció con un aumento de la actividad de Theta (p<0.018 y Alfa 2 (p<0.000. El 92% de la variabilidad en el número de ensayos de la tarea, fue explicada por la actividad de Theta y Alfa 2, Hormona Luteinizante y Estrona en la fase folicular, en la fase lútea el 90% de la variabilidad fue explicada por la actividad de Theta, Hormona Luteinizante, Progesterona y Estradiol. La Memoria de trabajo mejora en la fase lútea del ciclo menstrual, sugiriendo que la progesterona parece facilitar actividad de Theta.

  3. Desempeño mnésico y funciones ejecutivas en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda López-Ramón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Episodic Memory (EM and the Executive Functions (EF are cognitive areas that are affected in patients with diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Nowadays there exists scarce works destined to explore the influence of the EF on measures of mnesic performance in MS. For this reason, we analyze the effect of the EF on the performance in a set of memory measures. We worked with a clinical group (n=36 and with a control group (n=36 compared by age and educational level. The results show that the clinical group obtained significantly low average values in all the mnesic indexes (with exception of recognition and in all the executive measures. All the executive indexes showed significant associations with some of the indexes of mnesic performance. These findings suggest that the problems in the episodic memory in EM patients could be analyzed as the manifestation of a global disorder that could be similar to the one that involves the EF.

  4. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  5. White matter cysts in patients with tuberous sclerosis; Quistes de sustancia blanca en pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Dosda, R. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Servicio de Resonancia Magnetica ATQ-Quiron. Valencia (Spain); Menor, F. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain); Arana, E. [Hospital Casa de La Salud. Valencia (Spain); Poyatos, C. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The presence of cysts in the white matter of the central nervous system of patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an uncommon finding that has been reported only recently in neuroimaging studies. This article assesses the prevalence of these lesions in a large series of patients studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their relationship to other epidemiological and imaging findings. MRI studies were performed in 46 patients (23 males and 23 females) with a mean age of 12.7 years, and the results were examined retrospectively in the search for cortical tubers, subependymal nodules and white matter nodules, lines and cysts. Nine patients (19.6%) presented cysts in white matter. Seven had only one cyst and the remaining two patients each had two. Multiple regression analysis relating the presence of the cysts with other neuroimaging findings in these patients revealed a statistically significant relationship only with white matter nodules (odds ratio: 7.5; p=0.006). White matter cysts are small, supratentorial lesions of deep location. There is a statistically relationship between the presence of these cysts and that of nodular lesions in the white matter. This finding supports the theory that the cyst originate from white matter nodules. (Author) 17 refs.

  6. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications. PMID:26189701

  7. Estimation of source location and ground impedance using a hybrid multiple signal classification and Levenberg-Marquardt approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kai-Chung; Lau, Siu-Kit; Tang, Shiu-Keung

    2016-07-01

    A microphone array signal processing method for locating a stationary point source over a locally reactive ground and for estimating ground impedance is examined in detail in the present study. A non-linear least square approach using the Levenberg-Marquardt method is proposed to overcome the problem of unknown ground impedance. The multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) is used to give the initial estimation of the source location, while the technique of forward backward spatial smoothing is adopted as a pre-processer of the source localization to minimize the effects of source coherence. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed signal processing method are examined. Results show that source localization in the horizontal direction by MUSIC is satisfactory. However, source coherence reduces drastically the accuracy in estimating the source height. The further application of Levenberg-Marquardt method with the results from MUSIC as the initial inputs improves significantly the accuracy of source height estimation. The present proposed method provides effective and robust estimation of the ground surface impedance.

  8. A DNA target-enrichment approach to detect mutations, copy number changes and immunoglobulin translocations in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, N; Li, Y; Sathiaseelan, V; Raine, K; Jones, D; Ganly, P; Cocito, F; Bignell, G; Chapman, M A; Sperling, A S; Anderson, K C; Avet-Loiseau, H; Minvielle, S; Campbell, P J; Munshi, N C

    2016-01-01

    Genomic lesions are not investigated during routine diagnostic workup for multiple myeloma (MM). Cytogenetic studies are performed to assess prognosis but with limited impact on therapeutic decisions. Recently, several recurrently mutated genes have been described, but their clinical value remains to be defined. Therefore, clinical-grade strategies to investigate the genomic landscape of myeloma samples are needed to integrate new and old prognostic markers. We developed a target-enrichment strategy followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to streamline simultaneous analysis of gene mutations, copy number changes and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocations in MM in a high-throughput manner, and validated it in a panel of cell lines. We identified 548 likely oncogenic mutations in 182 genes. By integrating published data sets of NGS in MM, we retrieved a list of genes with significant relevance to myeloma and found that the mutational spectrum of primary samples and MM cell lines is partially overlapping. Gains and losses of chromosomes, chromosomal segments and gene loci were identified with accuracy comparable to conventional arrays, allowing identification of lesions with known prognostic significance. Furthermore, we identified IGH translocations with high positive and negative predictive value. Our approach could allow the identification of novel biomarkers with clinical relevance in myeloma. PMID:27588520

  9. Detection and characterization of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton: multiple polymerase chain reaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Kachru, Devendra N

    2007-01-01

    To comply with international labeling regulations for genetically modified (GM) crops and food, and to enable proper identification of GM organisms (GMOs), effective methodologies and reliable approaches are needed. The spurious and unapproved GM planting has contributed to crop failures and commercial losses. To ensure effective and genuine GM cultivation, a methodology is needed to detect and identify the trait of interest and concurrently evaluate the structural and functional stability of the transgene insert. A multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was developed for detection, identification, and gene stability confirmation of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton. As many as 9 samples of Bt cotton hybrid seeds comprising 3 approved Bt hybrids, MECH-12Bt, MECH-162Bt, MECH-184Bt, and a batch of 6 nonapproved Bt hybrids were tested. Initially, single standard PCR assays were run to amplify predominant GM DNA sequences (CaMV 35S promoter, nos terminator, and npt-II marker gene); a housekeeping gene, Gossypium hirsutum fiber-specific acyl carrier protein gene (acp1); a trait-specific transgene (cry1Ac); and a sequence of 7S 3' transcription terminator which specifically borders with 3' region of cry1Ac transgene cassette. The concurrent amplification of all sequences of the entire cassette was performed by 3 assays, duplex, triplex, and quadruplex multiplex PCR assays, under common assay conditions. The identity of amplicons was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion profile. The 2 distinct transgene cassettes, cry1Ac and npt-II, of the Bt cotton were amplified using the respective forward primer of promoter and reverse primer of terminator. The resultant amplicons were excised, eluted, and purified. The purified amplicons served as template for nested PCR assays. The nested PCR runs confirmed the transgene construct orientation and identity. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (cry1Ac) was 0.1%. This approach

  10. Developing Stimulus Control of the High-Rate Social-Approach Responses of an Adult with Mental Retardation: A Multiple-Schedule Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Laura L.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a multiple schedule in which the extinction (S-) components were signaled overtly by a black lanyard and the reinforcement (S+) components were not correlated with any programmed stimuli in developing stimulus control over the high-rate social-approach responses of an adult with mental retardation. Responding was consistently low in…

  11. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde;

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative and qu...

  12. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    -stationarity explicitly built in. In record breaking statistics, a record is defined in the sense used in everyday language, to be the largest value yet recorded in a time series, for example, the 2004 Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake was at the time the largest to be digitally recorded. The third group of approaches (e.g. avalanches) are explicitly spatiotemporal and so also include spatial structure. This presentation will discuss two examples of our recent work on the burst problem. We will show numerical results extending the preliminary results presented in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] using a standard additive model, linear fractional stable motion (LFSM). LFSM explicitly includes both heavy tails and long range dependence, allowing us to study how these 2 effects compete in determining the burst duration and size exponent probability distributions. We will contrast these simulations with new analytical studies of bursts in a multiplicative process, the multifractal random walk (MRW). We will present an analytical derivation for the scaling of the burst durations and make a preliminary comparison with data from the AE index from solar-terrestrial physics. We believe our result is more generally applicable than the MRW model, and that it applies to a broad class of multifractal processes.

  13. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs) from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies) for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained? Over some 20 years, realization that (1) chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2) the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of “final common pathways” of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This “missing” aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer therapy. This aspect has been somewhat obscured and has been “lost in translation” to date

  14. Multiplication of Distributions in one dimension: possible approaches and applications to $\\delta$-function and its derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bagarello

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new class of multiplications of distributions in one dimension merging together two different regularizations of distributions. Some of the features of these multiplications are discussed in a certain detail. We use our theory to study a certain number of examples, involving products between Dirac delta functions and its successive derivatives.

  15. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases

  16. EFL students' English language knowledge, strategy use and multiple-choice reading test performance: a structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wei-Tsung

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan, a reading comprehension component is included in the English test of the Senior High Academic Ability Examination (SHAAE) – a national examination which can be regarded as a university entrance examination for students in their final year of senior high. This reading subtest consists of a multiple-choice format. Studies on language assessment, L2 reading and L1-L2 reading have suggested that EFL students’ performance on multiple-choice reading comprehension tests is attributed to t...

  17. An Integrated Approach for Studying Exposure, Metabolism, and Disposition of Multiple Component Herbal Medicines Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Multiple Data Processing Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Caisheng; Zhang, Haiying; Wang, Caihong; Qin, Hailin; Zhu, Mingshe; Zhang, Jinlan

    2016-06-01

    A typical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contains up to a few hundred prototype components. Studying their absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination (ADME) presents great challenges. The objective of this study was to develop a practical approach for investigating ADME of individual prototypes in TCM. An active fraction of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (AF-XXMD) as a model TCM prescription was orally administered to rats. AF-XXMD-related components in plasma, urine, bile, and feces were detected using high-resolution mass spectrometry and background subtraction, an untargeted data-mining tool. Components were then structurally characterized on the basis of MS(n) spectral data. Connection of detected AF-XXMD metabolites to their precursor species, either prototypes or upstream metabolites, were determined on the basis of mass spectral similarity and the matching of biotransformation reactions. As a result, 247 AF-XXMD-related components were detected and structurally characterized in rats, 134 of which were metabolites. Among 198 AF-XXMD prototypes dosed, 65 were fully or partially absorbed and 13 prototypes and 34 metabolites were found in the circulation. Glucuronidation, isomerization, and deglycosylation followed by biliary and urinary excretions and direct elimination of prototypes via kidney and liver were the major clearance pathways of AF-XXMD prototypes. As an example, the ADME profile of H56, the single major AF-XXMD component in rat plasma, was elucidated on the basis of profiles of H56-related components in plasma and excreta. The results demonstrate that the new analytical approach is a useful tool for rapid and comprehensive detection and characterization of TCM components in biologic matrix in a TCM ADME study. PMID:27013399

  18. Multiple-Strain Approach and Probabilistic Modeling of Consumer Habits in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, Matteo; Rizzi, Rita; Varisco, Giorgio; Daminelli, Paolo; Cunico, Elena Cosciani; Luini, Mario; Graber, Hans Ulrich; Paterlini, Franco; Guitian, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models are extensively applied to inform management of a broad range of food safety risks. Inevitably, QMRA modeling involves an element of simplification of the biological process of interest. Two features that are frequently simplified or disregarded are the pathogenicity of multiple strains of a single pathogen and consumer behavior at the household level. In this study, we developed a QMRA model with a multiple-strain approach and a consumer phase module (CPM) based on uncertainty distributions fitted from field data. We modeled exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in raw milk in Lombardy; a specific enterotoxin production module was thus included. The model is adaptable and could be used to assess the risk related to other pathogens in raw milk as well as other staphylococcal enterotoxins. The multiplestrain approach, implemented as a multinomial process, allowed the inclusion of variability and uncertainty with regard to pathogenicity at the bacterial level. Data from 301 questionnaires submitted to raw milk consumers were used to obtain uncertainty distributions for the CPM. The distributions were modeled to be easily updatable with further data or evidence. The sources of uncertainty due to the multiple-strain approach and the CPM were identified, and their impact on the output was assessed by comparing specific scenarios to the baseline. When the distributions reflecting the uncertainty in consumer behavior were fixed to the 95th percentile, the risk of exposure increased up to 160 times. This reflects the importance of taking into consideration the diversity of consumers' habits at the household level and the impact that the lack of knowledge about variables in the CPM can have on the final QMRA estimates. The multiple-strain approach lends itself to use in other food matrices besides raw milk and allows the model to better capture the complexity of the real world and to be capable of geographical

  19. Novel approaches in Extended Principal Components Analysis to compare spatio-temporal patterns among multiple image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeti, N.; Eastman, R.

    2012-12-01

    Extended Principal Components Analysis (EPCA) aims to examine the patterns of variability shared among multiple image time series. Conventionally, this is done by virtually extending the spatial dimension of the time series by spatially concatenating the different time series and then performing S-mode PCA. In S-mode analysis, samples in space are the statistical variables and samples in time are the statistical observations. This paper introduces the concept of temporal concatenation of multiple image time series to perform EPCA. EPCA can also be done with T-mode orientation in which samples in time are the statistical variables and samples in space are the statistical observations. This leads to a total of four orientations in which EPCA can be carried out. This research explores these four orientations and their implications in investigating spatio-temporal relationships among multiple time series. This research demonstrates that EPCA carried out with temporal concatenation of the multiple time series with T-mode (tT) is able to identify similar spatial patterns among multiple time series. The conventional S-mode EPCA with spatial concatenation (sS) identifies similar temporal patterns among multiple time series. The other two modes, namely T-mode with spatial concatenation (sT) and S-mode with temporal concatenation (tS), are able to identify patterns which share consistent temporal phase relationships and consistent spatial phase relationships with each other, respectively. In a case study using three sets of precipitation time series data from GPCP, CMAP and NCEP-DOE, the results show that examination of all four modes provides an effective basis comparison of the series.

  20. A new powerful non-parametric two-stage approach for testing multiple phenotypes in family-based association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; Lyon, H; DeMeo, D; Raby, B; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new powerful nonparametric testing strategy for family-based association studies in which multiple quantitative traits are recorded and the phenotype with the strongest genetic component is not known prior to the analysis. In the first stage, using a population-based test based on the

  1. Employment among Working-Age Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Frain, Michael P.; Tansey, Timothy N.; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Strauser, David; Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States. Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20-65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was…

  2. Advantages of the Multiple Case Series Approach to the Study of Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towgood, Karren J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Turner, Martha S.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    In the neuropsychological case series approach, tasks are administered that tap different cognitive domains, and differences within rather than across individuals are the basis for theorising; each individual is effectively their own control. This approach is a mainstay of cognitive neuropsychology, and is particularly suited to the study of…

  3. Placa fibrosa de la frente o del cuero cabelludo: Un marcador cutáneo temprano del complejo de la esclerosis tuberosa Forehead or scalp fibrous plaque: An earley cutaneous marker in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Saponaro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El complejo de la Esclerosis tuberosa es una afección hereditaria, que se transmite en forma autosómica dominante. Se caracteriza por convulsiones, retraso mental y manifestaciones en diversos órganos. Los signos cutáneos suelen ser determinantes para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Entre éstos se destaca la placa fibrosa, la que se localiza más frecuentemente en la frente, pero puede observarse en cualquier área del cuero cabelludo. Cuando está presente, suele ser el signo cutáneo inicial de la enfermedad, como ocurrió en nuestro paciente, subdiagnosticado. Su importancia radica entonces en reconocerlo como un marcador precoz y patognomónico de la enfermedad.The complex of tuberous sclerosis is an hereditary disease that passes in the autosomal dominant way. It is characterized by convulsions, mental retardation and manifestations in different organs. The cutaneous signs are used to be determinant for the diagnosis of the illness. Among these, it is important the fibrous plaque, which is usually localized in the forehead, but it can also be observed in any area of the scalp.When it is presented, it is used to be the first cutaneous sign of the illness, and like it happened in our patient, underdiagnosed. So, the importance of the fibrous plaque lies in recognizing it as an early cutaneous marker and pathognomonic of the disease.

  4. Fibroma desmoplásico de mandíbula asociado a esclerosis tuberosa: Revisión de la literatura y presentación de un caso Desmoplastic fibroma of the jaw associated with tuberous sclerosis: Literature review and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acosta Feria

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La esclerosis tuberosa es una anomalía congénita del desarrollo embrionario que se transmite de forma autosómica dominante caracterizada por la presencia por trastornos neurológicos, cutáneos o dermatológicos, y retraso mental. Se pueden afectar otros órganos y sistemas, y dar manifestaciones orofaciales. La lesión a nivel del esmalte dental constituye la lesión intraoral más frecuente. Rara vez se pueden encontrar lesiones óseas en los maxilares. El fibroma desmoplásico es un infrecuente tumor fibroso intraóseo localmente agresivo de lento crecimiento, que se asocia muy rara vez a la esclerosis tuberosa. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 33 años afecto de esclerosis tuberosa con una lesión en la mandíbula diagnosticada como fibroma desmoplásico. Se discuten los métodos diagnósticos, presentación clínica y tratamiento.Tuberous sclerosis is a congenital anomaly of embryonic development with an autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the presence of neurologic and dermatologic disorders and mental retardation. It can affect other organs and systems and produce orofacial manifestations. Dental enamel defects are the most frequent intraoral lesion. Bone lesions rarely occur in the upper jaw. Desmoplastic fibroma is an infrequent, slow-growing, locally aggressive intraosseous fibrous tumor that rarely is associated with tuberous sclerosis. We report the clinical case of a 33-year-old man with tuberous sclerosis and a jaw lesion diagnosed as desmoplastic fibroma. The diagnostic methods, clinical presentation, and treatment are discussed.

  5. Approach to a case of multiple irregular red cell antibodies in a liver transplant recipient: Need for developing competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi C Dara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplant procedure acts as a challenge for transfusion services in terms of specialized blood components, serologic problems, and immunologic effects of transfusion. Red cell alloimmunization in patients awaiting a liver transplant complicate the process by undue delay or unavailability of compatible red blood cell units. Compatible blood units can be provided by well-equipped immunohematology laboratory, which has expertise in resolving these serological problems. This report illustrates resolution of a case with multiple alloantibodies using standard techniques, particularly rare antisera. Our case re-emphasizes the need for universal antibody screening in all patients as part of pretransfusion testing, which helps to identify atypical antibodies and plan for appropriate transfusion support well in time. We recommend that the centers, especially the ones that perform complex procedures like solid organ transplants and hematological transplants should have the necessary immunohematological reagents including rare antisera to resolve complex cases of multiple antibodies as illustrated in this case.

  6. Investigations of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons in binary alloys - an inverse response matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present measurements are carried out to investigate the multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons emerging from targets of binary alloys (soldering material and brass). The scattered photons are detected by a 51 mm x 51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector whose response unscrambling, converting the observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon energy spectrum, is obtained with the help of a 10x10 inverse response matrix. The full energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiple scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate. The application of response function of the scintillation detector does not result in any change of measured saturation thickness. Monte Carlo calculations support the present experimental results. (author)

  7. Drug repurposing:a systematic approach to evaluate candidate oral neuroprotective interventions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna M Vesterinen; Connick, Peter; Irvine, Cadi M. J.; Emily S Sena; Egan, Kieren J.; Carmichael, Gary G.; Tariq, Afiyah; Pavitt, Sue; Chataway, Jeremy; Macleod, Malcolm R; Chandran, Siddharthan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and implement an evidence based framework to select, from drugs already licenced, candidate oral neuroprotective drugs to be tested in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.DESIGN: Systematic review of clinical studies of oral putative neuroprotective therapies in MS and four other neurodegenerative diseases with shared pathological features, followed by systematic review and meta-analyses of the in vivo experimental data for those interventions. We presented summary ...

  8. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xue; Daniel (Jian) Sun; Shukai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM) filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhi...

  9. A multiple-tubes approach for accurate genotyping of very small DNA samples by using PCR: statistical considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Navidi, W.; Arnheim, N; Waterman, M S

    1992-01-01

    A multiple-tubes procedure is described for using PCR to determine the genotype of a very small DNA sample. The procedure involves dividing the sample among several tubes, then amplifying and typing the contents of each tube separately. The results are analyzed by a statistical procedure which determines whether a genotype can be conclusively assigned to the DNA sample. Simulation studies show that this procedure usually gives correct results even when the number of double-stranded fragments ...

  10. A population-based evolutionary search approach to the multiple minima problem in de novo protein structure prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Sameh; Olson, Brian; Shehu, Amarda

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating the native structure of a protein molecule from its sequence of amino acids, a problem known as de novo structure prediction, is a long standing challenge in computational structural biology. Difficulties in silico arise due to the high dimensionality of the protein conformational space and the ruggedness of the associated energy surface. The issue of multiple minima is a particularly troublesome hallmark of energy surfaces probed with current energy functions. In contr...

  11. Multiple-Scenario Unmanned Aerial System Control: A Systems Engineering Approach and Review of Existing Control Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Eaton; Edwin K. P. Chong; Maciejewski, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in both the public and military environments is predicted to grow significantly. As the demand for UASs grows, the availability of more robust and capable vehicles that can perform multiple mission types will be needed. In the public sector, the demand will grow for UASs to be used for agriculture, forestry, and search and rescue missions. Militaries continue to demand more UAS capabilities for diverse operations around the world. Significant research...

  12. A NMF based approach for integrating multiple data sources to predict HIV-1–human PPIs

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Sumanta; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2016-01-01

    Background Predicting novel interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins contributes most promising area in HIV research. Prediction is generally guided by some classification and inference based methods using single biological source of information. Results In this article we have proposed a novel framework to predict protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between HIV-1 and human proteins by integrating multiple biological sources of information through non negative matrix factorization (NMF)....

  13. Modeling Multiple Risks During Infancy to Predict Quality of the Caregiving Environment: Contributions of a Person-Centered Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark. T.; Cox, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare several variable-centered and person-centered methods for modeling multiple risk factors during infancy to predict the quality of caregiving environments at six months of age. Nine risk factors related to family demographics and maternal psychosocial risk, assessed when children were two months old, were explored in the understudied population of children born in low-income, non-urban communities in Pennsylvania and North Carolina (N = 1047). Thes...

  14. A stable isotope dual-labelling approach to detect multiple insemination in un-irradiated and irradiated Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood Rebecca C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of a Sterile Insect Technique programme, the occurrence of multiple insemination in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton was studied using a novel labelling system with the stable isotopes 15N and 13C. The incidence of multiple insemination in the absence of radiation, and when males were irradiated in the pupal stage and competed against un-irradiated males were assessed. Males used in the experiments were labelled with either 15N or 13C and the label was applied to the larval rearing water. Males with either label and virgin females were caged at a 1:1:1 ratio. Males used in the radiation treatments were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. After mating, females were dissected and inseminated spermathecae analysed using mass spectrometry. Results The data indicate that about 25% of inseminated females had been inseminated multiply. The presence of irradiated males in the experiments did not affect the incidence of multiple insemination. In line with previous research, irradiated males were generally less competitive than un-irradiated males. Conclusion The implications of these findings for the Sterile Insect Technique are discussed, and further experiments recommended. The dual-labelling system used to determine paternity gave good results for 13C, however, for 15N it is recommended to increase the amount of label in future studies.

  15. Targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms with polyphenols for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease-experimental approach and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bi, Weina; Cheng, Alice; Freire, Daniel; Vempati, Prashant; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Janle, Elsa M; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Schmeidler, James; Ho, Lap; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and currently has no cure. Its onset and progression are influenced by multiple factors. There is growing consensus that successful treatment will rely on simultaneously targeting multiple pathological features of AD. Polyphenol compounds have many proven health benefits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that combining three polyphenolic preparations (grape seed extract, resveratrol, and Concord grape juice extract), with different polyphenolic compositions and partially redundant bioactivities, may simultaneously and synergistically mitigate amyloid-β (Aβ) mediated neuropathology and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of AD. We found that administration of the polyphenols in combination did not alter the profile of bioactive polyphenol metabolites in the brain. We also found that combination treatment resulted in better protection against cognitive impairments compared to individual treatments, in J20 AD mice. Electrophysiological examination showed that acute treatment with select brain penetrating polyphenol metabolites, derived from these polyphenols, improved oligomeric Aβ (oAβ)-induced long term potentiation (LTP) deficits in hippocampal slices. Moreover, we found greatly reduced total amyloid content in the brain following combination treatment. Our studies provided experimental evidence that application of polyphenols targeting multiple disease-mechanisms may yield a greater likelihood of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24672477

  16. Human-Centered Approaches in Geovisualization Design: Investigating Multiple Methods Through a Long-Term Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, D; Dykes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and develo...

  17. Importancia de la terapia física en la optimización de las manifestaciones incapacitantes y de la calidad de vida en pacientes con Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica: Revisión bibliográfica.

    OpenAIRE

    Olmo Treceño, Gema del

    2015-01-01

    La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica es la manifestación más frecuente de la enfermedad de la motoneurona. Se trata de una enfermedad neurodegenerativa, progresiva e incapacitante, caracterizada por la afectación de la primera y segunda neurona motora, con baja incidencia y prevalencia y escasa supervivencia. El tratamiento es sintomático, paliativo y multidisciplinar; el único medicamento que se prescribe es el riluzol, como tratamiento modificador de la acción del glutamato. ...

  18. Guía de orientación en la práctica profesional de la valoración reglamentaria de la situación de dependencia en personas con esclerosis múltiple y otras enfermedades desmielinizantes

    OpenAIRE

    García Ruano, Laura; et al.

    2012-01-01

    La presente guía tiene el objetivo de ser un instrumento útil en la práctica profesional de la valoración oficial de la situación de dependencia en personas con Esclerosis Múltiple (EM) y otras Enfermedades Desmielinizantes (o ED), y servir de apoyo a la formación de los profesionales de los órganos de valoración. Con esta finalidad se ha realizado una revisión de las condiciones de salud de este colectivo que pueden dar lugar a situación de dependencia, en aplicación del Baremo de Valoración...

  19. Estudio comparado España - Argentina “Esclerosis Múltiple: realidad, necesidades sociales y calidad de vida”. Proyecto de investigación para la igualdad de oportunidades, la calidad de vida y el desarrollo de la Red de Servicios

    OpenAIRE

    Federación Española de Lucha contra la Esclerosis Múltiple (FELEM)

    2008-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación y sensibilización tiene como principal finalidad el análisis de los diferentes aspectos que están incidiendo en la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas por esta enfermedad, las posibles problemáticas derivadas de ello, la detección de las necesidades sociales y de recursos sanitarios que sean más decisivas para el colectivo en Argentina y todo ello comparándolo con la realidad española. De ello, y aprovechando sinergias en la lucha contra la Esclerosis Múlt...

  20. A novel approach to predict the pin load distribution of multiple bolt-jointed composite laminate based on the circuit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiankun; Chen, Haoyuan; Cheng, Linan; Zheng, Xitao

    2012-04-01

    The circuit model was applied to predict the pin load distribution of composite multiple bolt-joint structure. The load, flexibility and deformation of the mechanics model were equivalent to the current, resistance and voltage of the circuit model, respectively. Based on the above assumption, it could be found that the Hooke's law and the deformation compatibility equation in the origin mechanics model transformed into the Ohm's law and the voltage balance equation in the new circuit model. This approach translated the complex model of composite multiple bolt-jointed into a simple circuit model which consisted of some series circuits and parallel circuits. The analysis of the new circuit model had formed n-1 independence voltage balance equations and a current balance equation, thus, the current and load of each bolt could be calculated. In the new model, power sources which were added as required in some branch circuits could also simulate the clearance or interference in the origin model. Compared with the result of the multiple bolt-joints composite laminate test, the new approach could make an excellent performance to estimate the load distribution.

  1. A comparative study of multiple regression analysis and back propagation neural network approaches on plain carbon steel in submerged-arc welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT SARKAR; PRASENJIT DEY; R N RAI; SUBHAS CHANDRA SAHA

    2016-05-01

    Weld bead plays an important role in determining the quality of welding particularly in high heat input processes. This research paper presents the development of multiple regression analysis (MRA) and artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict weld bead geometry and HAZ width in submerged arcwelding process. Design of experiments is based on Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array by varying wire feed rate,transverse speed and stick out to develop a multiple regression model, which has been checked for adequacy andsignificance. Also, ANN model was accomplished with the back propagation approach in MATLAB program to predict bead geometry and HAZ width. Finally, the results of two prediction models were compared and analyzed. It is found that the error related to the prediction of bead geometry and HAZ width is smaller in ANN than MRA.

  2. Crystal structure, electron-density distribution and ion-diffusion pathway of ceramic materials investigated by multiple approaches including neutron and X-ray diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structure is the fundamental information in the materials science, chemistry, physics and geoscience. Electron-density distribution of ceramic materials is important, because most of material properties are governed by the electronic states. Ion-diffusion pathway is useful to understand the ion conduction mechanism. In the present paper the author briefly reviews his group's recent research works on the crystal structure, thermal expansion, electron-density distribution and ion-diffusion pathway of some ceramic materials investigated by multiple approaches such as synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, electron diffraction, first-principles electronic calculations, maximum-entropy method (MEM) and bond valence method. The crystal structure should be examined by multiple methods, because invalid structure sometimes gives good Rietveld fit. (author)

  3. From a Subtractive to Multiplicative Approach: A concept-driven interactive pathway on the selective absorption of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, Laurence; de Hosson, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment on how the absorption of light depends on the thickness of the absorbing medium. This teaching experiment is more specifically characterized as bringing to bear a 'concept-driven interactive pathway'. It is designed to make students analyse the absorption of light by a medium as a selective multiplication (i.e. one depending on the wavelength) of the intensity by a factor smaller than one. Six teaching interviews conducted with fourth-year university students were recorded, transcribed and coded. Their analysis led us to evaluate the importance of the main obstacle expected, that is, of restricting the interpretation of absorption/transmission phenomena to the idea of 'less light', or, equivalently, of seeing a multiplication by a factor smaller than one as just a subtraction. The students' comments at the end of the interview introduce a discussion about the links between their intellectual satisfaction, critical attitude and comprehension of the topic.

  4. Performance Analysis of Daubechies Wavelet and Differential Pulse Code Modulation Based Multiple Neural Networks Approach for Accurate Compression of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sridhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Large Images in general contain huge quantity of data demanding the invention of highly efficient hybrid methods of image compression systems involving various hybrid techniques. We proposed and implemented a Daubechies wavelet transform and Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM based multiple neural network hybrid model for image encoding and decoding operations combining the advantages of wavelets, neural networks and DPCM because, wavelet transforms are set of mathematical functions that established their viability in the areas of image compression owing to the computational simplicity involved in their implementation, Artificial neural networks can generalize inputs even on untrained data owing to their massive parallel architectures and Differential Pulse Code Modulation reduces redundancy based on the predicted sample values. Initially the input image is subjected to two level decomposition using Daubechies family wavelet filters generating high-scale low frequency approximation coefficients A2 and high frequency detail coefficients H2, V2, D2, H1, V1 and, D1 of multiple resolutions resembling different frequency bands. Scalar quantization and Huffman encoding schemes are used for compressing different sub bands based on their statistical properties i.e the low frequency band approximation coefficients are compressed by the DPCM while the high frequency band coefficients are compressed with neural networks. Empirical analysis and objective fidelity metrics calculation is performed and tabulated for analysis.

  5. Factors influencing the survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids through multiple dam passages: an individual-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Timothy; Woodley, Christa M; Weiland, Mark A; Strecker, Angela L

    2016-08-01

    Substantial declines of Pacific salmon populations have occurred over the past several decades related to large-scale anthropogenic and climatic changes in freshwater and marine environments. In the Columbia River Basin, migrating juvenile salmonids may pass as many as eight large-scale hydropower projects before reaching the ocean; however, the cumulative effects of multiple dam passages are largely unknown. Using acoustic transmitters and an extensive system of hydrophone arrays in the Lower Columbia River, we calculated the survival of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) passing one, two, or three dams. We applied a unique index of biological characteristics and environmental exposures, experienced by each fish individually as it migrated downstream, in order to examine which factors most influence salmonid survival. High outflow volumes led to involuntary spill in 2011 and created an environment of supersaturated dissolved gas concentrations. In this environment, migrating smolt survival was strongly influenced by barometric pressure, fish velocity, and water temperature. The effect of these variables on survival was compounded by multiple dam passages compared to fish passing a single dam. Despite spatial isolation between dams in the Lower Columbia River hydrosystem, migrating smolt appear to experience cumulative effects akin to a press disturbance. In general, Chinook salmon and steelhead respond similarly in terms of survival rates and responses to altered environmental conditions. Management actions that limit dissolved gas concentrations in years of high flow will benefit migrating salmonids at this life stage. PMID:27547362

  6. Multiple-Scenario Unmanned Aerial System Control: A Systems Engineering Approach and Review of Existing Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs in both the public and military environments is predicted to grow significantly. As the demand for UASs grows, the availability of more robust and capable vehicles that can perform multiple mission types will be needed. In the public sector, the demand will grow for UASs to be used for agriculture, forestry, and search and rescue missions. Militaries continue to demand more UAS capabilities for diverse operations around the world. Significant research has been performed and continues to progress in the areas of autonomous UAS control. A majority of the work focuses on subsets of UAS control: path planning, autonomy, small UAS controls, and sensors. Minimal work exists on a system-level problem of multiple-scenario UAS control for integrated systems. This paper provides a high-level modular system architecture definition that is modifiable across platform types and mission requirements. A review of the current research and employment of UAS capabilities is provided to evaluate the state of the capabilities required to enable the proposed architecture.

  7. Home-based palliative approach for people with severe multiple sclerosis and their carers : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    A. Solari; A. Giordano; Grasso, M G; Confalonieri, P; F. Patti; Lugaresi, A; Palmisano, L.; Amadeo, R.; Martino, G.; Ponzio, M.; G. Casale; Borreani, C.; Causarano, R.; Veronese, S.; Zaratin, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that palliative care may be useful for people with severe multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a home-based palliative approach (HPA) for people with severe MS and their carers. Methods/design This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with a nested qualitative study. Seventy-five severe MS-carer dyads are being randomized (at three centers, one in each area of Italy) to HPA or usual care (UC) in a...

  8. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  9. Exercise Training and Cognitive Rehabilitation: A Symbiotic Approach for Rehabilitating Walking and Cognitive Functions in Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; DeLuca, John

    2016-07-01

    The current review develops a rationale and framework for examining the independent and combined effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation on walking and cognitive functions in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To do so, we first review evidence for improvements in walking and cognitive outcomes with exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation in MS. We then review evidence regarding cognitive-motor coupling and possible cross-modality transfer effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation. We lastly present a macro-level framework for considering mechanisms that might explain improvements in walking and cognitive dysfunction with exercise and cognitive rehabilitation individually and combined in MS. We conclude that researchers should consider examining the effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation on walking, cognition, and cognitive-motor interactions in MS and the possible physiological and central mechanisms for improving these functions. PMID:27261483

  10. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jiwoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea); Jeong, Gicheol [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-402, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yeonbae [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-318, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, South Seoul, 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  11. Ecological effects of multiple stressors on a deep lake (Lago Maggiore, Italy integrating neo and palaeolimnological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide A.L. Vignati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand interactions of lake physical characteristics, trophic dynamics and climate in Lago Maggiore, we compare longterm limnological and meteorological monitoring data and results from sediment cores. We include analyses of nutrients, pigments, diatoms and cladoceran microfossils. Over the past decades, caloric content increased. Eutrophication from the 1960s to early 1980s was followed by oligotrophication. DDTs, PCBs and Hg showed high contamination in the ‘60s, compared to point source inputs in the ‘90s. Algal biomass was predicted by total pigments and some algal specific carotenoids. Following nutrient enrichment, Chydorus sphaericus, and total abundance of cladocerans changed inversely with trophic status. Fewer large Daphnia since the late ‘80s matched an increase in with subfossil Eubosmina mucro lengths. Both were explained by the 10-fold increase in Bythotrephes longimanus from 1987 to 1993, when an increase of its mean annual population density occurred during warmer winter and springs. Bythotrephes remained abundant and further increased during the following 10 years as water temperature increased. We conclude that warmer water affects food chains indirectly by changing habitat use and predator-prey interactions. Relative abundances of Daphnia and its peak population density in the warm year of the oligotrophic period (2003 were close to the record from the mesotrophic period in 1982, supporting the hypothesis that warming can produce a eutrophication-like signal. The study illustrates the complexity of biological responses to synchronous changes in multiple drivers (e.g., eutrophication, fish introduction, ban of fish harvesting, chemical pollution, and climate and, despite this complexity, how Lago Maggiore responded to multiple stressors.

  12. An Interdisciplinary Approach in Rehabilitation of an Adult Mutilated Dentition with Multiple Missing Permanent Teeth--A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sarvesh; Jose, Nidhin Philip; Bandi, Rohan S; Jain, Nimit; Rodrigues, Shobha J

    2015-01-01

    Adult orthodontics has been an area of increasing focus in recent times. Comprehensive treatment of adults is more challenging due to a myriad of problems that coexist in an adult that makes treatment planning more challenging. A large number of individuals seek dental care because of aesthetic reasons, that is, the desire to look more attractive by improving their smiles. The role an attractive smile plays on a person's self-image and confidence cannot be overemphasized. Evaluating and treating patients for the purpose of smile design often involves a multi-discipline approach. Achieving an ideal smile may require orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, periodontal therapy, including soft tissue repositioning and bone re-contouring, cosmetic dentistry, and plastic surgery. This aesthetic approach to patient care produces the best dental and dental-facial beauty. This paper describes a case report in which an orthodontist, an endodontist, and a prosthodontist worked as a team to improve the patients smile and confidence. PMID:27029092

  13. A multi-nuclide approach to quantify long-term erosion rates and exposure history through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou;

    . The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i......Cosmogenic nuclides are traditionally used to either determine the glaciation history or the denudation history of the most recent exposure period. A few studies use the cosmogenic nuclides to determine the cumulative exposure and burial durations of a sample. However, until now it has not been...... possible to resolve the complex pattern of exposure history under a fluctuating ice sheet. In this study, we quantify long-term erosion rates along with durations of multiple exposure periods in West Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to existing 10Be and 26Al...

  14. Mapping the EQ-5D index from the cystic fibrosis questionnaire-revised using multiple modelling approaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Acaster, S.; Pinder, B.; Mukuria, C.; Copans, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to develop a mapping algorithm to estimate EQ-5D utility values from Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) data. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) was conducted in the UK. The survey consisted of the CFQ-R, the EQ-5D and a background questionnaire. Eight regression models, exploring item and domain level predictors, were evaluated using three different modelling approaches: ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and...

  15. Mapping the EQ-5D index from the cystic fibrosis questionnaire-revised using multiple modelling approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Acaster, Sarah; Pinder, Binny; Mukuria, Clara; Copans, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was designed to develop a mapping algorithm to estimate EQ-5D utility values from Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) data. Methods A cross-sectional survey of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) was conducted in the UK. The survey consisted of the CFQ-R, the EQ-5D and a background questionnaire. Eight regression models, exploring item and domain level predictors, were evaluated using three different modelling approaches: ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and a...

  16. A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in Environmental Epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Dolores Catelan; Annibale Biggeri

    2008-01-01

    In Environmental Epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks wit...

  17. Manipulation of Orthogonal Neural Systems Together in Electrophysiological Recordings: The MONSTER Approach to Simultaneous Assessment of Multiple Neurocognitive Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kappenman, Emily S.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a powerful tool in understanding and evaluating cognitive, affective, motor, and sensory processing in both healthy and pathological samples. A typical ERP recording session takes considerable time but is designed to isolate only 1–2 components. Although this is appropriate for most basic science purposes, it is an inefficient approach for measuring the broad set of neurocognitive functions that may be disrupted in a neurological or psychiatric disease. The...

  18. The Evaluation of University Students In Terms Of Problem Solving Autonomy Multiple Intelligences Based On Constructive Approach Norms

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Gülseren; YILDIRIM, Gül Özlem

    2008-01-01

    Constructivist approach is taking the students in the centre sees that learning is a process that students play effective role In this study investigation of students? problem solving skills ability of gaining autonomy and determination of the association between them and the area of intelligence was aimed The study population comprised 180 students from Ege University Atatürk Medical Technology Vocational Training School In the study socio demographic data form Inventory of Problem So...

  19. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: review of current and emerging candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-Culla M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maider Muñoz-Culla,1,2 Haritz Irizar,1,2 David Otaegui1,2 1Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián, Spain; 2Red Española de Esclerosis Múltiple (REEM, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex disease in which environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors determine the risk of developing the disease. The human leukocyte antigen region is the strongest susceptibility locus linked to MS, but it does not explain the whole heritability of the disease. To find other non-human leukocyte antigen loci associated with the disease, high-throughput genotyping, sequencing, and gene-expression studies have been performed, producing a valuable quantity of information. An overview of the genomic and expression studies is provided in this review, as well as microRNA-expression studies, highlighting the importance of combining all the layers of information in order to elucidate the causes or pathological mechanisms occurring in the disease. Genetics in MS is a promising field that is presumably going to be very productive in the next decade understanding the cross talk between all the factors contributing to the development of MS. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, genetics, gene expression, microRNA

  20. Summative Integrierte Multiple Choice-Prüfungen: Ein Promotor oder eine Hindernis für bedeutungsorientiertes Lernen der Studierenden [Summative integrative multiple choice examinations: Do they promote or prevent deep learning approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmelbauer, Monika

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Numerous studies provide evidence that the learning approach of students has an influence on their academic performance in examinations. As part of the 2001 reform of the medical curriculum at the Medical University of Vienna, a new assessment system was implemented for knowledge testing that predominantly relies on multiple-choice examinations. The principal purpose of this study was to clarify the question to what extent this rather strong concentration on multiple-choice questions promotes and/or prevents actual learning. Using a standardized questionnaire, 58 students in the 4th year of the curriculum (the first cohort in the test run of the new curriculum, MCW-150 were interviewed. The inventory included learning approaches as well as the academic performance on MC examinations. Results demonstrate that the best test performance correlates with high motivation to achieve, well-organised studying, and orientation towards deeper understanding. Surface approaches - for example memorization - have less relevance for achieving success. According to Coles the role of examinations is to contribute to the way students find their best method for successful studying. Thus one may conclude that students see successful task management less in pure memorization, but view it as a challenge that requires learning on a higher level. Insofar the new assessment system has no adverse impact on learning orientation and learning approach in the cohort MCW-150. [german] Zahlreiche Studien belegen, dass die Lernorientierung von Studierenden einen Einfluss auf deren akademische Prüfungsleistung hat. Im Rahmen einer Studienplanreform im Fach Humanmedizin wurde 2001 an der Medizinischen Universität Wien ein neues Prüfungssystem implementiert, in welchem zur Wissensfeststellung vorwiegend Multiple-Choice-Prüfungen eingesetzt werden. Die Klärung der Frage, inwiefern die ziemlich starke Konzentration auf Multiple-Choice-Prüfungen die Lernorientierung in

  1. Mapping Aquatic Vegetation in a Large, Shallow Eutrophic Lake: A Frequency-Based Approach Using Multiple Years of MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vegetation serves many important ecological and socioeconomic functions in lake ecosystems. The presence of floating algae poses difficulties for accurately estimating the distribution of aquatic vegetation in eutrophic lakes. We present an approach to map the distribution of aquatic vegetation in Lake Taihu (a large, shallow eutrophic lake in China and reduce the influence of floating algae on aquatic vegetation mapping. Our approach involved a frequency analysis over a 2003–2013 time series of the floating algal index (FAI based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS data. Three phenological periods were defined based on the vegetation presence frequency (VPF and the growth of algae and aquatic vegetation: December and January composed the period of wintering aquatic vegetation; February and March composed the period of prolonged coexistence of algal blooms and wintering aquatic vegetation; and June to October was the peak period of the coexistence of algal blooms and aquatic vegetation. By comparing and analyzing the satellite-derived aquatic vegetation distribution and 244 in situ measurements made in 2013, we established a FAI threshold of −0.025 and VPF thresholds of 0.55, 0.45 and 0.85 for the three phenological periods. We validated the accuracy of our approach by comparing the results between the satellite-derived maps and the in situ results obtained from 2008–2012. The overall classification accuracy was 87%, 81%, 77%, 88% and 73% in the five years from 2008–2012, respectively. We then applied the approach to the MODIS images from 2003–2013 and obtained the total area of the aquatic vegetation, which varied from 265.94 km2 in 2007 to 503.38 km2 in 2008, with an average area of 359.62 ± 69.20 km2 over the 11 years. Our findings suggest that (1 the proposed approach can be used to map the distribution of aquatic vegetation in eutrophic algae-rich waters and (2 dramatic changes occurred in the

  2. Probabilistic approaches to the prediction of the effects of multiple parameters on the mechanical properties of gamma-based titanium aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple parameter expressions of the form, Y = α0Xiαi (where α0 and αi are empirically-derived exponents), are presented for the prediction of the effects of multiple parameters, Xi, on the mechanical properties, Y, of gamma-based titanium aluminides. The multiparameter expressions, obtained via multiple linear regression techniques, provide single functions for the prediction of the combined effects of composition, microstructure and temperature on basic mechanical properties such as yield/ultimate tensile strength, plastic strain to failure and fracture toughness. Approximate exponential reliability functions are also presented for the prediction of the probabilities of failure/survival at various possible stress/strain/stress intensity factor levels. The use of Bayes theorem is proposed for the improvement of the exponential reliability functions as more data becomes available. Simplified analytical methods are presented for the prediction of the combined errors of prediction. The paper highlights the need for multiparameter probabilistic mechanics approaches to the prediction of basic mechanical properties. (orig.)

  3. A Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of a shape-free groundwater age distribution using multiple tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A Bayesian method is used to infer the freeform (histogram) age distributions. • The value at each bin was estimated using MCMC approach. • The method was applied to a synthetic tracer dataset and two real datasets. • The cumulative age distribution is captured better than the non-cumulative. • Less uncertainty is obtained when smaller number of bins is used. - Abstract: Due to the mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the distribution and the parameters of the mathematical distribution are estimated using deterministic or stochastic inverse methods. The prescription of the mathematical form limits the exploration of the age distribution to the shapes that can be described by the selected distribution. In this paper, the use of freeform histograms as groundwater age distributions is evaluated. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate the fraction of groundwater in each histogram bin. The method was able to capture the shape of a hypothetical gamma distribution from the concentrations of four age tracers. The number of bins that can be considered in this approach is limited based on the number of tracers available. The histogram method was also tested on tracer data sets from Holten (The Netherlands; 3H, 3He, 85Kr, 39Ar) and the La Selva Biological Station (Costa-Rica; SF6, CFCs, 3H, 4He and 14C), and compared to a number of mathematical forms. According to standard Bayesian measures of model goodness, the best mathematical distribution performs better than the histogram distributions in terms of the ability to capture the observed tracer data relative to their complexity. Among the histogram distributions, the four bin histogram performs better in most of the cases. The Monte Carlo

  4. Downscaling 250-m MODIS growing season NDVI based on multiple-date landsat images and data mining approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. The 250-m GSN data estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been used for terrestrial ecosystem modeling and monitoring. High temporal resolution with a wide range of wavelengths make the MODIS land surface products robust and reliable. The long-term 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detailed information for characterizing human-scale processes and have been used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to combine 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat observations to generate a quality-improved high spatial resolution (30-m) GSN database. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat data was developed. Results show a strong correlation between predicted GSN and actual GSN (r = 0.97, average error = 0.026). The most important Landsat variables in the GSN model are Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) in May and August. The derived MODIS-Landsat-based 30-m GSN map provides biophysical information for moderate-scale ecological features. This multiple sensor study retains the detailed seasonal dynamic information captured by MODIS and leverages the high-resolution information from Landsat, which will be useful for regional ecosystem studies.

  5. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in the TFT-LCD Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need for environmental protection is increasing throughout the world. The focuses of green supplier selection are on considering environmental criteria and strengthening the competitiveness of the entire supply chain. The purpose of this study is to develop a green supplier selection procedure for the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD industry using polarizer suppliers as an example. First, a decision framework for green supplier selection is developed based on literatures and the supplier audit forms provided by an anonymous flat panel display manufacturer in Taiwan. Then, a hybrid multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method is proposed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP, entropy, elimination and choice expressing the reality III (ELECTRE III, and the linear assignment method to assist the manufacturer in choosing among four polarizer suppliers. The final ranking results for green supplier selection and different opinions from each department are provided. An improvement report is suggested to enhance suppliers’ performance. For the evaluation procedure, most managers emphasize the importance of current capability and the capability of research and development. Furthermore, we found that the subsidiary supplier should improve quality control competence immediately to be considered as the potential candidate of primary supplier.

  6. Controlling a Rehabilitation Robot with Brain-Machine Interface: An approach based on Independent Component Analysis and Multiple Kernel Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from severe motor disabilities usually require assistance from other people when doing rehabilitation exercises, which causes the rehabilitation process to be time-consuming and inconvenient. Therefore, we propose an automatic feature extraction method for a brain-machine interface that allows patients to control a robot using their own brain waves. A brain–machine interface (BMI based on the P300 event-related potential (ERP, called Brain Controlled Rehabilitation System (BCRS, was developed to detect the intentions of patients. Using the BCRS, patients can communicate with the robot through their brain waves. However, deciding how to obtain an automatically extracted, useful EEG signal is a difficult and important problem for BMI research. In this paper, Independent Component Analysis – Multiple Kernel Learning (ICA-MKL is used to directly extract a useful signal and build the classification mode for BCRS. The results reveal that this method is useful for automatically extracting the P300 signal and the accuracy is better than MKL. In additional, the same method can be extended into any motor imaginary area and the accuracy of ICA-MKL for brain imaginary data is also good to removing eye-blink artifacts and the accuracy performance is also good.

  7. Time-independent description of rapidly driven systems in the presence of friction: multiple scale perturbation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2012-03-01

    The dynamics of a classical system driven by a rapidly oscillating field (with frequency ω) in the presence of friction has been investigated using the multiple scale perturbation theory (MSPT). By exploiting the idea of separation of time scales, the slow motion has been computed in a systematic expansion in the inverse of ω to the order ω(-3). This perturbation series can be viewed as a generalization of the calculation presented by Landau and Lifshitz for Kapitza's pendulum (where the point of suspension is moved periodically) in the presence of friction. The radiation induced dynamics of the system is found to be described by an effective time-independent potential with friction that controls the slow motion. The explicit appearance of friction in our computed effective potential is a manifestation of the dynamical effect due to the fast motion. The present study demonstrates that MSPT can be used to understand and predict the classical dynamics of a driven system in the presence of friction. PMID:22463007

  8. Towards the prediction of multiple necking during dynamic extension of round bar: linear stability approach versus finite element calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fragmentation of structures subject to dynamic conditions is a matter of interest for civil industries as well as for Defence institutions. Dynamic expansions of structures, such as cylinders or rings, have been performed to obtain crucial information on fragment distributions. Many authors have proposed to capture by FEA the experimental distribution of fragment size by introducing in the FE model a perturbation. Stability and bifurcation analyses have also been proposed to describe the evolution of the perturbation growth rate. In the proposed contribution, the multiple necking of a round bar in dynamic tensile loading is analysed by the FE method. A perturbation on the initial flow stress is introduced in the numerical model to trigger instabilities. The onset time and the dominant mode of necking have been characterized precisely and showed power law evolutions, with the loading velocities and moderately with the amplitudes and the cell sizes of the perturbations. In the second part of the paper, the development of linear stability analysis and the use of salient criteria in terms of the growth rate of perturbations enabled comparisons with the numerical results. A good correlation in terms of onset time of instabilities and of number of necks is shown.

  9. Molecular multiple endpoint embryonic stem cell test--a possible approach to test for the teratogenic potential of compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) examines the cytotoxicity of chemical compounds on embryonic stem (ES) cells and 3T3.A31 fibroblasts. Additionally, the EST measures the ability of ES cells to differentiate into contracting cardiomyocytes following drug exposure. In this study, we introduce new endpoints to obtain a molecular multiple endpoint EST (mme-EST), enabling the identification of potential chemical effects on osteogenic, chondrogenic and neural differentiation in addition to the traditional endpoint of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Six compounds in three classes with known teratogenic in vivo potential were assayed with the mme-EST in a pilot study: penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil and retinoic acid (strongly teratogenic), diphenylhydantoin, valproic acid and thalidomide (moderately teratogenic). While the traditional EST measures a morphological endpoint, we included molecular markers of differentiation as endpoints. With the mme-EST, every compound could be classified correctly according to its known teratogenic potential in vivo. Penicillin G, 5-fluorouracil and diphenylhydantoin inhibited differentiation of all endpoints equally. Interestingly, valproic acid showed the strongest inhibition of neural differentiation, while thalidomide specifically inhibited osteogenic development. Retinoic acid, on the other hand, supported neural but inhibited chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation concentration-dependently. Valproic acid and thalidomide, classified incorrectly with the established EST model, were classified correctly with the mme-EST according to their effects on specific endpoints. This pilot study indicates that the predictive value of the EST may be enhanced by including further differentiation endpoints

  10. A comprehensive approach to the segmentation of multichannel three-dimensional MR brain images in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sushmita; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2013-01-01

    Accurate classification and quantification of brain tissues is important for monitoring disease progression, measurement of atrophy, and correlating magnetic resonance (MR) measures with clinical disability. Classification of MR brain images in the presence of lesions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), is particularly challenging. Images obtained with lower resolution often suffer from partial volume averaging leading to false classifications. While partial volume averaging can be reduced by acquiring volumetric images at high resolution, image segmentation and quantification can be technically challenging. In this study, we integrated the brain anatomical knowledge with non-parametric and parametric statistical classifiers for automatically classifying tissues and lesions on high resolution multichannel three-dimensional images acquired on 60 MS brains. The results of automatic lesion segmentation were reviewed by the expert. The agreement between results obtained by the automated analysis and the expert was excellent as assessed by the quantitative metrics, low absolute volume difference percent (36.18 ± 34.90), low average symmetric surface distance (1.64 mm ± 1.30 mm), high true positive rate (84.75 ± 12.69), and low false positive rate (34.10 ± 16.00). The segmented results were also in close agreement with the corrected results as assessed by Bland-Altman and regression analyses. Finally, our lesion segmentation was validated using the MS lesion segmentation grand challenge dataset (MICCAI 2008). PMID:24179773

  11. Identifying conditions for inducible protein production in E. coli: combining a fed-batch and multiple induction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Young J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the interest of generating large amounts of recombinant protein, inducible systems have been studied to maximize both the growth of the culture and the production of foreign proteins. Even though thermo-inducible systems were developed in the late 1970's, the number of studies that focus on strategies for the implementation at bioreactor scale is limited. In this work, the bacteriophage lambda PL promoter is once again investigated as an inducible element but for the production of green fluorescent protein (GFP. Culture temperature, induction point, induction duration and number of inductions were considered as factors to maximize GFP production in a 20-L bioreactor. Results It was found that cultures carried out at 37°C resulted in a growth-associated production of GFP without the need of an induction at 42°C. Specific production was similar to what was achieved when separating the growth and production phases. Shake flask cultures were used to screen for desirable operating conditions. It was found that multiple inductions increased the production of GFP. Induction decreased the growth rate and substrate yield coefficients; therefore, two time domains (before and after induction having different kinetic parameters were created to fit a model to the data collected. Conclusion Based on two batch runs and the simulation of culture dynamics, a pre-defined feeding and induction strategy was developed to increase the volumetric yield of a temperature regulated expression system and was successfully implemented in a 20-L bioreactor. An overall cell density of 5.95 g DW l-1 was achieved without detriment to the cell specific production of GFP; however, the production of GFP was underestimated in the simulations due to a significant contribution of non-growth associated product formation under limiting nutrient conditions.

  12. Blind separation of multiple physiological sources from a single-channel recording: a preprocessing approach for antenatal surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gonzalez, Aída; James, Christopher J.

    2013-11-01

    Today, it is generally accepted that current methods for biophysical antenatal surveillance do not facilitate a comprehensive and reliable assessment of foetal well-being and thus, that continuing research into alternative methods is necessary to improve antenatal monitoring procedures. Here, attention has been paid to the abdominal phonogram, a signal that is recorded by positioning an acoustic sensor on the maternal womb and contains valuable information about foetal status, but which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, this work describes single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) as an alternative signal processing approach for analyzing the abdominal phonogram. The approach, based on the method of delays, the Temporal Decorrelation Source SEParation implementation (TDSEP) of Independent Components Analysis (ICA), and an automatic grouping algorithm, has managed to successfully retrieve estimates of: (1) the foetal cardiac activity (in the form of the foetal phonocardiogram, FPCG), (2) the maternal cardiovascular activity (in the form of the maternal phonocardiogram, MPCG, and/or pulse wave), (3) the maternal respiratory activity (in the form of the maternal respirograma, MResp), and (4) noise (N). These results have been obtained from a dataset of 25 single-channel phonograms and point at the possibilities of using SCICA to address a fundamental problem faced in antenatal surveillance, i.e. the extraction of information from a non-invasive signal like the abdominal phonogram. Future work will test the possibility of using SCICA to recover information regarding the foetal breathing movements (FBM), another physiological parameter of interest in foetal surveillance.

  13. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hejun KANG; Shelley M.ALEXANDER

    2009-01-01

    We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS) -based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC),Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE),and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory). We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species,and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park,Alberta,Canada,during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy),the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error) and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error). Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51% ). The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%),while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory model was the poorest (29.90%). However,omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error,while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least,the logistic regression model is optimal. However,where sample size is small or the species is very rare,it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer) that would over-predict,protect more sites,and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans.

  14. A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in Environmental Epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Catelan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In Environmental Epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report “Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy” we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous, and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions.

  15. Accuracy enhancement for forecasting water levels of reservoirs and river streams using a multiple-input-pattern fuzzification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Nariman; El-Shafie, Ahmed; Mirzaei, Majid; Galavi, Hadi; Mukhlisin, Muhammad; Jaafar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    Water level forecasting is an essential topic in water management affecting reservoir operations and decision making. Recently, modern methods utilizing artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and combinations of these techniques have been used in hydrological applications because of their considerable ability to map an input-output pattern without requiring prior knowledge of the criteria influencing the forecasting procedure. The artificial neurofuzzy interface system (ANFIS) is one of the most accurate models used in water resource management. Because the membership functions (MFs) possess the characteristics of smoothness and mathematical components, each set of input data is able to yield the best result using a certain type of MF in the ANFIS models. The objective of this study is to define the different ANFIS model by applying different types of MFs for each type of input to forecast the water level in two case studies, the Klang Gates Dam and Rantau Panjang station on the Johor river in Malaysia, to compare the traditional ANFIS model with the new introduced one in two different situations, reservoir and stream, showing the new approach outweigh rather than the traditional one in both case studies. This objective is accomplished by evaluating the model fitness and performance in daily forecasting. PMID:24790567

  16. Multiple approaches for the detection and characterization of viral and plasmid symbionts from a collection of marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerva, L; Ciuffo, M; Vallino, M; Margaria, P; Varese, G C; Gnavi, G; Turina, M

    2016-07-01

    The number of reported mycoviruses is increasing exponentially due to the current ability to detect mycoviruses using next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches, with a large number of viral genomes built in-silico using data from fungal transcriptome projects. We decided to screen a collection of fungi originating from a specific marine environment (associated with the seagrass Posidonia oceanica) for the presence of mycoviruses: our findings reveal a wealth of diversity among these symbionts and this complexity will require further studies to address their specific role in this ecological niche. In specific, we identified twelve new virus species belonging to nine distinct lineages: they are members of megabirnavirus, totivirus, chrysovirus, partitivirus and five still undefined clades. We showed evidence of an endogenized virus ORF, and evidence of accumulation of dsRNA from metaviridae retroviral elements. We applied different techniques for detecting the presence of mycoviruses including (i) dsRNA extraction and cDNA cloning, (ii) small and total RNA sequencing through NGS techniques, (iii) rolling circle amplification (RCA) and total DNA extraction analyses, (iv) virus purifications and electron microscopy. We tried also to critically evaluate the intrinsic value and limitations of each of these techniques. Based on the samples we could compare directly, RNAseq analysis is superior to sRNA for de novo assembly of mycoviruses. To our knowledge this is the first report on the virome of fungi isolated from marine environment. The GenBank/eMBL/DDBJ accession numbers of the sequences reported in this paper are: KT601099-KT601110; KT601114-KT601120; KT592305; KT950836-KT950841. PMID:26546154

  17. A rugged high-throughput analytical approach for the determination and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in complex feed matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Milena; Lacina, Ondrej; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-04-01

    We have developed and optimized high throughput method for reliable detection and quantification of 56 Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Claviceps mycotoxins in a wide range of animal feed samples represented by cereals, complex compound feeds, extracted oilcakes, fermented silages, malt sprouts or dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS). From three tested extraction approaches (acetonitrile, acetonitrile/water, and QuEChERS), the QuEChERS-based method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) was selected as the best in terms of analytes recoveries and low matrix effects. For separation and detection of target mycotoxins, method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS/MS) was employed. With regards to a high complexity of most of investigated feed samples, optimization of extraction/purification process was needed in the first phase to keep the method as rugged as possible. A special attention was paid to the pH of extraction solvents, especially with regard to the pH-sensitive silages. Additionally, purification of the acetonitrile extract by dispersive solid phase clean-up was assessed. Significant elimination of lipidic compounds was observed when using C18 silica sorbent. Matrix co-extracts were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-HRMS). Large variability of matrix effects depending on the nature of examined feed was demonstrated in depth on a broad set of samples. Simple and unbiased strategies for their compensation were suggested. PMID:24607137

  18. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Exposure-- A Systems Approach to the Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater habitats provide fishable, swimmable and drinkable resources and are a nexus of geophysical and biological processes. These processes in turn influence the persistence and sustainability of populations, communities and ecosystems. Climate change and landuse change encompass numerous stressors of potential exposure, including the introduction of toxic contaminants, invasive species, and disease in addition to physical drivers such as temperature and hydrologic regime. A systems approach that includes the scientific and technologic basis of assessing the health of ecosystems is needed to effectively protect human health and the environment. The Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework 'iemWatersheds' has been developed as a consistent and coherent means of forecasting the cumulative impact of co-occurring stressors. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standardization of input data; the Framework for Risk Assessment of Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) that manages the flow of information between linked models; and the Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE) that provides post-processing and analysis of model outputs, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Five models are linked within the Framework to provide multimedia simulation capabilities for hydrology and water quality processes: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) predicts surface water and sediment runoff and associated contaminants; the Watershed Mercury Model (WMM) predicts mercury runoff and loading to streams; the Water quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) predicts water quality within the stream channel; the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model scores physicochemical habitat quality for individual fish species; and the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) predicts fish growth, population dynamics and bioaccumulation

  19. An inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained two-stage mixed-integer linear programming approach for flood diversion planning under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P.; Huang, G. H.; Li, Y. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained two-stage mixed-integer linear programming (IFCTIP) approach is developed for flood diversion planning under multiple uncertainties. A concept of the distribution with fuzzy boundary interval probability is defined to address multiple uncertainties expressed as integration of intervals, fuzzy sets and probability distributions. IFCTIP integrates the inexact programming, two-stage stochastic programming, integer programming and fuzzy-stochastic programming within a general optimization framework. IFCTIP incorporates the pre-regulated water-diversion policies directly into its optimization process to analyze various policy scenarios; each scenario has different economic penalty when the promised targets are violated. More importantly, it can facilitate dynamic programming for decisions of capacity-expansion planning under fuzzy-stochastic conditions. IFCTIP is applied to a flood management system. Solutions from IFCTIP provide desired flood diversion plans with a minimized system cost and a maximized safety level. The results indicate that reasonable solutions are generated for objective function values and decision variables, thus a number of decision alternatives can be generated under different levels of flood flows.

  20. Interactions between Human Antibodies and Synthetic Conformational Peptide Epitopes: Innovative Approach for Electrochemical Detection of Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis at Platinum Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of human antibodies of Multiple Sclerosis patients was investigated based on the electrochemical oxidation of a synthetic antigenic probe, a glycopeptide Fc-CSF114(Glc) bearing a ferrocenyl moiety. Electrochemical measurements were carried out at platinum microband electrodes without any electrode surface modification. A microfluidic device was designed in order to both minimize peptide consumption and increase the number of experiments with low volumes of samples. The specific interactions between Fc-CSF114(Glc) and antibodies were evidenced through comparison with electrochemical responses obtained from the ferrocenyl unglycosylated peptide Fc-CSF114 used as negative control. The interactions between Fc-CSF114(Glc) and autoantibodies were characterized by a shift of the oxidation potential towards positive values. A mechanism for peptide oxidation was proposed based on a diffusion control of mass transport and the formation of adsorbed layers able to mediate electron transfer. Results showed efficient antigen-antibody recognition without any electrode grafting or further addition of labels in solution. Preliminary tests using human sera from Multiple Sclerosis patients and healthy donors validated this new approach aimed at developing innovative and fast diagnostic tools, based on electrochemical synthetic antigenic probes